Magi贤士

General Information一般资料

The Magi (singular: Magus) were the priestly hierarchy of ancient Zoroastrianism.贤士(奇异:法师)古老的拜火教的祭司阶层。The name was originally that of the tribe to which they belonged.名字最初是他们所属的部落。Like the Brahmans of India, the Magi were keepers of the cult and of sacrificial power and exercised considerable political power while Zoroastrianism was the state religion of Persia.像印度的婆罗门,贤士饲养的崇拜和祭祀权力,并行使相当大的政治权力,而拜火教是波斯国教。

In the Hellenistic world the name magi was applied to Eastern astrologers and interpreters of dreams, men considered "wise in the things of God."在古希腊世界中的名称贤士是适用于东方占星家和口译员的梦想,男人认为是“明智的,在神的事。”(Hence the derivation of the word magic.) It is in this sense that the name came to be applied to the "wise men from the East" who followed the star to Bethlehem to worship the infant Jesus, presenting him with gifts of frankincense, gold, and myrrh (Matt. 2). (因此推导字魔)这是这个名字后来被应用到“智者从东方”跟着明星到伯利恒崇拜婴儿耶稣,乳香的礼物,他在这个意义上说,黄金,没药(马太福音2)。 Later tradition called them kings and named them Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthazar.后来的传统称他们为国王和将它们命名为帕尔梅尔基奥尔和巴尔萨泽。The Christian church honors them as the first Gentiles to believe in Christ and celebrates their visit by the feast of Epiphany.基督教教会的荣誉,他们作为第一个外邦人相信基督的主显节庆祝他们的访问。

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Magi贤士

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Plural of Latin magus; Greek magoi).(拉丁法师的复数形式;希腊magoi)。

The "wise men from the East" who came to adore Jesus in Bethlehem (Matthew 2).前来朝拜耶稣在伯利恒(马太福音2)“来自东方的智者”。Rationalists regard the Gospel account as fiction; Catholics insist that it is a narrative of fact, supporting their interpretation with the evidence of all manuscripts and versions, and patristic citations.理性方面作为小说的福音帐户;天主教徒坚持,这是一个事实的叙述,与所有的手稿和版本,以及教父引文的证据支持他们的解释。 All this evidence rationalists pronounce irrelevant; they class the story of the Magi with the so-called "legends of the childhood of Jesus", later apocryphal additions to the Gospels.所有这方面的证据的理性主义发音无关,他们类与所谓的“传说,耶稣的童年”,后来的杜撰增加的福音贤士的故事。Admitting only internal evidence, they say, this evidence does not stand the test of criticism.承认只有内部的证据,他们说,这方面的证据不经得起批评的考验。

John and Mark are silent.约翰和马克都沉默了。This is because they begin their Gospels with the public life of Jesus.这是因为他们开始他们的福音与耶稣的公共生活。That John knew the story of the Magi may be gathered from the fact that Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., III, ix, 2) is witness to it; for Irenaeus gives us the Johannine tradition.约翰知道贤士的故事可以收集从爱任纽(Adv. Haer,第三,第九,2。)见证的事实,爱任纽为我们提供了约翰的传统。

Luke is silent.卢克是无声的。Naturally, as the fact is told well enough by the other synoptics.当然,实际上是告诉其他天气学的不够好。Luke tells the Annunciation, details of the Nativity, the Circumcision, and the Presentation of Christ in the Temple, facts of the childhood of Jesus which the silence of the other three Evangelists does not render legendary.卢克告诉耶稣降生的报喜,细节,割礼,并在寺庙介绍基督耶稣的童年的事实,其他三个福音沉默不呈现传奇。

Luke contradicts Matthew and returns the Child Jesus to Nazereth immediately after the Presentation (Luke 2:39).卢克矛盾马修和返回拿撒勒耶稣圣婴简报(路加福音2:39)后,立即。This return to Nazareth may have been either before the Magi came to Bethlehem or after the exile in Egypt.这回拿撒勒前贤士来到伯利恒后,在埃及的流亡或已。No contradiction is involved.没有矛盾的是参与。

The subject will be treated in this article under the two divisions:在这篇文章的主题将被视为下的两个部门:

