Codex Amiatinus法典 Amiatinus

Catholic Information天主教信息

The most celebrated manuscript of the Latin Vulgate Bible, remarkable as the best witness to the true text of St. Jerome and as a fine specimen of medieval calligraphy, now kept at Florence in the Bibliotheca Laurentiana.最著名的拉丁语武加大圣经手稿,圣杰罗姆的真实文本的最好见证,作为一个中世纪书法的罚款标本显着,现在存放在佛罗伦萨图书馆Laurentiana。 The symbol for it is written am or A (Wordsworth).它象征我是书面或A(华兹华斯)。It is preserved in an immense tome, measuring in height and breadth 19 1/4 inches by 13 3/8 inches, and in thickness 7 inches -- so impressive, as Hort says, as to fill the beholder with a feeling akin to awe.它被保存在一个巨大的大部头,测量的高度和广度上19 1 / 4英寸13 3 / 8英寸,厚度为7英寸 - 如此令人印象深刻的,作为园艺说,作为一个类似敬畏的感觉,以填补仁者见仁。Some consider it, with White, as perhaps "the finest book in the world"; still there are several manuscripts which are as beautifully written and have besides, like the Book of Kells or Book of Lindisfarne, those exquisite ornaments of which Amiatinus is devoid.有些人认为,用白色,也许是“世界上最好的书”,仍然有几个手稿,这是写得有除了像Kells书或林迪斯法恩的图书,这些精美的装饰品,其中Amiatinus是缺乏, 。It contains 1029 leaves of strong, smooth vellum, fresh-looking today, despite their great antiquity, arranged in quires of four sheets, or quaternions.它包含1029叶强,顺利牛皮纸,新鲜的今天,尽管他们的伟大的古代,在四个表quires安排,或四元。 It is written in uncial characters, large, clear, regular, and beautiful, two columns to a page, and 43 or 44 lines to a column.这是写在安色尔字体的字符,大而明确,定期,又漂亮,两列页面,和43或44行一列。A little space is often left between words, but the writing is in general continuous.词与词之间往往留下一点空间,但一般连续书写。The text is divided into sections, which in the Gospels correspond closely to the Ammonian Sections.文本分成部分,在福音密切对应的Ammonian部分。There are no marks of punctuation, but the skilled reader was guided into the sense by stichometric, or verse-like, arrangement into coda and commata, which correspond roughly to the principal and dependent clauses of a sentence.有没有标点符号的痕迹,但熟练的读者引导到感由stichometric,或作诗,进入尾声和commata,大致相当于一个句子主要依赖条款的安排。 This manner of writing the scribe is believed to have modelled upon the great Bible of Cassiodorus, but it goes back perhaps even to St. Jerome; it may be shown best by an example:认为这种方式是写隶后Cassiodorus伟大圣经为蓝本,但它可以追溯到甚至圣杰罗姆;它可能是最好由一个例子所示:

QUIA IN POTESTATE ERAT在POTESTATE QUIA ERAT

SERMO IPSIUSSERMO IPSIUS

ET IN SYNAGOGA ERAT HOMO HABENSET在SYNAGOGA ERAT的HOMO HABENS

DAEMONIUM INMUNDUMDAEMONIUM INMUNDUM

ET EXCLAMAVIT VOCE MAGNA东部EXCLAMAVIT VoCE的麦格纳

DICENS DICENS

SINE QUID NOBIS ET TIBI IHU必不可少的交换条件NOBIS ET提比IHU

NAZARENE VENISTI PERDERE NOS拿撒勒VENISTI PERDERE一氧化氮合酶

SCIO TE QUI SIS SCS DI国务院新闻办公室TE QUI SIS的公务员事务局局长的DI

ET INCREPAVIT ILLI IHS DICENSET INCREPAVIT ILLI IHS的DICENS

It will be noticed that the section "ET IN" and the coda begin at about the same perpendicular line, the commata begin further in under the third or second letter, and so likewise does the continuation of a colon or comma which runs beyond a single line (see facsimile page). commata开始注意到这将是一节“内皮素”和尾声开始,在大约相同的的垂直线,进一步根据第三或第二个字母,同样继续运行超越了单一冒号或逗号线(见传真页)。 This arrangement, besides aiding the intelligence of the text, gave a spacious, varied, and rather artistic appearance to the page.这样的安排,除了帮助文本智能,页面了宽敞的,多种多样的,而艺术的外观。The initial letter of a section was often written in ink of a different colour, and so also was the first line of a book.往往是一节的首字母写在不同颜色的墨水,所以也被一书中的第一行。Beyond that there was no attempt at decorating the text.除此之外,没有任何装饰文本的尝试。

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The codex (or pandect) is usually said to contain the whole Bible; but it should be noted that the Book of Baruch is missing, though the Epistle of Jeremias, usually incorporated with it, is here appended to the Book of Jeremias.食品法典委员会(总论)是通常所说的包含整本圣经,但应该指出的是,巴鲁克书丢失,虽然赫雷米亚斯书信,通常用它纳入,这里是追加到图书的赫雷米亚斯。 Besides the text of the Scriptural books, it contains St. Jerome's "Prologus Galeatus" and his prefaces to individual books; the capitula, or summaries of contents; and, in the first quaternion, certain materials which have been much discussed and have proved of the greatest service in tracing the history of the codex, among them dedicatory verses, a list of the books contained in the codex, a picture of the Tabernacle (formerly thought to be Solomon's Temple), a division of the Biblical books according to Jerome, another according to Hilary and Epiphanius, and a third according to Augustine.除了圣经书籍的文本,它包含圣杰罗姆“Prologus Galeatus”个别书籍和他的前言;投降,或内容摘要,并在第一四元,已被广泛讨论的某些材料,并已证明的追踪,其中食品法典委员会的历史,奉献的诗句,法典中的书籍,一个幕图片(原以为是所罗门圣殿),根据杰罗姆的圣经书籍的一个部门列表最大的服务,另据希拉里和埃皮法尼乌斯,第三根据奥古斯丁。 Part of Solomon's prayer (1 Kings 8:22-30) in an Old Latin text is reproduced at the end of Ecclesiasticus.所罗门的祷告(1国王8:22-30)在一个古老的拉丁文字部分转载Ecclesiasticus结束。 A Greek inscription at the beginning of Leviticus, recording that "the Lord Servandus prepared" this codex or part of it, has entered largely into the discussion of its origin.在利未记开始的希腊铭文,记录,“主Servandus准备”这一食品法典委员会或它的一部分,基本上已经进入到它的起源的讨论。

The recovery of the history of Codex Amiatinus, which has important bearings upon the history of the Vulgate itself and of the text of the Bible, was due to the labours of many scholars and the insight of one man of genius, de Rossi.回收食品Amiatinus,具有重要的武加大本身的历史和“圣经”的文本后轴承的历史,是由于许多学者的劳动和了解一个人的天才,德罗西。 At the beginning of the pandect, as we have mentioned, there are certain dedicatory verses; they record the gift (of the codex) to the venerable convent of St. Saviour by a certain Peter who was abbot from the extreme territory of the Lombards.潘德克顿开始,正如我们所提到的的,有一定奉献的诗句;它们记录了一定的彼得是从极端的伦巴第地区的方丈礼物(法典)古老的修道院,圣救主。 The Latin text is as follows:拉丁文字如下:

CENOBIUM AD EXIMII MERITOCENOBIUM公元EXIMII MERITO

VENERABILE SALVATORISVENERABILE SALVATORIS

QUEM CAPUT ECCLESIAEQUEM按位津贴,该书

DEDICAT ALTA FIDESDEDICAT ALTA FIDES

PETRUS LANGOBARDORUM佩特鲁斯LANGOBARDORUM

EXTREMIS DE FINIB.极端DE FINIB。ABBASABBAS

DEVOTI AFFECTUSDEVOTI AFFECTUS

PIGNORA MITTO MEIPIGNORA MITTO美

St. Saviour's is the name of the monastery on Monte Amiata (whence Amiatinus) near Siena; here this codex was kept from the ninth century till the year 1786, when it was brought to Florence after the suppression of the monastery.圣救主的修道院附近锡耶纳的Monte Amiata(何处Amiatinus)的名称;本法典保持从第九世纪,直到今年1786,当它被带到寺院的镇压后的佛罗伦萨。

Naturally, the codex was supposed to be a gift to this house, but nothing was known of the donor.当然,食品应该是这所房子的礼物,但没有捐助。Bandini, the librarian of the Laurentiana, into whose hands the codex came, noticed that the names of neither the donor nor the recipient belonged to the original dedication.蒂尼,馆员的Laurentiana法典来了谁的手中,注意到,无论是捐赠者,也不是收件人的姓名属于原奉献。 They were written in a different hand over parts of the original inscription, as betrayed by evident signs of erasure.他们写在不同的部分原题字,由擦除明显的迹象背叛。The letters italicized above were by the second hand, while the initial letter C of the first line and the E in the fifth were original.二手上述斜体的字母,而第一行的首字母C和第五的e原。Bandini noticed, also, that cenobium replaced a shorter word and that the last five letters of salvatoris were written on parchment that had not been erased, and so that the ten letters of this word replaced five of the original word.迪尼也注意到,cenobium取代较短的字词,在过去的salvatoris 5个字母写在羊皮纸上,没有被删除,并且使这个词的10个字母取代原词5。The metre also was entirely at fault.米也完全是有过错的。The clue for reconstructing the original lines he found in the expression caput ecclesiæ, which he judged referred to St. Peter.重建他按额津贴,该书,他判断称为圣彼得在表达中找到的原始线的线索。And as in the Middle Ages a favourite title for the Apostolic See was culmen apostolicum, he reconstructed the line in this fashion:而在中世纪的一个最喜欢看到的是使徒culmen apostolicum的标题,他以这种方式重建的行:

CULMEN AD EXIMII MERITO VENERABILE PETRICULMEN AD EXIMII MERITO VENERABILE PETRI

This conjecture produced a correct hexameter verse, retained the original initial C, supplied a word of proper length at the beginning and another at the end, and afforded a sense fitting in perfectly with the probabilities of the case.这个猜想产生了正确的六步诗句,保留了原有的最初的彗星,在开始和结束时另提供一个适当长度的单词,并给予完美的情况下的概率从某种意义上配件。 In the fifth line, instead of Petrus Langobardorum, Bandini suggested Servandus Latii, because of the inscription about Servandus mentioned above.在第五行,而不是佩特鲁斯Langobardorum蒂尼Servandus Latii建议,因为上述有关Servandus题词。This Servandus was believed to be a friend of St. Benedict, to whom he made a visit at Monte Cassino in 541; he was abbot of a monastery near the extremity of Latium.这Servandus被认为是一个圣本笃的朋友,他在蒙特卡西诺541访问,他是住持的寺院附近的拉丁姆下肢。

