Manuscripts of the Bible圣经手稿

Catholic Information天主教信息

Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version either of the whole Bible or of a part thereof.手稿是写的,而不是印制,原始文字或一个版本的整本圣经或其中的一部分的副本。After introductory remarks on manuscripts in general, we shall take up in detail the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Armenian, and Coptic manuscripts of the Bible; manuscripts of other versions are not important enough to come within the scope of this article.对一般的手稿开场白后,我们应采取详细的希伯来文,希腊文,拉丁文,叙利亚,亚美尼亚语,和“圣经”的科普特人手稿,其他版本的手稿是不够重要,本文的范围内来。

I. IN GENERAL一,总则

Manuscripts may be conveniently divided into papyrus and vellum manuscripts.稿件可方便地划分成纸莎草纸和羊皮纸手稿。

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(1) Papyrus manuscripts (1)纸莎草纸手稿

In the Roman Empire of the first three centuries of our era, papyrus was the ordinary writing material.在我们这个时代的前三个世纪的罗马帝国,纸莎草是普通的写作素材。Made out of strips of pith taken from the stem of the Egyptian water-plant of the same name, papyrus was very fragile, became brittle in air, crumbled with use, could not resist the disintegrating force of moisture and was quite impracticable for book-form. ,从埃及的同名水植物的茎髓带,纸莎草是非常脆弱,成为空气中的脆性,使用崩溃,无法抵御水分的瓦解力量,是相当不切实际的书形式。All papyrus manuscripts of every sort are lost to us save such as were buried in exceedingly dry soil, like that of Upper and Middle Egypt.输给我们的每一个排序的所有纸莎草纸手稿,保存等被埋藏在极其干燥的土壤上层和中层的埃及一样,。Here the ignorant fellaheen at one time wantonly destroyed vast quantities of papyrus manuscripts.这里一次无知fellaheen肆意摧毁了大量的纸莎草纸手稿。Egyptian excavators now prevent such destruction and keep on adding to our very considerable collections of papyri.埃及大型挖掘机现已防止这种破坏,并不断加入到我们非常可观的馆藏纸莎草纸。It is more than likely that the New Testament sacred writers or their scribes used ink and rolls of fragile papyrus for their autographa (2 Corinthians 3:3; 2 John 12).它很可能是他们的苜蓿(哥林多后书3:3; 2约翰福音12章),新约中神圣的作家或他们的文士用于油墨和脆弱的纸莎草纸辊。These original manuscripts probably perished towards the end of the first or the opening of the second century.这些原始手稿可能死于对第一或第二世纪的开放的结束。We find no trace of them in either the Apostolic or the apologetic Fathers, -- unless we except Tertullian's words, "the authentic letters of the Apostles themselves", which are now generally set aside as rhetorical.我们发现在使徒或致歉的父亲没有他们的痕迹, - 除非我们除了德尔图良的话说,这是目前普遍预留作为修辞“的使徒自己正宗的英文字母”。A significant proof of the early loss of the autograph copies of the New Testament is the fact that Irenæus never appeals to the original writings but only to all the painstaking and ancient copies (en pasi tois spoudaiois kai archaiois antigraphois), to the witness of those that saw John face to face (kai martyrounton auton ekeinon ton katopsin ton Ioannen heorakoton), and to the internal evidence of the written word (kai tou logou didaskontos hemas).早期的新约中的签名副本的损失的一个显著的证明是爱任纽从来没有提出上诉,但只有所有的艰苦和古副本(PASI tois spoudaiois启archaiois antigraphois)原著作的事实,这些证人看见约翰的脸脸(启martyrounton auton ekeinon吨katopsin吨Ioannen heorakoton),文字(启头logou didaskontos hemas)内部证据。

(2) Vellum manuscripts(2)羊皮纸手稿

Egypt clung to her papyrus rolls until the eighth century and even later.埃及坚持她的纸莎草纸辊,直到第八世纪,甚至更晚。Vellum had been used before the time of Christ (cf. Pliny, "Historia Naturalis", xiii, 11), and during the time of the Apostles (2 Timothy 4:13).皮纸前已基督(参见普林尼,“Historia Naturalis”,十三,11)时使用,并且在使徒(提摩太后书4:13)的时间。In the third century, it began, outside of Egypt, to supersede papyrus; in the early part of the fourth century vellum and the codex, or book-form, gained complete victory over papyrus and the roll-form. ,在第三个世纪开始,埃及之外,以取代纸莎草纸;牛皮纸和食品,或书本形式的第四个世纪早期的一部分,取得了彻底胜利了纸莎草纸和卷形式。When Constantine founded his capital of the Byzantine Empire, he ordered Eusebius to have fifty manuscripts of the Bible made on vellum (somatia en diphtherais) for use in the churches of Byzantium (Vita Constant., IV, 36).当康斯坦丁创办了自己的拜占庭帝国的首都,他下令尤西比乌斯拜占庭教堂(VITA恒,四,36)50手稿的圣经牛皮纸(somatia EN diphtherais)。To the fourth century belong the earliest extant Biblical manuscripts of anything but fragmentary size.到第四世纪属于现存最早的圣经手稿什么,但零碎的大小。

(3) Palimpsests(3)Palimpsests

Some vellum manuscripts of the greatest importance are palimpsests (from Lat. palimpsestum, Gr. palimpsestos, "scraped again"), -- that is, they were long ago scraped a second time with pumice-stone and written upon anew.最重要的一些羊皮纸手稿palimpsests(从纬度palimpsestum,GR palimpsestos,“刮”), - 那就是,他们早就刮第二次与浮石石,并重新编写的。The discovery of palimpsests led to the reckless of bigoted charge of wholesale destruction of Biblical manuscripts by the monks of old.palimpsests发现导致顽固负责批发销毁圣经手稿老和尚的鲁莽。That there was some such destruction is clear enough from the decree of a Greek synod of AD 691, which forbade the use of palimpsest manuscripts either of the Bible or of the Fathers, unless they were utterly unserviceable (see Wattenbach, "Das Schriftwessen im Mittelalter", 1896, p. 299).有一些这样的破坏是从公元691,禁止使用的“圣经”的父亲重写本手稿的希腊主教会议的法令不够明确,除非他们完全报废(见Wattenbach,“资本Schriftwessen IM Mittelalter “,1896年,第299页)。That such destruction was not wholesale, but had to do with only worn or damaged manuscripts, is in like manner clear enough from the significant fact that as yet no complete work of any kind has been found on a palimpsest.这种破坏是不批发,但不得不做磨损或损坏的手稿,是喜欢的方式清除显著的事实还没有任何形式的完整的工作已经发现一个重写本。 The deciphering of a palimpsest may at times be accomplished merely by soaking it in clear water; generally speaking, some chemical reagent is required, in order to bring back the original writing.有时一个重写本可破译完成只是在清水浸泡;一般来说,一些化学试剂是必需的,以带回原来的写作。Such chemical reagents are an infusion of nutgalls, Gioberti's tincture and hydrosulphuret of ammonia; all do harm to the manuscript.这种化学试剂nutgalls,Gioberti酊和氨hydrosulphuret输液;损害的手稿。 Wattenbach, a leading authority on the subject, says: "More precious manuscripts, in proportion to the existing supply, have been destroyed by the learned experimenters of our time than by the much abused monks of old." Wattenbach,关于这个问题的权威,说:“更珍贵的手稿,在现有的供应比例,已经由我们这个时代所学到的实验者比老得多的滥用僧人销毁。”

