Machpelah 麦比拉

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

Biblical and Post-Biblical Data:圣经和圣经后的数据

Machpelah was the name of a field and cave bought by Abraham as a burying-place. The meaning of the name, which always occurs with the definite article, is not clear; according to the Targumim and the Septuagint it means "the double," while Gesenius ("Th."), with more reason, connects it with the Ethiopic for "the portion."Machpelah亚伯拉罕作为掩埋的地方买一个领域和洞穴的名称的名称,它总是发生与冠词,含义不明确 ;根据Targumim的译本,这意味着“双“而Gesenius(“TH”),与更多的理由,连接它与埃塞俄比亚“的部分。”It appears to have been situated near Mamre, or Hebron, and to have belonged to Epbron the Hittite.它似乎已经临近幔利,或希伯伦,属于Epbron赫梯。Abraham needed a burying-place for Sarah, and bought the field of the Machpelah, at the end of which was a cave, paying four hundred silver shekels.亚伯拉罕需要为萨拉掩埋的地方,买Machpelah领域,这是一个山洞的结束,支付四百年舍客勒银子。The cave became the family burying-place, Sarah being the first to be buried there; later, Abraham, Isaac, Rebekah, Leah, and Jacob were placed there (Gen. xxiii. 9, 16-20; xxv. 9; xlix. 30-31; 1. 13).洞穴成为掩埋的地方,莎拉首先要埋在那里的家庭;后,亚伯拉罕,以撒,利百加,利亚和雅各摆在那里(创二十三9,16-20; XXV 9; XLIX。 30日至31日; 1月13日)。It is designated twice only as the "cave" of the Machpelah (Gen. xxiii. 9, xxv. 9); in the other instances it is called "the cave of the field of the Machpelah" or "the cave in the field of the Machpelah."它被指定了两次,仅作为“洞穴”的Machpelah(创二十三9,二十五9。);在其他情况下,它被称为“洞穴领域的”Machpelah领域洞穴“ Machpelah。“No further reference is made to it or to the burying-place of the Patriarchs, though some scholars find an allusion to it in II Sam.没有进一步提及了它的始祖掩埋地方,虽然有些学者发现,暗指它在二,三。xv.十五。7, 9.7,9。

Josephus speaks of the purchase of Ephron's field at Hebron by Abraham as a place of burial and of the tombs (Μνημεῖα) built there by Abraham and his descendants, without, however, mentioning the name "Machpelah" ("Ant." i. 14. 22).约瑟夫弗仑的领域,作为一个地方埋葬和墓葬(Μνημεῖα)建有由亚伯拉罕和他的后裔,亚伯拉罕在希伯伦购买没有说话,但是,一提名字“Machpelah”(“蚂蚁。”我 14 22段)。In the twelfth century the cave of the Machpelah began to attract visitors and pilgrims, and this aroused the curiosity and wonder of the natives.在12世纪的Machpelah洞穴开始,以吸引游客和朝圣者,这引起了当地人的好奇心和怀疑。Benjamin of Tudela relates: "At Hebron there is a large place of worship called 'St. Abraham,' which was previously a Jewish synagogue. The natives erected there six sepulchers, which they tell foreigners are those of the Patriarchs and their wives, demanding money as a condition of seeing them. If a Jew gives an additional fee to the keeper of the cave, an iron door which dates from the time of our forefathers opens, and the visitor descends with a lighted candle. He crosses two empty caves, and in the third sees six tombs, on which the names of the three Patriarchs and their wives are inscribed in Hebrew characters. The cave is filled with barrels containing bones of people, which are taken there as to a sacred place. At the end of the field of the Machpelah stands Abraham's house with a spring in front of it" ("Itinerary," ed. Asher, pp. 40-42, Hebr.).图德拉本杰明:“在希伯伦有一个大的地方称为”圣亚伯拉罕,“这是以前一个犹太教会堂的崇拜,当地人竖立有六个sepulchers,他们告诉外国人的始祖和他们的妻子的要求。钱看到他们的条件,如果一个犹太人提供了额外的费用,洞穴的门将,一个铁门,从我们的祖先的时候打开,游客用点燃的蜡烛下降,他跨越了两个空的洞穴日期, 6个墓葬,这三个始祖和他们的妻子的名字刻在希伯来文字符,并认为在第三,这个洞穴是充满桶含骨头的人,这是一个神圣的地方有在年底。 Machpelah领域的代表在它前面的春天“(”行程“。灰粉,第40-42页,黑布尔。)亚伯拉罕的房子。Samuel b.塞缪尔B.Samson visited the cave in 1210; he says that the visitor must descend by twenty-four steps in a passageway so narrow that the rock touches him on either hand ("Pal. Explor. Fund," Quarterly Statement, 1882, p. 212).大力士参观的洞穴在1210,他说,访问者必须下降在通道狭窄岩石触及他在任的手(“PAL勘探基金。”季度报表,1882年,第212页)二十四个步骤。 Now the cave is concealed by a mosque; this was formerly a church, built by the Crusaders between 1167 and 1187 and restored by the Arabs (comp. Stanley, "Sinai and Palestine," p. 149).现在的洞穴是隐蔽一座清真寺,这是以前的一座教堂,由十字军在1167和1187之间建成和恢复阿拉伯人(comp.赤柱,“西奈半岛和巴勒斯坦”,第149页)。 See Hebron.见希伯伦。

