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The word dogma (Gr. dogma from dokein) signifies, in the writings of the ancient classical authors, sometimes, an opinion or that which seems true to a person; sometimes, the philosophical doctrines or tenets, and especially the distinctive philosophical doctrines, of a particular school of philosophers (cf. Cic. Ac., ii, 9), and sometimes, a public decree or ordinance, as dogma poieisthai.字教条(希腊语dokein教条),在古代的经典作家,有时,意见或这似乎是真实的一个人的著作,有时,哲学学说或原则,尤其是独特的哲学学说,标志着哲学家的特殊学校(参奇奇交流,二,9),有时,一个公共的法令或条例​​,作为教条poieisthai,。 In Sacred Scripture it is used, at one time, in the sense of a decree or edict of the civil authority, as in Luke, ii, 1: "And it came to pass, that in those days there went out a decree [edictum, dogma] from Caesar Augustus" (cf. Acts 17:7; Esther 3:3); at another time, in the sense of an ordinance of the Mosaic Law as in Eph., ii 15: "Making void the law of commandments contained in decrees" (dogmasin), and again, it is applied to the ordinances or decrees of the first Apostolic Council in Jerusalem: "And as they passed through the cities, they delivered unto them the decrees [dogmata] for to keep, that were decreed by the apostles and ancients who were at Jerusalem" (Acts 16:4).在圣经中,它是用来在同一时间,在一项法令或法令的民间机构的意识,在卢克,II,1:“它来传递,在那些日子里,出去了一项法令,[edictum教条]凯撒奥古斯都“(参徒17时07分;以斯帖记3:3);在其他时间,在镶嵌法的条例意识,在弗二15:”使无效的法律诫命载于法令“(dogmasin),再次,它是适用的条例或法令的第一使徒会在耶路撒冷:”因为他们通过城市的传递,他们对他们发表的法令[dogmata]保持,颁布的使徒和古人在耶路撒冷“(使徒16时04分)。 Among the early Fathers the usage was prevalent of designating as dogmas the doctrines and moral precepts taught or promulgated by the Saviour or by the Apostles; and a distinction was sometimes made between Divine, Apostolical, and ecclesiastical dogmas, according as a doctrine was conceived as having been taught by Christ, by the Apostles, or as having been delivered to the faithful by the Church.在早期教父的使用率普遍;指定作为教条教的教义和道德戒律或​​颁布的救世主或由使徒和区分,有时神,使徒和教会教条之间,根据作为一种学说被视为被教导基督的使徒,或为已交付由教会教友。

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But according to a long-standing usage a dogma is now understood to be a truth appertaining to faith or morals, revealed by God, transmitted from the Apostles in the Scriptures or by tradition, and proposed by the Church for the acceptance of the faithful.但根据一项长期的用法教条现在被理解为一个附属于信仰或道德,神启示的真理,在“圣经”或传统的使徒传播,以及由教会接受的忠实建议。 It might be described briefly as a revealed truth defined by the Church -- but private revelations do not constitute dogmas, and some theologians confine the word defined to doctrines solemnly defined by the pope or by a general council, while a revealed truth becomes a dogma even when proposed by the Church through her ordinary magisterium or teaching office.这可能是简要描述定义了一个由教会揭示的真理 - 但不构成私人启示教条,以及一些神学家局限于由教皇或总理事会隆重定义的学说定义的字,而揭示的真理变成教条即使教会通过她的普通训导或教学办公室提出。 A dogma therefore implies a twofold relation: to Divine revelation and to the authoritative teaching of the Church.因此,教条意味着一种双重关系:神的启示和教会的权威教学。

The three classes of revealed truths这三个类揭示的真理

Theologians distinguish three classes of revealed truths: truths formally and explicitly revealed; truths revealed formally, but only implicitly; and truths only virtually revealed.神学家区分三类揭示真理:真理正式明确地显示;真理正式透露,但只是含蓄;真理的唯一无形中显露。

