Heresies described by the Second Ecumenical Council - 381 AD异端邪说所描述的第二次大公会议 中文 - Zhong Wen

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by Henry R. Percival, MA, DD由亨利R.波斯富街,MA,DD

The Second Ecumenical Council, which was also the First Council of Constantinople, in 381 AD, condemned a number of competing concepts regarding Christianity.第二届大公会议,这也是第一届理事会君士坦丁堡,公元381,谴责一些关于基督教的竞争概念。This following discussion is excerpted from the full BELIEVE presentation of that Council .这下面的讨论是充分相信介绍说,安理会摘自。

Excursus on the Heresies Condemned in Canon I.附记上一佳能谴责异端

In treating of these heresies I shall invert the order of the canon, and shall speak of the Macedonian and Apollinarian heresies first, as being most nearly connected with the object for which the Constantinopolitan Synod was assembled.在处理这些歪理邪说,我会反转佳能为了,并发言马其顿和Apollinarian异端邪说的第一个最为接近Constantinopolitan主教组装的对象连接,。

The Semi-Arians, Macedonians or Pneumatomachi.半亚利安,马其顿或Pneumatomachi。

Peace indeed seemed to have been secured by the Nicene decision but there was an element of discord still extant, and so shortly afterwards as in 359 the double-synod of Rimini (Ariminum) and Selencia rejected the expressions homousion and homoeusion equally, and Jerome gave birth to his famous phrase, "the world awoke to find itself Arian."和平确实似乎已抵押尼西亚的决定,但有一个不和谐尚存的元素,所以不久之后,在359里米尼(Ariminum)和Selencia双主教会议拒绝表达式homousion和homoeusion同样,和杰罗姆了出生到他的那句名言,“世界醒来发现自己阿里安。” The cause of this was the weight attaching to the Semi-Arian party, which counted among its numbers men of note and holiness, such as St. Cyril of Jerusalem.这个原因是附加到半阿里安党,其数量男人的注意和圣洁,如圣西里尔耶路撒冷,算重量。Of the developments of this party it seems right that some mention should be made in this place, since it brought forth the Macedonian heresy.本党的发展,它似乎是正确的,有些提到应在这个地方,因为它带来了马其顿异端。

(Wm. Bright, DD, St. Leo on the Incarnation, pp. 213 et seqq.) (Wm.明亮,副署长,圣利奥的化身,第213等seqq。)

