Deism自然神论

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Latin Deus, God).(拉美杀出,神)。

The term used to denote certain doctrines apparent in a tendency of thought and criticism that manifested itself principally in England towards the latter end of the seventeenth century.术语,用来表示一定的教义思想和批评,主要表现在英格兰对十七世纪后期的趋势明显。The doctrines and tendency of deism were, however, by no means entirely confined to England, nor to the seventy years or so during which most of the deistical productions were given to the world; for a similar spirit of criticism aimed at the nature and content of traditional religious beliefs, and the substitution for them of a rationalistic naturalism has frequently appeared in the course of religious thought.的教义和自然神论的倾向,然而,没有完全局限于英格兰,也不是第七年或在此期间,大部分deistical制作给世界的性质和内容的类似的批评精神传统的宗教信仰,并为他们的一个理性的自然替代频频出现在宗教思想的过程中。 Thus there have been French and German deists as well as English; while Pagan, Jewish, or Moslem deists might be found as well as Christian.因此,有法语和德语以及英语自然神论者;而异教徒,犹太人,穆斯林自然神论者可能会发现,以及作为基督徒。

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Because of the individualistic standpoint of independent criticism which they adopt, it is difficult, if not impossible, to class together the representative writers who contributed to the literature of English deism as forming any one definite school, or to group together the positive teachings contained in their writings as any one systematic expression of a concordant philosophy.由于独立的批评,他们采取的个人主义的立场,这是困难的,如果不是不可能的的,以类聚谁促成了英国自然神论的文学形成任何一个明确的学校,或组合到一起包含在积极教义的代表作家任何一个系统的表达一个和谐的哲学著作。 The deists were what nowadays would be called freethinkers, a name, indeed, by which they were not infrequently known; and they can only be classed together wholly in the main attitude that they adopted, viz. “自然神论者什么时下将所谓的自由思想家,事实上,他们并不罕见已知的名称,它们只能被归类在一起的主要态度,他们通过,即全。in agreeing to cast off the trammels of authoritative religious teaching in favour of a free and purely rationalistic speculation.同意摆脱权威的宗教教学的束缚,在赞成自由和纯粹理性的投机。Many of them were frankly materialistic in their doctrines; while the French thinkers who subsequently built upon the foundations laid by the English deists were almost exclusively so.其中许多人坦言,在他们的教义物欲横流,而随后根据英国自然神论者奠定了基础构建的法国思想家们几乎完全如此。Others rested content with a criticism of ecclesiastical authority in teaching the inspiration of the Sacred Scriptures, or the fact of an external revelation of supernatural truth given by God to man.其他休息与批评在教学圣经的灵感,或外部启示神所赋予人类的超自然的真理的事实教会权威内容。In this last point, while there is a considerable divergence of method and procedure observable in the writings of the various deists, all, at least to a very large extent, seem to concur.最后一点,同时有相当大的分歧的方法和程序观察各种自然神论者的著作,都至少有一个非常大的程度上,似乎同意。Deism, in its every manifestation was opposed to the current and traditional teaching of revealed religion.自然神论,在其每一表现中反对目前启示宗教和传统的教学。

In England the deistical movement seems to be an almost necessary outcome of the political and religious conditions of the time and country.在英格兰deistical运动似乎是一个必要的时间和国家的政治和宗教的条件几乎成果。The Renaissance had fairly swept away the later scholasticism and with it, very largely, the constructive philosophy of the Middle Ages.文艺复兴相当一扫后来经院哲学,有了它,在很大程度上,建设性的中世纪哲学。The Protestant Reformation, in its open revolt against the authority of the Catholic Church, had inaugurated a slow revolution, in which all religious pretensions were to be involved.宗教改革,在其对天主教会的权威的公开反叛,开始缓慢的革命,其中涉及所有宗教伪装。The Bible as a substitute for the living voice of the Church and the State religion as a substitute for Catholicism might stand for a time; but the very mentality that brought them into being as substitutes could not logically rest content with them. “圣经”为生活的声音,教会和国家的宗教为天主教会的立场一段时间的替代品的替代品,但非常的心态,使他们被作为替代品无法在逻辑上的其余部分内容与他们。 The principle of private judgment in matters of religion had not run its full course in accepting the Bible as the Word of God.在宗教事务的私人判断原则没有在接受圣经作为神的话语其运行的全过程。A favourable opportunity would spur it forward once more; and from such grudging acceptance as it gave to the Scriptures it would proceed to a new examination and a final rejection of their claims.的有利时机,推动它向前一次;这种勉强地接受,因为它给的圣经,它会进入到一个新的考试和最后拒绝了他们的要求。The new life of the empirical sciences, the enormous enlargement of the physical horizon in such discoveries as those of astronomy and geography, the philosophical doubt and rationalistic method of Descartes, the advocated empiricism of Bacon, the political changes of the times--all these things were factors in the preparation and arrangement of a stage upon which a criticism levelled at revelational religion might come forward and play its part with some chance of success.新生活的实证科学,在天文地理,哲学笛卡尔,培根的经验主义的主张,时代的政治变化的怀疑和理性的方法这些发现的巨大扩大的物理地平线 - 所有这些事情在一个阶段的准备和安排的因素,针对revelational宗教批评可能挺身而出,发挥其作用与一些成功的机会。And though the first essays of deism were somewhat veiled and intentionally indirect in their attack upon revelation, with the revolution and the civil and religious liberty consequent upon it, with the spread of the critical and empirical spirit as exemplified in the philosophy of Locke, the time was ripe for the full rehearsal of the case against Christianity as expounded by the Establishment and the sects.虽然自然神论的文章有点含蓄和间接故意在他们的攻击后的启示与革命后,随之而来的公民权利和宗教信仰自由,传播的关键和实证的精神,体现在洛克的哲学,成熟的阐述了通过建立和教派的情况下,对基督教的全面排练时间。 The wedge of private judgment had been driven into authority.私人判断的楔形已经打入权力。It had already split Protestantism into a great number of conflicting sects.它已经分裂成大量相互矛盾的教派新教。It was now to attempt the wreck of revealed religion in any shape or form.现在是尝试任何形式的启示宗教的残骸。