A truth is said to be formally revealed, when the speaker or revealer really means to convey that truth by his language, to guarantee it by the authority of his word.说是一个真理正式透露,当扬声器或启示者真正的意思转达他的语言,真理,他的话的权威,以保证它。The revelation is formal and explicit, when made in clear express terms.启示是正式的和明确的,清晰的明示条款时。It is formal but only implicit, when the language is somewhat obscure, when the rules of interpretation must be carefully employed to determine the meaning of the revelation.它是正式的,但只是隐含的,当语言是有些模糊,解释规则时,必须仔细确定的启示意义。And a truth is said to be revealed only virtually, when it is not formally guaranteed by the word of the speaker, but is inferred from something formally revealed.和真相是说只透露实际上,当它不是正式由扬声器字保证,但是从一些正式透露推断。

Now, truths formally and explicitly revealed by God are certainly dogmas in the strict sense when they are proposed or defined by the Church.现在,正式并明确由神启示的真理,当然在严格意义上说,当他们提出,或由教会定义的教条。Such are the articles of the Apostles' Creed.这是使徒信经的文章。Similarly, truths revealed by God formally, but only implicitly, are dogmas in the strict sense when proposed or defined by the Church.同样,由上帝的真理透露正式,但只是含蓄,是严格意义上的建议或定义由教会的教条。 Such, for example, are the doctrines of Transubstantiation, papal infallibility, the Immaculate Conception, some of the Church's teaching about the Saviour, the sacraments, etc. All doctrines defined by the Church as being contained in revelation are understood to be formally revealed, explicitly or implicitly.这样,例如,由教会被定义为在启示录中所载的所有学说陷于变理论,教皇infallibility,圣母无原罪,一些教会的有关救主的教学,圣礼等被理解为正式透露,或明或暗地。 It is a dogma of faith that the Church is infallible in defining these two classes of revealed truths; and the deliberate denial of one of these dogmas certainly involves the sin of heresy.这是一个信仰的教条,教会是在揭示真理的定义这两个类的万无一失;和故意剥夺这些教条之一,当然涉及异端罪。There is a diversity of opinion about virtually revealed truths, which has its roots in a diversity of opinion about the material object of faith (see FAITH).有一个有关实际上揭示的真理多样性看来,其根源在于有关材料的信仰对象(信仰)的意见的多样性。It is enough to say here that, according to some theologians, virtually revealed truths belong to the material object of faith and become dogmas in the strict sense when defined or proposed by the Church; and according to others, they do not belong to the material object of faith prior to their definition, but become strict dogmas when defined; and, according to others, they do not belong to the material object of Divine faith at all, nor become dogmas in the strict sense when defined, but may be called mediately-Divine or ecclesiastical dogmas.这足以在这里说,根据一些神学家,实际上揭示的真理属于物质对象的信仰,成为严格意义上的定义时,或由教会提出的教条;,根据其他人,他们不属于材料成为信仰的对象,其定义之前,但严格的教条定义;,根据其他人,他们不属于神圣信仰,在所有的物质对象,也成为严格意义上的定义时的教条,但可称为mediately - 神或教会的教条。In the hypothesis that virtually revealed conclusions do not belong to the material object of faith, it has not been defined that the Church is infallible in defining these truths, the infallibility of the Church, however, in relation to these truths is a doctrine of the Church theologically certain, which cannot lawfully be denied -- and though the denial of an ecclesiastical dogma would not be heresy in the strict sense, it could entail the sundering of the bond of faith and expulsion from the Church by the Church's anathema or excommunication.在假说,实际上揭示的结论不属于物质对象的信仰,它并没有被定义,教会是在确定​​这些真理的​​万无一失,但是,教会犯错误,是一个学说在这些真理教会神学一定的,不能合法拒绝 - 和虽然拒绝一个教会的教条会不会是严格意义上的异端,它可能带来的信仰,并驱逐出教会的诅咒或逐出教会的教会可转换债券的天崩地裂。


The divisions of dogma follow the lines of the divisions of faith.教条的部门按照信仰的分裂线。 Dogmas can be (1) general or special; (2) material or formal; (3) pure or mixed; (4) symbolic or non-symbolic; (5) and they can differ according to their various degrees of necessity.可以(1)一般的或特殊的教条;(2)材料或正规;(3)纯或混合;(4)象征性或象征性的非;(5),他们可以有所不同,根据其不同程度的的必要性。