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The Semi-Arian party in the fourth century attempted to steer a middle course between calling the Son Consubstantial and calling him a creature.在第四世纪的半阿里安党试图带领一个调用之间的儿子同质,称他是一个生物的中间路线。Their position, indeed, was untenable, but several persisted in clinging to it; and it was adopted by Macedonius, who occupied the see of Constantinople.事实上,他们的立场,是站不住脚的,但有几个坚持死守; Macedonius,谁占领了君士坦丁堡通过。It was through their adoption of a more reverential language about the Son than had been used by the old Arians, that what is called the Macedonian heresy showed itself.它是通过采用更虔诚的语言有关的儿子比已经由老亚利安,什么是所谓的马其顿异端显示。Arianism had spoken both of the Son and the Holy Spirit as creatures.阿里乌斯教曾发言的两个子和圣灵作为生物。The Macedonians, rising up out of Semi-Arianism, gradually reached the Church's belief as to the uncreated majesty of the Son, even if they retained their objection to the homoousion as a formula.马其顿人,上升了,半阿里乌斯教,逐步达到以自存陛下的儿子教会的信仰,即使他们保留了他们的反对homoousion公式。 But having, in their previously Semi-Arian position, refused to extend their own "homoiousion" to the Holy Spirit, they afterwards persisted in regarding him as "external to the one indivisible Godhead," Newman's Arians, p.不过,在他们以前的半阿里安立场,拒绝延长自己的“homoiousion”圣灵,他们事后坚持在关于他为“外部的一个不可分割的神格,”纽曼的亚利安页 226; or as Tillemont says (M ém. vi., 527), "the denial of the divinity of the Holy Spirit was at last their capital or only error." (第六。Mém.,527)226;或Tillemont说,“否定圣灵的神性是在去年的资本或唯一的错误。”St. Athanasius, while an exile under Constantius for the second time, "heard with pain," as he says (Ep. i. ad Serap., 1) that "some who had left the Arians from disgust at their blasphemy against the Son of God, yet called the Spirit a creature, and one of the ministering spirits, differing only in degree from the Angels:" and soon afterwards, in 362, the Council of Alexandria condemned the notion that the Spirit was a creature, as being "no true avoidance of the detestable Arian heresy."圣athanasius,而下康斯坦丘斯的第二次流亡,“听着疼痛,”他说(插曲一,广告小型企业研究资助计划,1)表示,“一些曾留在他们的亵渎,对儿子从厌恶的arians神,但所谓的精神生物,和服事的精神之一,仅在从天使程度不同:“不久​​,在362,亚历山大理事会作为被谴责的精神是一个生物的概念,”可恨的亚略异端没有真正的避税行为。“ See "Later Treatises of St. Athanasius," p.“圣athanasius后来的论文,”第5.5。Athanasius insisted that the Nicene Fathers, although silent on the nature of the Holy Spirit, had by implication ranked him with the Father and the Son as an object of belief (ad Afros, 11).亚他那修坚持尼西亚的父亲,虽然沉默,圣灵的性质暗示排名父与子他作为信仰的对象“(公元Afros 11)。After the death of St. Athanasius, the new heresy was rejected on behalf of the West by Pope Damasus, who declared the Spirit to be truly and properly from the Father (as the Son from the Divine substance) and very God, "omnia posse et omnia nosse, et ubique esse," coequal and adorable (Mansi, iii., 483).圣athanasius死亡后,新的异端被驳回代表的西方,由罗马教皇达玛斯,谁宣布的精神真正从父(从神圣的物质的儿子),很有神,“OMNIA波塞OMNIA nosse,等ubique ESSE“,和可爱的同等(曼西,III,483)。The Illyrian bishops also, in 374, wrote to the bishops of Asia Minor, affirming the consubstantiality of the Three Divine Persons (Theodoret, HE, iv., 9).伊利里亚主教,在374,写信给小亚细亚的主教,肯定同体的三个神圣的人“(Theodoret,HE,四,9)。St. Basil wrote his De Spiritu Sancto in the same sense (see Swete, Early History of the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit, pp. 58, 67), and in order to vindicate this truth against the Pneumatomachi, as the Macedonians were called by the Catholics, the Constantinopolitan recension of the Nicene Creed added the words, "the Lord and the Life-giver, proceeding from the Father, with the Father and the Son worshipped and glorified" etc., which had already formed part of local Creeds in the East.圣罗勒写在同样的意义(见Swete,早期历史的学说圣灵,第58,67)他Spiritu Sancto,并以平反这对Pneumatomachi真相,马其顿被称为是由天主教徒,尼西亚Constantinopolitan校订补充说:“与父上帝和生命者,从父,子崇拜和荣耀”的话,等,已形成当地信仰的一部分东。

From the foregoing by Canon Bright, the reader will be able to understand the connexion between the Semi-Arians and Pneumatomachi, as well as to see how the undestroyed heretical germs of the Semi-Asian heresy necessitated by their development the condemnation of a second synod.从上述佳能明亮,读者将能够理解之间的半决赛,亚利安和Pneumatomachi联接,以及如何未销毁半亚洲异端邪教的细菌,它们的发展需要的第二个主教谴责。

The Apollinarians.该Apollinarians。

(Philip Schaff, in Smith and Wace, Dict. Christ. Biog., sv Apollinaris.)(菲利普沙夫,在史密斯和WACE,快译通。基督。Biog。SV Apollinaris。)