Emil G. Hirsch, M. Seligsohn埃米尔G.赫希,M. Seligsohn
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。

Tomb of Adam and Eve.亚当与夏娃墓。

In Rabbinical Literature:在犹太教文学:

The name of "Machpelah" (= "the doubled one") belongs, according to the Rabbis, to the cave alone, their reasons for the name being various: it was a double cave, with two stories (Rab); it contained pairs of tombs (Samuel); it had a double value in the eyes of people who saw it; any one buried there could expect a double reward in the future world; when God buried Adam there He had to fold him together (Abahu; 'Er. 53a; Gen. R. lviii. 10).属于“Machpelah”(=“一倍”)的名称,根据拉比,仅洞穴,各种名义的原因:它是双洞,两个故事(RAB),它包含对墓葬(塞缪尔);中的人看到它的眼睛的双重价值;,任何一个埋在那里可以期望在未来世界的双重奖励;当上帝埋亚当在那里,他有他一起折(Abahu;'呃。53A;将军河LVIII 10)。Adam and Eve were the first pair buried there, and therefore Hebron, where the cave was situated, bore the additional name of "Kirjath-arba" (= "the city of four"; ie , of the tombs of Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah ('Er. 53a; Soṭah 13a; comp. Gen. R. lviii. 4).亚当和夏娃是第一对埋在那里,因此,希伯伦,位于洞穴,承担额外的名称“Kirjath阿尔巴”(=“四城”, 亚当和夏娃,亚伯拉罕的坟墓,撒拉,以撒和利百加,雅各和利亚('呃53A;。Soṭah13A;。排版将军河LVIII 4)。

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According to Pirḳe R. El.据PirḳeR. EL。xxxvi., the cave of Machpelah was at Jebus, and the reason that induced Abraham to buy it was the following: When Abraham went to fetch the calf for his guests (comp. Gen. xviii. 7) it escaped to the cave of Machpelah.三十六,Machpelah洞穴在耶布斯,亚伯拉罕诱导购买它的原因是:当亚伯拉罕去为他的客人取小腿(comp.将军十八7),它逃脱Machpelah洞穴。 Abraham ran after it, and when he entered the cave he saw Adam and Eve lying in their beds as though they were sleeping, while lighted candles were around them, exhaling a fragrant odor.亚伯拉罕跑后,他进入山洞时,他看到亚当和夏娃在病床上,虽然他们睡觉,而点燃的蜡烛身边,吐气芬芳的气味。Abraham, filled with a desire to possess the cave, determined to buy it at any price.亚伯拉罕,充满渴望拥有洞穴,决心不惜任何代价购买。The Jebusites, however, refused to sell it to him until he had sworn that when his descendants conquered the land of Canaan they would spare the city of Jebus (Jerusalem).耶布斯人,但拒绝将其出售给他,直到他宣誓就职时,他的子孙征服了迦南地,他们会不遗余力的耶布斯城(耶路撒冷)。 Abraham accordingly took the oath, and the Jebusites inscribed it on brazen idols which they placed in the markets of the city.亚伯拉罕相应的誓言,耶布斯人题写它明目张胆的偶像,他们放置在城市的市场。This was the reason why the children of Benjamin did not drive out the inhabitants of Jebus (Judges i. 21).这是为什么本杰明的孩子没有驱动耶布斯(法官一21)居民的原因。Abraham secured his purchase of the cave of Machpelah by a formal deed signed by four witnesses: Amigal, son of Abishua the Hittite; Elihoreph, son of Ashunah the Hivite; 'Iddon, son of Ahira the Gardite; Aḳdul, son of 'Abudish the Zidonite ("Sefer ha-Yashar," section "Ḥayye Sarah," p. 37a, Leghorn, 1870).亚伯拉罕担保购买他的四名证人签订了正式的契税Machpelah洞穴Amigal,Abishua赫梯的儿子; Elihoreph Ashunah儿子希未人“; Iddon Ahira儿子Gardite;Aḳdul,儿子的Abudish的Zidonite(“之书公顷亚沙尔,”节“Ḥayye莎拉,”第37A条,里窝那,1870年)。

