Early Historical Documents on Jesus Christ关于耶稣的生命历史的 早期文献

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The historical documents referring to Christ's life and work may be divided into three classes: pagan sources, Jewish sources, and Christian sources.指的是基督的生活和工作的历史文件,可分为三类:异教来源,犹太人的来源,和基督教来源。We shall study the three in succession.我们将研究在连续三个。

I. PAGAN SOURCES一,白云源

The non-Christian sources for the historical truth of the Gospels are both few and polluted by hatred and prejudice.非基督教的福音历史真相的来源很少,仇恨和偏见的污染。A number of reasons have been advanced for this condition of the pagan sources:有许多原因,已被先进的这个条件的异教来源:

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The field of the Gospel history was remote Galilee;福音历史的领域是远程加利利;

the Jews were noted as a superstitious race, if we believe Horace (Credat Judoeus Apella, I, Sat., v, 100);犹太人指出作为一个迷信的比赛,如果我们相信贺拉斯(Credat Judoeus Apella,我周六,V,100。);

the God of the Jews was unknown and unintelligible to most pagans of that period;犹太人的上帝是未知的和难以理解的那个时期最异教徒;

the Jews in whose midst Christianity had taken its origin were dispersed among, and hated by, all the pagan nations;在犹太人的中间基督教采取了它的起源被分散,恨,所有的异教国家;

the Christian religion itself was often confounded with one of the many sects that had sprung up in Judaism, and which could not excite the interest of the pagan spectator.基督教本身往往混淆的许多教派如雨后春笋般出现在犹太教,并不能激发异教观众的兴趣之一。

It is at least certain that neither Jews nor Gentiles suspected in the least the paramount importance of the religion, the rise of which they witnessed among them.它至少是一定的,既不是犹太人还是外邦人在最不怀疑的宗教的最重要的,他们目睹其中的崛起。These considerations will account for the rarity and the asperity with which Christian events are mentioned by pagan authors.这些因素将帐户与基督教的事件是由异教作者提到的稀有性和粗糙。But though Gentile writers do not give us any information about Christ and the early stages of Christianity which we do not possess in the Gospels, and though their statements are made with unconcealed hatred and contempt, still they unwittingly prove the historical value of the facts related by the Evangelists.但是,虽然詹蒂莱作家没有给我们任何关于基督和基督教的早期阶段,我们不具备在福音的信息,虽然他们的发言是毫不掩饰的仇恨和蔑视,他们仍然不知不觉地证明有关事实的历史价值由福音。

We need not delay over a writing entitled the "Acts of Pilate", which must have existed in the second century (Justin, "Apol"., I, 35), and must have been used in the pagan schools to warn boys against the belief of Christians (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", I, ix; IX, v); nor need we inquire into the question whether there existed any authentic census tables of Quirinius.我们没有必要拖延了题为“在第二个世纪,它必须存在(贾斯汀,”APOL“,我35岁)的”彼拉多行为“书面,必须已在异教学校用来警告男孩对基督徒的信仰(优西比乌,“组织胺传道书。”我,九,九,V),也需要我们查询到的问题,是否存在任何居里扭真实的普查表。

