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In discussing this term and its meaning, reference must be had to the cognate expressions, idealist, idealized, ideal (adjective), and the ideal (noun), all of which are derived from the Greek idéa.在讨论这一术语,其含义,必须参考了同语族词句,唯心的,理想化的,理想的(形容词),理想的(名词),所有这一切都是从希腊的想法出来。 This signifies "image", "figure, "form": it can be used in the sense of "likeness", or "copy" as well as in that of "type", "model", or "pattern": it is this latter sense that finds expression in "ideal", and "the ideal" and the derivatives are mentioned above. In speaking of "the ideal", what we have in mind is not a copy of any perceptible object, but a type. The artist is said to "idealize" his subject when he represents it as a fairer, nobler, more perfect than it is in reality.这标志着“形象”,“图”,形成“:它可以在意义上使用的”肖像“,或”复制“以及在”类型“,”模式“,或”模式“:它是这后一种意义上,发现在“理想”和“理想”和衍生工具表达上述“理想”的发言,我们心目中是没有任何可察觉的对象的副本,但一个类型。艺术家说,“理想化”,他的主题时,他所代表的一个更公平,更高尚,更完美,比它在现实中是。

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Idealism in life is the characteristic of those who regard the ideas of truth and right, goodness and beauty, as standards and directive forces.生活中的理想主义是那些把真理和权利,善,美的思想,标准和指导部队的特点。This signification betrays the influence of Plato, who made idea a technical term in philosophy.这个意义背叛了柏拉图思想在哲学上的技术术语的影响。According to him the visible world is simply a copy of a supersensible, intelligible, ideal world, and consequently "things" are but the impress stamped on reality by that which is of a higher, spiritual nature.据他介绍可见的世界仅仅是一个超感觉,理解,理想的世界副本,并因此“东西”,但加盖提出了更高的,精神的本质是对现实的印记。 Platonism is the oldest form of idealism, and Plato himself the progenitor of idealists.柏拉图是唯心主义的最古老的形式,和柏拉图自己的理想主义者祖。It is usual to place in contrast Plato's idealism and Aristotle's realism; the latter in fact denies that ideas are originals and that things are mere copies; he holds that the essence is intelligible, but that it is immanent in the things of nature, whereas it is put into the products of art.通常以相反的地方柏拉图的唯心主义和亚里士多德的现实主义,后者实际上否定这一想法是原件和事情仅仅副本;他认为,本质是可理解的,但内在自然界的事物,而它投入的艺术产品。 It is more correct, therefore, to call his teaching an immanent idealism as contrasted with the transcendental idealism of Plato.这是比较正确的,因此,打电话给他的教学的一种内在的理想主义,与先验唯心主义的柏拉图对比。Both these thinkers reveal the decisive influence of that moral and æsthetic idealism which permeated Greek life, thought, and action; but for both, what lies deepest down in their philosophy is the conviction that the first and highest principle of all things is the one perfect spiritual Being which they call God, and to which they lead back, by means of intermediate principles--essence and form, purpose and law--the multifarious individual beings of the visible world.这些思想家都揭示了决定性的影响,道德和审美的理想主义,洋溢着希腊的生活,思想和行动,但为,什么谎言最深的下降在他们的哲学是一切事物的第一和最高原则,是一个完美的信念,即精神被他们称之为神,他们领回来通过中间的原则 - 实质和形式,目的和法律 - 可见的世界五花八门个别人。In this sense idealism is dualism, ie the doctrine of a higher spiritual principle over against that which is lower and material; and this doctrine again is clearly opposed to the monism which would derive the higher and the lower alike out of one and the same All-being.在这个意义上说是唯心主义的二元论,即比对,这是较低和材料提出了更高的精神原则的学说,这种学说再次是明确反对将获得更高,出一个较低的一致好评,并在同一的一元论福祉。 This older idealism teaches, not that there is One-All, but that there is an alpha and omega, ie a supermundane Cause and End, of the world.这旧的唯心主义的教导,不就是有一个,但有一个alpha和欧米茄,即一个非现世的原因和结束,世界。By means of its principles, idealism maintains the distinctness of God and the world, of the absolute and finite, yet holds them together in unity; it adjusts the relations between reality and knowledge, by ascribing to things dimension, form, purpose, value, law, at the same time securing forethought the requisite certainty and validity; it establishes objective truth in the things that are known and subjective truth in the mind that knows them.通过其原则,理想主义保​​持上帝和世界的独特性,拥有绝对的和有限的,但团结在一起,它调整的现实和知识之间的关系,所指称事物的尺寸,形式,目的,价值,法律规定,在同一时间深谋远虑必要的确定性和有效性;建立在已知的和知道他们在头脑中的主观真理的东西客观真理。 In this sense the Schoolmen teach that forma dat esse et distingui, ie the principle which formally constitutes the object, likewise, in the act of cognition, informs the mind.在这个意义上Schoolmen教备考DAT ESSE等distingui,即正式的对象构成的原则,同样,在认知行为,通知头脑。Inasmuch as its principles express the cause and purpose of things, their determinate nature and value, idealism unites the speculative and the ethical, the true and the good, moral philosophy and the philosophy of nature.由于其原则表示事物的原因和目的,其确定的性质和价值,理想主义团结的投机性和道德,真正的和良好的道德哲学和自然哲学。