II.二。HEBREW MANUSCRIPTS希伯来文手稿

(1) Age (1)年龄

(a) Pre-Massoretic text(一)前massoretic文本

The earliest Hebrew manuscript is the Nash papyrus.最早的希伯来手稿是纳什纸莎草纸。There are four fragments, which, when pieced together, give twenty-four lines of a pre-Massoretic text of the Ten Commandments and the shema (Exodus 20:2-17; Deuteronomy 5:6-19; 6:4-5).有4个片段,其中,拼凑在一起时,给一个预massoretic文本十诫的玛二十四线(出埃及记“20:2-17,申命记5:6-19; 6:4-5) 。The writing is without vowels and seems palæographically to be not later than the second century.写作是没有元音和似乎palæographically到不能迟于第二世纪。This is the oldest extant Bible manuscript (see Cook, "A Pre-Massoretic Biblical Papyrus" in "Proceed. of the Soc. of Bib. Arch.", Jan., 1903).这是现存最古老的圣经手稿(库克,“一个预Massoretic圣经纸莎草纸”,在“继续的SOC。背带裤。拱。”月,1903年)。 It agrees at times with the Septuagint against the Massorah.它同意与七十对Massorah。Another pre- Massoretic text is the Samaritan Pentateuch.另一位前massoretic文本是撒玛利亚五。The Samaritan recension is probably pre-exilic; it has come down to us free from Massoretic influences, is written without vowels and in Samaritan characters.撒玛利亚的recension可能是前放逐;回落Massoretic影响到我们,是没有元音和撒玛利亚字符写入。 The earliest Samaritan manuscript extant is that of Nablûs, which was formerly rated very much earlier than all Massoretic manuscripts, but is now assigned to the twelfth or thirteenth century AD Here mention should be made of the non-Massoretic Hebrew manuscripts of the Book of Ecclesiasticus.现存最早的撒玛利亚手稿是纳布卢斯,以前评价非常早于所有Massoretic手稿,但现在分配到第十二或公元十三世纪,这里提到的应该非Massoretic希伯来手稿图书Ecclesiasticus 。These fragments, obtained from a Cairo genizah (a box for wornout or cast-off manuscripts), belong to the tenth or eleventh century of our era.这些片段,从开罗genizah(wornout或投过的手稿盒)获得的,属于我们这个时代的第十或十一世纪。They provide us with more than a half of Ecclesiasticus and duplicate certain portions of the book.他们提供了超过一半的Ecclesiasticus和重复的书的某些部分。Many scholars deem that the Cairo fragments prove Hebrew to have been the original language of Ecclesiasticus (see "Facsimiles of the Fragments hitherto recovered of the Book of Ecclesiasticus in Hebrew", Oxford and Cambridge, 1901).许多学者,认为开罗片段证明希伯来语已Ecclesiasticus原始语言(看到,牛津大学和剑桥大学,1901年“Ecclesiasticus在希伯来文图书回收的片段至今传真机”)。

(b) Massoretic text(二)massoretic文本

All other Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible are Massoretic (see MASSORAH), and belong to the tenth century or later.其他所有的“圣经”希伯来手稿Massoretic(见MASSORAH),属于十世纪或更高版本。 Some of these manuscripts are dated earlier.这些手稿中的一些年以前。Text-critics consider these dates to be due either to intentional fraud or to uncritical transcription of dates of older manuscripts.文字评论家认为这些日期是由于故意欺诈或不加批判的转录旧手稿日期。For instance, a codex of the Former and Latter Prophets, now in the Karaite synagogue of Cairo, is dated AD 895; Neubauer assigns it to the eleventh or thirteenth century.例如,前者和后者的先知现在在开罗Karaite的犹太教堂,的法典,是公元895日;纽鲍尔将其分配给第十一届或十三世纪。 The Cambridge manuscript no.剑桥手稿没有。12, dated AD 856, he marks as a thirteenth-century work; the date AD 489, attached to the St. Petersburg Pentateuch, he rejects as utterly impossible (see Studia Biblica, III, 22).12日,公元856日,他标志着作为一个13世纪的工作;日期公元489,连接到圣彼得堡​​摩西五,他拒绝完全不可能的(见Studia Biblica,三,22)。Probably the earliest Massoretic manuscripts are: "Prophetarium Posteriorum Codex Bablyonicus Petropolitanus", dated AD 916; the St. Petersburg Bible, written by Samuel ben Jacob and dated AD 1009; and "Codex Oriental. 4445" in the British Museum, which Ginsburg (Introduction, p. 469) assigns to AD 820-50.也许最早Massoretic手稿是:“Prophetarium Posteriorum食品法典委员会Bablyonicus Petropolitanus”,于公元916;圣彼得堡圣经写塞缪尔奔雅各月公元1009;和“食品法典委员会东方4445”在大英博物馆,金斯伯格(导言,第469页)分配到公元820-50。 The text critics differ very widely in the dates they assign to certain Hebrew manuscripts.它们分配给某些希伯来文手稿中的日期,文本批评的差异非常广泛。De Rossi is inclined to think that at most nine or ten Massoretic manuscripts are earlier than the twelfth century (Variæ Lectiones, I, p. xv).德罗西是倾向于认为最九个或十个Massoretic手稿是早于十二世纪(Variæ Lectiones,我第XV)。

(2) Number (2)

Kennicott, the first critical student of the Massoretic text, either examined or had others examine 16 Samaritan manuscripts, some 40 printed texts and 638 Massoretic manuscripts (see "Dissertatio Generalis in Vetus Testam. Hebraicum", Oxford, 1780).Kennicott,massoretic文本的第一个关键的学生,无论是研究或其他研究16撒玛利亚手稿,大约40个印刷文本和638 Massoretic手稿(见“Dissertatio Vetus Testam Generalis。Hebraicum”,牛津,1780)。 He numbered these manuscripts in six groups: nos.他编号的这些手稿在六组:NOS。1-88, Oxford manuscripts; nos. 1-88,牛津手稿; NOS。89-144, other manuscripts of English-speaking countries; nos.89-144,其他手稿英语为母语的国家; NOS。145-254, manuscripts of continental Europe; nos.145-254,手稿的欧洲大陆; NOS。 255-300, printed texts and various manuscripts; nos.255-300,印刷文本和各种手稿; NOS。301-694, manuscripts collated by Brunsius.301-694,Brunsius整理手稿。De Rossi (Variæ Lectiones Vet. Test.) retained the numeration of Kennicott and added a list of 479 manuscripts, all his own personal property, of which unfortunately 17 had already received numbers from Kennicott.德罗西(Variæ Lectiones兽医试验)保留Kennicott记数,并增加了一个479手稿,他自己的个人财产,不幸已经收到17 Kennicott数字。 De Rossi later added four supplementary lists of 110, 52, 37, and 76 manuscripts.德罗西后来又增加了四个补充名单,110,52,37,76手稿。He brought the number of Massoretic manuscripts up to 1375.他带来了Massoretic手稿的数量上升到1375。No one has since undertaken so colossal a critical study of the Hebrew manuscripts.没有人因为承担如此巨大的一个关键研究希伯来文手稿。A few of the chief manuscripts are more exactly collated and compared in the critical editions of the Massoretic text which were done by S. Baer and Fr.少数行政手稿更准确地整理和S. Baer和FR的massoretic文本,其中的关键版本相比。Delitzsch and by Ginsburg. Delitzsch和金斯伯格。To the vast number of Hebrew manuscripts examined by Kennicott and De Rossi must be added some 2000 manuscripts of the Imperial Library of St. Petersburg, which Firkowitsch collated at Tschufut-Kale ("Jews' Rock") in the Crimea (see Strack, "Die biblischen und massoretischen Handschriften zü Tschufut-Kale" in "Zeits. für luth. Theol. und Kirche", 1875).为了广大Kennicott和德罗西研究的希伯来文手稿,2000年圣彼得堡的帝国图书馆的一些手稿,Firkowitsch整理Tschufut,芥兰在克里米亚(“犹太人”岩石“)(见施特拉克,必须添加”模具biblischen和massoretischen Handschriften祖Tschufut芥兰“在”Zeits。毛皮luth。Theol和Kirche“,1875年)。

(3) Worth (3)价值

The critical study of this rich assortment of about 3400 Massoretic rolls and codices is not so promising of important results as it would at first thought seem to be.本Massoretic约3400卷和抄本的种类丰富的批判性研究是没有前途的重要成果,因为它会首先想到的似乎是。The manuscripts are all of quite recent date, if compared with Greek, Latin, and Syriac codices.手稿是相当最近的日期,如果与希腊文,拉丁文,并叙利亚文抄本相比。They are all singularly alike.他们都是异乎寻常的一致好评。Some few variants are found in copies made for private use; copies made for public service in the synagogues are so uniform as to deter the critic from comparing them.有几个变种被发现在私人使用而制作的复制品,在犹太教堂的公共服务取得的副本,以便统一以阻吓评论家比较。All Massoretic manuscripts bring us back to one editor -- that of a textual tradition which probably began in the second century and became more and more minute until every jot and tittle of the text was almost absolutely fixed and sacred.所有Massoretic手稿把我们带回一个编辑器 - 可能在第二个世纪开始,并成为越来越多分钟,直到所有的记和微量的文字文本的传统,几乎是绝对固定和神圣。R. Aqiba seems to have been the head of this Jewish school of the second century.R. Aqiba似乎一直是这个犹太学校的第二个世纪的头。Unprecedented means were taken to keep the text fixed.采取了前所未有的手段来保持固​​定的文本。The scholars counted the words and consonants of each book, the middle word and middle consonants, the peculiarities of script, etc. Even when such peculiarities were clearly due to error or to accident, they were perpetuated and interpreted by a mystical meaning.学者们计算每本书的文字和辅音字母,中间的字和中间辅音,脚本的特殊性,即使这种特殊性显然是由于错误或意外,他们延续和解释由一个神秘的含义。 Broken and inverted letters, consonants that were too small or too large, dots which were out of place -- all these oddities were handed down as God-intended.折断,倒字母,辅音,过小或过大的,小点的地方 - 所有这些古怪的传世神用意。In Gen., ii, 4, bebram ("when they were created"), all manuscripts have a small Hê.在将军,二,四,bebram(“当他们创建的”),所有的手稿有一个小的他。Jewish scholars looked upon this peculiarity as inspired; they interpreted it: "In the letter Hê he created them"; and then set themselves to find out what that meant.This lack of variants in Massoretic manuscripts leaves us hopeless of reaching back to the original Hebrew text save through the versions.犹太学者看了后,这个特点的启发,他们的理解是:“他在信中,他创造了他们”,然后为自己找出是什么变种meant.This缺乏Massoretic手稿给我们留下深远的回原来的无望希伯来文通过的版本保存。 Kittel in his splendid Hebrew text gives such variants as the versions suggest.在他辉煌的希伯来文基特尔给出了这样的变种版本建议。