Title-Deeds.标题 - 事迹。

After Isaac's death, Jacob, desirous of becoming sole owner of the cave of Machpelah, acquired Esau's part of it in exchange for all the riches left him by his father.以撒去世后,雅各,渴望成为Machpelah洞穴的唯一拥有者,在由他的父亲离开他的所有财富交换收购扫它的一部分。 This sale was also ratified by a document, which Jacob put in an earthen vessel to preserve it from decay ( ib. section "Wayesheb," p. 77b).此次出售还批准了一个文件,雅各在瓦器,以保持它的衰变( 同上一节“Wayesheb,”第77B)。Nevertheless, at the burial of Jacob the cave was the subject of a violent dispute between Jacob's children and Esau.然而,在雅各安葬的洞穴是雅各布的儿童和以扫之间的暴力纠纷的问题。The latter opposed the burial of Jacob in the cave on the ground that there was room only for four pairs, and that Jacob, by burying Leah, had filled up his part.在地面上,有房间只有四对,后者反对埋葬在山洞中的雅各和雅各,由埋莉娅,填补了他的一部分。Naphtali returned to Egypt for the title-deed, but meanwhile Hushim, the son of Dan, struck Esau on the head with a stick so that the latter's eyes fell on Jacob's knees (Soṭah lc ; comp. "Sefer ha-Yashar," lc pp. 97a-98a, where it is said that Hushim cut off Esau's head, which was buried on the spot).拿弗他返回到埃及的标题,契税,但同时户伸,丹的儿子,击中头部扫用棍子使,后者的眼睛雅各的膝盖下跌(Soṭah立法会;。训练班“之书公顷,亚沙尔,”立法会第97A - 98A,它是说,户伸切断以扫的头部,当场就被埋没的)。There is another tradition, to the effect that Esau was slain by Judah in the cave of Machpelah at Isaac's burial (Midr. Teh. xviii.; Yalḳ., Gen. 162).还有另外一个传统,以扫被杀害犹大在Isaac的埋葬在山洞的Machpelah(Midr.第十八;。Yalḳ,创162)的效果。

Emil G. Hirsch, M. Seligsohn, Solomon Schechter埃米尔G.赫希,M. Seligsohn,索罗门谢克特
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。


Machpelah Machpelah

Catholic Information天主教信息

The burial-place in the vicinity of ancient Hebron which Abraham bought from Ephron the Hethite for the interment of Sara (Genesis 23:9, 17).在古代希伯伦亚伯拉罕买弗仑萨拉(创23时09分,17)安葬Hethite附近埋葬的地方。Sara was buried there in a cave (xxiii, 19), as was later Abraham himself (xxv, 9). Sara是在一个山洞里(XXIII,19)埋在那里,为后来亚伯拉罕本人(XXV,9)。The words of the dying Jacob inform us that Rebecca and Lia were also buried in this cave (xlix, 31), and, lastly, Jacob found there his last resting place (l, 13).奄奄一息的雅各布的话,可否告诉我们,丽贝卡和LIA也埋在这个洞穴中(31 XLIX,),最后,雅各在那里发现他最后的安息之地(L,13)。According to the Hebrew text, which always uses the word Machpelah with the article, the Machpelah is the place in which the field with the cave is to be found.根据希伯来文,它总是使用与字的文章Machpelah,Machpelah是在该领域与洞穴被发现的地方。Thus we read "the cave in the field of the Machpelah" in Gen., xxiii, 17, 19; xliv, 30; l, 13, "the cave of the Machpelah" is twice mentioned (xxiii, 9; xxv, 9).因此,我们读“Machpelah领域的洞穴”在将军,二十三,17,19; XLIV,30,13升,“洞穴的Machpelah”两次提到(XXIII,9; XXV,9) 。But in the Greek text the word is rendered "the double cave"–by derivation from the root kafal, "to double".但在希腊文的字呈现“双洞”,从根本上kafal推导,“双”。This meaning is admitted into the Targum, into the Syrian translation and into the Vulgate.这意思是进入Targum,进入叙利亚翻译成武加大。