These conjectures were accepted by the learned world; Tischendorf, for instance, writing seventy-five years later, said Bandini had so well proved his case that no doubt remained.蒂尼很好地证明了他的情况下,毫无疑问仍然接受了这些猜测了解到世界;提申多夫,例如,写七十五年后,说。Accordingly, it was settled that the Codex Amiatinus dated from the middle of the sixth century, was the oldest manuscript of the Vulgate, and was written in Southern Italy.因此,它是落户法典Amiatinus月从六世纪中叶,是最古老的手稿的武加大,并在意大利南部的书面。A few protests were raised, however; that, for instance, of Paul de Lagarde.几个人提出抗议,但是,举例说,保罗 - 拉加德。 He had edited St. Jerome's translation of the Hebrew Psalter, using freely for that purpose a codex of the ninth century; Amiatinus he judged, with a not unnatural partiality, to be "in all probability" from the hand of the scribe of his ninth-century Psalter, written "at Reichenau on the Lake of Constance".他编辑圣杰罗姆的翻译希伯来诗篇,自由使用,目的是第九世纪的法典; Amiatinus他判断,与一个没有不自然的偏袒,“在所有的可能性”从他的第九隶的手世纪诗篇,写了“在Reichenau的康斯坦茨湖”。 But, to quote Corssen, it was GB de Rossi, "that great Roman scholar, whose never-failing perspicacity and learning discovered at once the birthplace of our famous manuscript" (Academy, 7 April, 1888).但是,引用Corssen的,它是GB德罗西,“罗马这个伟大的学者,从来没有失败的敏锐和学习一次发现的我国著名的手稿的发源地”(中国科学院,1888年4月7日)。

De Rossi followed Bandini in his reconstruction of the first verse, but he thought it unlikely that an abbot, presenting a book to the pope at Rome, should speak of "the extreme limits of Latium", really but a short distance from Rome.德罗西随后在他的第一首诗歌的重建蒂尼,但他认为这不大可能,方丈,一书,在罗马教皇的,应该讲“对拉齐奥的极限”,真的,但短距离从罗马。 Anzizni, the librarian of the Laurentiana, pointed out to him that the space erased to make room for Petrus Langobardorum was greater than called for by the conjecture of Bandini. Anzizni,馆员的Laurentiana,向他指出,擦除,使房间佩特鲁斯Langobardorum空间大于呼吁蒂尼猜想。De Rossi was at the time engaged on an inquiry into the ancient history of the Vatican library, and, recalling a passage of Bede, he divined that the lost name was Ceolfridus.德罗西查询到梵蒂冈图书馆的古代历史上的时间,并回顾了贝德的流逝,他猜到了,失去的名称是Ceolfridus。 The erasures, which were irregular, seeming to follow the letters very closely, corresponded perfectly to this conjecture.涂改​​,呈不规则,似乎非常密切的,按照字母,完全符合这个猜想。He proposed then the verse:他当时建议的诗句:

CEOLFRIDUS BRITONUM EXTREMIS DE FINIB.CEOLFRIDUS BRITONUM极端情况FINIB。ABBASABBAS

The phrase exactly suited an abbot from the end of the world, as England was then regarded and styled; and the story of Ceolfrid made de Rossi's conjectures acceptable at once, especially to English scholars.这句话完全适用于从世界的尽头方丈作为英格兰当时认为和风格; Ceolfrid故事德罗西的猜测可以接受的一次,尤其是英语学者。Ceolfrid was the disciple of Benedict Biscop, who founded the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow in Northumberland towards the end of the seventh century. Ceolfrid是本笃比斯科普的弟子,在诺森伯兰郡成立了第七世纪结束对Wearmouth和贾罗寺院。England, in those days, was the most devoted daughter of the Roman See, and Abbot Benedict was enthusiastic in his devotion.英格兰,在那些日子里,是最忠实的罗马见女儿,住持本笃在他的献身精神的热情。His monasteries were dependent directly on Rome.他的寺院直接在罗马依赖。Five times during his life he journeyed to Rome, usually bring back with him a library of books presented by the pope.在他的生活中,他五次远航到罗马,通常与他带回了由教皇提出的书籍的图书馆。Ceolfrid, who had accompanied him on one of these visits, became his successor in 686 and inherited his taste for books; Bede mentions three pandects of St. Jerome's translation which he had made, one of which he determined in his old age, in 716, to bring to the church of St. Peter at Rome. Ceolfrid,谁曾陪同他在这些访问,成为他的继任者在686,和书籍继承他的口味;贝德提到在716圣杰罗姆的翻译,这是他作出的,其中之一,他在自己的晚年生活中确定的三个pandects ,使在罗马的圣彼得教堂。He died on the way, but his gift was carried to the Holy Father, then Gregory II.他死的方式,但是,他的礼物是圣父,然后格雷戈里二。This codex de Rossi identified with Amiatinus.该法典德罗西与Amiatinus确定。