The deistical tendency passed through several more or less clearly defined phases. deistical倾向通过几个或不太清楚界定阶段。All the forces possible were mustered against its advance.所有可能的势力纠集反对它的前进。Parliaments took cognizance of it.议会采取认识到它的。Some of the productions of the deists were publicly burnt.自然神论者的一些制作进行了公开烧毁。The bishops and clergy of the Establishment were strenuous in resisting it.编制的主教和神职人员在抵御剧烈。 For every pamphlet or book that a deist wrote, several "answers" were at once put before the public as antidotes.每一个自然神论写的小册子或书籍,几个“答案”,一次在公众面前的解毒剂。Bishops addressed pastoral letters to their dioceses warning the faithful of the danger.主教谈到牧函忠实的危险警告他们的教区。Woolston's "Moderator" provoked no less than five such pastorals from the Bishop of London. Woolston的“主持人”,引起了来自伦敦的主教不低于5 pastorals。All that was ecclesiastically official and respectable was ranged in opposition to the movement, and the deists were held up to general detestation in the strongest terms. ecclesiastically官方和尊敬的是为反对运动,并举行的自然神论者,在最强烈的措辞一般厌恶。When the critical principles and freethought spirit filtered down to the middle classes and the masses, when such men as Woolston and Chubb put pen to paper, a perfect storm of counter-criticism arose.当关键的原则和freethought精神渗透到中产阶层和群众,当Woolston和丘博这样的男人落笔,反批评的完美风暴出现。 As a matter of fact, not a few educated and cultured men were really upon the side of a broad toleration in matters of religion.事实上,真的没有几个教育和培养男性的一侧,在宗教事务的广泛宽容后。The "wit and ridicule" by which the Earl of Shaftesbury would have all tested meant, as Brown rightly notes, no more than urbanity and good nature. “机智和嘲笑”沙夫茨伯里伯爵将所有测试的意思,因为布朗正确地指出,没有比文雅和善良的本性。But Shaftesbury himself would by no means allow that he was a deist, except in the sense in which the term is interchangeable with theist; and Herbert of Cherbury, by far the most cultured representative of the movement, is noted as having been the most moderate and the least opposed of them all to the teachings of Christianity.但沙夫茨伯里自己绝不会让他是自然神论者,在这个意义上在该术语是与有神论者互换除外; Cherbury赫伯特,到目前为止运动的最培养的代表,是最温和的指出至少他们都反对基督教的教义。

One phase through which deism may be said to have passed was that of a critical examination of the first principles of religion.自然神论通过它,可以说是已经过去了的一个阶段,是一个宗教的首要原则,严格审查。It asserted its right to perfect tolerance on the part of all men.它声称其权利完美的宽容,对所有男人的一部分。Freethought was the right of the individual; it was, indeed, but one step in advance of the received principle of private judgment.Freethought是个人的权利,的确是,但提前收到的私人判断原则的一个步骤。Such representatives of deism as Toland and Collins may be taken as typical of this stage.托兰和柯林斯这样的自然神论的代表可作为这一阶段的典型。So far, while critical and insisting on its rights to complete toleration, it need not be, though as a matter of fact it undoubtedly was, hostile to religion.到目前为止,而关键,坚持其权利的完整的宽容,它不需要,但事实上,它无疑是敌视宗教。

A second phase was that in which it criticized the moral or ethical part of religious teaching.第二个阶段是,它批评的道德或伦理,宗教教职。The Earl of Shaftesbury, for example, has much to urge against the doctrine of doctrine of future rewards and punishments as the sanction of the moral law.沙夫茨伯里伯爵,例如,已呼吁对未来的奖励和惩罚的道德法律的制裁主义的学说。Such an attitude is obviously incompatible with the accepted teaching of the Churches.这种态度显然是不相容的教会接受教学。Upon this follows a critical examination of the writings of the Old and New Testaments, with a particular regard to the verification of prophecy and to the miraculous incidents therein recorded.基于这个如下的旧约和新约的著作进行严格审查,与一个特定的方面预言的验证,其中记录了奇迹般的事件。Antony Collins performed the first part of this task, while Woolston gave his attention principally to the latter, applying to Scriptural records the principles put forward by Blount in his notes to the "Apollonius Tyanæus".安东尼柯林斯执行这一任务的第一部分,Woolston了他的注意而主要是后者,圣经记载申请的原则提出,在他的笔记由布朗特“阿波罗尼奥斯Tyanæus”。 Lastly, there was the stage in which natural religion as such was directly opposed to revealed religion.最后,是在自然宗教是直接反对启示宗教的阶段。Tindal, in his "Christianity as old as the Creation", reduces, or attempts to reduce, revelation to reason, making the Christian statement of revelational truths either superfluous, in that it is contained in reason itself, or positively harmful, in that it goes beyond or contradicts reason. Tindal,在他的“基督教作为创作的老字号”,减少,或企图减少,理性的启示,使revelational真理的基督徒声明无论是多余的,因为它是包含在理性本身,正面或有害的,因为它超越或者相抵触的原因。

It is thus clear that, in the main, deism is no more than an application of critical principles to religion.由此可见,在主,自然神论是不超过一个关键的原则适用于宗教。But in its positive aspect it is something more, for it offers as a substitute for revealed truth that body of truths which can be built up by the unaided efforts of natural reason.但其积极的一面,它是更多的东西,因为它揭示真理的替代品提供的身体可以建立由自然原因肉眼努力的真理。The term deism, however, has come in the course of time to have a more specific meaning.然而,长期的自然神论,在时间的过程中已经有一个更具体的含义。It is taken to signify a peculiar metaphysical doctrine supposed to have been maintained by all the deists.它是表示应该被所有的自然神论者保持一个奇特的形而上学学说。They are thus grouped together roughly as members of a quasi-philosophical school, the chief and distinguishing tenet of which is the relationship asserted to obtain between the universe and God.因此,他们大致归纳为一个准哲学流派的成员,其中主要的和显着的宗旨是宇宙和上帝之间的关系断言获得。God, in this somewhat inferential and constructive thesis, is held to be the first cause of the world, and to be a personal God.上帝,这有点推理和建设性的论断,是举行是世界第一个原因,是一个个人的上帝。