In the later books of the Old Testament Machpelah is not mentioned.在后来的书籍旧约Machpelah没有提及。Josephus, however, knows the tomb of Abraham and his descendants in the district then known as Hebron (Antiq., I, xiv, 1; xxii, 1; xxi, 3).然而,约瑟夫知道亚伯拉罕和他的后裔的墓在希伯伦(Antiq.,我,十四,1,22,1; XXI,3)区。According to this historian (op. cit., II, viii, 2), the brothers of Joseph were also interred in their ancestral burial-place–a hypothesis for which there is no foundation in Holy Writ.据历史学家(同前,二,八,2),约瑟夫的兄弟也被安葬在他们的祖先埋葬的地方,假设其中有没有在圣令状的基础。 A Rabbinic tradition of not much later date on the strength of a misinterpretation of Jos., xiv, 15 (Hebron-Kiriath Arba–"City of Four") would place the graves of four Patriarchs at Hebron, and, relying on the same passage, declares Adam to be the fourth Patriarch.一个拉比传统的圣何塞,第十四条,15(希伯伦基列耶琳阿尔巴“四城”)的误解实力上没有太大日后将放置在希伯伦四个先祖坟墓,和依托,在同一通道,宣布亚当成为第四祖师。 St. Jerome accepted this interpretation (see "Onomasticon des Eusebius", ed. Klostermann, Leipzig, 1904, p. 7), and introduced it into the Vulgate.圣杰罗姆接受这样的解释(见“Onomasticon DES尤西比乌斯”。Klostermann,莱比锡,1904年,第7页),并引入武加大。According to Rabbinic legends, Esau also was buried in the neighbourhood.根据拉比的传说,以扫也被埋葬在附近。Since the sixth century the grave of Joseph has been pointed out at Hebron (Itinerar. Antonini), in spite of Jos., xxiv, 32, while the Mohammedans even to-day regard an Arabian building joined to the north-west of the Haram as Joseph's tomb.自六世纪约瑟的坟墓已指出,在希伯伦(Itinerar.安东尼),尽管在圣何塞,24,32,而伊斯兰教徒甚至一天方面的阿拉伯建筑加入到西北的圣地约瑟墓。 The tomb mentioned by Josephus is undoubtedly the Haram situated in the south-east quarter of Hebron (El-Khalil).该墓由约瑟夫提到无疑是坐落在希伯伦东南季(EL -哈利勒)的圣地。The shrine facing north-west and south-east forms a spacious rectangle 197 feet long by 111 feet wide, and rises to a height of about 40 feet.靖国神社面临的西北和东南形成了一个宽敞的矩形,长197英尺,宽111英尺,并上升到约40英尺的高度。The mighty blocks of limestone as hard as marble, dressed and closely fitted ("beautiful, artistically carved marble", Josephus, "Bell. Jud.", IV, ix, 7) have acquired with age almost the tint of bronze.浩浩荡荡块坚硬如大理石,石灰石身着密切装(“美丽,艺术雕刻的大理石”,约瑟夫,“贝尔。达瓦慈善会”,四,九,7)随着年龄的收购几乎青铜色调。 The monotony of the long lines is relieved by rectangular pilasters, sixteen on each side and eight at the top and bottom.单调的长行是解除矩形壁柱,每侧16个,在顶部和底部的八个。Of the builder tradition is silent; Josephus is ignorant of his identity.建筑工地的传统是无声的约瑟夫是他的身份一无所知。 Its resemblance in style to the Haram at Jerusalem has led many to refer it to the Herodian period, eg, Conder, Benzinger.它在耶路撒冷圣地的风格相似,导致许多希律一世时期,例如,Conder,Benzinger。Robinson, Warren, and Heidet regard the building as pre-Herodian.罗宾逊,华伦,和Heidet视为前希律一世建设。