A. Tacitus答:塔西

We possess at least the testimony of Tacitus (AD 54-119) for the statements that the Founder of the Christian religion, a deadly superstition in the eyes of the Romans, had been put to death by the procurator Pontius Pilate under the reign of Tiberius; that His religion, though suppressed for a time, broke forth again not only throughout Judea where it had originated, but even in Rome, the conflux of all the streams of wickness and shamelessness; furthermore, that Nero had diverted from himself the suspicion of the burning of Rome by charging the Christians with the crime; that these latter were not guilty of arson, though they deserved their fate on account of their universal misanthropy.我们拥有至少塔西佗(公元54-119年)陈述的证词,基督教的创始人,一个致命的迷信,在罗马人的眼睛已经检察彼拉多死刑提比略统治下的;,他的宗教,虽然抑制了一段时间,再次爆发来回,不仅整个犹太它起源的地方,但即使是在罗马,wickness和无耻的所有流汇流;此外,NERO自己改行的怀疑罗马燃烧,所指控的犯罪基督徒,这些纵火犯,但他们自己的命运值得他们普遍厌世。 Tacitus, moreover, describes some of the horrible torments to which Nero subjected the Christians (Ann., XV, xliv).此外,塔西,介绍了一些可怕的折磨,NERO遭受的基督徒(Ann.,第十五XLIV)。The Roman writer confounds the Christians with the Jews, considering them as a especially abject Jewish sect; how little he investigated the historical truth of even the Jewish records may be inferred from the credulity with which he accepted the absurd legends and calumnies about the origin of he Hebrew people (Hist., V, iii, iv).罗马作家困惑与犹太人的基督徒,他们考虑,特别是赤贫的犹太教小,他考察了历史的真相,即使是犹太人的记录可能从轻信与他接受了荒谬的传说和起源诽谤的推断他希伯来人(Hist.,五,三,四)。

B. SuetoniusB.苏埃托尼乌斯

Another Roman writer who shows his acquaintance with Christ and the Christians is Suetonius (AD 75-160).另一个显示了他的熟人与基督和基督徒的罗马作家苏埃托尼乌斯(公元75-160年)。It has been noted that Suetonius considered Christ (Chrestus) as a Roman insurgent who stirred up seditions under the reign of Claudius (AD 41-54): "Judaeos, impulsore Chresto, assidue tumultuantes (Claudius) Roma expulit" (Clau., xxv).人们已经注意到,苏埃托尼乌斯认为作为一个罗马的叛乱激起了克劳狄斯元年(公元41-54年)下seditions基督(Chrestus):“Judaeos,impulsore Chresto,assidue tumultuantes(克劳狄斯)罗姆expulit”(Clau.,XXV )。In his life of Nero he regards that emperor as a public benefactor on account of his severe treatment of the Christians: "Multa sub eo et animadversa severe, et coercita, nec minus instituta . . . . afflicti Christiani, genus hominum superstitious novae et maleficae" (Nero, xvi).在他的Nero生活,他认为,公众对他的治疗严重的基督徒的恩人皇帝​​“,NEC等coercita Multa分EO等animadversa严重,减去instituta afflicti Christiani,属hominum迷信新星等maleficae。。。 “(NERO,十六)。The Roman writer does not understand that the Jewish troubles arose from the Jewish antagonism to the Messianic character of Jesus Christ and to the rights of the Christian Church.罗马作家不理解,出现了犹太麻烦从犹太人的对抗,耶稣基督救世主的性格和基督教教会的权利。

C. Pliny the YoungerC.普利尼雅戈尔

Of greater importance is the letter of Pliny the Younger to the Emperor Trajan (about AD 61-115), in which the Governor of Bithynia consults his imperial majesty as to how to deal with the Christians living within his jurisdiction.更重要的是信的普利尼更年轻的皇帝图拉真(约公元61-115年),庇推尼总督咨询如何处理其管辖范围内与基督徒的生活陛下。 On the one hand, their lives were confessedly innocent; no crime could be proved against them excepting their Christian belief, which appeared to the Roman as an extravagant and perverse superstition.一方面,他们的生活,明白地无辜的,没有犯罪的,可以对他们除了他们的基督教信仰,这就出现了一个奢侈的和有害的迷信罗马证明。 On the other hand, the Christians could not be shaken in their allegiance to Christ, Whom they celebrated as their God in their early morning meetings (Ep., X, 97, 98).另一方面,基督徒不能动摇,他们效忠基督,他们为庆祝他们的神在清晨会议(插曲,X,97,98)。Christianity here appears no longer as a religion of criminals, as it does in the texts of Tacitus and Suetonius; Pliny acknowledges the high moral principles of the Christians, admires their constancy in the Faith (pervicacia et inflexibilis obstinatio), which he appears to trace back to their worship of Christ (carmenque Christo, quasi Deo, dicere).基督教在这里似乎不再作为宗教的罪犯,因为它在塔西和苏埃托尼乌斯文本;普利尼承认基督徒崇高的道德原则,赞赏他们在信仰的坚贞(pervicacia等inflexibilis obstinatio),这是他跟踪回到他们的崇拜基督(carmenque克里斯托,准迪奥,dicere)。