So far the teaching is that of the theists, as contrasted with that of atheists and pantheists.到目前为止教学的有神论者,无神论者和泛神论对比。But, further, deism not only distinguishes the world and God as effect and cause; it emphasizes the transcendence of the Deity at the sacrifice of His indwelling and His providence.但是,进一步,自然神论不仅区分效果,并导致世界和上帝,它强调在牺牲他的留置和他的普罗维登斯神的超越。 He is apart from the creation which He brought into being, and unconcerned as to the details of its working.他除了创造他带来应运而生,并作为其工作的细节漠不关心。Having made Nature, He allows it to run its own course without interference on His part.自然,他允许它运行,而不干扰他自己的路。In this point the doctrine of deism differs clearly from that of theism.在这一点上,自然神论学说不同,显然从有神论。The verbal distinction between the two, which are originally convertible terms--deism, of Latin origin, being a translation of the Greek theism--seems to have been introduced into English literature by the deists themselves, in order to avoid the denomination of naturalists by which they were commonly known.口头两者之间的区别,这本来是可转换条款 - 自然神论,拉美裔,希腊有神论的翻译 - 似乎已被引入英语文学的自然神论者本身,为了避免博物面额他们被俗称。As naturalism was the epithet generally given to the teaching of the followers of the Spinozistic philosophy, as well as to the so-called atheists, deism seemed to its professors at once to furnish a disavowal of principles and doctrines which they repudiated, and to mark off their own position clearly from that of the theists.作为自然教学Spinozistic哲学的追随者,以及所谓的无神论者一般给予的称号,自然神论似乎一下子教授提供的原则和教义,他们否定的否定,并标记了他们自己的立场清楚的有神论。 The word seems however, to have been first employed in France and Italy about the middle of the sixteenth century, for it occurs in the epistle dedicatory prefixed to the second volume of Viret's "Instruction Chrétienne" (1563), where the reforming divine speaks of some persons who had called themselves by a new name--deists.这个词似乎不过,已受聘在法国和意大利对十六世纪中叶,为它在前缀的Viret的“指令Chrétienne”(1563),第二卷的地方的改革神圣讲的的书信奉献发生有些人称为一个新的名字,自己的人 - 自然神论者。It was principally upon account of their methods of investigation and their criticism of the traditional Protestant religious teaching that they had also come to to be called rationalists, opposing, as has been pointed out, the findings of unaided reason to the truths held on faith as having come from God through external revelation.它主要是根据他们的调查和批评传统的新教教学方法的帐户,他们还来到被称为理性主义,反对,正如已经指出的,独立的原因的调查结果举行信仰的真理通过外部的启示来自上帝。 Whether it was by ignoring this altogether, or by attempting actively to refute it and prove its worthlessness, rationalism was the obvious term of their procedure.无论是这完全忽略,或试图通过积极反驳,并证明其无能,理性是明显的长期他们的程序。And it was also, in very much the same manner, by their claiming the freedom to discuss on these lines the doctrines set forth in the Bible and taught by the Churches, that they earned for themselves the no less commonly given title of "freethinkers."而且它也是非常相同的方式,他们要求自由地讨论这些载于“圣经”的教义和教会的教导,他们为自己赢得了“自由思想家没有不太常用的标题行。 “

There are notable distinctions and divergences among the English deists as to the whole content of truth given by reason.有显着的区别和真理的全部内容,理由,英国自然神论者之间的分歧。The most important of these distinctions is undoubtedly that by which they are classed as "mortal" and "immortal" deists; for, while many conceded the philosophical doctrine of a future life, the rejection of future rewards and punishments carried with it for some the denial of the immortality of the human soul.这些区别的最重要的无疑是由他们被归类为“凡人”和“不朽的”自然神论者;,而许多人承认一些对未来生活的哲学学说,拒绝与它进行未来的奖励和处罚人类灵魂的不朽的拒绝。 The five articles laid down by Lord Herbert of Cherbury, however, with their expansion into six (and the addition of a seventh) by Charles Blount, may be taken--and especially the former--as the format professions of deism.五篇文章Cherbury赫伯特勋爵放下,然而,随着其扩展为六个查尔斯 - 布朗特(第七)此外,可采取 - 尤其是前者 - 作为自然神论的格式专业。They contain the following doctrines:它们包含了以下学说:

that there exists one supreme God,存在一个至高无上的神,

who is chiefly to be worshipped;主要是被崇拜;

that the principal part of such worship consists in piety and virtue;这种崇拜的主要部分组成,在虔诚和美德;

that we must repent of our sins and that, if we do so, God will pardon us;我们必须悔改我们的罪,如果我们这样做,上帝会原谅我们;

that there are rewards for good men and punishments for evil men both here and hereafter.有好男人和惩罚邪恶的人都在这里和以下的奖励。

Blount, while he enlarged slightly upon each of these doctrines, broke one up into two and added a seventh in which he teaches that God governs the world by His providence.布朗特,而他略有扩大后,这些学说,爆发一分为二,并添加了第七次中,他教导说神支配世界,由他的普罗维登斯。