In this sense St. Augustine developed the Platonic teaching, and in his philosophy is idealism in the genuine meaning of the term.从这个意义上说,圣奥古斯丁开发柏拉图式的教学,并在他的哲学是唯心主义一词的真正含义。From him comes the definition of ideas which Christian philosophy has since retained: "Ideas are certain original forms of things, their archetypes, permanent and incommunicable, which are contained in the Divine intelligence. And though they neither begin to be nor cease, yet upon them are patterned the manifold things of the world that come into being and pass away. Upon these ideas only the rational soul can fix its gaze, endowed as it is with the faculty which is its peculiar excellence, ie mind and reason [mente ac ratione], a power, as it were, of intellectual vision; and for such intuition that soul only is qualified which is pure and holy, ie, whose eye is normal, clear, and well adjusted to the things which it would fain behold" (De diversis quaest., Q. xlvi, in PL, XL, 30).从他的思想的定义,基督教哲学,因为保留:“创意是某些原始形式的东西,他们的原型,永久和incommunicable,这是在神圣的情报中,虽然他们既不是开始,也没有停止,还没有。他们是图案应运而生,并通过了世界的多方面的事情。基于这些想法,只有理性的灵魂,因为它可以修复它​​的眼光,赋予这是其特有的卓越的教师,即头脑和理性mente交流的理由,电源,因为它是,知识产权的眼光;这种直觉的灵魂,不仅是合格的,是纯洁和神圣的,也就是说,他的眼睛是正常的,明确的,调整的东西,它会fain看哪“( diversis quaest,在PL,XL,30,问:XLVI)。