I. Who the Magi were;一,谁的贤士;

II.二。The Time and Circumstances of their Visit.他们此行的时间和情况。

I. WHO THE MAGI WERE一,世卫组织的贤士

A. Non-Biblical EvidenceA.非圣经的证据

We may form a conjecture by non-Biblical evidence of a probable meaning to the word magoi.我们可能会形成一个由非圣经的证据,一个可能的意思的单词magoi猜想。Herodotus (I, ci) is our authority for supposing that the Magi were the sacred caste of the Medes.希罗多德(CI)是我们的假设贤士玛代人的神圣种姓的权威。They provided priests for Persia, and, regardless of dynastic vicissitudes, ever kept up their dominating religious influence.他们提供了对波斯的祭司,无论朝代的沧桑,不断保持其主导宗教的影响。To the head of this caste, Nergal Sharezar, Jeremias gives the title Rab-Mag, "Chief Magus" (Jeremiah 39:3, 39:13, in Hebrew original - Septuagint and Vulgate translations are erroneous here).本种姓的头,Nergal Sharezar,赫雷米亚斯给RAB - MAG的称号,“首席大法师”(耶利米书39:3,39:13,在希伯来文的原 - 这里是错误的译本和武加大译本)。After the downfall of Assyrian and Babylonian power, the religion of the Magi held sway in Persia.亚述和巴比伦的权力的倒台后,宗教的贤士举行摇摆在波斯。Cyrus completely conquered the sacred caste; his son Cambyses severely repressed it.赛勒斯彻底征服了神圣的种姓,他的儿子冈比西斯严厉镇压。The Magians revolted and set up Gaumata, their chief, as King of Persia under the name of Smerdis. Magians起义,并成立Gaumata,波斯国王的行政,根据Smerdis名称。He was, however, murdered (521 BC), and Darius became king.他,然而,谋杀(521年),和大流士成为国王。This downfall of the Magi was celebrated by a national Persian holiday called magophonia (Her., III, lxiii, lxxiii, lxxix).这被称为magophonia(Her.,三,LXIII,lxxiii,LXXIX)一个国家的波斯节日庆祝的贤士倒台。 Still the religious influence of this priestly caste continued throughout the rule of the Achaemenian dynasty in Persia (Ctesias, "Persica", X-XV); and is not unlikely that at the time of the birth of Christ it was still flourishing under the Parthian dominion.这个祭司种姓的宗教影响持续整个Achaemenian在波斯王朝(Ctesias,“佩尔西卡”X - 15)的规则;不是不可能,在基督诞生时,它仍然蓬勃下帕提亚自治领。Strabo (XI, ix, 3) says that the Magian priests formed one of the two councils of the Parthian Empire.斯特拉波(九,十一,3)表示,Magian祭司形成的帕提亚帝国的两个市政局之一。

B. Biblical EvidenceB.圣经的证据

The word magoi often has the meaning of "magician", in both Old and New Testaments (see Acts 8:9; 13:6, 8; also the Septuagint of Daniel 1:20; 2:2, 2:10, 2:27; 4:4; 5:7, 5:11, 5:15).字magoi往往有“魔术师”的含义,在旧约和新约(见使徒行传8:9; 13时06分,8;的译本丹尼尔1:20; 2:2,2:10,2: 27; 4:4,5:7,5:11,5:15)。St. Justin (Tryph., lxxviii), Origen (Cels., I, lx), St. Augustine (Serm. xx, De epiphania) and St. Jerome (In Isa., xix, 1) find the same meaning in the second chapter of Matthew, though this is not the common interpretation.圣贾斯汀(Tryph.,LXXVIII),奥利(Cels.,我LX),圣奥古斯丁(Serm. XX,德epiphania)和圣杰罗姆(在ISA,十九,1)在相同的含义第二章的马修,虽然这是不常见的解释。