III.三。GREEK MANUSCRIPTS希腊手稿

(1) In General(1)一般

Greek manuscripts are divided into two classes according to their style of writing -- uncials and minuscules.希腊手稿被分成两个班,根据自己的写作风格 - uncials和minuscules。

(a) Uncials were written between the fourth and tenth centuries, with large and disconnected letters.(一)Uncials被写入之间的第四和第十世纪,大和断开的字母。These letters were not capitals but had a distinctive form: epsilon, sigma, and omega were not written EPSILON, SIGMA, OMEGA, as are those capitals in inscriptions; rho, phi, psi, and at times upsilon were prolonged above or below the line.这些信件不是首都,但有一个独特的形式:EPSILON,西格玛,欧米茄没有书面EPSILON,SIGMA,欧米茄,是那些在铭文首都RHO,披,PSI,有时埃普西隆延长线高于或低于。 Words were not separated; neither accents nor punctuation marks were used; paragraphs were marked off only by a very small lacuna; the letters were uniform and artistic; ligatures were used only for the most ordinary words -- IC (Iesous), KC (Kyrios), XC (Christos), ICL (Israel), PNA (pneuma), DLD (David), ANOC (anthropos), PER (pater), MER (mater), OUC (pater), CER (soter), OUNOC (ouranos).不分开的话,既不口音,也没有标点符号使用;段落标记只能由一个非常小的空隙;字母统一和艺术;连字只用于最普通的话 - 集成电路(Iesous),KC(Kyrios ),XC(克里斯托),ICL(以色列),巴勒斯坦民族权力机构(元气),DLD(大卫),ANOC(anthropos),市盈率(佩特),MER(母校),中央电大(佩特),CER(SOTER),OUNOC(ouranos )。In the sixth century, began a decadence of the elegant uncial writing.在第六世纪,开始颓废优雅的安色尔字体书写。Twists and turns were given to certain letters.曲折某些字母。In the seventh century, more letters received flourishes; accents and breathings were introduced; the writing leaned to the right.在第七个世纪,更多的信件收到了一夜暴富的口音和breathings介绍;写作俯身的权利。

(b) Minuscules(二)Minuscules

While uncials held sway in Biblical manuscripts, minuscules were employed in other works.虽然uncials举行挥洒在圣经手稿,minuscules受聘于其他作品。During the ninth century, both uncial and minuscule manuscripts of the Bible were written.在第九世纪,“圣经”安色尔字体和极小的手稿被写入。The latter show a form of writing so fully developed as to leave no doubt about its long standing use.后者显示的写作形式,所以充分的发展,没有留下任何有关其长期使用的疑问。The letters are small, connected, and written with a running hand.这些信件是小,连接,并与正在运行的书面的。After the tenth century, minuscules were used until, in the fifteenth century, manuscripts were superceded by print.十世纪后,minuscules被使用,直到在15世纪,手稿所取代打印。

(2) Old Testament manuscripts(2)旧约手稿

(a) Septuagint (LXX)(一)译本(LXX)

There are three families of Septuagint manuscripts -- the Hexaplaric, Hesychian, and Lucianic.家庭有三个译本手稿 - Hexaplaric,Hesychian和Lucianic。Manuscripts of Origen's Hexapla and Tetrapla were preserved at Cæsarea by his disciple Pamphilus.奥利的Hexapla和Tetrapla手稿保存在该撒利亚,由他的弟子Pamphilus。Some extant manuscripts (vg aleph and Q) refer in scholia to these gigantic works of Origen.一些现存的手稿(VG ALEPH和Q)是指在scholia奥利这些巨大的工程。In the fourth century, Pamphilus and his disciple Eusebius of Cæsarea reproduced the fifth column of the Hexapla, ie Origen's Hexaplaric Septuagint text, with all his critical signs.在第四世纪,Pamphilus和他的弟子尤西比乌斯的cæsarea转载Hexapla,即奥利Hexaplaric译本文字的第五纵队,他与所有的关键标志。 This copy is the source of the Hexaplaric family of Septuagint manuscripts.这个副本是Hexaplaric家庭译本手稿的来源。In course of time, scribes omitted the critical signs in part or entirely.随着时间的推移,文士省略部分或全部的关键标志。Passages wanting in the Septuagint, but present in the Hebrew, and consequently supplied by Origen from either Aquila or Tehodotion, were hopelessly commingled with passages of the then extant Septuagint.段落中译本希望,但目前在希伯来文,并因此由奥利提供从拉奎拉或Tehodotion,无可救药的混合通道然后现存七十。 Almost at the same time two other editions of the Septuagint were published -- those of Hesychius at Alexandria and of Lucian at Antioch.几乎在同一时间两个其他版本的译本出版了 - 那些赫西基奥斯在亚历山大在安提阿的卢西恩。From these three editions the extant manuscripts of the Septuagint have descended, but by ways that have not yet been accurately traced.这三个版本的译本现存的手稿已经下降,但尚未被准确地追踪方式。Very few manuscripts can be assigned with more than probability to one of the three families.很少有手稿可以分配超过概率三大家族之一。The Hexaplaric, Hesychian, and Lucianic manuscripts acted one upon the other. Hexaplaric,Hesychian和Lucianic手稿付诸行动的其他之一。Most extant manuscripts of the Septuagint contain, as a result, readings of each and of none of the great families.大多数现存的手稿的septuagint包含,因此,每个伟大的家庭没有读数。The tracing of the influence of these three great manuscripts is a work yet to be done by the text-critics.追查这三个伟大的手稿的影响,是一个有待文本批评做的工作。

Papyrus.纸莎草纸。-- About sixteen fragments on papyrus are extant.- 约16莎草纸碎片是现存。Of these, the most important are:其中,最重要的是:

Oxyrhyncus Pap.Oxyrhyncus子宫颈。656 (early third cent.), containing parts of Gen., xiv-xxvii, wherein most of the great vellum manuscripts are wanting.656“(早期的三分之一以上。),载有部分将军,十四,二十七,其中最伟大的羊皮纸手稿希望。

British Museum Pap.大英博物馆的巴氏。37, at times called U (seventh cent.), containing part of Psalms (Hebrew) x-xxxiii. 37,有时称为U(第七百分之。),含有部分诗篇(希伯来文)X - XXXIII。

A Leipzig Pap.一个莱比锡子宫颈抹片。(fourth cent.) containing Psalms xxix-liv.(第四美分)。诗篇XXIX LIV。These two Psalters give us the text of Upper Egypt.这两个Psalters给我们上埃及的文字。

A Heidelberg Pap.一个海德堡子宫颈抹片。(seventh cent.) containing Azch., iv, 6-Mal., iv, 5.(第七百分之。),其中包含Azch,四,六正常,四,五。

A Berlin Pap.柏林子宫颈抹片。(fourth or fifth cent.) containing about thirty chapters of Genesis.(第四或第五%。)含有约创世记30章。

