Hebron希伯伦

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

1. 1。

A city of Asher, properly "Ebron"; called also Abdon.城市的灰粉,正确“Ebron”;也称为阿夫东。

2. 2。

A town in Palestine, about 17 miles southwest of Jerusalem; it has a population of 14,000, including 1,100 Jews—690 Sephardim and 410 Ashkenazim.镇在巴勒斯坦,耶路撒冷西南约17英里;有14000人口,其中包括1100犹太人- 690 Sephardim和410德系犹太人。In 1890 there was a Jewish population of 1,490, but it has been diminishing.1890年有一个犹太人,1490人口,但它已经递减。 Most of the Jews still live in a ghetto surrounded by walls, and known in Spanish as "El Cortijo" (the court).犹太人的大多数人仍然生活在四周的墙壁,并在西班牙被称为“厄尔尼诺Cortijo”(法院)的贫民窟。It consists of a maze of narrow and dark passages, into which the doorways open at distances of not more than three feet.它由一个狭窄,黑暗的走廊的迷宫,进入其中的门道不超过3英尺的距离开放。In ancient times Hebron was known as "Kirjath-arba," after its reputed founder, Arba, father of the Anakim (Josh. xiv. 15, xxi. 11).But according to modern exegetes the name is equivalent to the "city of the four."希伯伦在古代被称为“Kirjath阿尔巴,”后被誉为创始人,阿尔巴,Anakim(约书亚记十四15,二十一世纪11)的父亲,但根据现代注释者的名称是“城市四个。“ The patriarch Abraham resided at Hebron (Gen. xiii. 18, xiv. 13, xviii. 1, xxiii. 2), and purchased a cave known as the "Double Cave," where Sarah was buried.族长亚伯拉罕居住在希伯伦(将军第十三18,十四13,十八1,XXIII 2),并购买了一个山洞称为“双洞”,莎拉被埋葬的地方。Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Leah were afterward buried there (see Machpelah).亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各,利亚后来被葬在那里(见Machpelah)。Jacob went from Hebron to Egypt (Gen. xxxvii. 14, xlvi. 1); the spies visited the city (Num. xiii. 22).雅各从希伯伦埃及(创三十七14,四十六1。);间谍走访了市内(民数记十三22)。In the time of Joshua, Hoham, King of Hebron, was captured there and put to death by the Israelites. Hoham,希伯伦国王,在约书亚的时候,是有捕获,并把以色列人死亡。Hebron and its territory were at first given to Caleb (Josh. xiv. 6 et seq. , xv. 13; Judges i. 20), and then to the Levites of the family of Kohath; it ultimately became one of the six cities of refuge (Josh. xx. 7).希伯伦和在其领土迦勒(约书亚记第十四,十五及以下 6 13。法官一20)的第一,然后哥辖族的利,它最终成为六个城市之一避难(约书亚记XX 7)。David lived there until the conquest of Jerusalem, and was there anointed as king (II Sam. ii. 1, 11; iii. 2 et seq. ; v. 1 et seq. ).大卫住在这里,直到征服耶路撒冷,并在那里受膏为王(二萨姆II 1,11;。III 2 等以下;诉 1 等SEQ)。Absalom's revolt began there (II Sam. xv. 9 et seq. ); Rehoboam fortified the city (II Chron. xi. 10).押沙龙的起义开始,(二山姆第十五9 及以下。);罗波安设防城市(II专栏第十一10。)。

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Hebron was one of the towns which possessed a Jewish community after the return from Babylon (Neh. xi. 25), but the Idumeans appear to have afterward acquired it, since they were expelled by Judas Maccabeus (I Macc. v. 65).希伯伦是从巴比伦(尼十一25)。,回归后拥有一个犹太社区的乡镇之一,但Idumeans出现有后来收购它,因为它们是由犹大Maccabeus(我MACC。诉65)驱逐出境。 Occupied by the Romans, it was taken by Simon, son of Gioras, one of the leaders of the insurrection; but the Roman general Cerealis retook it by storm, killed the garrison, and burned the city (Munk, "La Palestine," p. 57).它是由罗马人占领,采取Gioras,起义的领导人之一的儿子西门,但罗马将军禾谷再拿风暴,杀死了驻军,并烧毁的城市(芒克,“香格里拉巴勒斯坦,”P 57段)。Jews did not inhabit Hebron after the destruction of the Temple, nor under the Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, or Crusaders.犹太人不居住在圣殿被毁后,希伯伦,也不是根据罗马人,拜占庭人,阿拉伯人,或十字军。Benjamin of Tudela found only a single Jew (1171) at St. Abraham, as Hebronwas called by the Crusaders.图德拉本杰明发现只有在圣亚伯拉罕的犹太人(1171),由十字军所谓Hebronwas。He asserts, however, that the Church of St. Abraham had been a synagogue under the Turkish rule.然而,他声称,圣亚伯拉罕教堂已被土耳其统治下的犹太教堂。Forty years later R. Samuel bar Shimshon, who explored Palestine in 1209, makes no mention of Jews in Hebron.40年后,巴勒斯坦,探讨在1209 R.塞缪尔酒吧Shimshon,没有提到在希伯伦的犹太人。