(1) General dogmas are a part of the revelation meant for mankind and transmitted from the Apostles; while special dogmas are the truths revealed in private revelations.(1)一般教条意味着人类从使徒传播的启示的一部分,而特殊的教条是私人启示中所揭示的真理。Special dogmas, therefore, are not, strictly speaking, dogmas at all; they are not revealed truths transmitted from the Apostles; nor are they defined or proposed by the Church for the acceptance of the faithful generally.因此,特别教条,不,严格来说,教条所有,它们不是从使徒传输揭示的真理,也不是他们定义的或普遍接受的忠实教会提出。

(2) Dogmas are called material (or Divine, or dogmas in themselves, in se) when abstraction is made from their definition by the Church, when they are considered only as revealed; and they are called formal (or Catholic, or "in relation to us", quoad nos) when they are considered both as revealed and defined. (2)教条所谓物质(或神,或教条本身,在SE)时的抽象是从他们的定义由教会,当他们被认为只作为显示;他们被称为正式的(或天主教,或“给我们“,quoad数)时,它们被认为是既作为发现和定义。 Again, it is evident that material dogmas are not dogmas in the strict sense of the term.再次,这是显而易见的材料教条不教条,在严格意义上的。

(3) Pure dogmas are those which can be known only from revelation, as the Trinity, Incarnation, etc.; while mixed dogmas are truths which can be known from revelation or from philosophical reasoning as the existence and attributes of God. (3)纯教条是那些只能从已知的启示,作为三位一体,化身,等等;而混合教条启示或从哲学的推理作为神的存在和属性,可称为真理。Both classes are dogmas in the strict sense, when considered as revealed and defined.两个类都在严格意义上的教条,当视为揭示和界定。

(4) Dogmas contained in the symbols or creeds of the Church are called symbolic; the remainder are non-symbolic.(4)在教会的符号或信条中包含的教条被称为象征性的,其余的是无符号。 Hence all the articles of the Apostles' Creed are dogmas -- but not all dogmas are called technically articles of faith, though an ordinary dogma is sometimes spoken of as an article of faith.因此,所有的使徒信经的文章教条 - 但并非所有的教条,被称为技术上信仰的文章,虽然有时口语的一篇文章的信仰是一个普通的教条。

(5) Finally, there are dogmas belief in which is absolutely necessary as a means to salvation, while faith in others is rendered necessary only by Divine precept; and some dogmas must be explicitly known and believed, while with regard to others implicit belief is sufficient. (5)最后,有教条的信仰中,作为手段,救恩是绝对必要的,而在其他的信仰是神圣的信条只有通过必要呈现;和一些教条,必须明确地知道和相信,同时考虑到其他隐含的信念是就足够了。


As a dogma is a revealed truth, the intellectual character and objective reality of dogma depend on the intellectual character and objective truth of Divine revelation.作为教条,是揭示真理,智慧的品格和客观现实的教条,取决于知识分子的品格和客观真理的神圣启示。We will here apply to dogma the conclusions developed at greater length under the heading of revelation.在这里,我们将适用于教条的启示的标题下的长度更大发展的结论,Are dogmas considered merely as truths revealed by God, real objective truths addressed to the human mind?仅仅视为神所启示的真理的教条,真正的客观真理人的心灵?Are we bound to believe them with the mind?我们必然相信他们的心灵?Should we admit the distinction between fundamental and non-fundamental dogmas?我们应该承认之间的根本利益和非基本教条区别?