Since Josephus tradition has no doubt preserved the site correctly.由于约瑟夫传统毫无疑问保留网站正确。Eusebius merely mentions the burial-place ("Onomasticon", ed. Klostermann, sv "Arbo", p. 6); the Pilgrim of Bordeaux (333) speaks explicitly of a rectangular building of magnificent stone ("Itinera Hieros.", ed. Geyer, "Corpus Script. Eccl. Lat.", XXXIX, Vienna, 1898, p. 25).尤西比乌斯仅仅提到埋葬的地方(“Onomasticon”,主编Klostermann,SV“ARBO”,第6页。);波尔多的朝圣者(333)讲话明确的长方形建筑的宏伟石(ED“Itinera Hieros。” 。赫耶尔,“胼脚本。传道书。纬度”,三十九,维也纳,1898年,第25页)。In his version of the "Onomasticon", St. Jerome unfortunately does not express himself clearly; it is doubtful whether the church, which he declares to have been recently built (a nostris ibidem jam exstructa), is to be sought in the mausoleum or at Haram Ramet el Khalil, half an hour's journey north of Hebron.圣杰罗姆在他的“Onomasticon”版本,遗憾的是不能表达自己清楚,这是令人怀疑是否教会,他宣称最近已建成(一个nostris ibidem果酱exstructa)的,是要寻求在陵墓或在圣地分株EL哈利勒,半小时的旅程北希伯伦。The "Itinerarium" of St. Antoninus (c. 570) mentions a basilica with four halls (perhaps four porches about the walls) at the graves of the Patriarchs, possessing an open court, and equally venerated by Christians and Jews ("It. Hieros.", ed. Geyer, 178 sq.). “Itinerarium”圣安东尼(公元前570)提到4个大厅(也许是四个门廊约墙壁)的始祖的坟墓,拥有一个开放的法院,一个教堂,基督徒和犹太人(“同样崇敬。 Hieros。“编辑。奥斯赫耶尔178平方米)。About 700, Adamnan informs us, on the authority of Arculf, that the burial-place of the Patriarchs is surrounded by a rectangular wall, and that over the graves stand monuments, but there is no mention of a basilica ("De Locis Sanct.", II, x, Geyer, 261 sq.).约700个,Adamnan告诉我们,Arculf管理局,埋葬地点的始祖,是由一个长方形的墙包围,并超过坟墓站在纪念碑,但有没有提到一个教堂(“德Locis Sanct。 “二,X,盖尔,261平方米)。The following centuries (Mukkadasi, Saewulf, Daniel–985, 1102, 1106) throw no new light on the question.接下来的几个世纪(Mukkadasi,Saewulf,丹尼尔- 985,1102,1106)抛出的问题上没有新的光。In 1119 a Christian church was undoubtedly to be found there, either the old Byzantine or the Crusader's church, which, to judge from the style, apparently dates from the middle of the twelfth century.在1119一个基督教教堂,无疑是在那里找到,无论是老的拜占庭或十字军的教会,来判断,从款式,显然是从十二世纪中叶日期。 Remains from early times are still perceptible, but they do not enable one to form any judgment concerning the old basilica; what still remained of it at the period of the Crusades is uncertain.从早期时代的遗迹仍然感知的,但他们不使形成的老教堂有关的任何判决,它仍然保持在十字军东征期间是不确定的。 According to a rather improbable statement of Benjamin of Tudela, a Jewish synagogue stood in the Haram before the re-establishment of Christian domination.根据一个图德拉本杰明相当不可能的语句,一个犹太教会堂站在圣地在基督教统治的重新建立。After the downfall of the Frankish kingdom, the Latin church was converted into the present mosque.拉丁美洲教会的法兰克王国的垮台后,转换成现在的清真寺。This is built in the southern section of the Haram in such a position as to utilize three of the boundary walls.这是建立在这样一个位置,利用三个围墙南段的圣地。The interior is seventy feet long and ninety-three feet wide; four pillars divide it into three aisles of almost the same breadth, but of unequal length.内部七十英尺长,九十三英尺宽;四大支柱分成三个过道的几乎相同的广度,但长度不等。The entrance to the Haram is effected by means of two flights of steps, a specimen of Arabian art of the fourteenth century.圣地的入口是影响两个航班的步骤,十四世纪的阿拉伯艺术的标本。