This line of thought the Scholastics adopted, developing it in their treatises as ideology.这种思路的scholastics通过在他们的论文作为意识形态,发展。Their theory is described not as idealism, but as realism; but this does not imply that they are in conflict with the doctrine of Augustine; it means rather that the ideal principles possess real validity, that as ideas they subsist in the Divine mind before the things corresponding to them are called into existence, while, as forms and essences, they really exist in nature and are not really products of our thinking.他们的理论是不作为唯心主义,但作为现实主义的,但是这并不意味着他们在与奥古斯丁的教义有冲突,这意味着相当理想的原则,具有真实有效性,作为思想,他们在神的心中前存在的他们被称为存在的事情,同时,形式和本质,他们真的存在于自然界,是不是真的我们的思想的产物。 In this last-named sense, ie, as subjective constructions, ideas had long before been regarded by the philosophers of antiquity and especially by the Stoics, who held that ideas are nothing else than mental representation.在这个最后的命名的意义,即作为主观的建设,思想早就被视为由古代哲学家,特别是斯多葛派,他们认为,思想是没有别的比心理表征。 This erroneous and misleading view appeared during the Middle Ages in the guise of nominalism, a designation given to the system whose adherents claimed that our concepts are mere names (nomina), which have as their counterparts in the world of reality individual things, but not forms or essences or purposes.这种错误的和误导性的的观点出现在中世纪的唯名论的幌子,系统,其追随者声称,我们的概念是单纯的名称(nomina),作为他们在现实的个别事物的世界,但不指定形式或本质或目的。 This opinion, which robs both science and moral principles of their universal validity, and which paves the way for Materialism and agnosticism, was combated by the leaders of Scholasticism--Anselm of Canterbury, Albertus Mangus, Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventure, and Duns Scotus--nevertheless, from the fourteenth century onwards, it had its champions and propagators, notably William of Occam.这一意见,剥夺了科学和道德原则的普遍有效性,并铺平了唯物主义和不可知论的方式,打击士林的领导人 - 坎特伯雷,阿尔伯图斯Mangus,托马斯阿奎那,文德,和邓司各脱安瑟伦 - 然而,从14世纪起,它的冠军和传播者,特别是奥卡姆的威廉。For the untrained mind it was easier to consider individual things as the only realities and to regard forms and essences as purely mental products.对于未受过训练的的头脑,它是作为唯一的现实考虑个人的事情,作为纯粹的精神产品,并把形式和本质。

So it came to pass that the word idea in various languages took on more and more the meaning of "representation", "mental image", and the like.因此,它来传递,在各种语言的单词的想法发生在越来越多的“代表权”的含义,“心理图像”,并像。Hence too, there was gradually introduced the terminology which we find in the writings of Berkeley, and according to which idealism is the doctrine that ascribes reality to our ideas, ie our representations, but denies the reality of the physical world.因此太,逐步引入的术语,我们在大学伯克利分校的著作中找到,并按照理想主义的学说,我们的想法归结现实,即我们的交涉,但否认对物理世界的现实。 This sort of idealism is just the reverse of that which was held by the philosophers of antiquity and their Christian successors; it does away with the reality of ideal principles by confining them exclusively to the thinking subject; it is a spurious idealism which deserves rather the name "phenomenalism" (phenomenon, "appearance", as opposed to noumenon, "the object of thought").这种唯心主义的仅仅是反向的,这是由古代哲学家和他们的基督教的接班人举行,它摒弃了现实与理想的原则,限制了他们专门为思维主体,它是一个虚假的理想主义,而是值得名称“的现象论”(的现象,“外观”,而不是本体,“思想的对象”)。

The doctrine of Descartes has also per nefas been called idealism.笛卡尔学说每nefas也被称为唯心主义。It is true that Cartesianism is in line with the genuine idealism of the earlier schools, inasmuch as it postulates God, thought, and spatial reality.笛卡儿主义是在较早的学校真正理想这是事实,因为它假设上帝,思想,和空间的现实。But, on the other hand, this system too employs idea only in a subjective signification and quite overlooks the intermediate position of ideal principles.但是,另一方面,这个系统采用的想法只有在主观意义和相当俯瞰理想原则的中间位置。According to the theory of Leibniz, which has also been regarded as idealistic, our mind constructs from its own resources (de son propre fond) its scheme of the world; but, thanks to a pre-established harmony (harmonie préétablie), it accords with reality.根据莱布尼茨,这也被视为理想化的理论,我们的头脑构造从自身的资源(儿子propre喜欢)世界的计划,但,要归功于一个预先建立的和谐(防敏préétablie),它符合与现实。 This view, however, furnishes no solution for the epistemological problem.然而,这种观点furnishes没有认识论问题的解决方案。Kant claims that his critical philosophy is both a "transcendental idealism" and an "empirical realism"; but he declares ideas are "illusions of reason", and such ideal principles as cause and purpose are simply devices of thought which can be employed only in reference to phenomena.康德声称,他的批判哲学是“先验唯心论”和“经验现实主义”,但他宣称的想法是“幻想”的原因,原因和目的等理想的原则是简单的设备只能在聘用思想参考现象。 Fichte took Kant as his starting--point but finally rose above the level of subjectivism and posited a principle of reality, the absolute Ego.费希特了康德,他的出发 - 点,但最终上升主观的水平之上,并假定一个现实的原则,绝对的自我。Hegel's doctrine can be termed idealism so far as it seeks the highest principle in the absolute idea, which finds its self-realization in form, concept, etc.--a view which amounts virtually to monism.黑格尔的学说可以称之为唯心主义至今,因为它要求绝对理念,发现其自我价值的实现形式,概念等的最高原则 - 一个数额几乎以一元论的观点。The various offshoots of Kantian philosophy are incorrectly regarded as developments of idealism; it is more accurate to describe them as "illusionism" or "Solipsism", since they entirely sweep away objective reality.康德哲学的各个分支,被错误地视为唯心主义的发展;,更准确“illusionism”或“唯我论”来形容他们,因为他们完全一扫客观现实。 In this connection a German philosopher declares:在这方面的一个德国哲学家声明:

I affirm without hesitation that the assertion, 'the existence of the world consists merely in our thinking', is for me the result of a hypertrophy of the passion for knowledge.我肯定毫不犹豫地断言,“世界的存在包括只是在我们的思维”,对我来说是对知识的激情肥大的结果。To this conclusion I have been lead chiefly by the torture I endure in getting over 'idealism'.这样的结论,我一直主要由获得过“理想主义”忍受的折磨,我的铅。Whosoever attempts to take this theory in downright earnest, to force his way clean through it and identify himself with it, will certainly feel that something is about to snap in his brain (Jerusalem, "Die Urtheilsfunktion", Vienna, 1886, p.261).任何人试图利用这一理论在彻头彻尾的认真,迫使他的方式,通过清洁,并确定它自己,一定会感受到的东西扣在他的大脑(耶路撒冷,“模具Urtheilsfunktion”,维也纳,1886年,p.261 )。

Similar conclusions are reached by J. Volkelt (Erfahrung u. Denken, Hamburg, 1886, p. 519);J.伏尔盖特(U. Erfahrung电研,汉堡,1886年,第519)达成类似的结论;

Any man who carries his theoretical doubts or denial of the external world so far that even in his everyday experience he is forever reminding himself of the purely subjective character of his perceptions.任何男人带着他的理论的怀疑或拒绝外部世界,到目前为止,即使在他的日常经验,他是永远提醒自己对他的看法纯粹是主观的字符。 ..will simply find himself flung out of the natural course and direction of life, stripped of all normal feeling and interest, and sooner or later confronted with the danger of losing his mind completely.就会很容易找到自己扔出来的自然过程和生活的方向,剥夺了一切正常的感觉和兴趣,并迟早面对的完全失去他的头脑的危险。

It is certainly a matter of regret that the terms idea, idealist, and idealism, originally so rich in content, should be so far degraded as to signify such aberrations of thought.这当然是一个遗憾,到目前为止,退化等畸变意味着思想的想法,理想主义者,与唯心论,原来如此丰富的内容,应的问题。 The present writer, in his "Geschichte des Idealismus" (2nd ed., Brunswick, 1907) has taken the ground that the original meaning of these terms should be restored to them.目前的作家,在他的“历史Idealismus”(第二版,不伦瑞克,1907年),已采取的,这些条款的本义应该恢复他们的理由。 In the index of this "Geschichte" and in his monograph, "Die Wichtigsten Philosophischen Fachausdrücke" (Munich, 1909), he traces in detail the changes and meaning which these words have undergone.指数的这个“历史馆”,并在他的专着,“模具Wichtigsten Philosophischen Fachausdrücke”(慕尼黑,1909年),他的痕迹,在细节的变化和意义,这些话都发生了。

Publication information Written by Otto Willmann.奥托Willmann编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Peter S. Zehr and Patrick C. Swain.转录由彼得S. Zehr和帕特里克斯温。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,第七卷。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

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