This can hardly be accepted as a doctrine common to the deists; while, as has been said, future rewards and punishments were not allowed by them all.这根本不能接受的自然神论者共同作为一种学说,同时,正如人们所说的,未来的奖惩不是所有允许。In general they rejected the miraculous element in Scripture and ecclesiastical tradition.一般情况下,他们拒绝在圣经和教会传统的神奇元素。They would not admit that there was any one "peculiar people", such as the Jews or the Christians, singled out for the reception of a truth-message, or chosen to be the recipients of any special grace or supernatural gift of God.他们不承认有任何一个“特殊的人”,如犹太人或基督徒,挑出一个道理消息的接收,或选择接受任何特殊的恩典或超自然的神的礼物。 They denied the doctrine of the Trinity and altogether refused to admit any mediatorial character in the person of Jesus Christ.他们否认三位一体的教义,并完全拒绝承认任何中保字符在耶稣基督的人。The atonement, the doctrine of the "imputed righteousness" of Christ--especially popular with orthodoxy at the time--shared the fate of all Christological doctrines at their hands.特别是当时流行的正统 - - “估算义”基督的教义赎罪共享的命运在他们手中所有的基督的教义。And above all things and upon every occasion--but with at least one notable exception--they raised their voices against ecclesiastical authority.以上所有的东西,并呼吁每一个场合 - 但至少有一个明显的例外 - 他们提出的反对教会权威的声音。They never tired of inveighing against priestcraft in every shape or form, find they went so far as to assert that revealed religion was an imposture, an invention of the priestly caste to subdue, and so the more easily govern and exploit, the ignorant.他们乐此不疲,对各种形状或形式祭司inveighing,发现他们竟然声称发现宗教是一个骗局,一个发明的祭司种姓制服,以便更轻松地治理和利用,无知。

As deism took its rise, in the logical sequence of events, from the principles asserted at the Protestant Reformation, so it ran its short and violent course in a development of those principles and ended in a philosophical scepticism.作为自然神论了它的崛起,在事件的逻辑顺序的原则,在新教改革主张,所以跑在这些原则的发展短期和暴力当然,在哲学的怀疑。 For a time it caused an extraordinary commotion in all circles of thought in England, provoked a very large and, in a sense, interesting polemical literature, and penetrated from the highest to the lowest strata of society.一时间,它引起的思想在英国各界特别混乱,挑起一个非常大的,在某种意义上说,有趣的论战文学,从最高到社会的最低层的侵入。 Then it fell flat, whether because the controversy had lost the keen interest of its acuter stage or because people in general were drifting with the current of criticism towards the new views, it would be difficult to say.然后下跌平是否因为争论已经失去了其acuter阶段的浓厚兴趣,或因为在一般人迈向新的意见,批评目前漂流,那就很难说了。 With most of the arguments of the deists we are nowadays quite familiar, thanks to the efforts of modern freethought and rationalism to keep them before the public.随着我们时下颇为熟悉的自然神论者的论据,这要归功于现代freethought主义和理性主义的努力,以保持他们在公众面前。 Though caustic, often clever, and sometimes extraordinarily blasphemous, we open the shabby little books to find them for the most part out-of-date, commonplace, and dull.虽然烧碱,往往是聪明,有时显得格外亵渎神灵,我们打开简陋的小书,发现他们大部分过时的,司空见惯,沉闷。And while several of the "replies" they evoked may still be reckoned as standard works of apologetics, the majority of them belong, in more senses than one, to the writings of a bygone age.而他们诱发的“答复”可能仍然是标准的护工程估计,其中大部分属于一个以上的感官,一个过去时代的著作。

When Viscount Bolingbroke's works were published posthumously in 1754, and even when, six years previously, David Hume's "Essay on the Human Understanding" was given to the public, little stir was caused.博林布鲁克子爵的作品出版了遗腹在1754年,甚至,6年以前,大卫休谟的“人类理解论”是给公众,小的轰动是造成。 Bolingbroke's attacks upon revealed religion, aimed from the standpoint of a sensationalistic theory of knowledge, were, as a recent writer puts it, "insufferably wearisome"; nor could all his cynicism and satire, any more than the scepticism of the Scottish philosopher, renew general interest in a controversy that was practically dead.博林布鲁克透露宗教,旨在从一个知识的耸人听闻的理论的角度来看,,时的攻击,作为一个最近的作家把它,“insufferably疲倦”,也没有可能所有他的冷嘲热讽和讽刺,比苏格兰哲学家怀疑了,续约一般利益的争论,实际上是死。 The deistical controversy traceable to the philosophy of Hobbes and Locke is preeminently an English one, and it is to the English deists that reference is usually made when there is question of deism. deistical争议追溯到霍布斯和洛克的哲学是preeminently英语之一,它是英国自然神论者参考通常是当有问题的自然神论。But the same or a similar movement took place in France also.然而,同样或类似的运动,还参加了在法国举行。Says Ueberweg,说Ueberweg

In the eighteenth century, the prevailing character of French philosophy .早在十八世纪,当时的法国哲学的性格。..was that of opposition to the received dogmas and the actual conditions in Church and State, and the efforts of its representatives were chiefly directed to the establishment of a new theoretical and practical philosophy resting on naturalistic principles.反对接收到的教条和教会与国家的实际情况,和其代表的努力主要是建立一个新的理论和实践理念,在自然主义的原则休息。 (Gesch. d. Philosophie, Berlin, 1901, III, 237)(Gesch. D.哲学,柏林,1901年,三,237)

Men like Voltaire, and even the materialistic Encyclopædists, exemplify a tendency of philosophic thought which has very much in common with what in England ended in deism.男人像伏尔泰,甚至在物欲横流的百科全书,体现了哲学思想的倾向,有非常共同在英国自然神论结束。It had the same basis, the theory of knowledge propounded by Locke and subsequently pushed to an extreme point by Condillac, and the general advance of scientific thought.它有相同的基础上,洛克propounded的知识理论,并随后推到一个极端点,孔狄亚克和科学思想的一般提前。 From Voltaire's criticisms of ecclesiastical organization and theology, his unwearying attacks upon Christianity, the Bible, the Church, and revelation, the tendency turned towards pantheism and materialism.从伏尔泰的批评教会组织和神学,他unwearying要求攻击基督教,“圣经”,教会,和启示,泛神论和唯物主义的倾向转向。 Rousseau would have a religion of nature substituted for the traditional forms of revelation, and bring it, as he would bring philosophy and politics, to the point of view of individualism.卢梭将取代传统形式的启示性的宗教,并把它,因为他会带来哲学和政治,个人主义点。Helvetius would have the moral system based upon the principle of present self-interest.爱尔维修将有道德体系,根据目前自身利益的原则。And thus, as in England the logical development of deism ended in the scepticism of Hume, so in France it came to rest in the materialism of La Mettrie and Holbach.因此,在英国的自然神论的合乎逻辑的发展结束了休谟的怀疑,所以在法国香格里拉Mettrie和霍尔巴赫唯物主义来休息。