D. Other pagan writersD.其他异教作家

The remaining pagan witnesses are of less importance: In the second century Lucian sneered at Christ and the Christians, as he scoffed at the pagan gods.其余异教证人不太重要:在第二个世纪的卢西恩基督和基督徒的嘲笑,因为他在异教的神嘲笑。He alludes to Christ's death on the Cross, to His miracles, to the mutual love prevailing among the Christians ("Philopseudes", nn. 13, 16; "De Morte Pereg").他暗示在十字架上的基督的死,他的奇迹,当时的基督徒(“Philopseudes”,中午13,16。“德莫提Pereg”)之间的互爱。 There are also alleged allusions to Christ in Numenius (Origen, "Contra Cels", IV, 51), to His parables in Galerius, to the earthquake at the Crucifixion in Phlegon ( Origen, "Contra Cels.", II, 14).也有基督在Numenius据称典故(奥利,“魂斗罗CELS”,四,51),在加莱里乌斯他的比喻,在Phlegon受难日地震(奥利,“魂斗罗CELS。”二,14)。 Before the end of the second century, the logos alethes of Celsus, as quoted by Origen (Contra Cels., passim), testifies that at that time the facts related in the Gospels were generally accepted as historically true.的第二个世纪结束前,塞尔苏斯的标志alethes,作为援引奥利(魂斗罗CELS,各处),证明当时在福音相关的事实被普遍接受历史真实。 However scanty the pagan sources of the life of Christ may be, they bear at least testimony to His existence, to His miracles, His parables, His claim to Divine worship, His death on the Cross, and to the more striking characteristics of His religion.但是基督的生命异教的来源,可能是微薄的,他们承受至少证明他的存在,他的奇迹,他的比喻,他声称神崇拜,他死在十字架上,和他的宗教比较显着的特点。

II.二。JEWISH SOURCES犹太来源

A. Philo答:斐洛

Philo, who dies after AD 40, is mainly important for the light he throws on certain modes of thought and phraseology found again in some of the Apostles.斐洛,他死于公元40后,主要是重要的光,他的某些思想和用语模式,再次发现了一些使徒抛出。Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., II, iv) indeed preserves a legend that Philo had met St. Peter in Rome during his mission to the Emperor Caius; moreover, that in his work on the contemplative life he describes the life of the Christian Church in Alexandria founded by St. Mark, rather than that of the Essenes and Therapeutae.尤西比乌斯(。Hist.传道书,二,四)确实保留了,斐洛在他访问期间会见了在罗马的圣彼得皇帝凯厄斯传说;此外,在他的沉思的生活工作中,他描述的基督教教会的生活在亚历山大创办的圣马可,而不是爱色尼和Therapeutae。 But it is hardly probable that Philo had heard enough of Christ and His followers to give an historical foundation to the foregoing legends.但它几乎没有可能,斐洛听说过足够的基督和他的追随者,给上述传说的历史基础。