The Modern Community.现代社区。

Local tradition attributes the foundation of the modern community to Malkiel Ashkenazi (1450?), in whose honor a service is held every year on the anniversary of his death.当地的传统属性的现代社会的基础,以德系马尔基尔(1450),在其荣誉服务是在他去世一周年举行每年。(Azulai, "Shem ha-Gedolim," p. 88).(Azulai,“闪公顷Gedolim,”第88页)。Fifty years afterward, however, it was difficult to form a "minyan" (quorum).然而,50年之后,这是难以形成一个“民谚”(法定人数)。 The following were chief rabbis of Hebron: Israel Ẓebi (1701-31); Abraham Castel (1757); Aaron Alfandari (1772); Mordecai Ruvio ( c. 1785); David Melamed ( c. 1789); Eliakim (end of 18th cent.); Ḥayyim ha-Levi Polacco ( c. 1840); Hai Cohen (1847-52); Moses Pereira (1852-64); Elia Sli-.下面分别希伯伦:以色列Ẓebi(1701至1731年);亚伯拉罕卡斯特(1757年);亚伦Alfandari(1772);末底改Ruvio(公元前1785年);大卫梅拉梅德公元前1789年);以利亚敬(18%的首席拉比);ḤayyimHA -列维Polacco(公元前1840年);海科恩(1847年至1852年);摩西佩雷拉(1852年至1864年);埃利亚SLI。 man Mani(1864-78); Raḥamim Joseph Franco (1878-1901); Hezekiah Medini (former chief rabbi of Karasu-Bazar in the Crimea; known as the "Ḥakam Bashi Wakili"; acting chief rabbi since 1901).男子玛尼(1864年至1878年);Raḥamim约瑟夫佛朗哥(1878年至19​​01年);希西家Medini(卡拉苏 - 扎尔前首席拉比在克里米亚;称为“哈卡姆巴士Wakili”自1901年以来,署理首席拉比)。

Hebron possesses four synagogues within the ghetto and four batte ha-midrash without.希伯伦拥有内的犹太区和4个充电电池公顷,米德拉士四个犹太教堂没有。The oldest synagogue, that of Abraham Abinu, is supposed to date back three centuries.最古老的犹太教堂,亚伯拉罕Abinu,应该是可以追溯到三个世纪。It was restored in 1738 and enlarged in 1864.它是在1738年恢复,并在1864年扩大。The others are Keneset Eliyyah Mani (like the former, Sephardic), and two Ashkenazic.其他Keneset Eliyyah玛尼(像前,瑟底犹太人),和两个Ashkenazic。There are three yeshibot, the oldest having been founded by Israel Ẓebi (d. 1731); the second was formed by the union of four older yeshibot.有三个yeshibot,最古老的以色列Ẓebi(卒于1731年)成立;第二次是由工会四个旧yeshibot形成。 It possesses the library of Vivas, a native of Leghorn, and is very rich in Spanish works.维瓦斯,一个土生土长的里窝那它拥有的图书馆,并在西班牙的作品是非常丰富。Hebron possesses four Talmud Torahs for Sephardim and one for Ashkenazim.希伯伦拥有四个Sephardim犹太法典Torahs和德系犹太人之一。There are three mutual-aid societies and a free dispensary.有三个互助的社会和免费取药。The Sephardic community is administered by the chief rabbiand a council of seven members; the Ashkenazic by the chief rabbi and a council of three.瑟底犹太人社区的管理工作由行政rabbiand的七名成员组成的理事会,由首席拉比和理事会的三个Ashkenazic。 Most of the Jews are supported by the "ḥaluḳḳah," but there are a few carpenters and shoemakers.大多数犹太人都支持“ḥaluḳḳah,”但也有几个木匠和鞋匠。Among the antiquities are the Double Cave, revered by the Mohammedans; the ruins of Abraham's house; the tombs of Gad, Nathan the prophet, Abner (David's commander-in-chief), and others.在古物双洞,由伊斯兰教尊敬;亚伯拉罕的房子的废墟;迦墓葬,先知拿单,押尼珥(大卫的统帅),和其他人。The modern name of the town is Al-Khalil (lit. "the friend" [ ie , of God], a name by which Abraham was known; comp. Isa. xli. 8).现代名镇哈利勒(字面“朋友”[ 神],其中被称为亚伯拉罕的名称;。比赛伊萨XLI 8) 。

