Judas Iscariot犹大

General Information一般资料

Judas Iscariot was the Apostle who betrayed Jesus Christ to the authorities.犹大背叛耶稣基督当局的使徒。According to Matthew 27:4, Judas, distraught over Jesus' condemnation, returned his reward of 30 pieces of silver and hanged himself.据马修27:4,犹大,对耶稣的谴责悲痛欲绝,回到了他的30个银币的奖励,并上吊自杀。 According to Acts 1:18, Judas bought a field with the money, but fell headlong in it, injured himself, and died.据犹大行为1时18分,用钱购买了一个领域,但它扎进下跌,受伤的自己,和死亡。His surname may indicate that he belonged to the Sicarii, a radical political group.他的姓氏可能表明,他属于Sicarii,一个激进的政治团体。

Bibliography: Gartner, Bertil, Iscariot (1971); Schaumberg, EL, Judas (1981).参考书目:Gartner的数据,作者Bertil,犹大(1971年); Schaumberg,EL,犹大(1981年)。

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Judas Iscariot犹大

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The Apostle who betrayed his Divine Master.使徒曾经背叛过他的神圣的主人。The name Judas (Ioudas) is the Greek form of Judah (Hebrew "praised"), a proper name frequently found both in the Old and the New Testament.犹大(Ioudas)的名称是希腊的犹大(希伯来文“叫好不叫座”)的形式,一个合适的名字经常发现无论是在旧的和新约。 Even among the Twelve there were two that bore the name, and for this reason it is usually associated with the surname Iscariot [Hebrew "a man of Kerioth" or Carioth, which is a city of Judah (cf. Joshua 15:25)]. ,即使在十二有两个孔的名称,基于这个原因,它通常是姓犹大[希伯来文“的Kerioth人”或Carioth,这是一个城市的犹大(参约书亚15:25)]相关。 There can be no doubt that this is the right interpretation of the name, though the true origin is obscured in the Greek spelling, and, as might be expected, other derivations have been suggested (eg from Issachar).可以毫无疑问,这是正确的解释的名称,虽然真正的原产地在希腊的拼写是模糊不清的,而且,可以预料,其他派生已建议(例如,从萨迦)。

Very little is told us in the Sacred Text concerning the history of Judas Iscariot beyond the bare facts of his call to the Apostolate, his treachery, and his death.很少告诉我们在神圣的文本超越裸露的事实,他的电话的使徒,他的背叛,他的死亡有关犹大的历史。His birthplace, as we have seen, is indicated in his name Iscariot, and it may be remarked that his origin separates him from the other Apostles, who were all Galileans.正如我们已经看到,他的出生地,是表示在他的名字犹大,也可能是说他的出身,他从其他的使徒,谁所有加利利分开。 For Kerioth is a city of Judah.对于Kerioth是一个犹太城市。It has been suggested that this fact may have had some influence on his career by causing want of sympathy with his brethren in the Apostolate.曾有人建议,这一事实可能有一些关于他的职业生涯的影响,导致要同情他的弟兄们在使徒。We are told nothing concerning the circumstances of his call or his share in the ministry and miracles of the Apostles.我们被告知没有关于他的电话或他的份额的情况下,在教育部和使徒的奇迹。And it is significant that he is never mentioned without some reference to his great betrayal.重要的是,他从来没有提到的一些参考,以他的伟大的背叛。Thus, in the list of the Apostles given in the Synoptic Gospels, we read: "and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him".因此,在观福音的使徒清单中,我们读到:“犹大,谁也背叛了他”。(Matthew 10:4. Cf. Mark 3:19; Luke 6:16).(马修10:4 CF马克3:19;。路加福音6:16)。So again in St. John's Gospel the name first occurs in connection with the foretelling of the betrayal: "Jesus answered them: Have not I chosen you twelve; and one of you is a devil? Now he meant Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon: for this same was about to betray him whereas he was one of the twelve" (John 6:71-2).所以,再一次在圣约翰福音的名字第一次出现在背叛的预言:“耶稣回答说:我没有选择你十二个月;和你有一个是魔鬼,现在他的意思是,西蒙的儿子犹大:此相同的是出卖他,而他的十二个的“(约翰6:71-2)。

In this passage St. John adds a further particular in mentioning the name of the traitor Apostle's father, which is not recorded by the other Evangelists.在这段圣约翰增加特别是在进一步提叛徒使徒的父亲的名字,这是不是由其他福音记录。And it is he again who tells us that Judas carried the purse.这是他再次告诉我们,犹大携带的钱包。For, after describing the anointing of Christ's feet by Mary at the feast in Bethania, the Evangelist continues:玛丽Bethania盛宴描述基督的脚恩膏后,对于传播者继续:

Then one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, he that was about to betray him, said: 'Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor?'然后他的门徒之一犹大,他是背叛他,说:“为什么没有三百年便士出售这种药膏,给穷人呢?”Now he said this, not because he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and having the purse, carried the things that were put therein (John 12:4-6).现在他说,不是因为他关心穷人,但因为他是一个小偷,钱包,其中,(约翰福音12:4-6)进行。

This fact that Judas carried the purse is again referred to by the same Evangelist in his account of the Last Supper (13:29).犹大进行的钱包再次提到这一事实,在他最后的晚餐“(13点29)的帐户相同的传播者。The Synoptic Gospels do not notice this office of Judas, nor do they say that it was he who protested at the alleged waste of the ointment.对观福音书不注意到这一点犹大办公室,也没有说,这是他在美中不足的指控浪费抗议。 But it is significant that both in Matthew and Mark the account of the anointing is closely followed by the story of the betrayal:但重要的是,马修和马克恩膏的帐户是背叛的故事紧随其后:

Then went one of the twelve, who was called Judas Iscariot, to the chief priests, and said to them: What will you give me, and I will deliver him unto you?然后去十二,谁被称为加略人犹大,祭司长,和对他们说:你给我,我会提供你们他吗?(Matthew 26:14-5) (马修26:14-5)

And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went to the chief priests, to betray him to them.十二之一,犹大,祭司长,他们背叛他。Who hearing it were glad; and they promised him they would give him money.谁听证会很高兴;他们答应了他,他们给他钱。(Mark 14:10-1) (马克14:10-1)

In both these accounts it will be noticed that Judas takes the initiative: he is not tempted and seduced by the priests, but approaches them on his own accord.在这两个帐户将注意到,犹大采取主动,他就是不动心和祭司的诱惑,但他们自己的方法。

St. Luke tells the same tale, but adds another touch by ascribing the deed to the instigation of Satan:圣卢克讲述相同的故事,但把契税撒旦的唆使下,增加了另一个触摸:

And Satan entered into Judas, who was surnamed Iscariot, one of the twelve.和撒旦进入犹大,谁是姓犹大,十二。And he went, and discoursed with the chief priests and the magistrates, how he might betray him to them.他接着,祭司长和裁判,他怎么可能会背叛他discoursed。And they were glad, and convenanted to give him money.他们很高兴的,并convenanted给他钱。And he promised.他答应。 And he sought opportunity to betray him in the absence of the multitude.他寻求机会,在千头万绪的情况下出卖他。(Luke 22:3-6) (路加福音22:3-6)

St. John likewise lays stress on the instigation of the evil spirit: "the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon, to betray him" (13:2).圣约翰同样注重指使邪恶的精神压力:(13:2)“魔鬼现在到犹大的心脏,西蒙的儿子,背叛他”。The same Evangelist, as we have seen, tells of an earlier intimation of Christ's foreknowledge of the betrayal (John 6:71-2), and in the same chapter says expressly: "For Jesus knew from the beginning, who they were that did not believe, and who he was, that would betray him" (6:65).正如我们已经看到,同样的传播者,告诉早些时候暗示基督的背叛预知(约翰6:71-2),并在同一章中明确表示:“耶​​稣从一开始,他们是谁,也知道不相信,他是谁,会背叛他“(6:65)。 But he agrees with the Synoptics in recording a more explicit prediction of the treachery at the Last Supper: "When Jesus had said these things, he was troubled in spirit; and he testified, and said: Amen, amen I say to you, one of you shall betray me" (John 12:21).但他同意的福音,在拍摄“最后的晚餐”的背叛更明确的预测:“当耶稣说这些东西,他是在精神困扰;他作证,说:阿门,阿门我对你说,一个你会背叛我“(约翰福音12:21)。 And when St. John himself, at Peter's request, asked who this was, "Jesus answered: He it is to whom I shall reach bread dipped. And when he had dipped the bread, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. And after the morsel, Satan entered into him. And Jesus said to him: That which thou dost, do quickly. Now no man at the table knew to what purpose he said this unto him. For some thought, because Judas had the purse, that Jesus said to him: Buy those things which we have need of for the festival day: or that he should give something to the poor" (12:26-9).圣约翰自己,在彼得的请求,询问谁是“耶稣回答说:他是我所应达到的面包蘸,当他蘸面包,他给了它,西蒙的儿子犹大。 。一口后,撒旦进入他进入耶稣对他说:这就是你多斯特,迅速做现在没有表的人都知道他这个对他说什么目的,对于有些人认为,因为犹大的钱包。耶稣对他说:买这些东西,我们需要为节日当天,他应该给穷人的东西“(12:26-9)。 These last details about the words of Jesus, and the natural surmise of the disciples, are given only by St. John.这些关于耶稣的话,自然的弟子揣,最后的细节只能由圣约翰。But the prediction and the questioning of the disciples are recorded by all the Synoptics (Matthew 26; Mark 14; Luke 22).但是,预测和质疑的弟子记录所有的福音(马太26日,14马克;卢克22)。St. Matthew adds that Judas himself asked, "Is it I, Rabbi?"马太补充说,犹大自己问,“是我,拉比?”and was answered: "Thou hast said it" (26:25).并回答说:“你说的”(26:25)。

All four Evangelists agree in regard to the main facts of the actual betrayal which followed so closely on this prediction, and tell how the traitor came with a multitude or a band of soldiers from the chief priests, and brought them to the place where, as he knew, Jesus would be found with His faithful disciples (Matthew 26:47; Mark 14:43; Luke 22:47; John 18:3).同意所有四个福音方面的实际背叛如此密切跟进这一预测的主要事实,并告诉的汉奸如何与众多或士兵从祭司长带,并给他们带来的地方,他知道,耶稣会发现他的忠信门徒(马太福音26:47,马可福音十四时43路加福音22时47,约翰18:3)。 But some have details not found in the other narratives.但有些细节没有发现其他的叙述。That the traitor gave a kiss as a sign is mentioned by all the Synoptics, but not by St. John, who in his turn is alone in telling us that those who came to take Jesus fell backward to the ground as He answered "I am he."叛徒给了一个吻作为一个标志,是所有的福音提到,但不是由圣约翰,轮到他告诉我们,那些来到耶稣下跌落后在地上,他回答“我是孤独的他 “Again, St. Mark tells that Judas said "Hail, Rabbi" before kissing his Master, but does not give any reply.同样,圣马可告诉犹大亲吻他的主人前说:“冰雹,拉比”,但不给予任何答复。St. Matthew, after recording these words and the traitor's kiss, adds: "And Jesus said to him: Friend, whereto art thou come:" (26:50).圣马太,记录这些文字和叛徒的吻后,补充说:“耶稣对他说:你来的朋友,whereto艺术:”(26:50)。 St. Luke (22:48) gives the words: "Judas, dost thou betray the Son of man with a kiss?"圣卢克(22时48)提供的话说:“犹大,难道你背叛的人用一个吻儿子呢?”