Vellum Uncial.皮纸安色尔字体。-- Parsons collated 13 uncial and 298 minuscule manuscripts of the Septuagint; the former he designated with Roman numerals, I-XIII, the latter with Arabic numbers, 14-311 (cf., "VT Græcum cum Variis Lectionibus", Oxford, 1798).- 帕森斯整理了13安色尔字体和298微不足道手稿的septuagint;前他指定的罗马数字,十三,后者用阿拉伯数字,14-311(参见“VT Græcum暨Variis Lectionibus”,牛津大学,1798年)。Legarde designated the uncials by Roman and Greek capitals.Legarde指定uncials由罗马和希腊的首都。This designation is now generally accepted (cf. Swete, "Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek", Cambridge, 1902, 148).现在普遍接受的,该名称是(参见Swete,“在希腊语中介绍旧约”,剑桥,1902年,148)。

aleph -- S, Cod.ALEPH - S鳕鱼。Sinaiticus (fourth century; 43 leaves at Leipzig, 156 together with NT at St. Petersburg) contains fragments of Gen. and Num.; I Par., ix, 27-xix, 17; Esd.西奈抄本(第四世纪,在莱比锡,以新台币156 43叶)在圣彼得堡包含将军和Num片段;我的票,九,27 19,17;的ESD。ix, 9-end; Esth.; Tob.; Judith; I and IV Mach.; Isa.; Jer.; Lam., i, 1-ii, 20; Joel; Ab.-Mal.; the Poetical Books; the entire New Testament; the Epistle of Barnabas and part of the "Shepherd" of Hermas.九,9结束; Esth; TOB;朱迪思我和四马赫; ISA;耶;林,我1 - II,20。乔尔; Ab.正常;诗学书籍;整个新约使徒巴拿巴和黑马的“牧羊人”的一部分。The text is mixed.混合文本。 In Tobias it differs much from A and B. Its origin is doubtful.在托比亚斯它不同于从A和B它的起源是值得怀疑的。Two correctors (Ca and Cb) are of the seventh century.在第七世纪的两个校正(CA和CB)。Ca tells us at the end of Esth. CA告诉我们Esth结束。that he compared this manuscript with a very early copy, which Pamphilus testified had been taken from and corrected according to the Hexapla or Origen.一个非常早期的副本,Pamphilus作证已采取和纠正Hexapla或奥利,他比这个手稿。

A, or Cod.一,或鳕鱼。Alexandrinus (fifth century; in British Museum) contains complete Bible (excepting Ps. 1-20-lxxx, 11, and smaller lacunæ) and includes deuterocanonical books and fragments, the apocryphal III and IV Mach., also I and II Clem.Alexandrinus(五世纪,在大英博物馆)包含完整的圣经(除PS - 20 - LXXX,11,和更小的缺陷。),并包括次经书籍和片段,杜撰的第三和第四马赫,也I和II克莱姆。Its origin is Egyptian and may be Hesychian.它的起源是埃及和可能Hesychian。It differs much from B, especially in Judges.它从B不同,尤其是在法官。Two scribes wrote the manuscript.两个文士写的稿子。The corrector belonged to about the same time.校正属于大约在同一时间。

B, or Cod. B,或鳕鱼。Vaticanus (fourth century; in the Vatican) contains complete Bible. Vaticanus(第四世纪在梵蒂冈)包含完整的圣经。The Old Testament lacks Gen., i, 1-xivi, 28; I and II Mach.; portions of 2 Samuel 2; and Psalms, cv-cxxxvii.将军,我1 - 28 xivi,旧约缺乏;我和二马赫;和诗篇,CV - cxxxvii; 2塞缪尔2部分。 The New Testament wants Heb., ix, 14; I and II Tim.; Titus.; Apoc.希望在新约圣经希伯来书,九,14; I和II添;提图斯;载脂蛋白C。Its origin is Lower Egyptian.它的起源是下埃及。Hort thinks it akin to the text used by Origen in his Hexapla.园艺认为它类似于由奥利在他Hexapla使用的文字。

C, or Codex Ephræmi Rescriptus (fifth century palimpsest, in National Library, Paris) contains 64 leaves of Old Testament; most of Eccl.; parts of Ecclus.; Wisd.; Prov.C或食品Ephræmi Rescriptus(第五世纪重写本,在国家图书馆,巴黎)包含64个叶旧约传道书最; Ecclus部分。Wisd;省。and Cant.; 145 out of 238 leaves of New Testament.和斜面; 145 238叶新约。

D, or The Cotton Genesis (fifth century; in British Museum) contains fragments of Gen.; was almost destroyed by fire in 1731, but had been previously studied. D,或棉花成因(五世纪,在大英博物馆)载有片段的将军;几乎摧毁了在1731年的火,但以前的研究。

E, or Cod. E,或鳕鱼。Bodleianus (ninth or tenth century; in Bodl. Libr., Oxford) contains Heptateuch fragments. Bodleianus(第九,第十世纪。溴化锂,牛津)在Bodl包含Heptateuch片段。

F, or Cod. F,或鳕鱼。Ambrosianus (fifth century; at Milan) contains Heptateuch fragments. Ambrosianus(五世纪,在AC米兰),包含Heptateuch片段。

G, or Cod. G,或鳕鱼。Sarravianus (fifth century; 130 leaves at Leyden; 22 in Paris, one in St. Petersburg) contains the Hexaplaric Octateuch (fragments) with some of the asterisks and obeli of Origen.Sarravianus(第五世纪; 130叶在莱顿22日在巴黎,在圣彼得堡)包含一些的星号和奥利obeli Hexaplaric Octateuch(片段)。

H, or Cod. H,或鳕鱼。Petropolitanus (sixth century; in Imperial Libr., St. Petersburg) contains portions of Numbers.Petropolitanus(六世纪,在帝国溴化锂,圣彼得堡)包含数字的部分。

I, or Cod.我,或鳕鱼。Bodleianus (ninth century; in Bodl. Libr., Oxford) contains the Psalms. Bodleianus(第九世纪;。溴化锂,牛津)在Bodl包含的诗篇。

K, or Cod. K或鳕鱼。Lipsiensis (seventh century; in Univ. of Leipzig) contains fragments of Heptateuch. Lipsiensis(公元七世纪,在大学,莱比锡)包含Heptateuch的片段。

L, or The Vienna Genesis (sixth century; in Imperial Libr., Vienna) contains incomplete Genesis, written with silver letters on purple vellum. L,或维也纳成因(六世纪,在帝国溴化锂,维也纳)包含不完整的成因,与银信紫色羊皮纸写。

M, or Cod.男,或鳕鱼。Coislinianus (seventh century; in National Library, Paris) contains Heptateuch and Kings. Coislinianus(公元七世纪,在国家图书馆,巴黎)包含Heptateuch和国王。

NV, or Cod.内华达州,或鳕鱼。Basiliano-Venetus (eighth or ninth century; partly in Venice and partly in Vatican) contains complete Gen., Ex., and part of Lev., and was used with B in the critical edition of the Septuagint (Rome, 1587).Basiliano - Venetus(第八或第九世纪,部分在威尼斯和部分在梵蒂冈)包含完整的将军,前,列弗,并与B在关键版的septuagint(罗马,1587)。

O, or Cod. O,或鳕鱼。Dublinensis (sixth century; in Trinity College, Dublin) contains fragments of Isaias. Dublinensis(六世纪,在三一学院,都柏林)包含伊萨亚斯片段。

Q, or Cod. Q,或鳕鱼。Marchalianus (sixth century, in Vatican) contains Prophets, complete; is very important, and originated in Egypt.Marchalianus(六世纪,在梵蒂冈)载有先知,完整的,是非常重要的,并在埃及起源。 The text is probably Hesychian.文字是可能Hesychian的。In the margins are many readings from the Hexapla; it also gives many Hexaplaric signs.在利润率从Hexapla许多读数,这也给许多Hexaplaric迹象。

R, or Cod. R,或鳕鱼。Veronensis (sixth century; at Verona) contains Gr.Veronensis(六世纪,在维罗纳)包含GR。and Lat.及土地增值税。Psalter and Canticles.诗篇和canticle的。

T, or Cod. T,或鳕鱼。Zuricensis, the Zürich Psalter (seventh century) shows, with R, the Western text; silver letters, gold initials, on purple vellum. Zuricensis,苏黎世诗篇(七世纪)显示,与紫色羊皮纸,R时,中西文,银信,黄金缩写。

W, or Cod. W,或鳕鱼。Parisiensis (ninth century; in National Library, Paris) contains fragments of Psalms. Parisiensis(第九世纪,在国家图书馆,巴黎)载有片段的诗篇。

X, or Cod. X,或鳕鱼。Vaticanus (ninth century; in Vatican) contains the Book of Job. Vaticanus(第九世纪在梵蒂冈)包含约伯记。

Y, or Cod. Y,或鳕鱼。Tauriensis (ninth century; in National Library, Turin) contains Lesser Prophets. Tauriensis(第九世纪,在国家图书馆,都灵)包含较轻的先知。

Z, or Cod. Z,或鳕鱼。Tischendorf (ninth century) contains fragments of Kings; published by Tischendorf.蒂申多夫(第九世纪)国王的片段;提申多夫出版。

Gamma, or Cod.伽马,或鳕鱼。Cryptoferrantensis (eighth or ninth century; at Grottaferrata) contains fragments of Prophets. Cryptoferrantensis(第八或第九世纪,在Grottaferrata)包含了先知的片段。

Delta, or Cod.三角洲,或鳕鱼。Bodleianus (fourth or fifth century; Oxford, in Bodl. Libr.) contains a fragment of Daniel. Bodleianus(第四或第五世纪。Bodl溴化锂,牛津)包含一个片段的丹尼尔。