Apollinaris was the first to apply the results of the Nicene controversy to Christology proper, and to call the attention of the Church to the psychical and pneumatic element in the humanity of Christ; but in his zeal for the true deity of Christ, and fear of a double personality, he fell into the error of a partial denial of his true humanity. Apollinaris是第一次申请尼西亚争论的结果,基督正确的,并呼吁教会在基督的人性,心理和气动元件的注意,但在基督的真神,他的热情和恐惧双重人格,他陷入了错误的部分拒绝了他的真实的人性。 Adopting the psychological trichotomy of Plato (soma psuche, pneuma), for which he quoted 1.采用心理三分法柏拉图(SOMA psuche,元气),他引用了1个。Thess.帖撒罗尼迦后书。v. 23 and Gal.五,23和Gal。 v. 17, he attributed to Christ a human body (soma) and a human soul (the psuche alogos, the anima animans which man has in common with the animal), but not a rational spirit (nous, pneuma, psuche logike, anima rationalis,) and put in the place of the latter the divine Logos.17节,他归因于基督人体(SOMA)和一个人的灵魂(psuche alogos,人与动物共同的灵魂animans)的,但不是一个理性精神(臭氧,元气,psuche logike,灵魂rationalis),并在后者的神圣标志的地方。In opposition to the idea of a mere connection of the Logos with the man Jesus, he wished to secure an organic unity of the two, and so a true incarnation; but he sought this at the expense of the most important constituent of man.反对一个与该男子耶稣的标志仅仅是连接的想法,他希望,以确保两者有机统一,这样一个真实的化身,但他试图在牺牲的人最重要的组成部分。 He reached only a Theos sarkophoros as Nestorianism only an anthropos theophoros instead of the proper theandrotos .他达到了只有一个THEOS sarkophoros景教只是一个anthropos theophoros,而不是正确的theandrotos。He appealed to the fact that the Scripture says, "the Word was made flesh"--not spirit; "God was manifest in the flesh" etc. To which Gregory Nazianzen justly replied that in these passages the term sarx was used by synecdoche for the whole human nature.他呼吁事实上,圣经说,“在道成了肉身” - 没有精神;“神在肉体清单”等格雷戈里Nazianzen理直气壮地回答说,在这些通道长期sarx提喻用于整个人类的天性。In this way Apollinaris established so close a connection of the Logos with human flesh, that all the divine attributes were transferred to the human nature, and all the human attributes to the divine, and the two merged in one nature in Christ. Apollinaris建立在这样如此接近的人肉的标志连接,所有的神的属性转移到人的本性,和所有的人类神圣的属性,和两个合并在一个在基督的性质。 Hence he could speak of a crucifixion of the Logos, and a worship of his flesh.因此,他能说一个钉在十字架上的标志,和崇拜他的肉。 He made Christ a middle being between God and man, in whom, as it were, one part divine and two parts human were fused in the unity of a new nature.他做了基督的神与人之间的一个中间,谁,因为它是在一个新的性质统一融合,神圣的一部分和人类两部分。He even ventured to adduce created analogies, such as the mule, midway between the horse and the ass; the grey colour, a mixture of white and black; and spring, in distinction from winter and summer.他甚至大胆地援引创建类比,如骡,马和驴之间的中间;灰色,白色和黑色的混合;和春季,冬季和夏季的区别。Christ, said he, is neither whole man, nor God, but a mixture (mixis) of God and man.基督,他说,既不是完整的人,也不是神,但神和人的混合物(mixis)。On the other hand, he regarded the orthodox view of a union of full humanity with a full divinity in one person--of two wholes in one whole--as an absurdity.另一方面,他认为正统观点的一个完整的人类在一个人的神学的联盟 - 在一个整体的两个整体 - 荒谬。He called the result of this construction anthropotheos , a sort of monstrosity, which he put in the same category with the mythological figure of the Minotaur.他呼吁本建设anthropotheos,一个怪物的排序与神话人物的牛头怪,这是他在同一类别的结果。But the Apollinarian idea of the union of the Logos with a truncated human nature might be itself more justly compared with this monster.但一个被截断的人性的标志联盟Apollinarian想法可能是自己与这个庞然大物相比,更公正。 Starting from the Nicene homoousion as to the Logos, but denying the completeness of Christ's humanity, he met Arianism half-way, which likewise put the divine Logos in the place of the human spirit in Christ.从尼西亚homoousion标识,但否认基督的人性的完整性,他会见了阿里乌斯教中途,同样把神圣的标识,在基督里的人文精神的地方。 But he strongly asserted his unchangeableness, while Arians taught his changeableness (treptotes).但他极力宣称他unchangeableness,而亚利安教他的changeableness(treptotes)。