St. Matthew is the only Evangelist to mention the sum paid by the chief priests as the price of the betrayal, and in accordance with his custom he notices that an Old Testament prophecy has been fulfilled therein (Matthew 26:15; 27:5-10).马太提到祭司长背叛的价格支付的款项是唯一的传播者,并按照他的习惯,他注意到履行其中旧约预言(马太福音26:15; 27:5 - 10)。In this last passage he tells of the repentance and suicide of the traitor, on which the other Gospels are silent, though we have another account of these events in the speech of St. Peter:在这最后一段中,他告诉忏悔和自杀的叛徒,于其他福音是沉默的,虽然我们有另一个帐户在这些事件的圣彼得大教堂的讲话:

Men, brethren, the scripture must needs be fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was the leader of them that apprehended Jesus: who was numbered with us, and had obtained part of this ministry.男装,弟兄们,圣经必须得到满足,这圣灵发言之前由大卫关于犹大,谁是他们的领导者口中,逮捕耶稣:谁是编号与我们联系,并获得了该部的一部分。 And he indeed hath possessed a field of the reward of iniquity, and being hanged, burst asunder in the midst: and all his bowels gushed out.他的确祂所拥有的罪孽奖励领域,被绞死在中间,一阵四分五裂:和他的肠子涌出。And it became known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem: so that the same field was called in their tongue, Haceldama, that it to say, the field of blood.和它成为已知的所有耶路撒冷的居民,使同一领域,它说,在他们的舌头,Haceldama被称为血液领域。For it is written in the book of Psalms: Let their habitation become desolate, and let there be none to dwell therein.它是写在诗篇:让他们的居住成为荒凉,让有没有居其中。And his bishopric let another take.让他的主教,另取。(Acts 1:16-20. Cf. Psalm 68:26; 108:8)“(徒1:16-20 CF诗篇68:26; 108:8)

Some modern critics lay great stress on the apparent discrepancies between this passage in the Acts and the account given by St. Matthew.一些现代的批评奠定了很大的压力,通过这种在行为和圣马太帐户之间的明显差异。For St. Peter's words taken by themselves seem to imply that Judas himself bought the field with the price of his iniquity, and that it was called "field of blood" because of his death.对于自己所采取的圣彼得的话似乎暗示犹大自己买了他的罪孽价格的领域,它被称为“血”,因为他的死亡领域。But St. Matthew, on the other hand, says: "Then Judas, who betrayed him, seeing that he was condemned, repenting himself, brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and ancients, saying: I have sinned in betraying innocent blood. But they said: What is that to us? Look thou to it. And casting down the pieces of silver in the temple, he departed: and went and hanged himself with an halter."但圣马太,另一方面,说:“犹大,背叛了他,看到他被谴责,忏悔自己,然后带回银30件祭司长和古人,说:我有背叛罪。无辜人的血,但他们说:那是给我们看你和铸造件在寺庙中银,他离去?。去上吊用自己露背“。 After this the Evangelist goes on to tell how the priests, who scrupled to put the money in the corbona because it was the price of blood, spent it in buying the potter's field for the burial of strangers, which for this cause was called the field of blood.后,这对传播者云就来告诉如何的祭司,谁scrupled到放的corbona的钱,是因为血的代价,花费在购买的陌生人的埋葬,这为这项事业是所谓的外地窑匠的领域,血。 And in this St. Matthew sees the fulfillment of the prophecy ascribed to Jeremias (but found in Zechariah 11:12): "And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was prized, whom they prized of the children of Israel. And they gave them unto the potter's field, as the Lord appointed to me" (Matthew 27:9, 10).归因于赫雷米亚斯(但发现在撒迦利亚书11时12分)预言的实现,并认为在这圣马太:“他们花了三十件银,他的价格被撬开,他们对儿童的珍贵他们给了以色列。你们波特的领域,作为主委任我“(马太福音27:9,10)。

But there does not seem to be any great difficulty in reconciling the two accounts.但似乎没有任何调和这两个帐户的伟大困难。For the field, bought with the rejected price of his treachery, might well be described as indirectly bought or possessed by Judas, albeit he did not buy it himself.领域,拒绝的价格买了他的背叛,可能被描述为间接购买或拥有犹大,虽然他不买自己。And St. Peter's words about the name Haceldama might be referred to the "reward of iniquity" as well as the violent death of the traitor.名称Haceldama圣彼得的话,可能被称为“罪孽奖励”,以及暴力死亡的叛徒。Similar difficulties are raised as to the discrepancies in detail discovered in the various accounts of the betrayal itself.类似的困难,提出了详细的背叛本身的各种账目中发现的差异。But it will be found that, without doing violence to the text, the narratives of the four Evangelists can be brought into harmony, though in any case there will remain some obscure or doubtful points.但它会被发现,没有做暴力的文字,四福音的叙述可以带来和谐,但在任何情况下,仍将有一些模糊或疑点。 It is disputed, for instance, whether Judas was present at the institution of the Holy Eucharist and communicated with the other Apostles.它是有争议的,例如,是否犹大是在圣体圣事的机构,并与其他使徒沟通。But the balance of authority is in favour of the affirmative.但权力的平衡是赞成肯定的。There has also been some difference of opinion as to the time of the treachery.被背叛时,也有一些不同的意见。Some consider that it was suddenly determined on by Judas after the anointing at Bethania, while others suppose a longer negotiation with the chief priests.有些人认为,这是突然决定的上犹大后Bethania恩膏,而其他假设与祭司长较长的谈判。