Numerous rabbinical authors have lived at Hebron, including Elijah de Vidas (1525), author of "Reshit Ḥokmah"; Solomon Edni (1622), author of "Meleket Shelomoh"; Moses ha-Levi (1668), author of "Yede Mosheh"; Israel Ẓebi (1731), author of "Urim Gedolim"; Abraham Conque (1740), author of "Abaḳ Derakim"; Ḥayyim Abraham Israel Ẓebi (1776), author of "Be'er Mayim Ḥayyim"; Aaron Alfandari (1772), author of "Yad Aharon" and "Merkebet ha-Mishneh"; Mordecai Ruvio (1785), author of "Shemen ha-Mor"; Judah Divan (1792), author of "Zibḥe Shelamim"; Elijah Sliman Mani (d. 1878), author of "Kisse Eliyahu"; Raḥamim Joseph Franco (d. 1901), author of "Sha'are Raḥamim"; Hezekiah Medini, author of "Sedeh Ḥemed."许多拉比作家住在希伯伦,包括VIDAS利亚的,“ReshitḤokmah”的作者(1525),所罗门Edni(1622),“Meleket Shelomoh”的作者;摩西公顷 - 利维(1668),“噎得Mosheh”的作者以色列Ẓebi(1731),“乌陵Gedolim”的作者;亚伯拉罕Conque,“AbaḳDerakim”作者(1740);Ḥayyim亚伯拉罕以色列Ẓebi(1776年),“Be'er MayimḤayyim”的作者;亚伦Alfandari(1772) ,“屠杀阿哈”和“Merkebet公顷Mishneh”;末底改Ruvio(1785),“Shemen HA - MOR”的作者;犹大合集(1792年),“ZibḥeShelamim”的作者;利亚Sliman玛尼(D. 1878年的作者),“Kisse埃利亚胡”的作者;Raḥamim约瑟夫佛朗哥(卒于1901年),“Sha'areRaḥamim”作者“。SedehḤemed”Medini希西家,作者

Bibliography 参考书目
Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim ;Azulai, 闪公顷Gedolim;
Hazan, Ha-Ma'alot li-Shelomoh , Alexandria, 1889;Hazan, 夏Ma'alot李Shelomoh,亚历山大,1889年;
S. Munk, La Palestine , Paris;S.芒克, 拉巴勒斯坦 ,巴黎;
Benjamin II., Acht Jahre in Asien und Afrika ;本杰明第二,Acht Jahre在Asien和非洲“;
Abraham Ḥayyim Penso, Minḥat Ḳena'ot , Jerusalem, 1879;亚伯拉罕ḤayyimPenso,MinḥatḲena'ot,耶路撒冷,1879年;
Luncz, Jerusalem , 1895-1901.Luncz, 耶路撒冷 ,1995至01年。

M. Franco M.佛朗哥
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。

3. 3。

Third son of Kohath, son of Levi and founder of the Levitic family, the Hebronites (Ex. vi. 18; Num. iii. 19, 27; xxvi. 58).三是哥辖的儿子,儿子利维和创始人的Levitic家庭,希伯伦(出18 VI;。数三19日,27日;。XXVI 58)。The Hebronites are often mentioned in the enumerations of the Levites, under the name either of "Ha-Ḥebroni" (Num. iii. 27, xxvi. 58; I Chron. xxvi. 23, 30, 31) or of "Bene-Ḥebron" (I Chron. xv. 9, xxiii. 19).希伯伦是经常提到的在利枚举下的“哈Ḥebroni”(民数记三27,二十六58。。我专栏XXVI 23,30,31)的名称或“BENE -希伯伦“(我专栏十五,九,二十三19)。In the time of David the chief of the Hebronites was called Jeriah (I Chron. xxiii. 19, and elsewhere).在大卫在希伯伦被称为行政Jeriah(我专栏XXIII。19日,和其他地方)。In the fortieth year of David's reign the Hebronites were settled at Jazer in Gilead, of whom 2,700 mighty men were appointed by the king superintendents over the two and one-half tribes, and 1,700, under Hashahiah, held similar positions on the west of the Jordan ( ib. xxvi. 30, 31).的大卫王朝的第四十届今年的希伯伦定居在雅谢基列,其中2700强大的男人委任的王警司的两个和一个半部落,和1700以上,根据Hashahiah,西部相似的立场约旦( 同上 XXVI 30,31)。

4. 4。

One of the tribe of Judah, a descendant of Caleb ( ib. ii. 42, 43)犹大支派,迦勒的后裔(ib.二42,43 )

Gotthard Deutsch, M. Franco, Emil G. Hirsch, M. Seligsohn圣哥达德语,M.弗朗哥,埃米尔G.赫希,M. Seligsohn
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。



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