C. Patristic EvidenceC.教父证据

No Father of the Church holds the Magi to have been kings.没有教会的父亲认为贤士已国王。Tertullian ("Adv. Marcion.", III, xiii) says that they were wellnigh kings (fere reges), and so agrees with what we have concluded from non-Biblical evidence.德尔图良(“ADV。马吉安”,三,第十三)表示,他们wellnigh国王(fere reges),所以同意我们从非圣经的证据结束。The Church, indeed, in her liturgy, applies to the Magi the words: "The kings of Tharsis and the islands shall offer presents; the kings of the Arabians and of Saba shall bring him gifts: and all the kings of the earth shall adore him" (Psalm 71:10).事实上,教会,在她的礼仪,适用于贤士的话:“塔尔西斯和岛屿的国王应提供的礼物;阿拉伯人和萨巴国王给他带来的礼物:和地上的君王崇拜他“(诗篇71:10)。 But this use of the text in reference to them no more proves that they were kings than it traces their journey from Tharsis, Arabia, and Saba.但这种文字的使用参考没有更多的证明,他们的国王,比它的踪迹他们从塔尔西斯,阿拉伯,和沙巴之旅。As sometimes happens, a liturgical accommodation of a text has in time come to be looked upon by some as an authentic interpretation thereof.有时,一个文本的礼仪住宿时代已经到来,作为一个真实的解释后一些研究。Neither were they magicians: the good meaning of magoi, though found nowhere else in the Bible, is demanded by the context of the second chapter of St. Matthew.无论他们魔术师:的magoi良好含义,但在“圣经”中找到无处,是由第二章圣马太方面的要求。These Magians can have been none other than members of the priestly caste already referred to.这些Magians已莫过于已经提到的祭司种姓成员。The religion of the Magi was fundamentally that of Zoroaster and forbade sorcery; their astrology and skill in interpreting dreams were occasions of their finding Christ.贤士的宗教琐罗亚斯德,从根本上禁止巫术,他们的占星术和解释梦的技能,他们发现基督的场合。(See THEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE AVESTA.)(见神学方面的AVESTA)。

The Gospel narrative omits to mention the number of the Magi, and there is no certain tradition in this matter.福音叙事省略提的贤士的数量 ,并没有在这个问题上的某些传统。 Some Fathers speak of three Magi; they are very likely influenced by the number of gifts.有些父亲讲三个贤士,他们很可能通过赠品的数量的影响。In the Orient, tradition favours twelve.在东方,传统,有利于12。Early Christian art is no consistent witness:早期基督教艺术是没有一致的见证:

a painting in the cemetery of Sts.在墓地的STS的绘画。Peter and Marcellinus shows two;彼得和Marcellinus显示了两个;

one in the Lateran Museum, three;在拉特兰博物馆之一,3人;

one in the cemetery of Domitilla, four;在Domitilla,四个墓地之一;

a vase in the Kircher Museum, eight (Marucchi, "Eléments d'archéologie chrétienne", Paris, 1899, I 197).在基歇尔博物馆,8个花瓶(Marucchi,“元素D' archéologie chrétienne”,巴黎,1899年,我197)。