But these textual difficulties and questions of detail fade into insignificance beside the great moral problem presented by the fall and treachery of Judas.但是,这些文字上的困难和问题的详细褪色到旁边的秋季和犹大的背叛伟大的道德问题的渺小。In a very true sense, all sin is a mystery.在一个非常真实的的意义上说,所有的罪是一个谜。And the difficulty is greater with the greatness of the guilt, with the smallness of the motive for doing wrong, and with the measure of the knowledge and graces vouchsafed to the offender.和难点是有罪的伟大,做错的动机很小,并且赐予的知识和青睐措施的罪犯。In every way the treachery of Judas would seem to be the most mysterious and unintelligible of sins.以各种方式犹大的背叛似乎是最神秘的和难以理解的罪孽。For how could one chosen as a disciple, and enjoying the grace of the Apostolate and the privilege of intimate friendship with the Divine Master, be tempted to such gross ingratitude for such a paltry price?对于何以选择为弟子,并享受使徒的恩典和亲密的友谊与神圣的主的特权,被引诱到这样一个微不足道的价格总值忘恩负义? And the difficulty is greater when it is remembered that the Master thus basely betrayed was not hard and stern, but a Lord of loving kindness and compassion.和难度较大的时候才想起,从而basely背叛师父不硬和船尾,但主的慈爱和怜悯。Looked at in any light the crime is so incredible, both in itself and in all its circumstances, that it is no wonder that many attempts have been made to give some more intelligible explanation of its origin and motives, and, from the wild dreams of ancient heretics to the bold speculations of modern critics, the problem presented by Judas and his treachery has been the subject of strange and startling theories.犯罪在任何光线下看是如此令人难以置信,无论是在本身和其在所有情况下,这是难怪许多尝试已取得一些更容易理解的解释,它的起源和动机,并从狂野的梦想古代异教徒现代批评的大胆揣测,由犹大和他的的背叛提出的问题一直是奇怪的和令人吃惊的理论。 As a traitor naturally excites a peculiarly violent hatred, especially among those devoted to the cause or person betrayed, it was only natural that Christians should regard Judas with loathing, and, if it were possible, paint him blacker than he was by allowing him no good qualities at all.由于叛徒自然兴奋,尤其是那些致力于事业或人出卖,一个独有的暴力仇恨,它只是自然,基督徒要把憎恶犹大,,如果有可能,油漆他,让他没有比他的黑在所有的优良品质。 This would be an extreme view which, in some respects, lessens the difficulty.这将是一个极端的观点,在某些方面,降低了难度。 For if it be supposed that he never really believed, if he was a false disciple from the first, or, as the Apocryphal Arabic Gospel of the Infancy has it, was possessed by Satan even in his childhood, he would not have felt the holy influence of Christ or enjoyed the light and spiritual gifts of the Apostolate.如果应该,他从来没有真正相信,如果他从第一个虚假的弟子,或猜测幼年阿拉伯语福音,甚至被撒旦附身在他的童年,他不会感到神圣基督的影响,或享有的使徒的光线和属灵的恩赐。

