(Divine) Judgment神的审判

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Because we are born in sin and therefore cannot live up to God's righteous standards, condemnation (damnation, the older synonym, has other connotations today) hangs over our heads like the sword of Damocles (II Pet. 2:3; Rom. 1:18; Eph. 5:5-6; Col. 3:5-6).因为我们出生于罪,因此不能辜负上帝的正义标准,谴责(诅咒的,旧的代名词,还有其他的内涵今天)挂起像在我们头上的达摩克利斯之剑(二宠物2:3; ROM 1。 18;弗5:5-6;上校3:5-6)。God himself is the one who condemns (Job 10:2; Jer. 42:18; John 12:48).神是谁谴责(约伯记10:2;耶42:18;约翰12点48)。 His condemnation is based on his justice, and such condemnation is deserved (I Kings 8:32; Rom. 3:8; Gal. 1:8-9).他谴责是基于他的公义,这种谴责是理所当然的(列王记上8:32;罗3:8;。加拉太书1:8-9)。Condemnation comes to the wicked and unrepentant (Matt. 12:41-42; Luke 11:31-32; John 5:29; Rom. 5:16, 18; II Thess. 2:12; Rev. 19:2) and results in eternal punishment (Matt. 23:33), but no OT believer who trusted in God (Ps. 34:22) or NT believer who trusts in Christ (John 3:18; 5:24) will be condemned.谴责来自邪恶和死不悔改(太12:41-42,路加福音11:31-32;约翰5:29;罗5:16,18;。二帖前2:12;牧师19时02分)和在永恒的惩罚(马太福音23点33分),但没有旧约的信徒在神(诗篇34:22)或NT的信徒在基督信托(约翰福音3:18; 5:24)信任的结果将予以谴责。Jesus came to save rather than to condemn (John 3:17), and he frees us from final condemnation (Rom. 8:1-2).耶稣来保存,而不是谴责(约翰福音3:17),他使我们从最后的谴责(罗马书8:1-2)。

Conscience may cause us to condemn ourselves (I John 3:19-21), but no one can justly condemn the righteous if God is on his side (Isa. 50:9; Titus 2:7-8).良心可能会导致我们谴责自己(约翰一书3:19-21),但没有人可以理直气壮地谴责正义的,如果上帝在他的身边(以赛亚书50:9;提多书2:7-8)。 In fact, the Lord prevents or reverses unfair condemnation by our enemies (Pss. 37:33; 79:11; 102:19-20; 109:31).事实上,主阻止或逆转我们的敌人不公平的谴责(Pss. 37:33; 79:11; 102:19-20; 109:31)。Self-righteous people should avoid condemning others (Job 32:3; Luke 6:37; Rom. 8:34; 14:3) because quickness to condemn may recoil on their own heads (Job 15:6; Ps. 34:21; Luke 6:37; Rom. 2:1; Titus 3:10-11).自以为是的人应该避免谴责别人(职位32:3;路加福音6时37分;罗马书8时34分; 14:3),因为速度谴责在自己头上可能反冲(作业15点06分,PS 34:21。路加福音6点37分;罗2:1;提多书3:10-11)。Needless to say, it is the height of arrogance and folly for sinful people to condemn a just and omnipotent God (Job 34:17, 29; 40:8).不用说,这是傲慢和愚蠢的罪孽深重的人,谴责公正和无所不能的神(求职34:17,29; 40:8)的高度。