This conjecture was hailed by all as a genuine discovery of great importance.这个猜想被人们誉为所有真正作为一个非常重要的的发现。Berger, however, objected to Britonum, suggesting Anglorum.然而,伯杰,反对Britonum,建议Anglorum。Hort soon placed the matter beyond the possibility of doubt.园艺很快超越疑问的可能性问题。In an anonymous life of Ceolfrid, the chief source of Bede's information, which, though twice published, had been overlooked by all, Hort found the story of Ceolfrid journeying to Rome and carrying the pandect inscribed with the verses:在Ceolfrid,Bede的信息,虽然两次出版,并已获得忽视的主要来源匿名生活中,园艺发现Ceolfrid痴痴的罗马和账面上刻着经文的潘德克顿的故事:

CORPUS AD EXIMII MERITO VENERABILE PETRI语料库公元EXIMII MERITO VENERABILE PETRI

DEDICAT ECCLESIAE QUEM CAPUT ALTA FIDESDEDICAT,该书QUEM按位津贴ALTA FIDES

CEOLFRIDUS, ANGLORUM EXTIMIS DE FINIBUS ABBASCEOLFRIDUS,ANGLORUM EXTIMIS DE FINIBUS ABBAS

etc. Despite the variations, there could be no doubt of their identity with the dedicatory verses of Amiatinus; Corpus was of course the original, not Culmen, and Anglorum, not Britonum; the other differences were perhaps due to a lapse of memory, or this version may represent the original draft of the dedication.等尽管存在差异,可能是没有怀疑自己的身份与Amiatinus奉献的诗句;语料库当然原来,不是Culmen,Anglorum,不Britonum;等方面的差异可能是由于时隔内存,或这个版本可能代表了原草案的执着 De Rossi's chief point was proved right.德罗西的主要点被证明是正确的。It established that Amiatinus originated in Northumberland about the beginning of the eighth century, having been made, as Bede states, at Ceolfrid's order.它成立,起源于约八世纪开始的诺森伯兰郡Amiatinus,已在Ceolfrid的命令,作为比德国,。It does not follow, however, that the scribe was an Englishman; the writing and certain peculiarities of orthography have led some to believe him an Italian.然而,它不会跟随,文士是英国人;写作和正字法的一些特点,导致一些人认为他一个意大利。We know that these two monasteries had brought over a Roman musician to train the monks in the Roman chant, and they may also, for a similar purpose, have procured from Italy a skilled calligrapher.我们知道,这两个寺院已经超过了罗马的音乐家带到列车在罗马圣咏的僧侣,以及类似的目的,他们也可能有来自意大利的采购熟练的书法家。 The handwriting of Amiatinus bears a strong resemblance to some fragments of St. Luke in a Durham manuscript, to New Testament fragments bound up with the Utrecht Psalter, and to the Stonyhurst St. John; these facts, together with Bede's statement that Ceolfrid had three pandects written, indicate that "there was a large and flourishing school of calligraphy at Wearmouth or Jarrow in the seventh and eighth centuries, of which till lately we had no knowledge at all" (White). Amiatinus手写熊圣卢克在达勒姆手稿一些片段非常相似,新约,约束与乌得勒支诗篇片段,并Stonyhurst圣约翰这些事实,Bede的说法,Ceolfrid有三个pandects书面,指示说,“直到最近,我们根本没有知识”(白)有一个书法Wearmouth或贾罗在第七和第八世纪,其中,大,蓬勃发展的学校。 This conclusion is confirmed by peculiarities in the text and in certain of the summaries.证实了这个结论是在文字和摘要的某些特殊性。