At the opposite extreme is the strange view held by the early Gnostic sect known as the Cainites described by St. Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., I, c. ult.), and more fully by Tertullian (Praesc. Haeretic., xlvii), and St. Epiphanius (Haeres., xxxviii).相反的极端是由早期诺斯底教派被称为圣irenæus描述的Cainites举行(Adv. Haer。C. ULT,我奇怪的看法。)和​​特土良(Praesc. Haeretic。XLVII)充分圣埃皮法尼乌斯(Haeres. XXXVIII)。 Certain of these heretics, whose opinion has been revived by some modern writers in a more plausible form, maintained that Judas was really enlightened, and acted as he did in order that mankind might be redeemed by the death of Christ.这些异端,谁的意见已经恢复一些现代作家在一个更合理的的形式,保持犹大是真是不看不知道,并采取行动,以便像他那样,人类可能是由基督的死赎回肯定。 For this reason they regarded him as worthy of gratitude and veneration.出于这个原因,他们认为他值得感谢和敬仰。In the modern version of this theory it is suggested that Judas, who in common with the other disciples looked for a temporal kingdom of the Messias, did not anticipate the death of Christ, but wished to precipitate a crisis and hasten the hour of triumph, thinking that the arrest would provoke a rising of the people who would set Him free and place Him on the throne.在这一理论的现代版提出,与其他弟子共同看着一时间王国的messias,犹大没有预料到基督的死,但希望促成危机和加快胜利小时,思想,逮捕挑起上升的人谁会为他免费放在他的王位。 In support of this they point to the fact that, when he found that Christ was condemned and given up to the Romans, he immediately repented of what he had done.在支持他们指出,事实上,当他发现基督是罗马人的谴责和放弃,他所做的一切,他立即悔改。But, as Strauss remarks, this repentance does not prove that the result had not been foreseen.但是,正如施特劳斯的言论,这悔改并不证明结果没有预见。For murderers, who have killed their victims with deliberate design, are often moved to remorse when the deed is actually done.对于凶手,谁杀害,故意设计他们的受害者,往往提出要反省时的契税实际上是做。A Catholic, in any case, cannot view these theories with favour since they are plainly repugnant to the text of Scripture and the interpretation of tradition.一名天主教徒,在任何情况下,不能查看与赞成这些理论,因为他们显然是令人反感的圣经和传统的解释的文本。However difficult it may be to understand, we cannot question the guilt of Judas.但它可能是理解的困难,我们不能质疑的犹大的罪责。On the other hand we cannot take the opposite view of those who would deny that he was once a real disciple.另一方面,我们不能走相反的观点,这些人会否认他曾经是一个真正的弟子。For, in the first place, this view seems hard to reconcile with the fact that he was chosen by Christ to be one of the Twelve.,摆在首位,这种观点似乎难以调和,他选择由基督十二。This choice, it may be safely said, implies some good qualities and the gift of no mean graces.它可能是地说,这样的选择,意味着一些良好的素质和没有意思青睐的礼物。But, apart from this consideration, it may be urged that in exaggerating the original malice of Judas, or denying that there was even any good in him, we minimize or miss the lesson of this fall.但是,除了这样的考虑,它可能会敦促,在原来的恶意夸大的犹大,或者拒绝,甚至出现了对他有什么好处,我们最大限度地减少或错过今年秋天的教训。 The examples of the saints are lost on us if we think of them as being of another order without our human weaknesses.圣人的例子是对我们失去了,如果我们把他们看作是另一种秩序,没有我们人类的弱点。And in the same way it is a grave mistake to think of Judas as a demon without any elements of goodness and grace.以同样的方式,它是一个严重的错误,认为犹大作为一个恶魔,没有善良和优雅的任何元素。In his fall is left a warning that even the great grace of the Apostolate and the familiar friendship of Jesus may be of no avail to one who is unfaithful.在他的秋天是留下了一个警告,即使是伟大的使徒和耶稣熟悉友谊的恩典可能无济于事,谁是不忠。And, though nothing should be allowed to palliate the guilt of the great betrayal, it may become more intelligible if we think of it as the outcome of gradual failing in lesser things. ,但没有应允许缓和伟大的背叛有罪,它有可能变得更容易理解,如果我们认为它是逐步在较小的事情失败的结果。So again the repentance may be taken to imply that the traitor deceived himself by a false hope that after all Christ might pass through the midst of His enemies as He had done before at the brow of the mountain.所以,再一次的悔改,可采取暗示,汉奸欺骗自己一个虚假的希望,毕竟基督通过他的敌人中可能通过像他那样在山的眉头前。 And though the circumstances of the death of the traitor give too much reason to fear the worst, the Sacred Text does not distinctly reject the possibility of real repentance.虽然叛徒死亡的情况下给予过多的原因,担心最坏的情况,神圣的文本不显着拒绝的真正悔改的可能性。And Origen strangely supposed that Judas hanged himself in order to seek Christ in the other world and ask His pardon (In Matt., tract. xxxv).和奥利奇怪假定犹大上吊自杀,以寻求在另一个世界的基督,并要求他原谅(马特。道。XXXV)。

Publication information Written by WH Kent.由WH肯特编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.转录由托马斯M巴雷特。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

CHRYSOSTOMUS, Hom.CHRYSOSTOMUS,坎。De Juda Proditore: MALDONATUS and other commentators on New Testament; EPIPHANIUS, Haeres., xxxviii; Legend on death of Judas in SUICER, Thesaurus.德犹大Proditore:MALDONATUS和其他评论家对新约;埃皮法尼乌斯,Haeres,三十八;传说SUICER犹大,词库死亡。 Modern view in STRAUSS, Das Leben Jesu.现代观点斯特劳斯,别人的生活Jesu。


Judas Iscariot犹大

Orthodox Information东正教信息

(This information may not be of the scholastic quality of the other articles in BELIEVE. Since few Orthodox scholarly articles have been translated into English, we have had to rely on Orthodox Wiki as a source. Since the Wikipedia collections do not indicate the author's name for articles, and essentially anyone is free to edit or alter any of their articles (again, without any indication of what was changed or who changed it), we have concerns. However, in order to include an Orthodox perspective in some of our subject presentations, we have found it necessary to do this. At least until actual scholarly Orthodox texts are translated from the Greek originals!) (此信息的信奉的其他文章的学术质量。由于少数东正教学术文章已被译成英文翻译,我们都不得不依靠作为源东正教的Wiki。以来的维基百科集合做不注明作者的姓名的文章,而且基本上任何人自由编辑或改变任何自己的文章(再没有什么改变,或改变它的任何指示),我们有顾虑。然而,为了在我们的一些主题,包括东正教的角度介绍,我们发现有必要做到这一点。,至少要等到实际学术东正教文本翻译从希腊原件!)

Judas Iscariot was originally one of the twelve apostles, but is known for his betrayal of Jesus Christ.犹大最初的十二门徒之一,但他背叛耶稣基督的。The Wednesday fast commemorates the sorrow at this betrayal, and it is one of the events commemorated in the services of Holy Thursday.周三快速纪念在这个背叛的悲哀,它是在圣周四的服务纪念的事件之一。His place among the apostles was taken by Matthias after a vote.表决后,他在使徒中的地位是由Matthias。He was the son of Simon Iscariot; Iscariot refers to his place of birth, Judea.他的儿子西蒙犹大,犹大是指他的出生地,犹太。The other apostles were all from Galilee.其他使徒从加利利。He is not to be confused with the Apostle Jude, brother of James.他是不能混淆的使徒犹大,雅各的兄弟。

Betrayal背叛

Plot against Jesus暗算耶稣

Judas agreed with the chief priests of the Jews to betray Jesus for thirty pieces of silver (cf. Matthew 26:14-16, Mark 14:10-11, Luke 22:1-6, John 13:2-3).犹大出卖耶稣为30两银子(参见马太26:14-16,马可福音14:10-11,路加福音22:1-6,约翰13:2-3)犹太人的祭司长同意。