PROMINENT DEIST WRITERS突出自然神论作家

Reference has been made above to several of the more important representatives of English deism.参考已取得了上述几个英语自然神论更重要的代表。Ten or twelve writers are usually enumerated as noteworthy contributors to the literature and thought of the movement, of whom the following brief sketches may be given.通常是十或十二作家列举文献值得注意的贡献者和思想的运动,其中以下简短的速写,可给予。

Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1581-1648)赫伯特勋爵(1581年至1648年)的Cherbury

Lord Herbert, a contemporary of the philosopher Hobbes, was the most learned of the deists and at the same time the least disposed to submit Christian revelation to a destructive criticism.主赫伯特,当代哲学家霍布斯,最自然神论者了解到,在同一时间处理至少提交一个破坏性的批评基督教的启示。He was the founder of a rationalistic form of religion--the religion of nature--which consisted of no more than the residuum of truth common to all forms of positive religion when their distinctive characteristics were left aside.他是一个理性的宗教形式的创始人 - 宗教的本质 - 其中包括不超过渣油共同积极的宗教时,其鲜明的特点是搁置一切形式的真理。The profession of faith of Herbert's rationalism is summed up in the five articles given above.赫伯特的理性主义的信仰,职业,归纳起来就是在上面给出的五篇文章。His principal contributions to deistical literature are the "Tractatus de Veritate prout distinguitur a Revelatione, a Verisimili, a Possibili et a Falso" (1624); "De Religione Gentilium Errorumque apud eos Causis" (1645, 1663); "De Religione Laici." deistical文学他的主要贡献是“逻辑哲学论Veritate prout distinguitur一个Revelatione,Verisimili,可能性等一个Falso”(1624年);“德Religione Gentilium Errorumque APUD EOS Causis”(1645,1663);“德Religione Laici。 “

Charles Blount (1654-93)查尔斯 - 布朗特(1654年至1693年)

Blount was noted as a critic of both the Old and New Testaments.布朗特有人指出作为一个评论家的旧约和新约。His methods of attack upon the Christian position were characterized by an indirectness and a certain duplicity that has ever since come to be in some degree associated with the whole deistical movement.自从来在一定程度上与整个deistical运动相关的间接性和一定的双重特点,他的攻击后,基督教立场方法。 The notes that he appended to his translation of Apollonius are calculated to weaken or destroy credence in the miracles of Christ, for some of which he actually suggests explanations upon natural grounds, thus arguing against the trustworthiness of the New Testament.他追加到他翻译的阿波罗纽斯计算在基督的奇迹来削弱或摧毁信任,一些,其中,他实际上建议后,自然理由的解释,从而对新约的可信性争论。 In a similar manner, by employing the argument of Hobbes against the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, and by attacking the miraculous events therein recorded, he had impeached the accuracy and veracity of the Old Testament.以类似的方式,采用对作者的马赛克的摩西五霍布斯的论点,并攻击其中记录了奇迹般的事件,他弹劾旧约的准确性和真实性。 He rejects utterly the doctrine of a mediatorial Christ and contends that such a doctrine is subversive of true religion; while the many falsehoods he perceives in the traditional and positive forms of Christianity he puts down to the political invention (for purposes of power and of easy government) of priests and religious teachers.他拒绝完全一个中保基督的教义,并争辩说,这种学说是真正的宗教的颠覆,而在基督教的传统和积极的形式,他认识的许多不实之词,他放下权力和容易的宗旨的政治发明(政府)的牧师和宗教教师。 The seven articles into which Blount expanded the five articles of Lord Herbert have been noticed above.布朗特扩大主赫伯特的五篇文章七篇文章已注意到上述情况。His notes to the translation of Philostratus' "Life of Apollonius Tyanæus" were published in 1680.于1680年出版了他的笔记Philostratus“阿波罗纽斯Tyanæus生命”的翻译。He wrote also the "Anima Mundi" (1678-9); "Religio Laici", practically a translation of Lord Herbert's book of the same title (1683); and "The Oracles of Reason" (1893).他写道:“阿尼玛蒙迪”(1678-9);“Religio Laici”,实际上是翻译的主赫伯特的同名的书(1683);和“理性的神谕”(1893年)。

John Toland (1670-1722)约翰托兰(1670年至1722年)

Toland, while originally a believer in Divine revelation and not opposed to the doctrines of Christianity, advanced to the rationalistic position with strong pantheistic tendencies by taking away the supernatural element from religion.托兰,而最初的信徒在神的启示,而不是反对基督教的教义,以先进的,具有较强的泛神论的倾向理性位置远离宗教超自然的元素。 His principal thesis consisted in the argument that "there is nothing in the Gospels contrary to reason, nor above it; and that no Christian doctrine can properly be called a mystery. "This statement he made on the assumption that whatever is contrary to reason is untrue, and whatever is above reason is inconceivable.他的主要论点的论据包括,“有什么原因福音相反,没有基督教的教义,也不它上面的,并认为可以正确地被称为是一个谜。”这种说法,他作出的假设,无论是违反常理的是不真实的,不管上述原因是不可想象的。 He contended, therefore, that reason is the safe and only guide to truth, and that the Christian religion lays no claim to being mysterious.因此,他主张,原因是真理的安全和唯一的指导,和基督教规定没有被神秘的索赔。Toland also raised questions as to the Canon of Scripture and the origins of the Church.托兰还提出了问题,佳能的圣经和教会的起源。He adopted the view that in the Early Church there were two opposing factions, the liberal and the Judaizing; and he compared some eighty spurious writings with the New Testament Scriptures, in order to cast doubt upon the authenticity and reliability of the canon.他采取的观点,在早期教会有两个对立的派别,自由的犹太化,和他相比,与新约圣经约80杂散著作,以投后,佳能的真实性和可靠性产生怀疑。 His "Amyntor" evoked a reply from the celebrated Dr. Clarke, and a considerable number of books and tracts were published in refutation of his doctrine.他的“Amyntor”诱发的答复,从著名的克拉克博士和相当数量的书籍和小册子出版,他的学说的驳斥。The chief works for which he was responsible are--"Christianity not Mysterious" (l696); "Letters to Serena" (1704); "Pantheisticon" (1720); "Amyntor" (1699); "Nazarenus" (1718).他所负责的主要工程 - “基督教并不神秘”(l696);(1704)“小威快报”,“Pantheisticon”(1720);“Amyntor”(1699年);“Nazarenus”(1718年)。 Antony Ashley Cooper, third Earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713)安东尼阿什利库珀,第三沙夫茨伯里伯爵(1671年至1713年)