The names of the Magi are as uncertain as is their number.贤士的名称作为其数量是不确定的。Among the Latins, from the seventh century, we find slight variants of the names, Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar; the Martyrology mentions St. Gaspar, on the first, St. Melchior, on the sixth, and St. Balthasar, on the eleventh of January (Acta SS., I, 8, 323, 664).在拉丁人,从公元七世纪,我们发现轻微变种的名称,帕尔梅尔基奥尔和巴尔塔萨Martyrology提到第一,圣梅尔基奥尔,在第六,和圣巴尔塔萨圣帕尔,在一月第十一届(文献SS,我,8,323,664)。 The Syrians have Larvandad, Hormisdas, Gushnasaph, etc.; the Armenians, Kagba, Badadilma, etc. (Cf. Acta Sanctorum, May, I, 1780).叙利亚人Larvandad卡尔米斯达斯,Gushnasaph等;亚美尼亚人,Kagba,Badadilma,等(参见文献Sanctorum,五月,我在1780年)。 Passing over the purely legendary notion that they represented the three families which are decended from Noah, it appears they all came from "the east" (Matthew 2:1, 2, 9).超过纯粹的传奇色彩的概念,他们代表decended从诺亚的三个家庭,看来他们都从“东方”(马太福音2:1,2,9)。 East of Palestine, only ancient Media, Persia, Assyria, and Babylonia had a Magian priesthood at the time of the birth of Christ.东巴勒斯坦,只有古老的媒体,波斯,亚述和巴比伦Magian祭司在基督诞生的时间一个。From some such part of the Parthian Empire the Magi came.从一些帕提亚帝国的一部分,贤士来了。They probably crossed the Syrian Desert, lying between the Euphrates and Syria, reached either Haleb (Aleppo) or Tudmor (Palmyra), and journeyed on to Damascus and southward, by what is now the great Mecca route (darb elhaj, "the pilgrim's way"), keeping the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan to their west till they crossed the ford near Jericho.他们可能越过了叙利亚沙漠,趴在幼发拉底河和叙利亚之间的达到或者Haleb(阿勒颇)或Tudmor(巴尔米拉),和远航在前往大马士革和向南什么是现在的伟大的麦加路线(darb elhaj,“在朝圣者的方式, “),保持加利利和约旦其西的海,直到他们越过杰里科附近的福特。We have no tradition of the precise land meant by "the east".我们有没有“东”指的是准确的土地的传统。It is Babylon, according to St. Maximus (Homil. xviii in Epiphan.); and Theodotus of Ancyra (Homil. de Nativitate, I, x); Persia, according to Clement of Alexandria (Strom., I xv) and St. Cyril of Alexandria (In Is., xlix, 12); Aribia, according to St. Justin (Cont. Tryphon., lxxvii), Tertullian (Adv. Jud., ix), and St. Epiphanius (Expos. fidei, viii).巴比伦,根据圣鲆(Homil.在Epiphan十八);和西奥多托斯的安该拉(Homil. Nativitate,I,X);波斯,根据克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(Strom.,我XV)和St。西里尔的亚历山德里亚(XLIX,12); Aribia,根据圣贾斯汀(续Tryphon,第七十七号),良(Adv.犹,IX),并圣埃皮法尼乌斯(Expos. fidei,第八) 。

II.二。TIME AND CIRCUMSTANCES OF THEIR VISIT他们此行的时间和情况

The visit of the Magi took place after the Presentation of the Child in the Temple (Luke 2:38).贤士的访问后寺(路加福音2:38)“儿童颁奖。No sooner were the Magi departed than the angel bade Joseph take the Child and its Mother into Egypt (Matthew 2:13).不久贤士离去比天使吩咐约瑟夫进入埃及的儿童和其母亲(马太福音2:13)。Once Herod was wroth at the failure of the Magi to return, it was out of all question that the presentation should take place.一旦希律王是在失败的贤士返回怒意,它是所有问题的介绍应采取的地方。Now a new difficulty occurs: after the presentation, the Holy Family returned into Galilee (Luke 2:39).现在出现一个新的困难:神圣家族演示文稿后,返回到加利利(路加福音2:39)。Some think that this return was not immediate.有人认为,这回报不是立竿见影的。Luke omits the incidents of the Magi, flight into Egypt, massacare of the Innocents, and return from Egypt, and takes up the story with the return of the Holy Family into Galilee.卢克省略massacare无辜,进入埃及,从埃及返回的贤士,飞行事故,并返回加利利的神圣家族的故事。We prefer to interpret Luke's words as indicating a return to Galilee immediately after the presentation.我们更愿意解释为表示一个演示文稿后立即返回加利利卢克的话。The stay at Nazareth was very brief.留在拿撒勒是非常简短。Thereafter the Holy Family probably returned to abide in Bethlehem.此后,神圣家族可能返回遵守在伯利恒。Then the Magi came.贤士来了。 It was "in the days of King Herod" (Matthew 2:1), ie before the year 4 BC (AUC 750), the probable date of Herod's death at Jericho.这是“希律王天”(马太福音2:1),即公元前4年(AUC 750),在杰里科的希律王的死亡日期可能在今年年底之前。For we know that Archelaus, Herod's son, succeeded as ethnarch to a part of his father's realm, and was deposed either in his ninth (Josephus, Bel. Jud., II, vii, 3) or tenth (Josephus, Antiq., XVII, xviii, 2) year of office during the consulship of Lepidus and Arruntius (Dion Cassis, lv, 27), ie, AD 6.因为我们知道,阿基劳斯,希律王的儿子,成功ethnarch父亲的境界的一部分,和被废黜,他的第九届(约瑟夫,倍儿。达瓦慈善会。二,七,3)任或第十届(约瑟夫,Antiq。,第十七十八,2)今年在Lepidus和Arruntius(翁黑醋栗,LV,27),即公元6 consulship办公室。Moreover, the Magi came while King Herod was in Jerusalem (vv. 3, 7), not in Jericho, ie, either the beginning of 4 BC or the end of 5 BC Lastly, it was probably a year, or a little more than a year, after the birth of Christ.此外,贤士,希律王在耶路撒冷(7 vv. 3,),即在杰里科,,开始公元前4年或公元前5月底最后,它可能是一年,或者多一点一年后,在基督诞生。Herod had found out from the Magi the time of the star's appearance.希律王曾发现从贤士明星的外观。Taking this for the time of the Child's birth, he slew the male children of two years old and under in Bethlehem and its borders (v. 16).以这个孩​​子的出生时,他摆的两岁以下的男性儿童在伯利恒及其边界(16节)。Some of the Fathers conclude from this ruthless slaughter that the Magi reached Jerusalem two years after the Nativity (St. Epiphanius, "Haer.", LI, 9; Juvencus, "Hist. Evang.", I, 259).一些结论的父亲从这个无情的屠杀,贤士降生后达到两年的耶路撒冷(圣埃皮法尼乌斯,李,9“Haer。”; Juvencus“。组织胺Evang。”我,259)。Their conclusion has some degree of probability; yet the slaying of children two years old may possibly have been due to some other reason - for instance, a fear on Herod's part that the Magi had deceived him in the matter of the star's appearance or that the Magi had been deceived as to the conjunction of that appearance with the birth of the Child.他们的结论是有一定程度的概率;杀害两岁的孩子可能由于某些其他原因 - 例如,害怕希律王的,贤士有欺骗在明星的出现的问题,或认为他的贤士被欺骗的配合,在孩子出生的外观。Art and archeaology favour our view.艺术与archeaology赞同我们的观点。Only one early monument represents the Child in the crib while the Magi adore; in others Jesus rests upon Mary's knees and is at times fairly well grown (see Cornely, "Introd. Special. in NT", p.203).“只有一个早期纪念碑代表在摇篮的孩子,而贤士朝拜耶稣在别人掌握后,玛丽的膝盖,有时相当不错成长(见Cornely Introd特别在新界。”p.203)。