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Divine judgment is God's method of displaying his mercy as well as his wrath toward individuals and nations (Exod. 6:6, 7:4; Eccles. 3:17; 12:14; Dan. 7:22; Joel 3:2; II Cor. 5:10).神圣的判决是上帝的方法显示他的怜悯,以及他对个人和国家的愤怒(出6:6,7:4;埃克尔斯3:17; 12:14;丹7:22;乔尔3:2;二肺心病。5:10)。As God is the one who condemns, so also he is the true and only Judge (Gen. 18:25; Ps. 82:1; Eccles. 11:9), an office and function shared by the Father (Gen. 31:53; John 8:50; Rom. 3:6) and the Son (Acts 10:42; 17:31; Rom. 2:16).作为上帝的谴责,所以他是真正的和唯一的法官(创18时25分;诗82:1;埃克尔斯11时09分。),办公室和功能共享的父亲(创31: 53,约翰8:50;罗3:6)和儿子(使徒行传10:42;。17点31;罗马书2:16)。Retributive or negative judgment is a direct result of sin (I Sam. 3:13; Ezek. 7:3, 8, 27; Rom. 2:12; Jude 14-15) and is therefore both just (Ezek. 33:20; II Tim. 4:8; I Pet. 2:23) and deserved (Pss. 94:2; 143:2; Ezek. 18:30).报应或负面的判断是一个罪恶的直接结果(我心3:13;。以西结书7:3,8,27;罗马书2:12;。裘德14-15),因此,这两个刚(以西结书33:20 ;第二添4时08分;。彼前2:23),值得(Pss. 94:2;。143:2;以西结书十八点30分)。Rewarding or positive judgment relates to the believer's stewardship of his talents and gifts and is therefore characterized by divine compassion (Matt. 25:14-23; I Cor. 3:12-15; I Pet. 1:17).奖励或积极的判断,涉及到信徒的管理自己的才华和礼品,因此,特点是神的怜悯(太25:14-23;哥林多前书3:12-15;彼前1:17。)。 Although we experience judgment initially in this life, all of us are judged ultimately after death (Isa. 66:16; Jer. 25:31; Joel 3:12; John 12:48; Acts 17:31; Rom. 2:16; Rev. 20:12-13) at the judgment seat of God (Rom. 14:10) or Christ (II Cor. 5:10).虽然我们的经验初步判断,这辈子我们所有人都判断最终死后(以赛亚书66:16;耶25:31;乔尔3:12;约翰12点48;行为17点31分;罗2:16。启示录20:12-13)神(罗马书14点10分)或基督(二林前5:10)的审判席。 Self-judgment, another manifestation of the same activity, is brought about by rebellion and willfulness (Rom. 13:2; I Cor. 11:29; I Tim. 5:12).所带来的自我判断,同一活动的另一种表现形式,是反叛和任性(罗马书13时02分,我肺心病11时29分;我添五点12分)。

It is not only human beings who are judged, however, God also judges other gods, real or imagined (Exod. 12:12; Num. 33:4; Jer. 10:14-15), and angels as well (II Pet. 2:4; Jude 6).判断它不仅是人类,但是,上帝也法官以及其他神,真实或想象的(出埃及记12时12分;数33:4;耶10:14-15),和天使(二宠物2:4;犹6)。 The devil himself is not exempt from such judgment (I Tim. 3:6).魔鬼是不是从这样的判断(我添。3:6)的豁免。And although in the final analysis God is the only judge, he has chosen to allow us to participate with Christ in judging the world (Matt. 19:28; Luke 22:30; I Cor. 6:2; Rev. 20:4), including the angels (I Cor. 6:3).虽然在最后的分析,神是唯一的判断,他选择了让我们在判断世界与基督参与(马太19时28分,路加福音22:30;林前6:2;牧师20时04分),包括天使(我肺心病。6:3)。

The story of Noah's flood contains several principles concerning divine judgment that are worth careful consideration.挪亚洪水的故事中包含了神圣的判断,是值得认真考虑的几个原则。(1) God's judgments are never arbitrary.(1)神的判决永远不会武断。Man's sin is God's sorrow (Gen. 6:5-6).人的罪是神的悲哀(创6:5-6)。The Lord is not capricious when he judges.主当他的判断是不是反复无常。He makes a considered and deliberate decision before unleashing his punishment.他使​​一个考虑和深思熟虑的决定之前释放他的处罚。(2) God can be counted on always to judge sin (Gen. 6:7).(2)神可以算的上始终以法官罪(创6:7)。No sin escapes his notice; his judgment on sin is inevitable (Rom. 2:3; Heb. 9:27-27).没有罪逃脱他的通知,他对罪的审判是不可避免的(罗马书2:3;希伯来书9:27-27)。(3) God always announces judgment beforehand (Gen. 6:13).(3)上帝总是事先宣布的判决(创6:13)。He informs us that our evil deeds are condemned by him and will be judged by him.他告诉我们,我们的恶行谴责他,将他的判断。 (4) God always gives sinners an opportunity to repent before judging them (see Acts 17:30-31; Rom. 2:4; II Pet. 3:9).(4)上帝总是给人罪人的机会之前,判断他们的忏悔(见使徒行传17:30-31; ROM 2时04分; II宠物3时09分)。There was a period of 120 years of grace for the people of Noah's day (Gen. 6:3).有120年的宽限期内,挪亚的日子的人(创6:3)。(5) God always follows through on his decision to judge (cf. Gen. 7:4 with vss. 12 and 23), once he has announced it and once people have had an opportunity to repent. (5)神始终遵循与VSS通过对他的决定,法官(参创7:4,12和23),一旦他宣布,它和人们一旦有机会悔改。His judgments are irreversible.他的判断是不可逆转的。(6) God's judgments always lead to death (see Jer. 51:18; Hos. 6:5). (6)神的判断总是导致死亡(见耶51:18;。居者有其屋计划6时05分)。Gen. 7:17-24, the only paragraph in the flood narrative that does not contain the name of God, reeks with the smell of death.创世记7:17-24,只在洪水中的叙事段不包含以上帝的名义,与死亡的气味reeks。When judgment results in death, God is no longer there.在死亡时的判断结果,神不再存在。