The Earl of Shaftesbury, one of the most popular, elegant, and ornate of these writers, is generally classed among the deists on account of his "Characteristics". ,最流行,典雅,华丽的这些作家之一沙夫茨伯里伯爵,一般是对他的“特性”的帐户自然神论者之间的归类。He himself would not admit that he was such, except in the sense in which deist is contrasted with atheist; of him Bishop Butler said that, had he lived in a later age, when Christianity was better understood, he would have been a good Christian.他本人将不承认,他是这样的,除了在自然神论是无神论者对比感;他的主教巴特勒说,他住在以后的年龄,更好地理解基督教时,他会是一个很好的基督徒。 Thus, in a preface that Shaftesbury contributed to a volume of the sermons of Dr. Whichcot (1698), he "finds fault with those in this profane age, that represent not only the institution of preaching, but even the Gospel itself, and our holy religion, to be a fraud".因此,他在序言中指出沙夫茨伯里Whichcot博士(1698)布道的音量,“发现与那些在这亵渎时代的过错,表示不仅该机构的说教,但即使是福音本身,而我们的神圣的宗教,是一种欺诈行为“。 There are also passages in "Several Letters Written by a Noble Lord to a Young Man in the University" (1716) in which he shows a very real regard for the doctrines and practice of the Christian religion. (1716年)中,他显示了一个非常真实的关于基督宗教的教义和实践“,由一个高尚主一个年轻男子在大学写了几快报”也有通道。But the "Characteristics of Men, Matters, Opinions, and Times" (1711-1723) gives clear evidence of Shaftesbury's deistical tendencies.但是,“男子,事项,意见,和时代特征”(1711年至1723年)给出了明确的证据沙夫茨伯里的deistical倾向。 It contains frequent criticisms of Christian doctrines, the Scriptures, and revelation.它包含经常批评基督教教义,经文和启示。He contends that this last is not only useless but positively mischievous, on account of its doctrine of rewards and punishments.他辩称,这不但无益,反而其奖惩原则,积极调皮的。The virtue of morality he makes to consist in a conformity of our affections to our natural sense of the sublime and beautiful, to our natural estimate of the worth of men and things.凭借道德的,他符合我们的感情,包括我们的崇高和美丽的自然感,我们自然的男性和事物的价值估计。The Gospel, he asserts with Blount, was only the fruit of a scheme on the part of the clergy to secure their own aggrandizement and enhance their power.福音,他与Blount称,只有水果上的神职人员的计划,以确保自己利益的最大化和增强他们的权力。With such professions it is difficult to reconcile his statement that he adheres to the doctrines and mysteries of religion; but this becomes clear in the light of the fact that he shared the peculiar politico-religious view of Hobbes.有了这样的专业,它是难以调和的宗教的教义和奥秘,他坚持他的声明,但此变得清晰的事实,他赞同霍布斯的政治宗教特有的。 Whatever the absolute power of the State sanctions is good; the opposite is bad.无论绝对权力的国家制裁是好的,相反的是坏。 To oppose one's private religious convictions to the religion sanctioned by the State is of the nature of a revolutionary act.为了反对一个人的私人宗教信仰由国家认可的宗教,是一个革命性的行为的性质。To accept the established state religion is the duty of the citizen.要接受既定的国家宗教,是公民的责任。Shaftesbury's more important contributions to this literature are the "Characteristics" and the "Several Letters", mentioned above.沙夫茨伯里的更重要的贡献,这种文学是“特色”和“几个字母”,上面提到的。

Antony Collins (1676-1729)安东尼柯林斯(1676年至1729年)

