Christian Fish Symbol基督教鱼象征

General Information一般资料

The plethora of symbols and attributes used by the Romans contrasted sharply to the few, simple images used by the early Christians, who had to be circumspect in the face of religious persecution.过多了鲜明的对比的几个简单的图像,用于早期的基督徒,曾在面对宗教迫害周到的罗马人所使用的符号和属性。 On sacramental cups, seals, and lamps the Holy Spirit was symbolized by a dove and Christ by a fish (perhaps because at the time fish was one of the elements of the sacred meal) or by a shepherd carrying a sheep on his shoulders (from Luke 15:3-7).在圣礼杯,密封件,灯具,圣灵的象征(从鱼鸽子和基督(也许是因为当时鱼是神圣的一餐的要素之一),或由一个牧羊人,他的肩上背着一只绵羊路加福音15:3-7)。 The Savior was also represented by a monogram formed by combining the Greek letters chi and rho (XP), the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ.救主也派代表出席的希腊字母池和Rho(XP),为基督的希腊字的前两个字母相结合,形成了会标。

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That monogram is also similar to the first Greek letters of the word fish.这会标也是类似的鱼字的第一个希腊字母。

Editor's Note: I heard an interesting speculation regarding this subject, but one which has no confirmation and probably no possible confirmation.编者按:我听到了一个有趣的的猜测,关于这个问题,但没有确认,并可能没有可能确认。The claim starts with the observation that when two strangers would meet, neither really knew if the other was a Christian or someone who might turn them in to the Roman soldiers to be immediately killed.索赔开始,当两个陌生人见面,既不是真正知道如果其他观察一个基督徒或某人可能反过来他们在罗马士兵立即死亡。And so either one might rather casually use their toe to fidget around, not drawing any special attention from any Romans who might be nearby.因此,人们可能会而随便使用自己的脚趾周围坐立不安,不画任何特别注意从任何罗马人可能是附近的。A person might then easily draw out the simple outline of a fish in the dust or dirt.然后一个人可能很容易地绘制出一个简单的轮廓中的灰尘或污垢的鱼。If the other person was NOT a Christian, they would not know what that meant and would simply attribute it to doodling.如果对方是不是一个基督徒,他们会不知道这意味着什么,只是属性来涂鸦。However, if the other person WAS a Christian, then the message would be passed.但是,如果对方是一个基督徒,那么消息将被传递。This seems credible because it seems one of the few possible reasonably safe ways to find out if others were Christians or not, in an environment where all Christians were expected to be killed as enemies.这似乎是可信的,因为它似乎几个可能的合理的安全的方式,找出如果其他基督徒或没有在所有基督徒都被敌人杀害的环境,的。

Symbolism of the Fish鱼的象征

Catholic Information天主教信息

Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish ranks probably first in importance.在受聘于原始的基督徒,鱼的行列,可能的重要性的第一个符号。While the use of the fish in pagan art as a purely decorative sign is ancient and constant, the earliest literary reference to the symbolic fish is made by Clement of Alexandria, born about 150, who recommends his readers (Paedagogus, III, xi) to have their seals engraved with a dove or a fish.鱼在异教艺术作为一个纯粹的装饰标志的使用,是古代和不断的,最早的文学参考的象征鱼是由克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,出生约150,建议他的读者(Paedagogus,三,十一)有其印章上刻有鸽子或一条鱼。 Clement did not consider it necessary to give any reason for this recommendation, from which it may be safely be inferred that the meaning of both symbols was unnecessary.克莱门特认为没有必要对这一建议给予任何理由,它可以被安全地推断出两个符号的含义是不必要的。Indeed, from monumental sources we know that the symbolic fish was familiar to Christians long before the famous Alexandrian was born; in such Roman monuments as the Capella Greca and the Sacrament Chapels of the catacomb of St. Callistus, the fish was depicted as a symbol in the first decades of the second century.的确,从不朽的来源,我们知道,象征性鱼类熟悉的基督徒之前,诞生了著名的亚历山大长;卡佩拉Greca和圣礼教堂的地下墓穴圣卡利斯图斯罗马古迹,鱼被描述为一个符号的第二个世纪的第一个十年。

The symbol itself may have been suggested by the miraculous multiplication of the loaves and fishes or the repast of the seven Disciples, after the Resurrection, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee (John 21:9), but its popularity among Christians was due principally, it would seem, to the famous acrostic consisting of the initial letters of five Greek words forming the word for fish (Ichthys), which words briefly but clearly described the character of Christ and His claim to the worship of believers: Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter, ie Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour.符号本身可能已经提议由神奇的乘法的面包和鱼或就餐的七个弟子,复活之后,在加利利(约翰福音21:9)海之滨,但其基督教徒之间的普及是由于主要是,它似乎,形成五个希腊字为鱼字(Ichthys),字简短,但很明显形容基督的品格和他的要求信徒崇拜的首字母组成的著名的离合词:Iesous克里斯托Theou Yios SOTER,即耶稣基督,上帝的儿子,救主。(See the discourse of Emperor Constantine, "Ad coetum Sanctorum" c. xviii.) It is not improbable that this Christian formula originated in Alexandria, and was intended as a protest against the pagan apotheosis of the emperors; on a coin from Alexandria of the reign of Domitian (81-96) this emperor is styled Theou Yios (Son of God). (见皇帝君士坦丁的话语,“广告coetum Sanctorum”三十八)这是不可能的,这个基督教的公式起源在亚历山大,并打算作为抗议反对异教神化皇帝;从亚历山大硬币多米提安统治(81-96)这个皇帝自称Theou Yios(上帝之子)。