But the flood story teaches us also that (7) God's judgments always include elements of both justice and grace.但洪水的故事还告诉我们,(7)上帝的判断总是包括正义和雍容的元素。Though the story of the flood begins with judgment, it ends with redemption; though it begins with a curse (Gen. 6:7), it ends with a covenant (9:11).虽然洪水的故事开始与判断,它与赎回结束,虽然它与诅咒(创6:7)开始,它与公约(9:11)结束。If judgment always issues life.如果判断总是问题的生活。Judgment is never God's last or best word to those who believe in him, because "mercy triumphs over judgment" (James 2:13).判断从来没有神的最后还是最好的相信他的那些字,因为“判断上的仁慈的胜利”(雅各书2:13)。

R Youngbloodř布拉德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
L. Morris, The Biblical Doctrine of Judgment; R. Youngblood, How It All Began; F. Buchsel, TDNT, III, 921-54; W. Schneider et al., NIDNTT, II, 361-71. L.,审判的圣经教义莫里斯R.布拉德,这一切是如何开始; F. Buchsel,TDNT,三,921-54; W. Schneider等人,NIDNTT,二,361-71。


Divine Judgment神圣的判决

Catholic Information天主教信息

This subject will be treated under two heads:这一主题将被视为根据两国元首:

I. Divine Judgment Subjectively and Objectively Considered;一,神圣的判决主观和客观的考虑;

II.二。Pre-Christian Beliefs Concerning Judgment after Death.前基督教的信仰,关于死后的判决。

Particular Judgment and General Judgment will be treated in separate articles.尤其是审判和一般审判将被视为在不同的文章。

I. DIVINE JUDGMENT SUBJECTIVELY AND OBJECTIVELY CONSIDERED一,神圣的判断主观和客观的考虑

Divine judgment (judicium divinum), as an immanent act of God, denotes the action of God's retributive justice by which the destiny of rational creatures is decided according to their merits and demerits.神圣的判决(judicium divinum),作为一种内在的神的行为,是指理性的生物的命运决定根据自己的优点和缺点的神的报应正义的行动。This includes:这包括:

God's knowledge of the moral worth of the acts of free creatures (scientia approbationis et reprobationis), and His decree determining the just consequences of such acts;神的知识的自由生物(物理学approbationis等reprobationis),和他的法令,确定这种行为的正义后果的行为的道德价值;

the Divine verdict upon a creature amenable to the moral law, and the execution of this sentence by way of reward and punishment.神圣的判决后,一个生物服从道德法则,这句话的奖励和惩罚的方式执行。

It is clear, of course, that the judgment, as it is in God, cannot be a process of distinct and successive acts; it is a single eternal act identical with the Divine Essence.当然,这是明确的,判决的,因为它是在神是,不能是一个独特的和连续的行为过程,它是一个单一的永恒与神圣本质相同的行为。 But the effects of the judgment, since they take place in creatures, follow the sequence of time.但判决的影响,因为他们在生物,按照时间序列。The Divine judgment is manifested and fulfilled at the beginning, during the progress, and at the end of time.表现和履行神圣的判断是在开始时,期间的进展,并在年底的时候。In the beginning, God pronounced judgment upon the whole race, as a consequence of the fall of its representatives, the first parents (Genesis 3).在开始的时候,上帝宣判后,整场比赛的判断,作为其代表,第一次家长(创3)秋天的后果。Death and the infirmities and miseries of this were the consequences of that original sentence.死亡和这种软弱和苦难,原句的后果。Besides this common judgment there have been special judgments on particular individuals and peoples.除了这个共同的判断,已经出现了对特定的个人和人民的特殊判断。Such great catastrophes as the flood (Genesis 6:5), the destruction of Sodom (Genesis 28:20), the earthquake that swallowed up Core and his followers (Numbers 16:30), the plagues of Egypt (Exodus 6:6; 12:12), and the evil that came upon other oppressors of Israel (Ezekiel 25:11; 28:22) are represented in the Bible as Divine judgments.如此巨大的灾难,​​洪水(创6:5),所多瑪的毁灭(创28:20),地震吞噬了核心和他的追随者(16:30),埃及的瘟疫(出埃及记6:6; 12:12),和其他压迫者呼吁以色列(以西结书25:11; 28:22)邪恶的代表在圣经作为神的判断。The fear of God is such a fundamental idea in the Old Testament that it insists mainly on the punitive aspect of the judgment (cf. Proverbs 11:31; Ezekiel 14:21).对上帝的敬畏,就是这样一个在旧约的基本思想,坚持主要判决的惩罚性方面(参箴言11时31分;以西结14时21分)。 An erroneous view of these truths led many of the rabbis to teach that all the evil which befalls man is a special chastisement from on high, a doctrine which was declared false by Christ.这些真理的​​错误观点,导致许多拉比教导,一切邪恶降临的人是从高的特殊惩罚,这是虚假声明,由基督的教义。