(1) Rationalists deny the existence of Divine supernatural revelation, and consequently of religious dogmas.(1)理性主义者否认存在着神圣的超自然的启示,因此宗教教条。A certain school of mystics has taught that what Christ inaugurated in the world was "a new life".一个神秘主义的某些学校任教,基督在世界上开始“新生活”。The "Modernist" theory by reason of its recent condemnation calls for fuller treatment.其最近谴责的原因理论的“现代派”的要求更全面的治疗。There are different shades of opinion among Modernists.有现代主义之间的深浅不同的意见。Some of them do not, apparently, deny all intellectual value to dogma (cf. Le Roy, "Dogme et Critique").其中有些没有,显然,拒绝所有教条智力值(参见乐罗伊,“Dogme等批判”)。Dogma, like revelation, they say, is expressed in terms of action.教条,喜欢的启示,他们说,在行动方面表示。Thus when the Son of (God is said "to have come down from heaven", according to all theologians He did not come down, as bodies descend or as angels are conceived to pass from place to place, but the hypostatic union is described in terms of action. So when we profess our faith in God the Father, we mean, according to M. Le Roy, that we have to act towards God as sons; but neither the fatherhood of God, nor the other dogmas of faith, such as the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Resurrection of Christ, etc. imply of necessity any objective intellectual conception of fatherhood, Trinity, Resurrection, etc., or convey any idea to the mind. According to other writers, God has addressed no revelation to the human mind. Revelation, they say, began as a consciousness of right and wrong -- and the evolution or development of revelation was but the progressive development of the religious sense until it reached its highest level, thus far, in the modern liberal and democratic State. Then, according to these writers, the dogmas of faith, considered as dogmas, have no meaning for the mind, we need not believe them mentally; we may reject them -- it is enough if we employ them as guides for our actions. (See MODERNISM.) Over against this doctrine the Church teaches that God has made a revelation to the human mind. There are, no doubt, relative Divine attributes, and some of the dogmas of faith may be expressed under the symbolism of action, but they also convey to the human mind a meaning distinct from action. The fatherhood of God may imply that we should act towards Him as children towards a father -- but it also conveys to the mind definite analogical conceptions of our God and Creator. And there are truths, such as the Trinity, the Resurrection of Christ, His Ascension, etc. which are absolute objective facts, and which could be believed even if their practical consequences were ignored or were deemed of little value. The dogmas of the Church, such as the existence of God, the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Resurrection of Christ, the sacraments, a future judgment, etc. have an objective reality and are facts as really and truly as it a fact that Augustus was Emperor of the Romans, and that George Washington was first President of the United States.因此,当(上帝说:“有从天上降下来”,根据他并没有降下来,作为机构下降或天使的设想是通过从一个地方到另一个地方,但本质的联盟中描述的所有的神学家的儿子行动方面,当我们信奉上帝我们信仰的父亲,我们的意思是,根据M.乐罗伊,我们必须采取行动对神作为儿子,但既不是神的父亲,也没有其他信仰的教条,这样的作为三位一体,化身,基督的复活,等意味着任何客观的父亲的智力概念,三位一体,复活等的必要性,或者任何想法传达到心灵。据其他作家,上帝已经解决没有启示人的心灵启示,他们说,开始的正确和错误的的意识 - 的演变或发展的启示,但宗教意识的逐步发展,直到它达到了历史最高水平,迄今为止,现代自由主义,和然后,根据这些作家。民主国家,信仰的教条,教条认为,头脑没有意义,我们需要不相信他们的精神,我们可能会拒绝他们 - 这是不够的,如果我们聘请他们作为我们的指导行动。超过对这种学说教会的教导,神使一个人的心灵启示(见现代主义。)。毫无疑问,相对神的属性,和一些信仰的教条可能表示下行动的象征意义但他们也传达给人类心灵的含义行动不同的神的父亲,可能意味着作为对父亲的孩子,我们应该向他 - 但它也传递给我们的上帝和造物主心中类比观念。有真理,如三位一体,基督的复活,他的阿森松岛,等等,这是绝对的客观事实,可以相信他们的实际后果,即使被忽略或视为价值不大。教会的教条,如神的存在,三位一体,道成肉身,基督的复活,圣礼,未来的判断,等有一个客观的的现实和事实作为实实在在地作为一个事实,奥古斯都皇帝的罗马和乔治华盛顿是美国第一任总统。