The faith of the Church revolted against such a mutilated and stunted humanity of Christ which necessarily involved also a merely partial redemption.教会的信仰起兵反对这种肢解和发育不良基督的人性,这必然涉及的也仅仅是部分赎回。The incarnation is an assumption of the entire human nature, sin only excluded.的化身,是整个人性的假设,罪只排除。The ensarkosis is enanthropesis. ensarkosis是enanthropesis。To be a full and complete Redeemer, Christ must be a perfect man (teleios anthropos).要全面和完整的救赎,基督必须是一个完美的人(teleios anthropos)。The spirit or rational soul is the most important element in man, his crowning glory, the seat of intelligence and freedom, and needs redemption as well as the soul and the body; for sin has entered and corrupted all the faculties.的精神或理性的灵魂,是最重要的男子,他的至高无上的荣耀,情报和自由座位的元素,以及灵魂和身体的需求,赎回;为罪已进入和损坏的所有院系。

In the sentence immediately preceding the above Dr. Schaff remarks "but the peculiar Christology of Apollinaris has reappeared from time to time in a modified shape, as isolated theological opinion."紧接在句子以上的博士沙夫言论“,但Apollinaris奇特的基督再现不时在修改后的形状作为孤立的神学意见。” No doubt Dr. Schaff had in mind the fathers of the so-called "Kenoticism" of to-day, Gess and Ebrard, who teach, unless they have been misunderstood, that the incarnate Son had no human intellect or rational soul (nous) but that the divine personality took its place, by being changed into it.毫无疑问,沙夫博士记天,Gess和Ebrard任教,所谓的“Kenoticism”的父亲,除非他们被人误解,肉身的儿子已经没有人类的智力或理性的灵魂(臭氧)神圣的个性了,但它的位置,它改变。 By this last modification, they claim to escape from the taint of the Apollinarian heresy.这最后的修改,他们声称摆脱Apollinarian异端的污点。[229][229]

The Eunomians or Anomoeans.Eunomians或Anomoeans。

(Bright, Notes on the Canons, Canon I. of I. Const.)(明亮,注意事项的大炮,佳能一常量的一。)

"The Eunomians or Anomoeans."“Eunomians或Anomoeans。”These were the ultra-Arians, who carried to its legitimate issue the original Arian denial of the eternity and uncreatedness of the Son, while they further rejected what Arius had affirmed as to the essential mysteriousness of the Divine nature (Soc., HE, iv., 7; comp. Athan., De Synod., 15).这些超亚利安,其合法的问题进行原始的永恒和儿子uncreatedness阿里安拒绝,同时,他们进一步拒绝什么阿里乌斯了肯定的神圣性的必不可少的神秘性(Soc.,何,四,7。比赛Athan,德主教,15)。 Their founder was A ëtius, the most versatile of theological adventurers (cf. Athan., De Synod., 31; Soc., HE, ii., 45; and see a summary of his career in Newman's Arians, p. 347); but their leader at the time of the Council was the daring and indefatigable Eunomius (for whose personal characteristics, see his admirer Philostorgius, x., 6).其创始人是Aëtius,最多才多艺的神学冒险家(参见Athan,德主教,31。。SOC,二,45;和纽曼的亚利安看到了他的职业生涯的总结,第347页)但他们在理事会的领导者的勇敢和不屈不挠的Eunomius(的个人特点,看到他的崇拜者Philostorgius,X,6)。 He, too, had gone through many vicissitudes from his first employment as the secretary of A ëtius, and his ordination as deacon by Eudoxius; as bishop of Cyzicus, he had been lured into a disclosure of his true sentiments, and then denounced as a heretic (Theod., HE, ii., 29); with A ëtius he had openly separated from Eudoxius as a disingenuous time-server, and had gone into retirement at Chalcedon (Philostorg., ix., 4).他也经历了许多沧桑,从他Aëtius局长的第一次就业,和他协调Eudoxius作为主祭;主教Cyzicus,他已成为一个公开自己的真实情感的诱惑,然后谴责邪教(Theod.,II,29);与Aëtius他曾公开分开作为一个虚伪的时间服务器Eudoxius,已经退休了,在迦克墩(Philostorg.,IX,4)。 The distinctive formula of his adherents was the "Anomoion."他的追随者的独特配方是“Anomoion。”The Son, they said, was not "like to the Father in essence"; even to call him simply "like" was to obscure the fact that he was simply a creature, and, as such, "unlike" to his Creator.他们说,儿子,是不是“想在本质上的父亲”,甚至给他打电话,仅仅是“喜欢”是为了掩盖这一事实,他只是一个生物,和,正因为如此,“不像”他的创造者。 In other words, they thought the Semi-Arian "homoiousion" little better than the Catholic "homoousion": the "homoion" of the more "respectable" Arians represented in their eyes an ignoble reticence; the plain truth, however it might shock devout prejudice, must be put into words which would bar all misunderstanding: the Son might be called "God," but in a sense merely titular, so as to leave an impassable gulf between him and the uncreated Godhead (see Eunomius's Exposition in Valesius's note on Soc., HE, v., 10).换句话说,他们认为半阿里安“homoiousion”只不过是天主教的“homoousion”更好:“homoion”的更卑鄙的沉默,在他们眼中的“可敬的”代表亚利安;明显的事实,但它可能会冲击虔诚成话这会吧所有的误解偏见,必须把:的儿子可能被称为“上帝”,但在一个意义上只是名义上的,所以作为以离开他和的自存的神性之间的一个不可逾越的鸿沟(见Eunomius的Valesius的说明博览会上SOC,他诉,10)。 Compare Basil (Epist., 233, and his work against Eunomius), and Epiphanius (Hær., 76).比较罗勒(Epist.,233,​​和他对Eunomius工作),和埃皮法尼乌斯(Hær. 76)。