Mystical Supper神秘的晚餐

Jesus revealed at the Mystical Supper that Judas would betray Him, fulfilling the prophecy from the Old Testament.耶稣显示,在神秘的晚餐,犹大出卖他,实现从旧约的预言。After the bread was blessed and broken, Judas left to fetch a guard to arrest Jesus (cf. Matthew 26:20-25; Mark 14:18-21; Luke 22:21-23; John 13:10-11, 18-29).是祝福和碎面包后,犹大离开来获取一个卫兵逮捕耶稣(参见马太26:20-25,马可福音14:18-21,路加福音22:21-23;约翰福音13:10-11,18 - 29)。

Arrest逮捕

After Jesus and His apostles had eaten the meal, Judas came with an armed crowd and betrayed Jesus with a kiss.犹大耶稣和他的使徒吃了一顿后,带着武装的人群,并用一个吻出卖耶稣。Jesus allowed this because it was part of the burden He chose to accept (cf. Matthew 26:46-50, Mark 14:42-45, Luke 22:47-48, John 18:2-5).耶稣允许的,因为它是负担,他选择接受(参见马太26:46-50,马可福音14:42-45,路加福音22:47-48,约翰福音18:2-5)的一部分。

Death死亡

There are two accounts of Judas' death.有两个帐户的犹大“死亡。
Judas, remorseful, tried to return the money, but was refused, so he threw it into the temple.犹大,懊悔,试图返回的钱,但遭到拒绝,所以他全身心地投入到寺庙。He hanged himself.他上吊自杀了。 The money was used to purchase a potter's field as a burial place for foreigners (cf. Matthew 27:3-10).这笔钱被用于购买一个波特的领域,作为一个外国人的埋葬地点(参见马太27:3-10)。
Judas bought a field where he fell and died (cf. Acts 1:18-19).犹大买下跌的一个领域,他和死亡(参徒1:18-19)。

Theological meaning神学的意义

The betrayal of Christ was foretold in the prophets of the Old Testament, Jeremiah and Zachariah.旧约耶利米书和撒迦利亚先知预言基督的背叛。

In the services of Holy Wednesday, Judas is contrasted with the sinful woman who anointed Jesus with costly perfume (Matthew 26:6-13).在圣日(星期三)的服务,犹大是对比与有罪的女人膏抹与昂贵的香水,耶稣(马太福音26:6-13)。

In the prayers of preparation before receiving the Holy Eucharist, he is contrasted with the the thief who confessed Christ on the cross: "I will not reveal your mysteries to your enemies, neither like Judas will I betray you with a kiss, but like the thief on the cross I will confess you: 'Remember me, Lord, when You come into Your Kingdom.'"在接受圣体圣事前祈祷的准备,他是对比与基督在十字架上的人供述:“我不会透露您的奥秘,你的敌人既不像犹大,用一个吻将我出卖你的贼,但像小偷在十字架上,我会承认你:“记住我,主,当你进入你的国降临。”

External links外部链接

Great and Holy Thursday (GOARCH)大和圣周四(GOARCH)
Bridegroom Services: Palm Sunday Evening through Holy Wednesday (GOARCH)新郎服务:通过圣日(星期三)(GOARCH棕榈星期天晚上)
"The Twelve Apostles" by Rev. George Mastrantonis (GOARCH)“十二使徒”牧师乔治Mastrantonis(GOARCH)


Judas Iscariot犹大

Coptic Orthodox Information科普特东正教信息

Judas Iscariot was from the village of Kerioth in Judea.犹大是从Kerioth在朱迪亚村。He was the only apostle who was not a Galilean.他是唯一的使徒谁没有伽利略。Judas' name means "Praise."犹大的名字的意思是“赞美”。It is thought because of this, that his unknown mother and his father, Simon Iscariot, were faithful Jews.据认为,正因为如此,,不知道他的母亲和他的父亲,犹大,西门是忠实的犹太人。

Judas was probably drawn to Jesus by the preaching of John the Baptist.犹大可能吸引到耶稣施洗约翰讲道。His heart was prepared to receive the teaching of Jesus because John pointed the way to the coming kingdom and the Messiah.他的心脏准备接受耶稣的教学,因为约翰指明了方向,未来的王国和弥赛亚。Along with the other apostles, Judas had been called to walk in the footsteps of Jesus and to share in his sufferings and self-denials.随着其他使徒犹大被称为走在耶稣的脚步,并分享他的痛苦和自我否认。Judas, with the others, preached the kingdom, healed the sick, and cast out demons by the power of God's Holy Spirit.犹大,与他人,宣扬王国,医治病人,并投出恶魔神的圣灵的力量。Judas was privileged to be constantly with his Savior for three and a half years.犹大荣幸能与他3年半的救主不断。He witnessed the purity of Jesus' life and his loyalty and obedience to his Heavenly Father.他见证了耶稣的生命的纯度和他的忠诚和服从他的天父。