Theta, or Cod.西塔,或鳕鱼。Washington (fifth or sixth century, to be in Smithsonian Institution), contains Deut.-Jos., found in Egypt, one of the Freer manuscripts.华盛顿(第五或第六世纪,在史密森学会),包含申命记 - 乔斯,在埃及发现的,更自由的手稿之一。 There are likewise seven uncial Psalters (two complete) of the ninth or tenth century and eighteen rather unimportant fragments listed by Swete (op. cit., p. 140).同样有七个安色尔字体Psalters(两个完整)的第九,第十世纪和十八Swete(同上,第140页)中列出的比较不重要的片段。

Vellum Minuscule.皮纸微不足道。More than 300 are known but unclassified.300多名已知但非保密。The Cambridge Septuagint purposes to collate the chief of these minuscules and to group them with a view to discriminating the various recensions of the Septuagint.剑桥七十目的整理这些minuscules行政组与歧视的septuagint的recensions。More than half of these manuscripts are Psalters and few of them give the entire Old Testament.超过一半的这些手稿是Psalters和他们几个给整个旧约。In editing his Alcalá Polyglot, Cardinal Ximenes used minuscules 108 and 248 of the Vatican.编辑他的阿尔卡拉多语种,枢机主教希梅内斯梵蒂冈minuscules 108和248。

(b) Aquila (二)拉奎拉

(See VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE).(见“圣经”版本)。Manuscript traces of the text of Aquila are found in拉奎拉文本手稿的痕迹被发现在

fragments of Origen's third columns, written as marginal notes to some manuscripts, such as Q;奥利的第三列作为旁注写的一些手稿,如Q,碎片;

the Milan palimpsest of the Hexapla, a most important tenth century copy found by Mercati in 1896.米兰的Hexapla重写本Mercati在1896年发现的一个最重要的十世纪的副本。It contains about eleven Psalms, has no Hebrew column, and uses the space thereof for variant readings;它包含约11个诗篇,没有希伯来列,并使用空间及其变种读数;

the Cambridge fragment, seventh century, discovered in a Cairo genizah.公元七世纪,剑桥片段,发现在开罗genizah。It contains parts of Ps.它包含的PS部分。xxi (see Taylor, "Cairo Genizah Palimpsests", 1900).XXI(见泰勒,“开罗Genizah Palimpsests”,1900年)。The name Jahweh is written in old Hebrew letters.是写在旧的希伯来字母的名称亚威。

The Cairo fragments of the fourth and fifth centuries; three palimpsests (containing 1 Kings 20:7-17; 2 Kings 23:11-27) published by Burkitt in 1897; and four portions of the Psalms (lxxxix, 17-xci, 10; xcv, 7- xcvi, 12; xcviii, 3; ci, 16-cii, 13) published by Taylor (op. cit.).第四和第五世纪的开罗片段;三个palimpsests(含1国王20:7-17; 2国王23:11-27)伯基特在1897年出版;四个部分的诗篇(lxxxix,17 XCI,10 XCV,7 - xcvi,12; xcviii,3,13,16 - CII CI)出版由泰勒(同上)。。

The fourth-century papyrus fragments of Gen., i, 1-5, published, 1900, by Grenfell and Hunt.将军,我,1-5,第四世纪的莎草纸片段出版,1900年,由格伦费尔和亨特。

(c) Theodotion(三)Theodotion

(See VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE).(见“圣经”版本)。The Book of Daniel of Theodotion is found in the Septuagint manuscripts previously mentioned. Theodotion丹尼尔书被发现在前面提到的译本手稿。The Milan palimpsest contains his text in part.米兰重写本包含他的文字部分。

(d) Symmachus(四)Symmachus

(See VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE).(见“圣经”版本)。Manuscript sources are the Milan palimpsest, Cambridge fragment, and Hexaplaric marginal notes, all of which are manuscript sources of Aquila.稿件来源米兰重写本,剑桥片段,并Hexaplaric旁注,所有这一切都是拉奎拉稿件来源。

(3) New Testament manuscripts(3) 新约圣经的手稿

(a) In General(一)在一般

There are, according to the latest authority on this subject, von Soden ("Die Schriften des NT in ihrer ältesten erreichbaren Textgestalt", Berlin, 1902), 2328 New Testament manuscripts extant.还有,关于这个问题,冯索登(“模具Schriften DES新台币ihrer ältesten erreichbaren Textgestalt”,柏林,1902年),现存的2328新约手抄本的最新权威。Only about 40 contain, either entire or in part, all the books of the New Testament.只有约40载,无论是全部或部分,所有的新约圣经的书籍。There are 1716 manuscript copies of the Gospels, 531 of the Act, 628 of the Pauline Epistles, 219 of the Apocalypse.有1716的福音手稿的副本,该法第531,628的宝莲书信,“启示录”第219。The commonly received numeration of the New Testament manuscripts is that of Wettstein; uncials are designated by Roman and Greek capital, minuscules by Arabic numbers.通常收到的新约圣经手稿记数维特斯坦; uncials是由罗马和希腊的首都,minuscules指定由阿拉伯数字。These manuscripts are divided into the above-mentioned four groups -- Gospels, Acts, Pauline Epistles, Apocalypse.这些手稿分为上述四个团体 - 福音,使徒保罗书信,启示。In the case of uncials, an exponent is used to designate the group referred to.在uncials的情况下,指数是用来指定本集团。 D or Dev is Cod.D或开发是鳕鱼。 Bezæ, a manuscript of the Gospels; D3 or Dpaul is Cod.Bezæ,手稿的福音; D3或Dpaul是鳕鱼。Claromontanus, a manuscript of the Pauline Epistles; E2 or Eact is Cod.Claromontanus,手稿的宝莲书信; E2或EACT是鳕鱼。Laudianus, a manuscript of the Acts.Laudianus,手稿的行为。The nomenclature is less clear for minuscules.命名是不太明确minuscules。Each group has a different set of numbers.每个组都有一个不同的数字。If a minuscule be a complete manuscript of the New Testament, it is designated by four different numbers.如果一个极小的是一个完整的新约圣经的手稿,它被指定由四个不同的电话号码。One and the same manuscript at Leicester is Evan.一个和相同的手稿在莱斯特是埃文。69, Act.69,法。31, Paul.31日,保罗。37, Apoc.37,载脂蛋白C。14.14。Wettestein's lists of New-Testament manuscripts were supplemented by Birch and Schols; later on Scrivener and Gregory continued the lists, each with his own nomenclature.辅以桦木和Schols Wettestein新约圣经的手稿名单;斯科维娜和格雷戈里后来继续用他自己命名的名单,每个的。Von Soden has introduced a new numeration, so as to indicate the contents and date of the manuscripts.冯索登已经推出了新的记数,以指示的手稿的内容和日期。If the content be more than the Gospels, it is marked delta (that is, diatheke, "testament"); if only the Gospels, eta (ie, euaggelion, "gospel"); if aught else save the Gospels, alpha (that is, apostolos).如果内容比福音,它被标记为增量(即diatheke,“遗书”);福音,如果只ETA(即euaggelion,“福音”);如果其他任何事物拯救的福音,α(即是,阿波斯托洛)。 B is delta-1; aleph is delta-2; Q is epsilon-4, etc. No distinction is made between uncials and minuscules. B是Δ- 1; ALEPH是Δ- 2; Q是ε- 4等不区分uncials和minuscules。Scholars admit the logic and scientific worth of this new numeration, but find it too unwieldy and impracticable.学者们承认这个新的记数的逻辑和科学价值,但发现它太笨重,不可行。

(b) Payrus (二)Payrus

In the Archduke Rainer collection, Vienna, are several very fragmentary bits of New Testament Greek phrases, which Wessely, the curator of that collection, assigns to the second century.在大公莱纳收集,维也纳,是一些很零碎位新约希腊文词组,威斯利,该集合馆长,分配到第二个世纪。 The Grenfell and Hunt excavations in Oxyrhyncus brought to light various fragments of the New Testament which Kenyon, the assistant keeper of the manuscripts of the British Museum, assigns to the latter part of the third century.在Oxyrhyncus格伦费尔和亨特发掘重见天日的新约,大英博物馆的手稿的助理门将,肯扬分配的第三个世纪的后半部的各种片段。 Only one papyrus manuscript of the New Testament is important to the text-critic -- Oxyrhyncus Pap.重要的是文本的评论家 - Oxyrhyncus巴氏新约只有一个莎草纸上的手抄本。657, third-fourth century; it preserves to us about a third of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and epistle in which Codex B is defective.657,第三十四世纪,它保留向我们介绍了书信的希伯来人的第三个和书信,其中食品B是缺陷。

(c) Vellum Uncials(三)皮纸Uncials

There are about 160 vellum uncials of the New Testament; some 110 contain the Gospels or a part thereof.有大约160牛皮纸uncials的新约,约110个包含福音或其中的一部分。The chiefest of these uncials are the four great codices of the entire Greek Bible, aleph, A, B, C, for which, see above.这些uncials chiefest四大抄本,整个希腊圣经,ALEPH,的A,B,C,其中,见上面。The Vatican (B) is the oldest and probably the best New Testament manuscript.梵蒂冈(B)是最古老的,可能是最好的的新约圣经手稿。