(2) Abstracting from the Church's definition, we are bound to render to God the homage of our assent to revealed truth once we are satisfied that He has spoken. (2)从教会的定义抽象,我们一定会呈现上帝的顶礼膜拜,我们同意揭示的真理,我们对此感到满意,他曾一次。Even atheists admit, hypothetically, that if there be an infinite Being distinct from the world, we should pay Him the homage of believing His Divine word.即使是无神论者承认,假设,如果有无限被来自世界不同,我们应该付给他相信他的圣言的敬意。

(3) Hence it is not permissible to distinguish revealed truths as fundamental and non-fundamental in the sense that some truths, though known to have been revealed by God, may be lawfully denied. (3),因此,它是不允许的,为根本,在一些真理,虽然已被神所启示,可合法地拒绝感非基本区分揭示真理。But while we should believe, at least implicitly, every truth attested by the word of God, we are free to admit that some are in themselves more important than others, more necessary than others, and that an explicit knowledge of some is necessary while an implicit faith in others is sufficient.但同时我们应该相信,至少含蓄,每一个真理证明上帝的话,我们都是免费的承认,有些本身,比其他人更需要比别人更重要,一些显性知识是必要的,而一个隐在别人的信仰是足够的。


Revealed truths become formally dogmas when defined or proposed by the Church.定义或由教会提出时,揭示真理,成为正式的教条。There is considerable hostility, in modern times, to dogmatic religion when considered as a body of truths defined by the Church, and still more when considered as defined by the pope.在近代,有相当大的敌意,教条式的宗教视为一个由教会的定义真理的身体,还有更多的考虑时由教皇定义。The theory of dogma which is here expounded depends for its acceptance on the doctrine of the infallible teaching office of the Church and of the Roman pontiff.这里阐述的教条的理论,这是取决于其接受犯错的教学办公教会和罗马教皇的教义。It will be sufficient to notice the following points, (1) the reasonableness of the definition of dogma; (2) the immutability of dogma; (3) the necessity for Church unity of belief in dogma (4) the inconveniences which are alleged to be associated with the definition of dogma.这将是足够注意以下几点,(1)对被指控的不便教条的定义的合理性;(2)不可改变的教条;(3)教会教条的信仰(4)团结的必要性与教条的定义。

(1) Against the theory of interpretation of Scripture by private judgement, Catholics regard as absolutely unacceptable the view that God revealed a body of truths to the world and appointed no official teacher of revealed truth, no authoritative judge of controversy; this view is as unreasonable as would be the notion that the civil legislature makes laws and then commits to individual private judgment the right and the duty of interpreting the laws and deciding controversies. (1)对私人判断经文的解释理论,天主教徒视为上帝的真理世界的身体,并任命没有正式教师揭示的真理,没有争议的权威性法官绝对不能接受的观点,这种观点是不合理的作为会的概念,民事立法使法律,然后​​提交到个体私营判断的权利和责任的法律解释和决定的争议。 The Church and the supreme pontiff are endowed by God with the privilege of infallibility in discharge of the duty of universal teacher in the sphere of faith and morals; hence we have an infallible testimony that the dogmas defined and delivered to us by the Church are the truths contained in Divine revelation.教会和至高无上的教皇是上帝赋予的特权与infallibility在放电的老师普遍的信仰和道德领域中的责任;因此,我们有一个犯错的证言的定义和交付给我们教会的教条在神的启示中包含的真理。