B. JosephusB.约瑟夫

The earlist non-Christian writer who refers Christ is the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus; born AD 37, he was a contemporary of the Apostles, and died in Rome AD 94.,是指基督的最早的非基督徒作家是犹太历史学家弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫出生于公元37,他是当代的使徒,和在罗马公元94死亡。 Two passages in his "Antiquities" which confirm two facts of the inspired Christian records are not disputed.两个通道在他的“古物”的灵感基督教记录确认两个事实是没有争议的。In the one he reports the murder of "John called Baptist" by Herod (Ant., XVIII, v, 2), describing also John's character and work; in the other (Ant., XX, ix, 1) he disappoves of the sentence pronounced by the high priest Ananus against "James, brother of Jesus Who was called Christ."他在一个报告的谋杀“约翰称浸会”希律王(Ant.,十八,V,2),也描述约翰的性格和工作;在其他(Ant.,XX,IX,1)他的disappoves宣布的判决对大祭司Ananus“詹姆斯,被称为基督的耶稣的兄弟。” It is antecedently probable that a writer so well informed as Josephus, must have been well acquainted too with the doctrine and the history of Jesus Christ.约瑟夫,以及知情的作家,必须非常熟悉与学说和耶稣基督的历史,它是antecedently可能的的。Seeing, also, that he records events of minor importance in the history of the Jews, it would be surprising if he were to keep silence about Jesus Christ.见此情景,也记录在犹太人的历史次要事件,他,那将是令人吃惊,如果他保持沉默耶稣基督。Consideration for the priests and Pharisees did not prevent him from mentioning the judicial murders of John the Baptist and the Apostle James; his endeavour to find the fulfilment of the Messianic prophecies in Vespasian did not induce him to pass in silence over several Jewish sects, though their tenets appear to be inconsistent with the Vespasian claims.祭司和法利赛人的代价也不能阻止他提的施洗约翰和使徒詹姆斯司法谋杀,他努力寻找履行维斯帕先弥赛亚的预言并没有引起他越过几个犹太人教派在沉默中,虽然他们的信条似乎与维斯帕先索赔不一致。 One naturally expects, therefore, a notice about Jesus Christ in Josephus.人们自然期望,因此,关于耶稣基督在约瑟夫的通知。 Antiquities XVIII, iii, 3, seems to satisfy this expectation:古物十八,三,3,似乎满足这种期望:

About this time appeared Jesus, a wise man (if indeed it is right to call Him man; for He was a worker of astonishing deeds, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with joy), and He drew to Himself many Jews (many also of Greeks. This was the Christ.) And when Pilate, at the denunciation of those that are foremost among us, had condemned Him to the cross, those who had first loved Him did not abandon Him (for He appeared to them alive again on the third day, the holy prophets having foretold this and countless other marvels about Him.) The tribe of Christians named after Him did not cease to this day.大约在这个时候出现了耶稣,一个聪明的人(如果确实是正确的给他打电话的人;,他是一个工人的惊人事迹,老师收到了这样的男人喜悦的真相),他画了许多犹太人(希腊人也很多。这是基督。)当彼拉多,在那些最重要的是我们之间的的谴责,谴责他的十字架,曾先爱他并没有放弃他(因为他似乎他们活着再次第三天,圣先知预言这和其他无数的奇迹。)后,他的名字命名的基督徒部落,这一天也没有停止。

A testimony so important as the foregoing could not escape the work of the critics.上述重要的见证,也难逃批评的工作。Their conclusions may be reduced to three headings: those who consider the passage wholly spurious; those who consider it to be wholly authentic; and those who consider it to be a little of each.他们的结论可能会减少到三个标题:那些考虑通过完全虚假的;那些认为这是完全正宗的;和那些认​​为这是一个每个小。

Those who regard the passage as spurious那些关于杂散信号通过

First, there are those who consider the whole passage as spurious.首先,是那些认为整个通道作为杂散。 The principal reasons for this view appear to be the following:这一观点的主要理由似乎是以下:

Josephus could not represent Jesus Christ as a simple moralist, and on the other hand he could not emphasize the Messianic prophecies and expectations without offending the Roman susceptibilities;约瑟夫作为一个简单的卫道士不能代表耶稣基督,另一方面,他不能强调没有得罪罗马敏感性弥赛亚的预言和期望;

the above cited passage from Josephus is said to be unknown to Origen and the earlier patristic writers;从约瑟夫通过上述表示是未知的渊源和早期教父作家;

its very place in the Josephan text is uncertain, since Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., II, vi) must have found it before the notices concerning Pilate, while it now stands after them.在Josephan文本的非常到位,是不确定的,因为尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书,二,六)必须有发现之前关于彼拉多的通知,而现在在他们的代表。