The Arians or Eudoxians.的arians或Eudoxians。

(Bright. Ut supra.)(Bright. UT段。)

"The Arians or Eudoxians."“的arians或Eudoxians。”By these are meant the ordinary Arians of the period, or, as they may be called, the Acacian party, directed for several years by the essentially worldly and unconscientious Eudoxius.这些都意味着这一时期的普通亚利安,或因为它们可能会被调用,Acacian党的指示,几年来基本上是世俗和unconscientious Eudoxius。His real sympathies were with the Anomoeans (see Tillemont, M émoires, vi., 423, and compare his profane speech recorded by Socrates, HE, ii., 43): but, as a bishop of Constantinople, he felt it necessary to discourage them, and to abide by the vague formula invented by Acacius of Cæsarea, which described the Son as "like to the Father," without saying whether this likeness was supposed to be more than moral (cf. Newman, Arians, p. 317), so that the practical effect of this "homoion" was to prepare the way for that very Anomoeanism which its maintainers were ready for political purposes to disown.他真正的同情与Anomoeans(看到Tillemont,Mémoires,六,423,和比较,他的亵渎讲话记录苏格拉底,HE II,43。):但是,作为君士坦丁堡的主教,他认为有必要阻止他们,并遵守Acacius的cæsarea,描述为“如父,”不说这个肖像是否应该是道德(参见纽曼,亚利安,第317页以上的儿子发明了模糊的公式),使本“homoion”的实际效果,准备为政治目的而准备断绝它的维护者,非常Anomoeanism的方式。

The Sabellians.Sabellians。

(Bright. Ut supra.)(Bright. UT段。)