(2) The dogmas of the Church are immutable.(2)教会的教条是不可改变的。Modernists hold that religious dogmas, as such, have no intellectual meaning, that we are not bound to believe them mentally, that they may be all false, that it is sufficient if we use them a guides to action; and accordingly they teach that dogmas are not immutable, that they should be changed when the spirit of the age is opposed to them, when they lose their value as rules for a liberal religious life.现代主义者举行宗教教条,因此,没有知识产权的意义,我们不是必然相信他们精神上,他们可全是假的,这是足够的,如果我们使用他们的行动指南;并据此他们教,教条都不是一成不变的,他们应该改变的时代精神,是反对他们时,当他们失去了自己的价值作为一个自由的宗教生活的规则。 But in the Catholic doctrine that Divine revelation is addressed to the human mind and expresses real objective truth, dogmas are immutable Divine truths.但在天主教教义,神的启示是人的心灵,并表示真正的客观真理,教条是不可改变的神圣真理。It is an immutable truth for all time that Augustus was Emperor of Rome and George Washington first President of the United States.这是一个不可改变的真理,奥古斯都皇帝的罗马和美国第一任总统乔治华盛顿的所有时间。So according to Catholic belief, these are and will be for all time immutable truths -- that there are three Persons in God, that Christ died for us, that He arose from the dead, that He founded the Church, that He instituted the sacraments.因此,根据天主教信仰,这些都将在任何时候都不可改变的真理 - 有3人在上帝,基督为我们死,他从死里出现,他创立的教会,他设立的圣礼。We may distinguish between the truths themselves and the language in which they are expressed.我们可以区分的真理本身,在他们所表达的语言。The full meaning of certain revealed truths has been only gradually brought out; the truths will always remain.某些揭示真理的全部意义才逐渐被带出的真理将永远留。Language may change or may receive a new meaning; but we can always learn what meaning was attached to particular words in the past.语言可能会改变或可能收到了新的含义,但我们​​总能知道什么意思,在过去特定的词。

(3) We are bound to believe revealed truths irrespective of their definition by the Church, if we are satisfied that God has revealed them. (3)我们一定会相信揭示的真理,不论其由教会的定义,如果我们确信神已经透露了​​他们。When they are proposed or defined by the Church, and thus become dogmas, we are bound to believe them in order to maintain the bond of faith.当他们提出或由教会的定义,从而成为教条,我们一定会相信他们,为了保持信仰的债券。(See HERESY).(异端)。

(4) Finally, Catholics do not admit that, as is sometimes alleged, dogmas are the arbitrary creations of ecclesiastical authority, that they are multiplied at will, that they are devices for keeping the ignorant in subjection, that they are obstacles to conversions. (4)最后,天主教不承认,有时据称,教条的教会权威的任意创作,他们是在将乘以,他们是隶属无知的设备,他们是要转换的障碍。Some of these are points of controversy which cannot be settled without reference to more fundamental questions.其中一些争议点不能更根本的问题没有解决。Dogmatic definitions would be arbitrary if there were no Divinely instituted infallible teaching office in the Church; but if, as Catholics maintain, God has established in His Church an infallible office, dogmatic definitions cannot be considered arbitrary.如果有没有神提起犯错教学办公室在教会教条式的定义,将任意的,但如果,作为天主教徒保持,神已经在他的教会建立一个犯错的办公室,教条式的定义不能被视为任意。 The same Divine Providence which preserves the Church from error will preserve her from inordinate multiplication of dogmas.同样神圣的普罗维登斯保留错误的教会,她将保留过多的教条乘法。She cannot define arbitrarily.她不能随意定义。We need only observe the life of the Church or of the Roman pontiffs to see that dogmas are not multiplied inordinately.我们只需要观察教会或罗马教宗的生活,看到教条不相称乘以。And as dogmatic definitions are but the authentic interpretation and declaration of the meaning of Divine revelation, they cannot be considered devices for keeping the ignorant in subjection, or reasonable obstacles to conversions, on the contrary, the authoritative definition of truth and condemnation of error, are powerful arguments leading to the Church those who seek the truth earnestly.而作为教条式的定义是但的正宗的解释和神的启示意义的宣言,他们不能视为服从,或转换合理障碍保持无知的设备,相反,,的真理和错误的谴责权威的定义,是教会那些寻求真理切实有力的论据。