But the spuriousness of the disputed Josephan passage does not imply the historian's ignorance of the facts connected with Jesus Christ.但有争议的Josephan通过spuriousness并不意味着历史学家的无知与耶稣基督有关的事实。Josephus's report of his own juvenile precocity before the Jewish teachers (Vit., 2) reminds one of the story of Christ's stay in the Temple at the age of twelve; the description of his shipwreck on his journey to Rome (Vit., 3) recalls St. Paul's shipwreck as told in the Acts; finally his arbitrary introduction of a deceit practised by the priests of Isis on a Roman lady, after the chapter containing his supposed allusion to Jesus, shows a disposition to explain away the virgin birth of Jesus and to prepare the falsehoods embodied in the later Jewish writings.约瑟夫自己的少年早熟的报告之前,犹太教师(Vit. 2)提醒基督的故事留在十二岁的寺之一;他的沉船上描述他的罗马之旅(Vit. 3)回顾圣保罗沉船告诉的行为;最后,他欺骗的任意引进伊希斯的神父在罗马夫人实行后,包含他暗指耶稣的章节,展示了一个性格去解释的耶稣的处女诞生,并准备在后来的犹太著作中所体现的谎言。

Those who regard the passage as authentic, with some spurious additions那些人视为地道通过一些虚假的增加,

A second class of critics do not regard the whole of Josephus's testimony concerning Christ as spurious but they maintain the interpolation of parts included above in parenthesis.第二类的批评家不把整个约瑟夫的证词杂散基督,但他们保持插值部分包括上述括号中。The reasons assigned for this opinion may be reduced to the following two:这个意见交办的原因可能是以下两个:

Josephus must have mentioned Jesus, but he cannot have recognized Him as the Christ; hence part of our present Josephan text must be genuine, part must be interpolated.约瑟夫必须提到耶稣,但他不能承认他为基督,因此我们目前的Josephan文本的一部分,必须是真正的一部分,必须插。

Again, the same conclusion follows from the fact that Origen knew a Josephan text about Jesus, but was not acquainted with our present reading; for, according to the great Alexandrian doctor, Josephus did not believe that Jesus was the Messias ("In Matth.", xiii, 55; "Contra Cels.", I, 47).再次,相同的结论如下事实奥利知道有关耶稣的Josephan文本,但我们目前的阅读并不熟悉;,根据伟大的亚历山大医生,约瑟夫不相信耶稣的messias(“Matth。 “,第十三章,55条;”魂斗罗CELS“,我,47岁)。

Whatever force these two arguments have is lost by the fact that Josephus did not write for the Jews but for the Romans; consequently, when he says, "This was the Christ", he does not necessarily imply that Jesus was the Christ considered by the Romans as the founder of the Christian religion.无论力这两个参数是失去的事实,约瑟夫不写为犹太人,但入乡随俗,因此,当他说,“这是基督”,他并不一定意味着耶稣被认为是由基督罗马人作为基督教的创始人。

Those who consider it to be completely genuine那些认为这是完全真正

The third class of scholars believe that the whole passage concerning Jesus, as it is found today in Josephus, is genuine.第三类学者认为,关于耶稣,因为它被发现在约瑟夫今天,整个通道是真正的。 The main arguments for the genuineness of the Josephan passage are the following: Josephan通过的真实性的主要论点有以下几种:

First, all codices or manuscripts of Josephus's work contain the text in question; to maintain the spuriousness of the text, we must suppose that all the copies of Josephus were in the hands of Christians, and were changed in the same way.首先,所有的约瑟夫的作品的手稿抄本或包含文本问题;保持文本spuriousness,我们必须假设,约瑟夫的所有副本,在基督徒的手中,并以同样的方式改变。