From Persia, whence the Magi are supposed to have come, to Jerusalem was a journey of between 1000 and 1200 miles.来自波斯,因此贤士应该都来了,到耶路撒冷之间的1000和1200英里的旅程。Such a distance may have taken any time between three and twelve months by camel.这样的距离可能采取骆驼三至十二个月之间的任何时间。 Besides the time of travel, there were probably many weeks of preparation.除了旅行时间,大概有几个星期的准备。The Magi could scarcely have reached Jerusalem till a year or more had elapsed from the time of the apperance of the star.几乎已经达到了贤士耶路撒冷,直到一年或更多的时间从明星的外观经过。St. Augustine (De Consensu Evang., II, v, 17) thought the date of the Epiphany, the sixth of January, proved that the Magi reached Bethlehem thriteen days ofter the Nativity, ie, after the twenty-fifth of December.圣奥古斯丁(德Consensu Evang,二,五,17)认为,1月的第六位,主显节的日期证明,贤士到达伯利恒thriteen天降生,即ofter后的12月的第二十五届。 His argument from liturgical dates was incorrect.他从礼仪日期的说法是不正确的。Neither liturgical date is certainly the historical date.既不是礼仪的日期肯定是历史的日期。(For an explanation of the chronological difficulties, see Chronology, Biblical, Date of the Nativity of Jesus Christ.) In the fourth century the Churches of the Orient celebrated the sixth of January as the feast of Christ's Birth, the Adoration by the Magi, and Christ's Baptism, whereas, in the Occident, the Birth of Chirst was celebrated on the twenty-fifth of December. (按时间顺序困难的解释,纪年,圣经耶稣基督圣诞,日期)在第四世纪的东方教会庆祝在一月的基督诞生,的崇拜贤士盛宴第六届,基督的洗礼,而在欧美,Chirst出生的12月的第二十五届庆祝。 This latter date of the Nativity was introduced into the Church of Antioch during St. Chrysostom's time (PG, XLIX, 351), and still later into the Churches of Jerusalem and Alexandria.这是耶稣降生后一日期引入的安提阿教会在圣金口的时间(PG,XLIX,351),还是后来到耶路撒冷和亚历山大的教会。