D. or Cod. D.或COD。Bezæ (qv) (fifth or sixth century; in University Library, Cambridge) contains Gospels and Acts in Gr.Bezæ(QV)(第五或第六世纪,在大学图书馆,剑桥大学)包含在GR的福音和行为。and Lat., excepting Acts, xxii, 29 to the end; it is a unique specimen of a Greek manuscript whose text is Western, ie that the Old Latin and Old Syriac.和纬度,除行为,22,29日结束;它是一个希腊手稿,其文本是西方的,即该旧拉丁美洲和旧叙利亚的一个独特的标本。

D3 or Cod. D3或鳕鱼。Claromonianus (probably sixth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris) contains Pauline Epistles in Gr.Claromonianus(可能是公元六世纪。纳特在溴化锂,巴黎),包含在GR的宝莲书信。and Lat., each text independent of the other.和纬度,每个独立于其他的文本。Before Hebrews is a list of the books of the New Testament and the number of lines (stichoi) in each; this list omits Thess., Heb., and Phil., includes four apocryphal books, and follows an unusual order: Matt., John, Mark, Luke, Rom., I and II Cor., Gal., Eph., I and II Tim., Titus, Col., Philem., I and II Pet., James, I, II and III John, Jude, Barnabas, Apoc., Acts, Hermas, Acts of Paul, Apoc.希伯来之前是新约,并在每个线(stichoi)书籍清单,这个清单省略帖,HEB,菲尔,包括4个杜撰的书籍,并遵循一个不寻常的命令:马特。。。马克,路加,约翰,ROM,我和二,肺心病,半乳糖,弗,I和II添,提图斯,上校,Philem,I和II宠物,詹姆斯,我,第二和第三约翰,裘德,巴拿巴,载脂蛋白C。行为,黑马,保罗,载脂蛋白C的行为。 of Peter.彼得。

E, or Cod. E,或鳕鱼。Basileensis (eighth century; in Univ. Libr., Basle) contains the Gospels. Basileensis(公元八世纪,在大学溴化锂,巴塞尔),包含了福音。

E2, or Cod.E2,或鳕鱼。Laudianus (sixth century; Oxford, in Bodl. Library) contains Acts in Gr. Laudianus(六世纪,牛津大学,在Bodl库)包含在GR行为。and Lat.及土地增值税。The former is somewhat like D.前者是有点像四

E3, or Cod.E3或鳕鱼。Sangermanensis (ninth century; in Imper. Libr., St. Petersburg) contains Pauline Epistles in Gr. Sangermanensis(第九世纪。Imper溴化锂,圣彼得堡)包含在GR宝莲书信。and Lat.; of same family as D3.和纬度;同一家庭为维生素D3。

F, or Cod. F,或鳕鱼。Boreeli (ninth century; at Utrecht), contains Gospels.Boreeli(第九世纪,在乌得勒支),包含了福音。

F3, or Cod.F3,或鳕鱼。Augiensis (ninth century; in Trinity College, Cambridge), contains Pauline Epp. Augiensis(第九世纪,在剑桥大学三一学院),包含宝莲资源增值计划。in Gr.在GR。and Lat.; of the same family as D3, E3, and G3.和纬度; D3,E3和G3同一个家庭。

G, or Cod. G,或鳕鱼。Wolfii A (ninth or tenth century; at Cambridge, and London), contains the Gospels.一个Wolfii(第九,第十世纪在剑桥大学和伦敦),包含了福音。

G3, or Cod.G3,或鳕鱼。Boernerianus (ninth century; at Dresden), contains Paul Epp.Boernerianus(第九世纪,在德累斯顿),包含保资源增值计划。 in Gr.在GR。and Lat.; text of D3 type.和纬度;维生素D3类型的文本。

H, or Cod. H,或鳕鱼。Wolfii B (ninth or tenth century; at Dresden), contains Paul Epp. Wolfii乙(第九或第十个世纪,在德累斯顿),包含保资源增值计划。in Gr.在GR。and Lat.; text of D3 type.和纬度;维生素D3类型的文本。

H2, or Cod.H2,或鳕鱼。Mutinensis (ninth century; at Modena), contains Acts.Mutinensis(第九世纪,在摩德纳),包含行为。

H3, or Cod.H3,或鳕鱼。Coislinianus (sixth century; originally at Mt. Athos where 8 leaves remain. Other parts were used for binding manuscripts; 22 leaves thus reached Paris; 3 which were discovered at St. Petersburg, Moscow and Kieff; 1 in Turin). Coislinianus(第六世纪;原本在山阿托斯8叶仍然中的其他部分被用于约束力的手稿;。22树叶从而达到巴黎3,在圣彼得堡,莫斯科和Kieff发现在都灵1)。 This manuscript gives us, in great part, a fourth-century text of Euthalius of Sulca.这个手稿给了我们,在很大程度上,一个Sulca Euthalius第四世纪的文本。

K, or Cod. K或鳕鱼。Cyprius (ninth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris), contains the Gospels. Cyprius(第九世纪。纳特溴化锂,巴黎),包含了福音。

K2, or Cod.K2,或鳕鱼。Mosquensis (ninth century; in Holy Synod Library, Moscow), contains Acts, Cath., and Paul. Mosquensis(第九世纪,在圣主教图书馆,莫斯科),包含行为,蛋白酶,和保罗。Epp.推行资源增值计划。

L, or Cod. L,或鳕鱼。Regius (eighth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris), contains Gospels. REGIUS(第八世纪;在纳特溴化锂,巴黎),包含了福音。

L2, or Cod.L2,或鳕鱼。Angelicus (ninth century; in Rome), contains Acts, Cath., and Paul.Angelicus(第九世纪,在罗马),载行为,蛋白酶,和保罗。 Epp.推行资源增值计划。

M, or Cod.男,或鳕鱼。Campianus (ninth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris), contains Gospels.Campianus(第九世纪。纳特溴化锂,巴黎),包含了福音。

M3, or Cod.M3,或鳕鱼。Campianus (ninth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris), contains Gospels.Campianus(第九世纪。纳特溴化锂,巴黎),包含了福音。

N, or Cod. N,或鳕鱼。Purpureus, called also Petropolitanus (sixth century), contains Gospels in silver on purple vellum.Purpureus,也称为Petropolitanus(六世纪),包含银紫色羊皮纸福音。About half the manuscript is extant: 182 leaves (found in Asia Minor, 1896) are in St. Petersburg, 33 at Patmos, 6 in the Vatican, 4 in British Museum, and 2 in Vienna.大约有一半的手稿是现存:182叶子(在小亚细亚,1896年)是在圣彼得堡,33帕特莫斯,在梵蒂冈6,4,在大英博物馆,并在维也纳2。

P, or Cod. P,或鳕鱼。Guelferbytanus A (sixth century; Wolfenbüttel), contains Gosp. Guelferbytanus一个“(六世纪;沃尔芬比特尔),包含GOSP。fragments.片段。

P2, or Cod.P2,或鳕鱼。Porphyrianus (ninth century; in St. Petersburg), contains Acts, Cath. Porphyrianus(第九世纪,在圣彼得堡),包含行为,蛋白酶。and Paul.和保罗。Epp.推行资源增值计划。

Q, or Cod. Q,或鳕鱼。Guelferbytanus B (fifth century; Wolfenbüttel), contains Gosp. Guelferbytanus乙“(第五世纪;沃尔芬比特尔),包含GOSP。fragments.片段。

R, or Cod. R,或鳕鱼。Nitriensis (sixth century; in British Museum, London), a palimpsest copy of Luke. Nitriensis(六世纪,在大英博物馆,伦敦),卢克重写本复制。

T, or Cod. T,或鳕鱼。Borgianus (fifth century; in Vatican), Gr.Borgianus(第五世纪在梵蒂冈),GR。and Sahidic fragments. Sahidic片段。One has the double-ending of Mark; another has 17 leaves of Luke and John, and a text akin to B and alpha一个马克的双结局,另外有17路加和约翰叶,和一个文本类似于B和阿尔法

Z, or Cod. Z,或鳕鱼。Dublinensis (sixth century; in Trinity Col., Dublin), a palimpsest containing 295 verses of Matt.; text probably Egyptian, akin to aleph Dublinensis(六世纪;三位一体上校,都柏林),重写本包含295马特诗句;可能是埃及的文字,类似于ALEPH

Delta, or Cod.三角洲,或鳕鱼。Sangallensis (ninth or tenth century; at Saint-Gall), contains Gospels in Gr. Sangallensis(第九,第十世纪,在圣胆),包含在GR福音。and Lat.及土地增值税。