Characteristics of This Disciple这个徒弟的特点

The other disciples and Jesus recognized in Judas a very good business sense and they placed him in charge of their treasury.其他门徒和耶稣承认在犹大的一个很好的商业意识和它们放置在他自己的国库。Jesus and his full-time followers didn't have time to work at secular jobs.耶稣和他的全职追随者没有时间工作在世俗的工作。 They needed to devote their entire time to preaching the kingdom, and so some of Jesus' followers voluntarily donated money for their financial support (Luke 8:1-3).他们需要宣讲王国奉献自己的全部时间,而且使一些耶稣的追随者自愿捐赠的钱为他们的金融支持(路加福音8:1-3)。 Judas was probably very trustworthy at first in his responsibilities with the treasury and in his duties to go forth and preach the kingdom.犹大可能是第一个非常值得信赖的,在他的责任和与国库在他的职责去提出和鼓吹王国。 All of the apostles had the same privileges and special guidance of the Holy Spirit, all were tested as to their loyalty to Jesus, and all but Judas were submissive to their testing.所有的使徒同样的特权和圣灵的特别指导,所有被测试他们对耶稣的忠诚,但犹大顺从他们的测试。Judas had certain expectations of what his Lord would do to bring about the kingdom.犹大有一定的期望,他的主会带来王国。 Judas' love and devotion to Jesus was tested more and more, and soon the seed of pride and self-will took root.犹大“爱岗敬业耶稣测试越来越多,很快自豪感和自我意志的种子扎下了根。In time it took over his entire character.随着时间的推移,它接管了他的整个字符。The more time went on, the more Judas became entrenched in his own will.更多的时间的推移,更多的犹大成为盘踞在他自己的意志。Judas, no doubt, thought of the treasury as a means to also bring about his plans.犹大,毫无疑问,思想国库作为一种手段,也带来了他的计划。He hoarded the purse of money as if it were his own.他囤积钱的钱包,就好像它是自己的。He became obsessed with the idea of money.他成为了痴迷的钱的想法。Six days before Jesus was crucified, Judas was so concerned about money that he rebuked the Lord for allowing Mary to pour her precious ointment upon his head.前六天,耶稣被钉在十字架上,犹大是钱的问题,他怒斥主让小丽倒在他头上她珍贵的软膏。He exclaimed, "What a waste! This ointment might have been sold for a year's wage and given to the poor!"他感叹道,“浪费了!这药膏可能已经卖了一年的工资,并给穷人!”How wrong it was for Judas to have criticized this sweet sacrifice of Mary.错了犹大批评玛丽甜牺牲。And how doubly wrong to criticize his Master in front of all his followers.错上加错,在所有他的追随者面前批评他的主人。He even got some of the others to join in the criticism.他甚至得到了其他一些批评加入。But Jesus rebuked him back saying, "Leave her alone for she anoints me for my burial!"但耶稣斥责他说:“放过她,她anoints为我安葬我!”Judas' pretended zeal for the poor was really greed for his purse (Matthew 26:7-12; John 12:3-8).犹大假装热情“为穷人真的很为他的钱包的贪婪(马太26:7-12;约翰福音12:3-8)。The love of money ensnared Judas and his love for his Lord was in question (1 Timothy 6:10).钱圈套犹大和他的爱,他的主的爱中的问题(1提摩太前书6:10)。

The final event of Judas' life proved that he no longer lived to serve his Lord Jesus, but he now lived to serve himself and his schemes.犹大“生命的最后一件大事,事实证明,他不再生活为他的主耶稣,但他现在的生活,为自己和他的计划。He no longer was inspired by his Lord Jesus, but was now inspired by the prince of evil, Satan (John 13:2).他不再是他的主耶稣的启发,但现在撒旦邪恶的王子,(约翰福音13:2)的启发。After the incident with Mary, Judas went to the chief priests who had already been plotting to rid themselves of Jesus, and he said, "What will you give me if I deliver Jesus to you?"与玛丽的事件发生后,犹大已经密谋摆脱自己对耶稣的祭司长,和他说,“你会怎么给我,如果我给你提供耶稣吗?”They contracted to pay him 30 pieces of silver.他们承包给他30两银子。This was prophesied in Zechariah 11:12-13.这是预言撒迦利亚11:12-13。From this point on, Judas sought an opportunity to betray Jesus (Matthew 26:14-16).从这个角度上,犹大寻求机会出卖耶稣(马太福音26:14-16)。So when the night of the Passover had come, Jesus said to the Twelve, "It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish."因此,当逾越节的晚上已经来了,耶稣十二说,“这是一个人,我会给这片面包时,我有蘸菜。”Then, dipping the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas Iscariot.然后,浸渍一块面包,他给了犹大。Even with all of the clues, the others still did not know of Judas' treachery (John 13:26-29).即使所有的线索,其他人仍然不知道犹大“背叛”(约翰福音13:26-29)。When someone shared a meal with another it represented a vow of trust and friendship.当一个人与另一个共享一餐,它代表了信任和友谊的誓言。Judas did not belong at the Last Supper.犹大不属于“最后的晚餐”。It was after this that Jesus told Judas to leave and be about his evil business.这是在此之后,耶稣告诉犹大离开和他邪恶的业务。 Judas left and went straight to the chief priests.犹大离开,直奔祭司长。Jesus was in the Garden of Gethsemane when Judas led a multitude of priests, servants and elders to his Master.耶稣在客西马尼园时,犹大率领众多的牧师,公务员和长辈,他的主人。Judas came to Jesus and said, "Greetings, Rabbi," (Matthew 26:49) and then he kissed Jesus.犹大来到耶稣说,“问候,拉比,”(马太福音26:49),然后他吻了耶稣。Even then Judas thought of Jesus as his Master and probably thought of this whole event as a way to get Jesus to take control.即使在那时,犹大认为耶稣为他的主人,可能是这整个事件的思想作为一种方式来获得耶稣采取控制。But the group seized Jesus and led him away to be crucified.但本集团抓住耶稣,并导致他带走了被钉在十字架上。When Judas saw that he was wrong and that his plans had failed, he went back to the chief priests the next morning and said, "I have sinned for I have betrayed innocent blood."当犹大看到,他错了,并,他的计划已经失败,他又回到祭司长的第二天早晨,说:“我犯了罪,我已经背叛了无辜人的血。” And they said, "What is that to us? That is your responsibility!"他们说,“那是什么给我们?这是你的责任!”(Matthew 27:4-5). (马太福音27:4-5)。Judas threw down the pieces of silver, ran away and hanged himself.犹大扔下银,跑开,上吊自杀。