Second, it is true that neither Tertullian nor St. Justin makes use of Josephus's passage concerning Jesus; but this silence is probably due to the contempt with which the contemporary Jews regarded Josephus, and to the relatively little authority he had among the Roman readers.其次,它是真正的,既不是特土良也不圣贾斯汀约瑟夫对耶稣通过使用,但这种沉默可能是由于蔑视与当代犹太人视为约瑟夫和他的罗马读者之间的相对较少的权威。 Writers of the age of Tertullian and Justin could appeal to living witnesses of the Apostolic tradition.德尔图良和Justin岁的作家,可向使徒传统的生活证人。

Third, Eusebius ("Hist. Eccl"., I, xi; cf. "Dem. Ev.", III, v) Sozomen (Hist. Eccl., I, i), Niceph.第三,尤西比乌斯(“嘘传道书”,我,曦;。比照“。DEM EV”,三,五)Sozomen(Hist.传道书,我,我),Niceph。(Hist. Eccl., I, 39), Isidore of Pelusium (Ep. IV, 225), St. Jerome (catal.script. eccles. xiii), Ambrose, Cassiodorus, etc., appeal to the testimony of Josephus; there must have been no doubt as to its authenticity at the time of these illustrious writers. (Hist.传道书,我39),伊西多尔Pelusium(插曲IV,225),圣杰罗姆(catal.script埃克尔斯XIII。),刘汉铨,Cassiodorus,呼吁约瑟夫的证词等;必须有其真实性,毫无疑问,在这些杰出的作家。

Fourth, the complete silence of Josephus as to Jesus would have been a more eloquent testimony than we possess in his present text; this latter contains no statement incompatible with its Josephan authorship: the Roman reader needed the information that Jesus was the Christ, or the founder of the Christian religion; the wonderful works of Jesus and His Resurrection from the dead were so incessantly urged by the Christians that without these attributes the Josephan Jesus would hardly have been acknowledged as the founder of Christianity.第四,已经完全沉默的耶稣,约瑟夫会比我们在他目前的案文拥有更雄辩地证明;后者不其Josephan作者:罗马读者所需要的信息,耶稣是基督,或包含任何声明基督教的创始人耶稣和他从死里复活的精彩作品,因此不断呼吁,如果没有这些属性Josephan耶稣会很难被基督教的创始人承认的基督徒。

All this does not necessarily imply that Josephus regarded Jesus as the Jewish Messias; but, even if he had been convinced of His Messiahship, it does not follow that he would have become a Christian.所有这一切并不一定意味着视为犹太弭赛亚耶稣,约瑟夫;但是,即使他确信他的弥赛亚,这并不认为他会成为一个基督徒。 A number of possible subterfuges might have supplied the Jewish historian with apparently sufficient reasons for not embracing Christianity.提供一个可能的托辞,可能有足够的理由显然不拥抱基督教的犹太历史学家。

C. Other Jewish SourcesC.其他犹太来源

The historical character of Jesus Christ is also attested by the hostile Jewish literature of the subsequent centuries.耶稣基督的历史人物,也证明敌对随后的几个世纪的犹太文学。His birth is ascribed to an illicit ("Acta Pilati" in Thilo, "Codex apocryph. NT, I, 526; cf. Justin, "Apol.", I, 35), or even an adulterous, union of His parents (Origen, "Contra Cels.," I, 28, 32). The father's name is Panthera, a common soldier (Gemara "Sanhedrin", viii; "Schabbath", xii, cf. Eisenmenger, "Entdecktes Judenthum", I, 109; Schottgen, "Horae Hebraicae", II, 696; Buxtorf, "Lex. Chald.", Basle, 1639, 1459, Huldreich, "Sepher toledhoth yeshua hannaceri", Leyden, 1705). The last work in its final edition did not appear before the thirteenth century, so that it could give the Panthera myth in its most advanced form. Rosch is of opinion that the myth did not begin before the end of the first century.他的出生是由于一个非法(“文献皮拉蒂”蒂洛,“食品apocryph新台币,我526;。比照贾斯汀,”APOL“,我35岁),甚至通奸,他的父母联盟(奥利,“魂斗罗CELS,”我,28,32)豹,一个共同的士兵(革马拉“公会”,第八;父亲的名字。。“Schabbath”,第十二,比照艾森曼格,“Entdecktes Judenthum”,我,109; Schottgen,“海悦Hebraicae”,二,696;。Buxtorf,“。远观Chald”,巴塞尔,1639年,1459,Huldreich“,”Sepher toledhoth耶稣hannaceri“,莱顿,1705年)的最后一部作品在其最终版本没有出现前13世纪,因此,它可以给豹在其最先进的形式的神话。Rosch看来是神话的第一个世纪结束前才开始。