Collins caused a considerable stir by the publication (1713) of his "Discourse of Freethinking, occasioned by the Rise and Growth of a Sect call'd Freethinkers".柯林斯(1713)出版了他的一个教派call'd自由思想家的兴起和增长所引致的“自由思想的话语,”造成了相当的轰动。 He had previously conducted an argument against the immateriality and immortality of the soul and against human liberty.他曾进行了一项对非物质和不朽的灵魂和对人类自由的争论。In this he had been answered by Dr. Samuel Clarke.在此,他已回答塞缪尔克拉克博士。The "Discourse" advocated unprejudiced and unfettered enquiry, asserted the right of human reason to examine and interpret revelation, and attempted to show the uncertainty of prophecy and of the New Testament record. “话语”,主张不带偏见的和不受约束的调查,断言人类理性的研究和解释启示的权利,并试图表明的预言和新约中记录的不确定性。In another work Collins puts forth an argument to prove the Christian religion false, though he does not expressly draw the conclusion indicated.柯林斯在另一个工作提出基督教虚假证明的说法,虽然他没有明确说明得出这样的结论。He asserts that Christianity is dependent upon Judaism, and that its proof is the fulfilment of the prophetic utterances contained in the Old Testament.他断言,基督教对犹太教依赖,而且其证明是履行旧约中的先知话语。He then proceeds to point out that all such Prophetic utterance is allegorical in nature and cannot be considered to furnish a real proof of the truth of its event.他接着指出,所有这些先知的话语在本质上是寓言和不能被视为其事件的真相提供一个真正的证明。He further points out that the idea of the Messiah among the Jews was of recent growth before the time of Christ, and that the Hebrews may have derived many of their theological ideas from their contact with other peoples, such as the Egyptians and Chaldeans.他进一步指出,弥赛亚犹太人之间的想法的时候,基督之前的最近的增长,和希伯来人可能很多来自他们与其他民族的接触,如埃及人和迦勒底人,他们的神学思想。 In particular, when his writings on prophecy were attacked he did his utmost to discredit the book of Daniel.特别是,当预言他的著作遭到袭击,他竭力抹黑但以理书。The "Discourse on the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion" (1724) called forth a great number of answers, principal among which were those of the Bishop of Richfield, Dr. Chandler ("Defence of Christianity from the Prophecies of the Old Testament"), and Dr. Sherlock ("The Use and Intent of Prophecy").基督教的理由和原因的话语“(1724年)”要求提出大量的答案,其中主要里奇菲尔德博士钱德勒(“国防部从基督教的旧约的预言主教“),博士和福尔摩斯(”预言的使用和意向书“)。 It was in Collins' "Scheme of Literal Prophecy" that the antiquity and authority of the Book of Daniel were discussed.在柯林斯的“文字预言计划”,这是古代和但以理书的权威进行了讨论。The "prophecies were made to be a record of past and contemporary events rather than a prevision of the future. But the "Scheme" was weak, and though it was answered by more than one critic it cannot be said to have added much weight to the discourse".的“预言了一个过去和当代事件的记录,而不是一个对未来的预知,但”计划“是弱,和尽管它是由一个以上的评论家回答它可以不被说,到有增加的重量,以话语“。 Altogether Collins' attacks upon prophecy were considered to be of so serious a nature that they called forth no less than thirty-five replies.共柯林斯的攻击后,预言被认为是如此严重的性质,他们呼吁来回不得少于三十五个回复。Of his works, the following may be noticed, as bearing especially upon the subject of deism: "Essay Concerning the Use of Reason in Theology" (1707); "Discourse of Freethinking" (1713); "Discourse on the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion" (1724); "The Scheme of Literal Prophecy Considered" (1727).他的作品,可能会注意到以下,如轴承,特别呼吁的自然神论主题:“一篇文章,关于神学的使用原因”(1707年),“话语的自由思想”(1713年);“的理由和原因的话语基督教“(1724年);”认为是“(1727年)的文字预言的计划。

Thomas Woolston (1669-1733)托马斯Woolston(1669年至1733年)

Woolston appeared as a moderator in the acrimonious controversy that was being waged between Collins and his critics with his "Moderator between an Infidel and an Apostate".Woolston出现在柯林斯和他的批评者之间正在发动他的“主持人之间的一个异教徒和叛教”的尖刻的争论的主持人。 As Collins had succeeded in allegorizing the prophecies of the Old Testament until nothing remained of them, so Woolston tried to allegorize away the miracles of Christ.正如柯林斯在寓言旧约的预言,直到没有他们仍然成功,所以Woolston试图allegorize远离基督的奇迹。 During the years 1728-9, six discourses on the miracles of Our Lord came out in three parts, in which Woolston asserted, with an extraordinary violence of language and blasphemy that could only be attributed to a madman, that the miracles of Christ, when taken in a literal and historical sense, are false, absurd, and fictitious.在1728-9年期间,6对我们的上帝的奇迹的话语出来三个部分,其中Woolston断言,具有非凡的暴力语言和亵渎,只能归结为一个疯子,基督的奇迹,当采取文字和历史意义,都是假的,荒谬的,虚构的。 They must therefore, he urges, be received in a mystical and allegorical sense.因此,他敦促他们必须收到一个神秘的寓言意义。In particular, he argued at great length against the miracles of resurrection from the dead wrought by Christ, and against the resurrection of Christ Himself.特别是,他认为在对由基督所造成的死亡复活的奇迹连篇累牍,对复活的基督自己。The Bishop of London issued five pastoral letters against him, and many ecclesiastics wrote in refutation of his work.伦敦的主教对他发出牧函,和许多教区在反驳中写道,他的工作。The most noteworthy reply to his doctrines was "The Tryal of the Witnesses" (1729) by Dr. Sherlock.最值得一提的的答复,他的学说是(1729)博士福尔摩斯的“证人Tryal”。In 1729-30, Woolston published "A Defense of his Discourse against the Bishops of London and St. David's", an extremely weak production.在1729至30年,Woolston出版“他的话语对伦敦和圣大卫主教国防”,以极其微弱的生产。

Matthew Tindal (1657-1733)马修Tindal(1657年至1733年)

Tindal gave to the controversy the work that soon became known as the "Deists' Bible". Tindal了工作,很快就成为著名的“自然神论者”圣经“的争论。His "Christianity as Old as the Creation" was published in his extreme old age in 1730.他的“基督教创造的旧”出版于1730年在他的极端老年。As its sub-title indicates, its aim was to show that the Gospel is no more than a republication of the Law of Nature.正如其副标题所表明的,其目的是表明,福音是大自然的规律再版。This it undertakes to make plain by eviscerating the Christian religion of all that is not a mere statement of natural religion.这承诺,取出内脏所有的基督教信仰,这不是一个单纯的自然宗教声明纯。External revelation is declared to be needless and useless, indeed impossible, and both the Old and New Testaments to be full of oppositions and contradictions.外部的启示是被宣布为不必要的和无用的,确实是不可能的,无论是旧约和新约的对立和矛盾。The work was taken as a serious attack upon the traditional position of Christianity in England, as is evinced by the hostile criticism it at once provoked.这项工作被视为一个严重的攻击后,基督教的传统地位,在英格兰,它一次挑起敌对的批评是明证。The Bishop of London issued a pastoral; Waterland, Law, Conybeare, and others replied to it, Conybeare's "Defence" creating a considerable stir at the time.伦敦的主教发表牧函,国票,法,科尼比尔,和其他人回答说,科尼比尔的“国防部”,创造了当时相当轰动。More than any other work, "Christianity as Old as the Creation" was the occasion of the writing of Butler's well known "Analogy".比其他任何工作,“基督教作为创作的旧”是巴特勒的著名的“类比”的写作之际。