It is sometimes charged that in the Catholic Church, in consequence of its dogmas, religious life consists merely in speculative beliefs and external sacramental formalities.它有时收费,在天主教教会,结果在其教条,宗教生活的组成仅仅是在投机性的信仰和外部圣礼手续。It is a strange charge, arising from prejudice or from lack of acquaintance with Catholic life.这是一个奇怪的收费,从偏见或缺乏熟人与天主教的生活所产生的。Religious life in conventual and monastic establishments is surely not a merely external formality. conventual和寺院机构的宗教生活是肯定不只是一个外在的形式上。The external religious exercises of the ordinary Catholic layman, such as public prayer, confession, Holy Communion, etc. suppose careful and serious internal self-examination and self-regulation, and various other acts of internal religion.普通天主教门外汉,如公开祈祷,忏悔,圣餐等外部宗教演习假设内部宗教内部的自我检查和自我调节,以及各种详细而认真的其他行为。 We need only to observe the public civic life of Catholics, their philanthropic works, their schools, hospitals, orphanages, charitable organizations, to be convinced that dogmatic religion does not degenerate into mere external formalities.我们只需要观察市民的公民生活的天主教徒,他们的慈善工作,他们的学校,医院,孤儿院,慈善机构,要相信教条式的宗教不沦为单纯的外部手续。 On the contrary, in non-Catholic Christian bodies a general decay of supernatural Christian life follows the dissolution of dogmatic religion.相反,在非天主教的基督教团体的超自然的基督徒生活的一般衰减如下解散的教条式的宗教。Were the dogmatic system of the Catholic Church, with its authoritative infallible head, done away with, the various systems of private judgment would not save the world from relapsing into and following pagan ideals.被免掉,其权威万无一失头,天主教的教条式的系统,私人判断的各项制度不会免于复发和异教徒的理想世界。Dogmatic belief is not the be-all and end-all of Catholic life; but the Catholic serves God, honours the Trinity, loves Christ, obeys the Church, frequents the sacraments, assists at Mass, observes the Commandments, because he believes mentally in God, in the Trinity, in the Divinity of Christ, in the Church, in the sacraments and the Sacrifice of the Mass, in the duty of keeping the Commandments, and he believes in them as objective immutable truths.教条是不是全部和最终所有天主教的生活,但天主教服务神,三位一体的荣誉,爱基督,服从教会,流连在地下的圣礼,助攻,遵守戒律,因为他认为弱智上帝,三位一体,基督的神性,在教会中的圣礼和牺牲的群众在遵守诫命的责任,他相信在他们作为不可改变的客观真理,。


But, it is objected, dogma checks investigation, antagonizes independence of thought, and makes scientific theology impossible.但是,它是反对,教条检查,调查,对抗独立思考,并使得科学神学是不可能的。This difficulty may be supposed to be put by Protestants or by unbelievers.这困难可能是应该是新教徒或由非信徒。We will consider it from both points of view.我们会考虑这两种观点。

(1) Beyond scientific investigation and freedom of thought Catholics recognize the guiding influence of dogmatic beliefs. (1)承认的教条式信念的指导的影响力,除了科学的调查和思想天主教徒自由。But Protestants also profess to adhere to certain great dogmatic truths which are supposed to impede scientific investigation and to conflict with the findings of modern science.但新教徒还宣称坚持以伟大的某些教条式的真理,这是为了阻碍科学调查,并与现代科学的研究结果相冲突。Old difficulties against the existence of God or its demonstrability, against the dogma of Creation, miracles, the human soul, and supernatural religion have been dressed in a new garb and urged by a modern school of scientists principally from the discoveries in geology, paleontology, biology, astronomy, comparative anatomy, and physiology.旧的困难,存在着对神或demonstrability反对教条,创造奇迹,人的灵魂,和超自然的宗教,一直穿着一个新的装束和现代学校的科学家主要来自地质学,古生物学的发现呼吁,生物学,天文学,比较解剖学和生理学。 But Protestants, no less than Catholics, profess to believe in God, in the Creation, in the soul, in the Incarnation, in the possibility of miracles; they too, maintain that there can be no discord between the true conclusions of science and the dogmas of the Christian religion rightly understood.但新教徒,不超过天主教徒,自称相信上帝,在创作中,在灵魂的化身,在创造奇迹的可能性,他们也保持可以有没有科学真实的结论和不和谐正确地理解基督教的教条。 Protestants, therefore, cannot consistently complain that Catholic dogmas impede scientific investigation.新教徒,因此,不能一贯抱怨说,天主教的教条,妨碍了科学的调查。But it is urged that in the Catholic system beliefs are not determined by private judgment, behind the dogmas of the Church there is the living bulwark of her episcopate.但它是敦促教会的教条,在天主教系统的信念不是由私人判断决定背后,有她的主教团的生活堡垒。True, behind dogmatic beliefs Catholics recognize ecclesiastical authority; but this puts no further restraint on intellectual freedom -- it only raises the question as to the constitution of the Church.诚然,教条式的信仰背后的天主教徒承认教会的权力,但这将没有知识自由的进一步限制 - 它不仅提高了教会的宪法问题。Catholics do not believe that God revealed a body of truths to mankind and appointed no living authority to unfold, to teach, to safeguard that body of Divine truths, to decide controversies; but the authority of the episcopate under the supreme pontiff to control intellectual activity is correlative with, and arises from their authority to teach supernatural truth.天主教徒不相信上帝揭示了真理的身体,对人类和任命没有生活的权力开展,教,以保障身体的神圣真理,决定争议,但根据权威至高无上的教宗的主教控制智力活动是相关的,并从他们的权力时教超自然的真理。 The existence of judges and magistrates does not extend the range of our civil laws -- they are rather a living authority to interpret and apply the laws.法官和治安法官的存在并没有扩大我国民事法律的范围内 - 而他们生活的权威解释和适用的法律。Similarly, episcopal authority has for its range the truth of revelation, and it prohibits only what is inconsistent with the full scope of that truth.同样,主教的权力,其范围的启示的真理,并禁止只什么是真理的全部范围不一致。