That the Magi thought a star led them on, is clear from the words (eidomen gar autou ton astera) which Matthew uses in 2:2.贤士认为一个明星带领他们,是马修在2:2的话(eidomen GAR autou吨astera)清楚。Was it really a star?是一个真正的明星?Rationalists and rationalistic Protestants, in their efforts to escape the supernatural, have elaborated a number of hypotheses:理性和理性的新教徒在他们的努力,以逃避超自然的,已经制定了一个假说:

The word aster may mean a comet; the star of the Magi was a comet.字紫菀可能意味着一个彗星的贤士之星是一颗彗星。But we have no record of any such comet.但是,我们没有任何这类彗星的记录。

The star may have been a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn (7 BC), or of Jupiter and Venus (6 BC).这颗恒星可能一直是木星和土星(公元前7年),或木星和金星(6年)一起。

The Magi may have seen a stella nova, a star which suddenly increases in magnitude and brilliancy and then fades away.贤士可能会看到一个斯特拉新星,这颗恒星突然增加的规模和辉煌,然后消失。

These theories all fail to explain how "the star which they had seen in the east, went before them, until it came and stood over where the child was" (Matthew 2:9).所有这些理论无法解释如何“,他们已在东看到的明星,走到他们面前,直到它来到站过的地方的孩子 ”(马太福音2:9) 。The position of a fixed star in the heavens varies at most one degree each day.一个在天上恒星的位置变化每天最多一个学位。No fixed star could have so moved before the Magi as to lead them to Bethlehem; neither fixed star nor comet could have disappeared, and reappeared, and stood still.没有固定的恒星可能有这么感动前贤士,带领他们到伯利恒,既没有固定的明星,也不彗星可能已经消失,又出现了,并站定。 Only a miraculous phenomenon could have been the Star of Bethlehem.本来伯利恒之星只是一个神奇的现象。it was like the miraculous pillar of fire which stood in the camp by night during Israel's Exodus (Exodus 13:21), or to the "brightness of God" which shone round about the shepherds (Luke 2:9), or to "the light from heaven" which shone around about the stricken Saul (Acts 9:3).它像站在营夜间在以色列出埃及记“(出埃及记13时21分),或”神的亮度“照轮有关的牧羊人(路加福音2:9),或”火神奇的支柱光从天上来“,对灾区扫罗(徒9:3)照的。