According to a late and unreliable Mohammedan tradition, the tombs of the Patriarchs lie under six monuments; to Isaac and Rebecca are assigned those within the mosque itself; to Abraham and Sara the next two, in front of the north wall of the mosque in two chapels of the narthex; those of Jacob and Lia are the last two at the north end of the Haram.据后期和不可靠的伊斯兰教传统,六个纪念碑下的始祖的陵墓所在,艾萨克和丽贝卡被分配在清真寺本身的亚伯拉罕和萨拉在未来两年在清真寺的北墙前,在两教堂的前厅;雅各和LIA的是最后两个北端的圣地。 Concerning the subterranean chambers we possess only inexact information.关于地下商会,我们所拥有的只有不精确的信息。The Jewish accounts (Benjamin of Tudela, 1160-73; Rabbi Petacchia, 1175-80; David Reubeni, 1525) are neither clear nor uniform.犹太人的帐户(拉比Petacchia,图德拉,一一六零年至1173年的1175至1180年,本杰明大卫Reubeni,1525),既不明确,也不统一。 An extensive investigation was undertaken by the Latin monks of Kiriath Arba (DV Cariath-Arbe-Hebron) in 1119, but was never completed.基列耶琳阿尔巴(DV Cariath - Arbe希布伦)在1119拉丁僧侣进行了广泛调查,但从未完成。After several days of laborious work, they disclosed a whole system of subterranean chambers, in which it was believed that at last the much-sought-for "double cave" with the remains of the three Patriarchs had been discovered.经过数天艰苦的工作,他们披露了整个系统的地下商会,在其被认为最后得多,为寻求“双洞”三个始祖的遗体已被发现。 In 1859 by means of an entrance in the porch of the mosque between the sarcophagi of Abraham and Sara, the Italian Pierotti succeeded in descending some steps of a stairway hewn in the rock.在1859年通过在清真寺之间的石棺亚伯拉罕和萨拉的门廊入口,意大利Pierotti成功地降在岩石中凿成的楼梯一些步骤。 According to Pierotti's observations, the cavity extends the whole length of the Haram.据Pierotti的意见,腔延伸整个长度的圣地。Owing to the intolerance of the Mohammedans, all subsequent attempts of English and German investigators (1862, 1869, 1882) have led to no satisfactory results.由于对伊斯兰教的不宽容,英语和德语的调查(1862年,1869年,1882年)的后续尝试都没有令人满意的结果。 Concerning the plan of and connection between the underground chambers no judgment can be formed without fresh investigation.关于计划和地下洞室之间的连接没有判决,可形成不新鲜的调查。

Publication information Written by A. Merk.答:默克编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录WGKofron。With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.与感谢圣玛丽教堂,阿克伦,俄亥俄州天主教百科全书,体积九。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
ROBINSON, Biblical Researches in Palestine, II (Boston, 1841), 75 sqq.; Memoirs on the Survey of Western Palestine, III (London, 1883), 333 sqq.; Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly Statement (1882), 197 sqq.罗宾逊,在巴勒斯坦的圣经研究,II“(波士顿,1841年),75 SQQ;。西部巴勒斯坦,三(伦敦,1883年),333 SQQ调查回忆录;巴勒斯坦勘探基金,季度报表(1882年),197 SQQ。(1897), 53 sqq.; LE STRANGE, Palestine under the Moslems (London, 1890), 300 sqq.; Acta SS., IV, Oct., 688 sqq.;RIANT, Archives de l'Orient latin, II (Genoa, 1884), 411 sqq.; PIEROTTI, Macpéla ou tombeaux des patriarches (Lausanne, 1869); HEIDET in VIGOUROUX, Dict. (1897年),53 SQQ; LE奇怪,根据穆斯林巴勒斯坦(伦敦,1890年),300 SQQ;。鐗SS,四,10月,688 SQQ;。RIANT,档案馆DE L'东方拉丁美洲,II(热那亚,1884),411 SQQ; PIEROTTI,Macpéla OU tombeaux DES patriarches(洛桑,1869年); HEIDET VIGOUROUX,快译通。de la Bible, sv Macpélah.德拉圣经,SV Macpélah。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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