"The Sabellians," whose theory is traceable to Noetus and Praxeas in the latter part of the second century: they regarded the Son and the Holy Spirit as aspects and modes of, or as emanations from, the One Person of the Father (see Newman's Arians, pp. 120 et seqq.). “Sabellians”的理论溯源Noetus和后期的第二个世纪Praxeas:他们认为的儿子和方面和的模式圣灵,或从,的父一人化身(见纽曼亚利安,第120等seqq。)。 Such a view tended directly to dissolve Christian belief in the Trinity and in the Incarnation (Vide Wilberforce, Incarnation, pp. 112, 197).这种观点往往直接溶解在基督教信仰三位一体的化身(韦迪威尔伯福斯,道成肉身,第112,197)。Hence the gentle Dionysius of Alexandria characterised it in severe terms as involving "blasphemy, unbelief, and irreverence, towards the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit" (Euseb., HE, vii. 6).因此,亚历山大的温柔修斯的特点,在严重的方面,它涉及的“的亵渎,不信,和不敬,对父亲,儿子,和圣灵”(Euseb.,HE七 6)。Hence the deep repugnance which it excited, and the facility with which the imputation of "Sabellianizing" could be utilised by the Arians against maintainers of the Consubstantiality (Hilary, De Trinit., iv., 4; De Synod., 68; Fragm., 11; Basil, Epist., 189, 2).因此,深层的反感,很兴奋,对维护者的同体的arians(希拉里,Trinit,四,4归集“Sabellianizing”可以利用的设施;。德主教,68; Fragm。 ,第11条;罗勒,Epist,189,2)。。No organized Sabellian sect was in existence at the date of this anathema: but Sabellian ideas were "in the air," and St. Basil could speak of a revival of this old misbelief (Epist., 126).无组织的Sabellian节是在这诅咒的日期存在,但Sabellian的想法是“在空中”,和圣罗勒复兴这个老misbelief(Epist. 126)发言。We find it again asserted by Chilperic I., King of Neustria, in the latter part of the sixth century (Greg. Turon., Hist. Fr., v., 45).我们发现希尔佩里克一,天幕毛虫国王再次宣称,在六世纪后期的一部分(Greg. Turon,组织胺。神父,五,45),。

The Marcellians.Marcellians。

(Bright. Ut supra.)(Bright. UT段。)

"The Marcellians," called after Marcellus bishop of Ancyra, who was persistently denounced not only by the Arianizers, but by St. Basil, and for a time, at least, suspected by St. Athanasius (Vide Epiphan., Hær., 72, 4) as one who held notions akin to Sabellianism, and fatal to a true belief in the Divine Sonship and the Incarnation. “的Marcellians,”所谓的后马塞勒斯主教安该拉,坚持不仅在Arianizers谴责,但由圣罗勒和今后一个时期,至少涉嫌圣athanasius(见Epiphan。Hær,72 4)作为一个人举行类似于Sabellianism,在神圣Sonship和化身的真实的信仰和致命的观念。The theory ascribed to him was that the Logos was an impersonal Divine power, immanent from eternity in God, but issuing from him in the act of creation, and entering at last into relations with the human person of Jesus, who thus became God's Son.理论归功于他的标识是一个非人格的神圣权力,内在​​在神永恒的,但发行从他创作的行为,并进入到关系最后的耶稣人类的人,谁因此成为神的儿子。 But this expansion of the original divine unity would be followed by a "contraction," when the Logos would retire from Jesus, and God would again be all in all.但这种原始的神圣团结的扩张之后,将“收缩”的标识时,将退休从耶稣,神将再次成为这一切的一切。Some nine years before the council, Marcellus, then in extreme old age, had sent his deacon Eugenius to St. Athanasius, with a written confession of faith, quite orthodox as to the eternity of the Trinity, and the identity of the Logos with a pre-existing and personal Son, although not verbally explicit as to the permanence of Christ's "kingdom,"--the point insisted on in one of the Epiphanian-Constantinopolitan additions to the Creed (Montfaucon, Collect. Nov., ii., 1).理事会,马塞勒斯大约九年前,然后在极端的晚年,曾派他的执事叶夫根尼圣athanasius,书面供认的信仰,相当正统的三位一体的永恒,并与身份标识Epiphanian Constantinopolitan增加预现有的和个人的儿子,虽然没有口头明确,以基督的“王国” - 点的持久坚持的信条(Montfaucon,收集11二,1。 )。The question whether Marcellus was personally heterodox--ie whether the extracts from his treatise, made by his adversary Eusebius of Cæsarea, give a fair account of his real views--has been answered unfavourably by some writers, as Newman (Athanasian Treatises, ii., 200, ed. 2), and D öllinger (Hippolytus and Callistus, p. 217, ET p. 201), while others, like Neale, think that "charity and truth" suggest his "acquittal" (Hist. Patr. Antioch., p. 106).马塞勒斯是否亲自异端的问题 - 即是否从他的论文,他的对手尤西比乌斯的cæsarea,提取了他的真实看法的公平帐户 - 已回答逊色一些作家,如纽曼(阿他那修论文,二200版2),并多林格(希波吕托斯和卡利斯图斯,第217页,ET第201页),而另一些,像尼尔一样,认为“慈善和真理”表明他的“无罪释放”(Hist. Patr安提阿,第106页)。Montfaucon thinks that his written statements might be favourably interpreted, but that his oral statements must have given ground for suspicion. Montfaucon认为可能是有利的解释,他的书面陈述的,但必须有怀疑的地面,他的口头陈述。