The philosophy of the Magi, erroneous though it was, led them to the journey by which they were to find Christ.贤士的理念,但它是错误的,导致他们的旅程,他们找到基督。Magian astrology postulated a heavenly counterpart to complement man's earthly self and make up the complete human personality.占星术Magian假设一个天堂般的对口,以补充人的世俗的自我,并构成​​了完整的人的个性。His "double" (the fravashi of the Parsi) developed together with every good man until death united the two.他的“双师型”(fravashi的帕西)共同开发,直至死亡的两个美国的每一个好人。The sudden appearance of a new and brilliant star suggested to the Magi the birth of an important person.贤士提出一个新的和灿烂的明星突然出现一个重要的人的诞生。They came to adore him - ie, to acknowledge the Divinity of this newborn King (vv. 2, 8, 11).他们来崇拜他的 - 即,承认这个新生的王(vv. 2,8,11)的神。Some of the Fathers (St. Irenaeus, "Adv. Haer.", III, ix, 2; Progem. "in Num.", homil. xiii, 7) think the Magi saw in "his star" a fulfilment of the prophesy of Balaam: "A star shall rise out of Jacob and a sceptre shall spring up from Israel" (Numbers 24:17).有些神父(圣爱任纽,“高级Haer。”第三,第九,2。Progem“中招”,homil第十三,7)认为在“他的明星”贤士看到了实现的预言巴兰:“A星将上升,雅各和权杖应春从以色列”(民数记24:17)。 But from the parallelism of the prophesy, the "Star" of Balaam is a great prince, not a heavenly body; it is not likely that, in virtue of this Messianic prophesy, the Magi would look forward to a very special star of the firmament as a sign of the Messias.但是从预言的并行,巴兰的“明星”是一个伟大的王子,而不是一个天体,它是不太可能,凭借这个弥赛亚的预言,贤士将期待着一个非常特别的明星苍穹作为一个签署的messias。 It is likely, however, that the Magi were familiar with the great Messianic prophesies.它是可能的,然而,贤士熟悉的伟大救世主的预言。Many Jews did not return from exile with Nehemias.许多犹太人不与内赫米亚斯流亡返回。When Christ was born, there was undoubtedly a Hebrew population in Babylon, and probably one in Persia.当基督诞生,无疑是一个希伯来文的人口在巴比伦,并可能在波斯之一。At any rate, the Hebrew tradition survived in Persia.无论如何,希伯来传统存活在波斯。Moreover, Virgil, Horace, Tacitus (Hist., V, xiii), and Suetonius (Vespas., iv) bear witness that, at the time of the birth of Christ, there was throughout the Roman Empire a general unrest and expectation of a Golden Age and a great deliverer.此外,维吉尔,贺拉斯,塔西(Hist.,五,十三),苏埃托尼乌斯(Vespas.四)的见证,在基督诞生的时候,整个罗马帝国是一个普遍的不安和一个期望黄金时代和一个伟大的拯救者。 We may readily admit that the Magi were led by such hebraistic and gentile influences to look forward to a Messias who should soon come.我们愿意承认的贤士等hebraistic和詹蒂莱影响导致期待一个人应即将到来的弭赛亚的。 But there must have been some special Divine revelation whereby they knew that "his star" meant the birth of a king, that this new-born king was very God, and that they should be led by "his star" to the place of the God-King's birth (St. Leo, Serm. xxxiv, "In Epiphan." IV, 3).但一定有一些特殊的神的启示,使他们知道,“他的明星”指的是一个国王的诞生,这个新出生的王是很神,和他们应该被“明星”的地方领导神王的诞生(圣利奥,SERM。三十四,“Epiphan。”四,3)。 The advent of the Magi caused a great stir in Jerusalem; everybody, even King Herod, heard their quest (v. 3).贤士的到来引起了在耶路撒冷的轩然大波;的每个人,甚至希律王听见了他们的追求(3节)。Herod and his priests should have been gladdened at the news; they were saddened.希律王和他的牧师应被gladdened在新闻;他们难过。It is a striking fact that the priests showed the Magi the way, but would not go that way themselves.这是一个惊人的事实,祭司显示贤士的方式,但不会自己走那条路。The Magi now followed the star some six miles southward to Bethlehem, "and entering into the house [eis ten oikian], they found the child" (v. 11).贤士现在跟着明星向南约六英里到伯利恒,“[EIS十个oikian进入屋内,他们发现孩子”(11节)。There is no reason to suppose, with some of the Fathers (St. Aug., Serm. cc, "In Epiphan.", I, 2), that the Child was still in the stable.没有理由认为,与一些神父(圣八月,SERM CC“,在Epiphan”,一,二),儿童仍然是在稳定的。The Magi adored (prosekynesan) the Child as God, and offered Him gold, frankincense, and myrrh.贤士崇拜(prosekynesan)作为神的孩子,并给了他黄金,乳香,没药。The giving of gifts was in keeping with Oriental custom.给的礼物,是在符合东方的习俗。The purpose of the gold is clear; the Child was poor.金的目的是明确的;孩子差。We do not know the purpose of the other gifts.我们不知道的其他礼物的目的。The Magi probably meant no symbolism.贤士可能意味着没有象征意义。The Fathers have found manifold and multiform symbolic meanings in the three gifts; it is not clear that any of these meanings are inspired (cf. Knabenbauer, "in Matth.", 1892).父亲发现在这三个礼物多方面的,各种形式的象征意义,这些含义的启发(见Knabenbauer,目前尚不清楚,1892年“Matth”)。

