Forty Martyrs四十烈士

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A party of soldiers who suffered a cruel death for their faith, near Sebaste, in Lesser Armenia, victims of the persecutions of Licinius, who, after the year 316, persecuted the Christians of the East.他们的信仰遭受残酷的死亡,近Sebaste次级亚美尼亚,李锡尼的迫害的受害者,谁后,一年316,东迫害的基督徒,一个士兵的党。 The earliest account of their martyrdom is given by St. Basil, Bishop of Caesarea (370-379), in a homily delivered on the feast of the Forty Martyrs (Hom. xix in PG, XXXI, 507 sqq.).他们殉难的最早的帐户是由圣罗勒,凯撒利亚主教(370-379),在讲道四十烈士的盛宴(在PG Hom.十九,三十一,507 SQQ。)交付使用。

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The feast is consequently more ancient than the episcopate of Basil, whose eulogy on them was pronounced only fifty or sixty years after martyrdom, which is thus historic beyond a doubt.因此超过古代罗勒,主教团的悼词上,他们只有五六十年后殉难,因此,这是毫无疑问的历史明显的盛宴。According to St. Basil, forty soldiers who had openly confessed themselves Christians were condemned by the prefect to be exposed naked upon a frozen pond near Sebaste on a bitterly cold night, that they might freeze to death.据圣罗勒,第四士兵曾公开交待自己的基督徒谴责由知府被暴露后,冰冻的池塘附近Sebaste赤裸在一个寒冷的夜晚,他们可能会被冻死。 Among the confessors, one yielded and, leaving his companions, sought the warm baths near the lake which had been prepared for any who might prove inconstant.在忏悔,之一取得,离开他的同伴,寻求温暖浴池已准备对任何可能证明见异思迁湖附近。One of the guards set to keep watch over the martyrs beheld at this moment a supernatural brilliancy overshadowing them and at once proclaimed himself a Christian, threw off his garments, and placed himself beside the thirty-nine soldiers of Christ.保持对烈士的手表设置的警卫看见一种超自然的光芒盖过了他们在这一刻,曾经自称是基督徒,挣脱他的衣服,并把自己放在旁边基督第三九级战士。 Thus the number of forty remained complete.因此四十数量保持完整。At daybreak, the stiffened bodies of the confessors, which still showed signs of life, were burned and the ashes cast into a river.天一亮,师,仍表现出生命的迹象,僵硬的尸体被烧毁,而骨灰铸造成河。The Christians, however, collected the precious remains, and the relics were distributed throughout many cities; in this way the veneration paid to the Forty Martyrs became widespread, and numerous churches were erected in their honour.的基督徒,但是,​​收集了珍贵的遗迹,文物分布各地的许多城市,以这种方式支付四十烈士的敬仰,成为广泛,和许多教堂被竖立在他们的荣誉。 One of them was built at Caesarea, in Cappadocia, and it was in this church that St. Basil publicly delivered his homily.其中之一是建在caesarea,在Cappadocia,在这个教堂是圣罗勒公开发表了他的讲道。St. Gregory of Nyssa was a special client of these holy martyrs.圣格雷戈里的nyssa是一个特殊的客户端,这些神圣的烈士。Two discourses in praise of them, preached by him in the church dedicated to them, are still preserved (PG, XLVI, 749 sqq., 773 sqq.) and upon the death of his parents, he laid them to rest beside the relics of the confessors.两个话语在他们的赞美,鼓吹他在教会奉献给他们的,仍然保留(PG,四十六,749 SQQ,773 SQQ。)和他的父母去世后,他奠定了他们休息文物旁忏悔。St. Ephraem, the Syrian, has also eulogized the forty Martyrs (Hymni in SS. 40 martyres).圣Ephraem,叙利亚,也歌颂第四烈士(在SS Hymni 40 martyres)。Sozomen, who was an eye-witness, has left us (Hist. Eccl., IX, 2) an interesting account of the finding of the relics in Constantinople through the instrumentality of the Empress Pulcheria. Sozomen,谁是目击证人,已经离开了我们(Hist.传道书,第九,2)通过工具皇后Pulcheria在君士坦丁堡的文物的发现的一个有趣的帐户。 Special devotion to the forty martyrs of Sebaste was introduced at an early date into the West.被介绍到西方的早日特别的献身的Sebaste第四烈士。St. Gaudentius, Bishop of Brescia in the beginning of the fifth century (d. about 410 or 427), received particles of the ashes of martyrs during a voyage in the East, and placed them with other relics in the altar of the basilica which he had erected, at the consecration of which he delivered a discourse, still extant (PL, XX, 959 sqq.) Near the Church of Santa Maria Antiqua, in the Roman Forum, built in the fifth century, a chapel was found, built, like the church itself, on an ancient site, and consecrated to the Forty Martyrs.圣Gaudentius,主教在第五世纪初(约410或427 D.),布雷西亚期间收到航行在东烈士骨灰的颗粒,并在大殿的祭坛,他们与其他文物他竖立在其中,他发表了话语,尚存附近的圣玛丽亚Antiqua教堂(特等,XX,959 SQQ),在罗马广场,建于五世纪的奉献,发现一个小教堂,建像教会本身,一个古老的网站上,奉献给四十烈士。A picture, still preserved there, dating from the sixth or seventh century, depicts the scene of the martyrdom.的图片,仍保留在那里,从第六或第七世纪约会,描绘殉难现场。The names of the confessors, as we find them also in later sources, were formerly inscribed on this fresco.忏悔者的姓名,因为我们在以后的来源,他们还发现,以前刻在此壁画。Acts of these martyrs, written subsequently, in Greek, Syriac and Latin, are yet extant, also a "Testament" of the Forty Martyrs.这些烈士的行为,书面随后,希腊,叙利亚和拉丁美洲,但现存的,也是“旧约”四十烈士。Their feast is celebrated in the Greek, as well as in the Latin Church, on 9 March.庆祝他们的盛宴,是在希腊,以及在拉丁美洲教会,在3月9日。

Publication information Written by JP Kirsch.JP基尔希编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Mary and Joseph P. Thomas.转录由玛利亚和约瑟夫托马斯。In memory of Father Joseph Paredom The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.在记忆的父亲约瑟夫Paredom天主教百科全书,第六卷。 Published 1909.发布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约



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