Lambda, or Cod.LAMBDA,或鳕鱼。Rossanensis (sixth century; at Rossano, in Calabria), contains Matt.Rossanensis(六世纪; Rossano在卡拉布里亚),包含马特。 and Mark, in silver letters on purple vellum with illustrations.和马克,在银信紫色插图牛皮纸。N,氮,

Sigma, Sigma-b, and Phi are all akin and were probably produced at Constantinople from a single ancestor.西格玛,西格玛- B,并披都类似,并可能在君士坦丁堡,从单一的祖先生产。

Sigma-b, or Cod.Sigma - B的,或鳕鱼。Sinopensis (sixth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris), consists of 43 leaves (Matthew 7-24), in gold letters on purple vellum with 5 illustrations; it was bought by a French naval officer for a few francs, at Sinope, in 1899, and is called also Omicron and Hê. Sinopensis(六世纪,在NAT溴化锂,巴黎),由43叶(马太福音7-24)大书特书,紫色5插图牛皮纸,它是几个法郎买了一个法国海军军官在Sinope, ,并于1899年,被称为OMICRON和他。

Phi, or Cod.披,或鳕鱼。Beratinus (sixth century; at Berat in Albania), contains Matt.Beratinus(六世纪,在阿尔巴尼亚培拉特),包含马特。and Mark.和马克。

Beth, or Cod.贝丝,或鳕鱼。Patirensis (fifth century; in the Vatican), contains Act., Cath.Patirensis(第五世纪在梵蒂冈),包含法,导管。and Paul.和保罗。Epp.推行资源增值计划。

The American manuscript of the Gospels (fifth century), found in Egypt, 1907, has not yet been published; nor have the fragments of the Pauline Epistles (sixth century) which were found at the same time. ,1907年在埃及发现的,美国的福音手稿(第五世纪),尚未出版,也有片段的宝莲书信(六世纪),其中在同一时间发现的。

(d) Vellum minuscules(四)皮纸minuscules

The vast numbers of minuscule witnesses to the text of the New Testament would seem to indicate a rich field of investigation for the text-critic.微不足道的证人向广大的新约文本文字评论家似乎表明丰富的调查领域。The field is not so rich at all.也不是那么丰富,在所有的领域。Many of these minuscules have never been fully studies.许多这些minuscules从来没有被充分研究。Ninety-five per cent. 95%。of them are witnesses to the same type of text; that of the textus receptus.他们的文字相同类型的证人; textus receptus。Only those minuscules interest the text-critic which are distinctive of or akin to one of the great uncials.只有那些minuscules利息文本评论家,有特色的或类似的伟大uncials之一。Among the Gospel minuscules, according to Gregory's numeration, the type of B-aleph is seen more or less in 33; 1, 118, 131, 209; 59, 157, 431, 496, 892.其中的福音minuscules,根据格雷戈里的记数,是看到的B - ALEPH或多或少在33个; 1,118,131,209,59,157,431,496,892。The type of D is that of 235, 431, 473, 700, 1071; and of the "Ferrar group", 13, 69, 124, 346, 348, 543, 713, 788, 826, 828. D型235,431,473,700,1071;和“Ferrar组”,13,69,124,346,348,543,713,788,826,828。 Among the Acts minuscules, 31 and 61 show some kinship to B; 137, 180, 216, 224 to D. 15, 40, 83, 205, 317, 328, 329, 393 are grouped and traced to the fourth century text of Euthalius of Sulica.其中行为minuscules,31和61显示一些亲属到B; 137,180,216,224 D. 15,40,83,205,317,328,329,393分组和追溯至第四世纪的Euthalius文本Sulica。Among the Pauline minuscules, this same text (ie that of H3) is found in 81, 83, 93, 379, 381.其中宝莲minuscules,这相同的文字(即H3的)被发现在81,83,93,379,381。

(e) Lectionaries(E)Lectionaries

There are some 1100 manuscripts of readings from the Gospels (Evangelia or Evangeliaria) and 300 manuscripts of readings from Acts and Epistles (Praxapostoli).有一些福音(Evangelia或Evangeliaria)和300手稿的行为和书信(Praxapostoli)的读数读数1100手稿。 Although more than 100 of these lectionaries are uncials, they are of the ninth century or later.虽然超过100 lectionaries uncials,他们是第九届世纪或更高版本。Very few of these books of the Epistles and Gospels have been critically examined.只有极少数的书信和福音这些书籍已审慎研究。 Such examination may later on serve to group the New Testament minuscules better and help to localize them.这种检查可能稍后组新约minuscules更好,并帮助他们进行本地化。

IV.四。LATIN MANUSCRIPTS拉丁手稿

Biblical manuscripts are far more uniform in Greek than in Latin script. “圣经”的手稿是在希腊比拉丁字母更为均匀。Palæography divides the Greek into uncials and minuscules; the Latin into uncials, semi-uncials, capitals, minuscules and cursives.古文字学分为uncials和minuscules希腊;到拉丁美洲uncials,半uncials,省会城市,minuscules和cursives。 Even these divisions have subdivisions.即使这些部门细分。The time, place and even monastery of a Latin manuscript may be traced by the very distinct script of its text.一个拉丁手稿修道院时间,地点,甚至可以追溯到其文字十分鲜明的脚本。

(1) Old Latin(1)旧拉丁美洲

Some 40 manuscripts have preserved to us a text which antedates the translation of St. Jerome; they are designated by small letters.大约有40手稿保存我们antedates圣杰罗姆翻译文本;它们是由小字母指定。Unfortunately no two of these manuscripts represent to us quite the same text.遗憾的是没有这些手稿的两个代表,我们很相同的文字。Corrections introduced by scribes and the inevitable influence of the Vulgate have left it a very difficult matter to group the Old Latin manuscripts.文士和武加大必然影响推出的更正,都留下了一个非常困难的事情,组旧拉丁美洲手稿。Text-critics now agree upon an African, a European and an Italian type of text.文本批评现在同意后,非洲,欧洲和意大利式的文字。 The African text is that mentioned by Tertullian (c. 150-220) and used by St. Cyprian (c. 200-258); it is the earliest and crudest in style.特土良(公元前150-220)提到非洲的文本是由圣塞浦路斯(公元前200-258)所使用的;它是国内最早,最原始的风格。 The European text is less crude in style and vocabulary, and may be an entirely new translation.欧洲文本是减少原油在风格和词汇,并有可能是一种全新的翻译。The Italian text is a version of the European and was revised by St. Jerome in parts of the Vulgate.意大利文是欧洲的版本,并修改部分的武加大圣杰罗姆。

The most important Old Latin manuscripts are the bilingual New Testament manuscripts D, D3, E2, E3, F3, G3, Delta.最重要的旧拉丁美洲手稿是双语新约手抄本D,维生素D3,E2,E3,F3,G3的,三角洲。

a, or Cod.一个,或鳕鱼。Vercellensis (fourth century; at Vercelli), containing the Gospels. Vercellensis(第四世纪;在维切利),其中包含了福音。

b, or Cod. B,或鳕鱼。Veronensis (fifth century; at Verona), containing Gospels on purple vellum. Veronensis(五世纪,在维罗纳),含有紫色羊皮纸福音。a and b are our chief witnesses to the European text of the Gospels.A和B是我们的主要证人欧洲文字的福音。

e, or Cod. E,或鳕鱼。Palatinus (fifth century; at Vienna, -- one leaf is in Dublin), contains the Gosp.颚(五世纪,在维也纳, - 一个叶片在都柏林),包含GOSP。For Acts, e is Lat.的行为,E是纬度。of E2; for Paul.E2的保罗。 Epp., e is Lat.资源增值计划“。e是纬度。of E3.E3的。

f, or Cod. F,或鳕鱼。Brixianus (sixth century; at Brescia), contains Gosp.Brixianus(六世纪,在布雷西亚),包含GOSP。 on purple vellum; Italian type, thought by Wordsworth and White to be the best extant representative of the Old Latin text which St. Jerome used when revising the New Testament.紫色羊皮纸;意大利式,认为华兹华斯和白色是最好的圣杰罗姆修订新约时,使用旧的拉丁文字的现存代表。

ff2, or Cod.FF2,或鳕鱼。Corbeiensis (fifth century; at Paris), contains the Gospels.Corbeiensis(五世纪,在巴黎),包含了福音。

g, or Cod. g或鳕鱼。Gigas (thirteenth century; at Stockholm), a complete Bible; Acts and Apoc.牡蛎(十三世纪,在斯德哥尔摩),一个完整的圣经;行为和APOC。are in Old Latin text and are the chief representative of the European type.在旧的拉丁文字和欧洲类型的首席代表。

h, or Palimpsest de Fleury (fourth or fifth century; at Turin), contains Mark, vii-xvi, 8 and Matt., i-xv; earliest form of Old Latin, African type, closely akin to text used by Saint Cyprian.h,或重写本 - 弗勒里(第四或第五世纪;在都灵),包含马克,七十六,8和马特,I - 15,最早形成的旧拉丁美洲,非洲型,紧密类似于圣塞浦路斯使用的文字。

q, or Cod. Q,或鳕鱼。Monacensis (sixth or seventh century; at Munich, contains Gospels; Italian type of text. Monacensis(第六或第七世纪,在慕尼黑,包含了福音;意大利式的文本。