There is also a judgment of God in the world that is subjective.还有一个神在世界上是主观的判断。 By his acts man adheres to or deviates from the law of God, and thereby places himself within the sphere of approval or condemnation.男子坚持到他的行为或法神的偏离,从而自己的领域内批准或谴责。In a sense, then, each individual exercises judgment on himself.那么,从某种意义上说,每一个人的练习对自己的判断。Hence it is declared that Christ came not to judge but to save (John 3:17; 8:15; 12:47).因此,它是宣称基督来不是法官,但保存(约翰福音3:17; 8:15; 12时47分)。The internal judgment proceeds according to a man's attitude: towards Christ (John 3:18).内部判断所得,根据一个人的态度:对基督(约翰福音3:18)。Though all the happenings of life cannot be interpreted as the outcome of Divine judgment, whose external manifestation is therefore intermittent, the subjective judgment is coextensive with the life of the individual and of the race.虽然所有的生活发生的事情不能被解释为神圣的判断,因此间歇性的外在表现形式是结果,主观的判断是与个体和种族的生活coextensive。 The judgment at the end of time will complement the previous visitations of Divine retribution and will manifest the final result of the daily secret judgment.在结束的时候的判断将补充神的报应以前探视,将体现在日常的秘密判断的最终结果。By its sentence the eternal destiny of creatures will be decided.根据其刑期的生物永恒的命运将决定。As there is a twofold end of time, so there is likewise a twofold eternal judgment: the particular judgment, at the hour of death, which is the end of time for the individual, and the general judgment, at the final epoch of the world's existence, which is the end of time for the human race.由于那里是一个时间双重结束,所以有是同样一个双重的永恒的判断:在特定的判断,死亡的,个人的时间结束时,和的一般判断的时刻了世界上最后的划时代,存在,这是对人类的时间结束。

II.二。PRE-CHRISTIAN BELIEFS CONCERNING JUDGMENT AFTER DEATH前基督教的信仰,关于死亡以后的判决

The idea of a final readjustment beyond the grave, which would rectify the sharp contrast so often observed between the conduct and the fortune of men, was prevalent among all nations in pre-Christian times.超越坟墓,这将纠正之间经常观察到的行为和男人的财富形成鲜明的对比,最后调整的想法是前基督教时代的所有国家中普遍存在。 Such was the doctrine of metempsychosis or the transmigration of souls, as a justification of the ways of God to man, prevailing among the Hindus of all classes and sects, the Pythagoreans, the Orphic mystics, and the Druids.这是轮回或灵魂轮回的学说,为人类的神的方法的理由,各阶层和教派的教徒,毕达哥拉斯,奥尔弗斯神秘主义者,德鲁伊之间的通行。 The doctrine of a forensic judgment in the unseen world, by which the eternal lot of departed souls is determined, was also widely prevalent in pre-Christian times.一个看不见的世界中的法医判断学说,其中很多离去的灵魂永恒的决心,也广泛流行的前基督教时代。

The Egyptian idea of the judgment is set forth with great precision of detail in the "Book of the Dead", a collection of formulae designed to aid the dead in their passage through the underworld (EGYPT).埃及的想法是非常精确的细节在“死亡之书”,收集设计一个公式,以帮助他们通过通过黑社会(埃及)死载判决。The Babylonians and the Assyrians make no distinction between the good and the bad so far as the future habitation is concerned.巴比伦人和亚述人之间的好的和坏到目前为止,作为未来的居住地,是没有区别。In the Gilgames epic the hero is marked as judge of the dead, but whether his rule was the moral value of their actions is not clear.Gilgames史诗英雄标记为死者的法官,但他的统治是否是自己的行为的道德价值尚不清楚。An unerring judgment and compensation in the future life was a cardinal point in the mythologies of the Persians, Greeks, and Romans.无误的判断和对未来的生活补偿,波斯人,希腊人和罗马人的神话中的一个基点。But, while these mythological schemes were credited as strict verities by the ignorant body of the people, the learned saw in them only the allegorical presentation of truth.但是,无知的人身体计入严格的真理,而这些神话的计划,了解到他们看到真理的唯一寓言介绍。There were always some who denied the doctrine of a future life, and this unbelief went on increasing till, in the last days of the Republic, skepticism regarding immortality prevailed among Greeks and Romans.希腊人和罗马人之间总是有一些人否认未来生活的学说,不信,直到在共和国的最后几天增加了,怀疑不朽盛行。