The Photinians.Photinians。

(Bright. Ut supra. )(Bright. UT段。)

"The Photinians," or followers of Marcellus's disciple Photinus, bishop of Sirmium, the ready-witted and pertinacious disputant whom four successive synods condemned before he could be got rid of, by State power, in ad 351. “Photinians,”或马塞勒斯的弟子Photinus的追随者,主教西锡尔米乌姆,其中连续四个主教谴责之前,他可以得到摆脱,在公元351国家权力,现成的机智和执拗的争论者。 (See St. Athanasius's Historical Writings, Introd. p. lxxxix.) In his representation of the "Marcellian" theology, he laid special stress on its Christological position--that Jesus, on whom the Logos rested with exceptional fulness, was a mere man. (见圣athanasius的历史著作,Introd第lxxxix)在他的“Marcellian”神学的代表,奠定了他特别强调,对基督的位置 - 耶稣,其中标识与特殊的丰满休息,是一个单纯的男子。See Athanasius, De Synodis, 26, 27, for two creeds in which Photinianism is censured; also Soc.亚他那修,德Synodis,26,27,见两个信条,其中Photinianism谴责;也SOC。HE ii., 18, 29, 30; vii., 32.何II,18,29,30;七,32。There is an obvious affinity between it and the "Samosatene" or Paulionist theory.和“Samosatene”或Paulionist理论之间有一个明显的亲和力。


[229] The theological views of Gess and Ebrard I know only from the statements of them in writers on the subject of the Incarnation, especially from those made by the Rev. AB Bruce, D D., Professor at Free Church College, Glasgow, in his work "The Humiliation of Christ." [229] Gess和Ebrard的神学观点,我知道只有在主题上的化身,特别是从那些AB牧师布鲁斯,D四,在格拉斯哥自由教会学院,教授,作家,他们的发言,在他的著作“基督的屈辱。” (Lecture IV.) The following passage (cited by Dr. Bruce) seems to prove his contention so far as Gess is concerned.(讲座IV。)的下面这段话(引博士布鲁斯)到目前为止Gess而言,似乎证明他的论点。"Dass eine wahrhaft menschliche Seele in Jesu war, versteht sich f ür und von selbt: er war ja sonst kein wirklicher Mensch. Aber die Frage ist, ob der in's Werden eingegangene Logos selbst diese menschliche Seele, oder ob neben dem in's Werden eingegangenen Logos noch eine becondere menschliche Seele in Jesu war?"“达斯eine wahrhaft menschliche SEELE Jesu战争,versteht SICH献给和冯selbt:ER战争JA sonst kein wirklicher门施ABER死Frage IST,OB中的DER Werden eingegangene图案selbst diese menschliche SEELE,奥德OB neben DEM的Werden eingegangenen徽标noch eine becondere menschliche SEELE Jesu战争吗?“ (Gess. Die Lehre vd Person Christi, ii. p. 321.) Bruce understands Gess to teach that "The only difference between the Logos and a human soul was, that he became human by voluntary kenosis, while an ordinary human soul derives its existence from a creative act." (Gess.模具Lehre VD人斯蒂,二,第321页。)布鲁斯理解Gess教“的标志和一个人的灵魂之间唯一的区别是,他成为人类自愿kenosis,而一个普通的人类灵魂的派生其从创意行为的存在。“ (And refers to Gess, ut supra, p. 325 et seqq.) For Ebrard's view, see his Christliche Dogmatik, ii., p. (指Gess,UT斯达康前,第325页等seqq。)对于Ebrard的观点,看到他的Christliche Dogmatik,二,第40.40。Ritschl dubbed the whole kenotic theory as "Versch ämter Socinianismus."里奇尔称为“Verschämter Socinianismus整个kenotic理论。”

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