(2) In discussing the question with unbelievers we note that science is "the observation and classification, or co-ordination, of the individual facts or phenomena of nature".(2)在讨论与不信的问题,我们注意到,科学“的观察和分类,或协调的个别事实或自然现象”。Now a Catholic is absolutely free in the prosecution of scientific research according to the terms of this definition.现在天主教绝对是在检察机关的科研自由,根据这个定义的条款。There is no prohibition or restriction on Catholics in regard to the observation and co-ordination of the phenomena of Nature.是关于自然现象的观察和协调天主教徒没有禁止或限制。But some scientists do not confine themselves to science as defined by themselves.但一些科学家不自居的科学定义自己。 They propound theories often unwarranted by experimental observation.他们propound的理论常常无端通过实验观察。 One will maintain as a "scientific" truth that there is no God, or that His existence is unknowable -- another that the world has not been created; another will deny in the name of "science" the existence of the soul; another, the possibility of supernatural revelation.之一将保持作为“科学”的道理,没有神,或者说他的存在是不可知的 - 另一个世界尚未建立;另一个将拒绝在“科学”灵魂的存在的名称,另外,超自然的启示的可能性。Surely these denials are not warranted by scientific methods.当然,这些否认的科学方法,是不值得的。Catholic dogma and ecclesiastical authority limit intellectual activity only so far as may be necessary for safeguarding the truths of revelation.天主教教义和教会的权力限制智力活动,但只限于可能是为维护真理的启示是必要的。If non-believing scientists in their study of Catholicism would apply the scientific method, which consists in observing, comparing, making hypotheses, and perhaps formulating scientific conclusions, they would readily see that dogmatic belief in no way interferes with the legitimate freedom of the Catholic in scientific research, the discharge of civic duty, or any other form of activity that makes for true enlightenment and progress.如果不相信天主教研究的科学家将运用科学的方法,包括观察,比较,作出假设,并可能制定科学的结论,他们会很容易地看到,在没有办法的教条式的信仰与天主教的合法的自由干涉在科研中,履行公民义务或任何其他形式的活动,使得真正的启蒙和进步。 The service rendered by Catholics in every department of learning and of social endeavour, is a fact which no amount of theorizing against dogma can set aside.天主教徒在学习和社会事业的每一个部门所提供的服务,是一个事实没有反对教条的理论量可以预留。(See FAITH, INFALLIBILITY, REVELATION, SCIENCE, TRUTH.)(见信仰,犯错误,启示,科学性,真实性。)

Publication information Written by Daniel Coghlan.丹尼尔科格伦编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Gerard Haffner.转录由Gerard哈夫纳。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积五发布1909年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

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