The contents of the first quaternion of Amiatinus coincide so remarkably with descriptions of the celebrated Codex Grandior of Cassiodorus that it has been supposed that the leaves were transferred from it bodily; the conjecture has been rendered more credible by the fact that this codex was actually seen in England by Bede, perhaps before Amiatinus was carried to Rome. Amiatinus第一四元的内容相吻合,所以Cassiodorus著名法典Grandior的描述,它已经应该从转移身体叶子的显着;的猜想,这种食品法典委员会是真正看到的事实已变得更为可信的在英格兰贝德,这也许是前Am​​iatinus进行罗马。 Moreover, the contents of our codex do not correspond exactly to the list prefixed which purports to give the contents.此外,我们的法典中的内容不完全一致,看来给内容列表前缀。These reasons, however, would only prove that the Codex Grandior served as the model, which seems indubitable; while, on the other hand, weighty reasons have been urged against the other attractive hypothesis (see White and de Rossi).然而,这些原因,只会证明法典Grandior作为模型,这似乎是不容置疑的,而另一方面,有分量的原因一直呼吁对其他有吸引力的假说(见白色和德罗​​西)。

Despite the lowering of its date by a century and a half, Amiatinus holds the first place for purity of text among the manuscripts of the Vulgate.尽管它的日期由一个半世纪的降低,Amiatinus持有的武加大手稿中的文字的纯洁性放在第一位。Its excellence is best explained on the ground that its prototype was an ancient Italian manuscript, perhaps one of those brought from Rome by Benedict Biscop, perhaps one brought by Adrian, abbot of a monastery near Naples, when in 668 he accompanied Benedict and Theodore to England.其卓越是最好的解释在地面上,它的原型是意大利一个古老的手稿,或许本笃比斯科普从罗马带来的,也许是一个由Adrian带来,那不勒斯附近的一个寺院的住持,在668时,他陪同本笃十六世和西奥多英格兰。 It is remarkable that Amiatinus and the other Northumbrian codices are nearest in text to Italian manuscripts, especially to Southern Italian, and to manuscripts betraying Italian descent.值得注意的是,Amiatinus和其他的Northumbrian抄本文本意大利手稿最近,尤其是意大利南部,并出卖意大利血统的手稿。 The group to which it belongs bears the closest relationship to the best-esteemed Greek manuscripts extant, aleph, B. (Cf. MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE; CRITICISM, BIBLICAL, sub-title Textual.) In the Old Testament, the text is not of equal purity throughout; Berger, eg, notes the inferiority of Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus, and Tischendorf of Machabees.它属于本集团承担的最好的尊敬的希腊文手抄本的关系最密切的现存,ALEPH,B(参照手稿“圣经”;批评,圣经,分标题的文本)在旧约中,文字是不伯杰,例如,等于纯度各地;注意到智慧和Ecclesiasticus,Machabees提申多夫的自卑心理。 The Psalter does not present the Vulgate text, but St. Jerome's translation from the Hebrew (cf. PSALTER; VULGATE).没有目前的psalter武加大文字,但圣杰罗姆从希伯来文翻译(参见诗篇;武加大)。The excellence of the Amiatine text is not a new discovery: it was well known to the Sixtine revisers of the Vulgate, who used it constantly and preferred it, as a rule, to any other.卓越的Amiatine文本不是一个新发现:它是众所周知的武加大,用它不断地首选,作为一项规则,任何其他Sixtine审校的。 To this is largely due the comparative purity of the official Vulgate text and its freedom from so many of the corruptions found in the received Greek text, which rests, as is well known, on some of the latest and most imperfect Greek manuscripts.在这方面主要是由于比较纯度官方武加大文字和其从这么多收到的希腊文,这取决于发现的腐败的自由,众所周知,一些最新和最不完善的希腊文手抄本。

Publication information Written by John Francis Fenlon.由约翰弗朗西斯Fenlon书面的公开信息。 Transcribed by Sean Hyland.转录由Sean海仑。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.发布1908。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约



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