The word Ichthys, then, as well as the representation of a fish, held for Christians a meaning of the highest significance; it was a brief profession of faith in the divinity of Christ, the Redeemer of mankind.字Ichthys,然后,以及基督徒的最高意义的意义举行了鱼,代表性;,这是一个简短的信仰界在基督,人类的救赎主神威。 Believers in this mystic Ichthys were themselves "little fishes", according to the well-known passage of Tertullian (De baptismo, c. 1): "we, little fishes, after the image of our Ichthys, Jesus Christ, are born in the water".在这神秘的Ichthys的信徒,自己是“小鱼”,根据著名的德尔图良的通道(德baptismo,C. 1):“小鱼,我们出生在后的形象,耶稣基督,我们的Ichthys水“。

The association of the Ichthys with the Eucharist is strongly emphasized in the epitaph of Abercius, the second century Bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia, and in the somewhat later epitaph of Pectorius of Autun.该协会与圣体圣事的Ichthys是极力强调在墓志铭Abercius,在弗里吉亚的希拉波利斯的第二个世纪主教,欧坦Pectorius有点迟​​墓志铭。 Abercius tells us on the aforesaid monument that in his journey from his Asiatic home to Rome, everywhere on the way he received as food "the Fish from the spring, the great, the pure", as well as "wine mixed with water, together with bread". Abercius告诉我们上述的丰碑,在他的旅程从他的亚洲家里罗马,无处不在的方式,他作为食品的“鱼从春天,伟大的,纯粹的”,以及“酒与水混合,再加与面包“。 Pectorius also speaks of the Fish as a delicious spiritual nurture supplied by the "Saviour of the Saints". Pectorius还谈到了“圣徒的救世主”提供美味的精神培育的鱼。In the Eucharistic monuments this idea is expressed repeatedly in the pictorial form; the food before the banqueters is invariably bread and fish on two separate dishes.在圣体圣事的纪念碑,这个想法是在图案的形式反复表达;前banqueters的食品往往是两个独立的菜的面包和鱼。 The peculiar significance attached to the fish in this relation is well brought out in such early frescoes as the Fractio Panis scene in the cemetery of St. Priscilla, and the fishes on the grass, in closest proximity to the baskets containing bread and wine, in the crypt of Lucina.附着在这种关系中的鱼是特殊的意义以及带来Fractio潘尼斯现场,在圣梁美芬墓地,并在草地上的鱼,如早期的壁画,在最接近篮子面包和酒,在蓝琼缨的地穴。 (See SYMBOLISM OF THE EUCHARIST.)(见圣体的象征意义。)

The fish symbol was not, however, represented exclusively with symbols of the Eucharist; quite frequently it is found associated with such other symbols as the dove, the anchor, and the monogram of Christ.然而,鱼象征,代表完全与圣体的象征;屡有发现与鸽派,锚,和基督的会标等其他符号。The monuments, too, on which it appears, from the first to the fourth century, include frescoes, sculptured representations, rings, seals, gilded glasses, as well as enkolpia of various materials.古迹,也,它的出现,从第一到第四世纪,包括壁画,雕塑交涉,戒指,密封件,镀金眼镜,以及各种材料enkolpia。 The type of fish depicted calls for no special observation, save that, from the second century, the form of the dolphin was frequently employed.没有特别观察鱼描绘调用的类型,保存的第二个世纪,海豚的形式频繁。The reason for this particular selection is presumed to be the fact that, in popular esteem, the dolphin was regarded as friendly to man.选择这个特殊的原因被推定为是,在流行的自尊心,海豚被视为友好的人。

Besides the Eucharistic frescoes of the catacombs a considerable number of objects containing the fish-symbol are preserved in various European museums, one of the most interesting, because of the grouping of the fish with several other symbols, being a carved gem in the Kircherian Museum in Rome.除了圣体墓穴壁画保存在欧洲各博物馆,最有趣的一个相当数量的对象包含鱼象征,因为鱼与其他几个符号进行分组,是一个刻在Kircherian博物馆的宝石在罗马举行。 On the left is a T-form anchor, with two fishes beneath the crossbar, while next in order are a T-form cross with a dove on the crossbar and a sheep at the foot, another T-cross as the mast of a ship, and the good shepherd carrying on His shoulders the strayed sheep.在左边是一个T形锚横梁下方有两个鱼,而为了未来与横梁上的鸽子和羊脚,另一船舶桅杆的T型交叉T形交叉,和好牧人在他肩上背着误入羊。 In addition to these symbols the five letters of the word Ichthys are distributed round the border.除了这些符号的五个字母的单词Ichthys分布一轮边界。Another ancient carved gem represents a ship supported by a fish, with doves perched on the mast and stern, and Christ on the waters rescuing St. Peter.另一个古代雕刻的宝石鱼支持船舶,桅杆和斯特恩,和基督栖息在水域挽救圣彼得的鸽子。

After the fourth century the symbolism of the fish gradually disappeared; representations of fishes on baptismal fonts and on bronze baptismal cups like those found at Rome and Trier, now in the Kircherian Museum, are merely of an ornamental character, suggested, probably by the water used in baptism.之后的第四个世纪的鱼的象征意义逐渐消失;洗礼字体和鱼,像那些发现在罗马和特里尔,现在在Kircherian博物馆的青铜洗礼杯的陈述,只是一种观赏性​​质的,建议可能由水,用于洗礼。

Publication information Written by Maurice M. Hassett.M.哈西特莫里斯编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Mary and Joseph P. Thomas.转录由玛利亚和约瑟夫托马斯。In memory of Elizabeth Kunneth The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.在伊丽莎白Kunneth天主教百科全书,第六卷的记忆。Published 1909.发布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

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