Did Judas repent of his crime?没有犹大悔改,他的罪行吗?From what we know, it doesn't appear so.从我们所知道的,所以它不会出现。In Acts we are told that another was selected "to take over this apostolic ministry, which Judas left to go where he belongs" (1:25).在使徒行传告诉我们,另一个被选为“接管这一使徒部,犹大离开去哪里,他属于”(1:25)。The final determination concerning Judas is in the Lord's hands.关于犹大的最终裁定是在主的手中。All we can do is examine Judas' actions and apply lessons from his experiences to our own characters.所有我们能做的就是检查犹大“行动,从他的经验,我们自己的角色和应用的经验教训。Never did he cry out to his Master, "oh, Lord, forgive! I am sorry, I was so wrong!"他从来没有大声呼喊他的主人,“哦,主,原谅!对不起,我是如此错误!”No, instead he went to his accomplices in crime, the chief priests who could grant no forgiveness.不,相反,他去他的同伙犯罪,祭司长,谁可以授予没有宽恕。His pride kept him from facing his brethren and seeking their forgiveness and their help to recover from his sins.他的自尊心,使他面对他的弟兄们,并寻求他们的宽恕和他们的帮助,以恢复他的罪过。When the Apostle Peter sinned by denying the Lord three times, he humbly returned to his brothers and repented.当使徒彼得否认主三次犯了罪,他谦虚地回到他的兄弟和悔改。Judas acted pridefully to the end.犹大担任pridefully结束。In his mind he thought the only way out was to kill himself, for to turn back would have meant admitting to all that he was wrong.在他的心目中,他认为唯一的出路是自杀,回头就意味着承认他错了。He didn't think of the special assistance of the Holy Spirit that he was provided.他没想到的圣灵,他提供特别援助。He selfishly ended his covenant to deny himself, take up his cross and follow Jesus.他自私地结束了他的约舍己,背起他的十字架跟随耶稣。Instead, he committed suicide.相反,他是自杀。

In the case of Judas, Jesus offered many opportunities for Judas to repent.耶稣在犹大的情况下,提供了很多机会犹大悔改。Jesus was of a gentle and generous spirit toward Judas right up to the very last act when Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss.耶稣对犹大的温柔大方的精神是一个到最后一幕时,犹大出卖耶稣用一个吻。Judas still had a choice at that point to seek forgiveness from his Master.犹大仍然有一个选择,在这一点上寻求从他的主人宽恕。

We should take to heart the lesson of this gentle manner of Jesus when dealing with those who oppose us.与那些反对我们的人打交道时,我们应采取的心脏,这个耶稣温柔的方式的教训。We must keep in mind that we are not the judges of our brethrens' hearts.我们必须牢记,我们是不是我们brethrens心中的法官。 Both Peter and Judas opposed the Lord, but Jesus was loving and patient with them.彼得和犹大都反对主,但耶稣的爱心和耐心。 He worked with them to help bring them back into harmony with God.他曾与他们帮助重新把他们与神的和谐。God allowed Peter to stray far from faith for a time only to show Peter the lesson of his frail flesh.上帝允许彼得远远偏离了一段时间的信仰,只是为了显示彼得他体弱肉的教训。Some of our fellow Christians may stray far from the Lord as well, and, yet, there is still hope to the end.我们的一些同胞基督徒可能远离主流浪以及,和,然而,还是有希望的结束。Judas Iscariot had every opportunity to be purified by the truth and be useful in the work of the Lord, but instead he became a servant of Satan.犹大每一个得到净化的真相,并在主的工作是有益的机会,而是他成为了撒旦的仆人。 Jesus said that of the twelve apostles given to him by his Heavenly Father, "None has been lost except the one doomed to destruction" (John 17:12).耶稣说,他的天父给予他的十二使徒(约翰福音17:12)“没有已丢失除必自毙”。Jesus also said, "But woe to that man who betrays the Son of Man! It would be better for him if he had not been born" (Matthew 26:24; John 6:70).耶稣也说,“但祸的人背叛了人子,将更好地为他,如果他没有被出生!”(马太福音26:24;约翰福音6:70)。Judas gave up his privilege as a faithful follower of Jesus: one who would be worthy to be called one of the twelve Apostles of the Lamb.犹大是耶稣的忠实追随者放弃他的特权:一会是谁值得被称为羔羊的十二使徒之一。 Though we learn lessons from the life of Judas Iscariot, we cannot claim him as one who is a firm foundation to the Church.虽然我们从犹大的生活学习的经验教训,我们不能声称他是谁教会了坚实的基础。Instead, the honored place he would have held as being part of the Messiah's work was filled by another.相反,他将作为弥赛亚的工作的一部分举行的荣幸地方填补了另一个。

The symbol for Judas is a bag and thirty pieces of silver.对于犹大的象征,是一个包和30个银币。 The moneybag reminds us that Judas was the treasurer of the disciples and that he helped himself to its contents (12:6).钱袋提醒我们,犹大是掌柜的弟子,他帮助自己及其内容(12:6)。The thirty pieces of silver was his payment for betraying the Lord.银的30件是他出卖主的支付。Another symbol shows thirty coins above a rope in the form of a "J."另一种符号显示在一个“J”的形式,一根绳子以上30硬币Sometimes the symbol is totally blank indicating the traitor deserves no remembrance.有时是完全空白的说明的汉奸没有值得怀念的符号。

James F. Korthals詹姆斯F Korthals



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