We are certain that the Magi were told in sleep not to return to Herod and that "they went back another way into their country" (v. 12).我们一定贤士在睡眠中被告知不返回到希律王和说:“他们回到了自己的国家的另一种方式”(12节)。This other way may have been a way to the Jordan such as to avoid Jerusalem and Jericho; or a roundabout way south through Beersheba, then east to the great highway (now the Mecca route) in the land of Moab and beyond the Dead Sea.这可能有其他方式的一个方式,以避免向约旦,如耶路撒冷和杰里科;或一种迂回的方式,然后向南通过贝尔谢巴东向伟大的高速公路,在摩押和土地超出死海(现在的麦加路线)。 It is said that after their return home, the Magi were baptized by St. Thomas and wrought much for the spread of the Faith in Christ.据说,他们回国后,贤士圣托马斯的洗礼,在基督信仰的传播和锻造。The story is traceable to an Arian writer of not earlier than the sixth century, whose work is printed, as "Opus imperfectum in Matthæum" among the writings of St. Chrysostom (PG, LVI, 644).故事可追溯至不超过六世纪,印“作品imperfectum Matthæum”圣金口(PG,644,LVI)的著作中,其工作的早期阿里安作家。This author admits that he is drawing upon the apocryphal Book of Seth, and writes much about the Magi that is clearly legendary.笔者承认,他是绘图时赛斯杜撰书,并将其写入贤士,这显然是传说中的多。The cathedral of Cologne contains what are claimed to be the remains of the Magi; these, it is said, were discovered in Persia, brought to Constantinople by St. Helena, transferred to Milan in the fifth century and to Cologne in 1163 (Acta SS., I, 323).科隆大教堂包含什么自称是贤士的遗体;,这是说,这些发现在波斯,圣赫勒拿带到君士坦丁堡,在第五世纪,转移到科隆到米兰1163(SS文献,我,323)。

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息写沃尔特鼓。Transcribed by John Szpytman.转录由约翰Szpytman。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全书,卷第九。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Magi贤士

Orthodox Information东正教信息

(This information may not be of the scholastic quality of the other articles in BELIEVE. Since few Orthodox scholarly articles have been translated into English, we have had to rely on Orthodox Wiki as a source. Since the Wikipedia collections do not indicate the author's name for articles, and essentially anyone is free to edit or alter any of their articles (again, without any indication of what was changed or who changed it), we have concerns. However, in order to include an Orthodox perspective in some of our subject presentations, we have found it necessary to do this. At least until actual scholarly Orthodox texts are translated from the Greek originals!) (此信息的信奉的其他文章的学术质量。由于少数东正教学术文章已被译成英文翻译,我们都不得不依靠作为源东正教的Wiki。以来的维基百科集合做不注明作者的姓名的文章,而且基本上任何人自由编辑或改变任何自己的文章(再没有什么改变,或改变它的任何指示),我们有顾虑。然而,为了在我们的一些主题,包括东正教的角度介绍,我们发现有必要做到这一点。,至少要等到实际学术东正教文本翻译从希腊原件!)

According to the Gospel of Matthew (2:1-16), the wise men or Magi followed a star to the birth place of Christ.据马太的福音(2:1-16),智者贤士跟随明星基督诞生的地方。It was written that they were from the east and that they brought three gifts to Christ; gold, frankincense, and myrrh.这是撰文指出,他们分​​别来自东部,他们带来了三个礼物基督的黄金,乳香,没药。Since there were three gifts, it has been inferred that there were three Magi.由于有三个礼物,它已被推断有三个贤士。In Latin tradition dating from the seventh century,(from a greek manuscript) their names are given as Gaspar (or Caspar/Jasper), Melchior and Balthasar.在拉丁美洲的传统可以追溯到公元七世纪,从希腊手稿作为他们的名字加斯帕(或卡斯帕/碧玉),梅尔基奥尔和巴尔塔萨。 According to one tradition, the Magi were baptized by the Apostle Thomas, and became bishops.一个传统,贤士的洗礼使徒托马斯,成为主教。The Church commemorates the Magi as saints; the Eastern feast day of the Magi is December 25.教会纪念为圣人贤士;东方的贤士节日是12月25日。

There are numerous variations of the names of the Magi in Greek, but the most common variation is for the name Gaspar which in Greek is Γιάσπερος (yiasperos) which is Anglicized as Jasper.贤士在希腊的名称有许多变化,但最常见的变化,这在希腊是Γιάσπερος(yiasperos),这是曾钰成英国化的名字加斯帕。



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