The later Jewish writings show traces of acquaintance with the murder of the Holy Innocents (Wagenseil, "Confut. Libr.Toldoth", 15; Eisenmenger op. cit., I, 116; Schottgen, op. cit., II, 667), with the flight into Egypt (cf. Josephus, "Ant." XIII, xiii), with the stay of Jesus in the Temple at the age of twelve (Schottgen, op. cit., II, 696), with the call of the disciples ("Sanhedrin", 43a; Wagenseil, op. cit., 17; Schottgen, loc. cit., 713), with His miracles (Origen, "Contra Cels", II, 48; Wagenseil, op. cit., 150; Gemara "Sanhedrin" fol. 17); "Schabbath", fol.后来的犹太著作显示熟人Confut Libr.Toldoth“,15(瓦根赛尔,”神圣的无辜者被谋杀的痕迹;艾森曼格同上,我116;。Schottgen,同上,第二,667)与耶稣在十二岁(Schottgen,运前,第二,696)留在寺庙飞行到埃及(参见约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”十三,十三),呼叫,弟子(“公会”,43A;瓦根赛尔,同上,17;。Schottgen,同上同上,713),他的奇迹,(奥利,“魂斗罗CELS”,二,48;瓦根赛尔,同上,150。革马拉“公会”FOL 17);“Schabbath”,FOL。104b; Wagenseil, op.cit., 6, 7, 17), with His claim to be God (Origen, "Contra Cels.", I, 28; cf. Eisenmenger, op. cit., I, 152; Schottgen, loc. cit., 699) with His betrayal by Judas and His death (Origen, "Contra cels.", II, 9, 45, 68, 70; Buxtorf, op. cit., 1458; Lightfoot, "Hor. Heb.", 458, 490, 498; Eisenmenger, loc. cit., 185; Schottgen, loc. cit.,699 700; cf. "Sanhedrin", vi, vii). 104B;瓦根赛尔,前引书,6,7,17),他声称神(奥利,“魂斗罗CELS。”我,28。比照艾森曼格,同上,我152; Schottgen 。LOC前699)与他的犹大和他的死亡(奥利,的背叛,二,9,45,68,70。“魂斗罗CELS。”; Buxtorf,同上,1458;。娜莱,“贺希伯来书。 “,458,490,498;艾森曼格,LOC前,185;。Schottgen,同上同上,699 700;。比照”公会“,六,七)。Celsus (Origen, "Contra Cels.", II, 55) tries to throw doubt on the Resurrection, while Toldoth (cf. Wagenseil, 19) repeats the Jewish fiction that the body of Jesus had been stolen from the sepulchre.塞尔苏斯(奥利,“魂斗罗CELS”,二55)试图复活抛出疑问,而Toldoth(19)参见瓦根赛尔,重复犹太小说,耶稣的身体已经从坟墓被盗。

III.三。CHRISTIAN SOURCES基督教来源

Among the Christian sources of the life of Jesus we need hardly mention the so called Agrapha and Apocrypha.在耶稣的生活基督教来源,我们几乎不用提所谓的Agrapha和伪经。For whether the Agrapha contain Logia of Jesus, or refer to incidents in His life, they are either highly uncertain or present only variations of the Gospel story.对于是否Agrapha包含Logia耶稣,或指在他的生活中的事件,它们是高度不确定或目前唯一变化的福音故事。The chief value of the Apocrypha consists in their showing the infinite superiority of the Inspired Writings by contrasting the coarse and erroneous productions of the human mind with the simple and sublime truths written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost.伪经的主要价值,包括他们的灵感著作对比粗的和错误的制作人的心灵与圣灵的启示下写的简单和崇高的真理的无限优势。