Thomas Morgan (d. 1743)托马斯摩根(卒于1743)

Morgan makes professions of Christianity, the usefulness of revelation, etc., but criticizes and at the same time rejects as revelational the Old Testament history, both as to its personages and its narratives of fact.摩根使得基督教的启示的作用等专业,但批评和在同一时间拒绝作为revelational旧约历史,既是人士和其叙述事实。 He advances the theory that the Jews "accomodated" the truth, and even goes so far as to extend this "accomodation" to the Apostles and to Christ as well.他的进步理论,犹太人“容纳”的道理,甚至竟然以延长以及“住宿”使徒和基督。His account of the origin of the Church is similar to that of Toland, in that he holds the two elements, Judaizing and liberal, to have resulted in a fusion.他对教会的起源是类似托兰的,因为他拥有的两个要素,犹太化和自由,在一个融合导致。His principal work is "The Moral Philosopher, a Dialogue between Philalethes, a Christian Deist, and Theophanes, a Christian Jew" (1737, 1739, 1740).他的主要工作是“道德哲学家,Philalethes之间的对话,基督教戴斯特,和Theophanes,一个基督徒的犹太人”(1737,1739,1740)。 This was answered by Dr. Chapman, whose reply called forth a defense on the part of Morgan in "The Moral Philosopher, or a farther Vindication of Moral Truth and Reason".查普曼博士的答复要求提出对摩根防御“道德哲学家,或更远的道德真理和理性的平反,”这是回答。

Thomas Chubb (1679-1746)托马斯丘博保险(1679年至1746年)

Chubb -- a man of humble origin and of poor and elementary education, by trade a glove-maker and tallow-chandler -- is the most plebeian representative of deism.丘博 - 一个出身卑微,贫穷和小学教育的人,通过贸易,手套制造商和羊脂 - 钱德勒 - 是最平民的代表的自然神论。In 1731 he published "A Discourse Concerning Reason" in which he disavows his intention of opposing revelation or serving the cause of infidelity. 1731年,他出版了“一个话语至于原因”中,他disavows他打算反对启示或服务的不忠的原因。But "The True Gospel of Jesus Christ", in which Lechler sees "an essential moment in the historical development of Deism", announces Christianity as a life rather than as a collection of doctrinal truths.但“耶稣基督真正的福音”,莱克勒看到“在历史发展的自然神论的一个重要的时刻”,宣布基督教为生命,而不是作为教义真理的集合。 The true gospel is that of natural religion, and as such Chubb treats it in his work.真福音是自然宗教,如丘博对待他的工作。In his posthumous works a sceptical advance is made.在他死后的工程持怀疑态度的进步。These were published in 1748, and after the "Remarks on the Scriptures" contain the author's "Farewel to His Readers".这些在1748年,出版后的“圣经备注”包含作者的“Farewel向他的读者”。This "Farewel" embraces a number of tracts on various religious subjects.这“Farewel”包含了一个对各种宗教题材的大片。 A marked tendency to scepticism regarding a particular providence pervades them.一个明显的倾向,怀疑某个特定的普罗维登斯弥漫。The efficacy of prayer, as well as the future state, is called in question.祷告的功效,以及未来的状态,被称为问题。Arguments are urged against prophecy and miracle.参数呼吁对预言和奇迹。There are fifty pages devoted to those against the Resurrection alone.有五十页专门对复活的孤独。Finally, Christ is presented as a mere man, who founded a religious sect among the Jews.最后,基督是作为一个纯粹的人,创立一个教派之间的犹太人。Chubb published also "The Supremacy of the Father" (1715) and "Tracts" (1730).丘博公布“至高无上的父亲”(1715)和“山区”(1730)。He is also responsible for the sentiments of "The Case of Deism Fairly Stated", an anonymous tract which he revised.他还负责的自然神论“的情况下公平呈列”,一个匿名的道,他修订的情绪。Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke (1678-1751)亨利圣约翰,博林布鲁克子爵(1678年至1751年)

Viscount Bolingbroke belongs to the deists chiefly by reason of his posthumous works.子爵博林布鲁克所属的自然神论者,主要是因他的遗作。They are ponderously cynical in style and generally dull and uninteresting, Containing arguments against the truth and value of Scriptural history, and asserting that Christianity is a system footed upon the unlettered by the cunning of the clergy to further their own ends.他们ponderously玩世不恭的风格和一般沉闷和无趣,包含对真理和圣经的历史价值的争论,并断言,基督教是一个系统后胸无点墨措手不及,狡猾的神职人员,以进一步达到自己的目的。

Peter Annet (1693-1769)彼得Annet(1693年至1769年)

Annet was the author, among other works, of "Judging for Ourselves, or Freethinking the great Duty of Religion" (1739), "The Resurrection of Jesus Considered" (1744), "Supernatural Examined" (1747), and nine numbers of the "Free Inquirer" (1761). Annet是作者,在其他作品中,“为自己看,或者自由思想的伟大的宗教职务”(1739年),“耶稣复活的考虑”(1744),“超自然研究”(1747),和9个号码“免费问询报”(1761)。 In the second of these works he denies the resurrection of Christ and accuses the Holy Bible of fraud and imposture.在这些作品中的第二,他否认基督的复活,并指责欺诈和骗局的圣经。

Henry Dodged (d. 1748)亨利回避(卒于1748)

Dodged, who wrote "Christianity not Founded on Argument", is also generally reckoned, with Annet, as among the representative deists.躲开了,谁写的“基督教不成立参数”,也普遍估计,与Annet代表自然神论者之间,。(See GOD; PROVIDENCE; RATIONALISM; SCEPTICISM; THEISM.)(见上帝;普罗维登斯;理性主义;怀疑论。有神论)

Publication information Written by Francis Aveling.弗朗西斯Aveling编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Rick McCarty.转录由里克麦卡蒂。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.发布1908。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约



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