With the Jews.与犹太人。the judgment of the living was a far more prominent idea than the judgment of the dead.生活的判断比死者的判决更为突出的想法。The Pentateuch contains no express mention of remuneration in the future life, and it was only at a comparatively late period, under the influence of a fuller revelation, that the belief in resurrection and judgment began to play a capital part in the faith of Judaism.摩西五载没有明确提到对未来生活的报酬,它只是在一个相对较晚的时期,下一个更全面的启示的影响,在复活和判断的信念开始发挥资本部分,在犹太教的信仰。 The traces of this theological development are plainly visible in the Machabean era.这个神学发展的痕迹明显可见,在Machabean时代。Then arose the two great opposing parties, the Pharisees and the Sadducees, whose divergent interpretations of Scripture led to heated controversies, especially regarding the future life.然后出现了两大对立双方,法利赛人和撒都该人,其发散的经文的解释导致了激烈的争论,尤其是关于未来的生活。The Sadducees denied all reward and penalty in the hereafter, while there opponents encumbered the truth with ludicrous details.撒都该人否认在以下所有的奖励和惩罚,而​​有担保与对手可笑的细节真相。Thus some of the rabbis asserted that the trumpet which would summon the world to judgment would be one of the horns of the ram which Abraham offered up instead of his son Isaac.因此一些拉比断言,小号将传召世界判断将亚伯拉罕献上他的儿子以撒,而不是在RAM角之一。Again they said: "When God judges the Israelites, He will stand, and make the judgment brief and mild; when He judges the Gentiles, he will sit and make it long and severe."他们再次表示:“当上帝法官以色列人,他会的立场,并作出判断的短暂而轻度;当他的法官外邦人,他会坐,并使其长期和严重。” Apart from such rabbinical fables, the current belief reflected in the writings of the rabbis and the pseudographs at the beginning of the Christian Era was that of a preliminary judgment and of a final judgment to occur at the consummation of the world, the former to be executed against the wicked by the personal prowess of the Messiah and of the saints of Israel, the latter to be pronounced as an eternal sentence by God or the Messiah.除了这些拉比寓言,当前的信念体现在拉比的著作,并在基督教时代开始的pseudographs是一个初步的判断和一个圆满的世界,前者是最终判决发生对恶人执行弥赛亚的个人实力和以色列的圣人,后者是明显的作为一个永恒的一句神或弥赛亚。 The particular judgment of the individual person is lost sight of in the universal judgment by which the Messiah vindicate the wrongs endured by Israel.特别是个别人的判断是普遍的判断失去了视线,其中弥赛亚平反以色列所遭受的错误。With Alexandrian Judaism, on the contrary, with that at least of which Philo is the exponent, the dominant idea was that of an immediate retribution after death.随着亚历山大的犹太教,相反,与该至少其中斐洛指数,主导思想是后死亡的直接因果报应。The two dissenting sects of Israel, the Essenes and the Samaritans, were in agreement with the majority of Jews as to the existence of a discriminating retribution in the life to come.以色列持反对意见的两个教派,爱色尼和撒玛利亚,在大多数犹太人的协议,在生命存在歧视报应来。The Essenes believed in the preexistence of souls, but taught that the after-existence was an unchanging state of bliss or woe according to the deeds done in the body.爱色尼认为,在前世的灵魂,但教导后存在一个不变的幸福或疾苦状态,根据身体的事迹。The eschatological tenets of the Samaritans were at first few and vague.撒玛利亚末世论的信条,在第一数和模糊。Their doctrine of the resurrection and of the day of vengeance and recompense was a theology patterned after the model of Judaism, and first formulated for the sect by its greatest theologian, Marka (AD fourth century)他们复活,复仇和报应的一天的学说后模型图案的犹太教的神学,并首次制定其最大的神学家,马尔卡(公元第四世纪的教派)

Publication information Written by JA McHugh.由司法机构政务长McHugh说编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.转录由Donald J.恩赐。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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