Among the Sacred Books of the New Testament, it is especially the four Gospels and the four great Epistles of St. Paul that are of the highest importance for the construction of the life of Jesus.在新约圣书,特别是四福音和四大建设耶稣的生命中最重要的是圣保禄的书信。

The four great Pauline Epistles (Romans, Galatians, and First and Second Corinthians) can hardly be overestimated by the student of Christ's life; they have at times been called the "fifth gospel"; their authenticity has never been assailed by serious critics; their testimony is also earlier than that of the Gospels, at least most of the Gospels; it is the more valuable because it is incidental and undesigned; it is the testimony of a highly intellectual and cultured writer, who had been the greatest enemy of Jesus, who writes within twenty-five years of the events which he relates. “四个伟大的宝莲书信(罗马书,加拉太书,和第一届和第二届Corinthians)难以高估基督的生命的学生,他们有,有时被称为的”第五福音“,其真实性已从来没有被严肃批评抨击;其的证词也早比的福音,至少大部分的福音,它是更有价值的,因为它是偶然的和非故意的,它是一个高度的智力和培养作家,谁已被耶稣的最大敌人的证词,谁写的,他涉及的事件二十五年内。 At the same time, these four great Epistles bear witness to all the most important facts in the life of Christ: His Davidic descent, His poverty, His Messiahship, His moral teaching, His preaching of the kingdom of God, His calling of the apostles, His miraculous power, His claims to be God, His betrayal, His institution of the Holy Eucharist, His passion, crucifixion, burial, resurrection, His repeated appearances (Romans 1:3-4; 5:11; 8:2-3; 8:32; 9:5; 15:8; Galatians 2:17; 3:13; 4:4; 5:21; 1 Corinthians 6:9; 13:4; etc.).同时,这四个伟大的书信见证基督的生命中所有最重要的事实:他的大卫descent,他的贫穷,他的弥赛亚,他的思想品德课教学,他宣扬神的国度,他的使徒调用他的神奇的力量,他自称是神,他的背叛,他的圣体圣事的机构,他的激情,钉在十字架上,埋葬,复活,他一再露面(罗马书1:3-4; 5:11; 8:2-3 ; 8:32; 9:5; 15:8;加拉太书2:17; 3:13; 4:4; 5:21;哥林多前书6:9; 13:4;等)。However important the four great Epistles may be, the gospels are still more so.然而,重要的四个伟大的书信,福音仍然如此。Not that any one of them offers a complete biography of Jesus, but they account for the origin of Christianity by the life of its Founder.这并不是说他们中的任何一个提供完整的耶稣传记,但其创始人生命的起源基督教。 Questions like the authenticity of the Gospels, the relation between the Synoptic Gospels, and the Fourth, the Synoptic problem, must be studied in the articles referring to these respective subjects.真实性的福音,对观福音书之间的关系,和第四,天气问题等问题,必须在文章指这些各自的学科研究。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.AJ马斯编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。In Memory of Archbishop Mathew Kavukatt The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.在记忆大主教马修Kavukatt的天主教百科全书,第八卷。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Also, see:此外,请参阅:
Sequential Life of Jesus, from the Gospels顺序耶稣的生命,从福音

Chronology of Jesus' Life (Catholic Article)耶稣的生平年表(天主教条)

Early Documents Regarding the History of Jesus' Life关于耶稣的生活历史的早期文件

39 Miracles Performed by Jesus39奇迹耶稣行

Around 100 OT Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus完成约100耶稣的旧约预言

Sequence of all important in Christianity在基督教中所有重要的序列

Date of Birth of Jesus, by several Analytical Methods耶稣诞生的日期,由几种分析方法


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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