(2) Vulgate(2)武加大

It is estimated that there are more than 8000 manuscripts of the Vulgate extant.据估计,有超过8000的武加大现存的手稿。Most of these are later than the twelfth century and have very little worth for the reconstruction of the text.其中大部分都是后来比12世纪很少重建文本的价值。Tischendorf and Berger designate the chief manuscripts by abbreviations of the names: am.蒂申多夫和伯杰指定名称的缩写行政手稿:上午。= Amiatinus; fu.= Amiatinus;富。or fuld.或福尔德。= Fuldensis.= Fuldensis。 Wordsworth and White, in their critical edition of the Gospel and Acts (1899-1905); use Latin capitals to note the 40 manuscripts on which their text depends.华兹华斯和白色,关键在他们的福音和行为(1899年至1905年)版;使用拉丁语首都注意40手稿,这取决于他们的文字。 Gregory (Textkritik, II, 634) numbers 2369 manuscripts.格雷戈里“(Textkritik,二,634)2369手稿。The most logical and useful grouping of these manuscripts is genealogical and geographical.这些手稿最合乎逻辑的和有用的分组的家谱和地理。The work of future critics will be to reconstruct the text by reconstructing the various types, Spanish, Italian, Irish, French, etc. The chief Vulgate manuscripts are:未来批评家的工作将重建文本改造各类,西班牙语,意大利语,爱尔兰,法国等行政武加大手稿是:

A, or Cod.一,或鳕鱼。Amiatinus (qv) (eighth century; at Florence), contains complete Bible; text probably Italian, best extant manuscript of Vulgate. Amiatinus(QV)(十八世纪,在佛罗伦萨),包含完整的圣经;文字可能是意大利,现存最好的武加大手稿。

C, or Cod. C,或鳕鱼。Cavensis (ninth century; at La Cava, near Naples), a complete Bible; best representative of Spanish type.Cavensis(第九世纪;拉卡瓦,那不勒斯附近的),一个完整的圣经;西班牙型的最佳代表。

Delta, or Cod.三角洲,或鳕鱼。Dunelmensis (seventh or eighth century; in Durham Cathedral, England), Gospels; text akin to A. Dunelmensis(第七或第八世纪,在达勒姆大教堂,英格兰),福音;文本类似于为A。

F, or Cod. F,或鳕鱼。Fuldensis (AD 541-546; at Fulda, in Germany), a complete New Testament; Gospels are in form of Tatian's "Diatessaron". Fuldensis(公元541-546;富尔达,在德国),一个完整的新约福音中塔蒂安的“Diatessaron”的形式。Bishop Victor of Capua found an Old Latin version of Tatian's arrangement and substituted the Vulgate for the Old Latin.卡普阿维克多主教发现旧拉丁美洲版本的塔蒂安的安排,并取代旧的拉丁武加大。

G, or Cod. G,或鳕鱼。Sangermanensis (ninth century; at Paris), contains the Bible. Sangermanensis(第九世纪,在巴黎),包含了“圣经”。In Acts, Wordsworth uses it more than any other manuscript.在行为,华兹华斯使用它比任何其他的手稿。

H, or Cod. H,或鳕鱼。Hubertianus (ninth century; in British Museum, London), a Bible; Theodulfian type. Hubertianus(第九世纪,在大英博物馆,伦敦),一本圣经; Theodulfian类型。

theta, or Cod.THETA,或鳕鱼。Theodulfianus (ninth century; at Paris), a Bible; Theodulfian type.Theodulfianus(第九世纪,在巴黎),一本圣经; Theodulfian类型。

K, or Cod. K或鳕鱼。Karolinus (ninth century; in British Museum, London), a Bible; Alcuin's type. Karolinus(第九世纪,在大英博物馆,伦敦),一本圣经;阿尔昆的类型。See V.参见五

O, or Cod. O,或鳕鱼。Oxoniensis (seventh century; at Oxford, in Bodl.), contains Gosp.; text English, affected by Irish influences. Oxoniensis(公元七世纪。Bodl,牛津),包含GOSP;文本英语,由爱尔兰的影响影响。

O2, or Cod.O2,或鳕鱼。Oxoniensis, or Selden Acts (eighth century; at Oxford, in Bodleian), contains Acts; Irish type. Oxoniensis,或塞尔登行为(公元八世纪,牛津大学包德利),包含行为;爱尔兰类型。

Q, or Cod. Q,或鳕鱼。Kenanensis, Book of Kells (qv) (eighth century; in Trinity College, Dublin), contains Gosp.; Irish type.Kenanensis,凯尔斯书(请参阅)(十八世纪,在都柏林三一学院),包含GOSP;爱尔兰类型。

S, or Cod. S,或鳕鱼。Stonyhurstensis (seventh century; at Stonyhurst College, England), contains John; text akin to A and probably written near Durham. Stonyhurstensis(公元七世纪,在Stonyhurst学院,英国),包含约翰;类似于一个大概达勒姆附近的书面文字。

V, or Cod. V,或鳕鱼。Vallicellianus (ninth century; at Rome, in Vallicelliana), a Bible; Alcuin's type. Vallicellianus(第九世纪,在罗马,在Vallicelliana),一本“圣经”;阿尔昆的类型。See K.见K.

Y, or Cod. Y,或鳕鱼。Lindisfarnensis (seventh century; in British Museum, London), Gospels. Lindisfarnensis(公元七世纪,在大英博物馆,伦敦),福音。Liturgical directions in text show it is a copy of a manuscript written in Naples; text akin to A.在文本中的礼仪方向表明它是一个在那不勒斯写了手稿的复制文本类似于到A

Z, or Cod. Z,或鳕鱼。Hareianus (sixth or seventh century; in Brit. Mus., London), contains Epist. Hareianus(第六或第七世纪,在英国人亩,伦敦),包含Epist。and Apoc.和APOC。

V. SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS五,叙利亚文的手稿

(1) Old Syriac (OS)(1)老叙利亚文(OS)

The Curetonian and Sinaitic Syriac manuscripts represent a version older than the Peshitto and bear witness to an earlier text, one closely akin to that of which D and the Old Latin are witnesses. Curetonian和西乃半岛的叙利亚文的手稿代表版本比Peshitto和见证旧到一个较早的文本,密切接近,其中D和旧拉丁美洲证人。

The Curetonian Syriac (Syr-Cur) manuscript was discovered in 1842, among manuscripts brought to the British Museum from the monastery of S. Maria Deipara in the Nitrian desert in Egypt, and was published by Cureton in 1858.Curetonian叙利亚文(SYR - CUR)手稿于1842年被发现,其中有从S.玛丽亚Deipara Nitrian在埃及沙漠中的寺院大英博物馆的手稿,并刊登在1858年被Cureton。It contains five chapters of John, large portions of Matt.它包含五个章节的约翰,马特大部分。and Luke, and Mark, xvi, 17-20, enough to show that the last twelve verses were originally in the document.卢克,马克,十六,17日至20日,足以表明,在过去的12节经文中的文件原本。

The Sinaitic Syriac (Syr-Sin) was found by Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson, during 1892, in the monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai.发现的Sinaitic叙利亚文(SYR - SIN)是由夫人刘易斯和夫人吉布森,在1892年在西奈山的圣凯瑟琳修道院。This palimpsest contains the Four Gospels in great part, though not entire; it is an earlier recension of the same version as Syr-Cur.这个重写本包含四福音中的很大一部分,虽然不是整个,它是一个早期的锡尔河电流相同版本的recension。Both are assigned to the fifth century and represent a Syriac version which cannot be later than AD 200.都被分配到五世纪,并代表叙利亚版本不能晚于公元200年。

(2) The Diatessaron(2)在Diatessaron

This harmony of the Gospels was written by Tatian, an Assyrian and the disciple of Justin Martyr, about AD 170, and was widely used in Syria.塔蒂安,亚述人及弟子贾斯汀烈士,约公元170年,这种和谐的福音是书面的,并在叙利亚被广泛使用。Our manuscript records are two Arabic versions, discovered one in Rome the other in Egypt, and published 1888.我们的手稿纪录是两个阿拉伯文版,在罗马的其他在埃及发现之一,并公布了1888年。A Latin translation of an Armenian edition of St. Ephraem's commentary on the Diatessaron is in like manner witness to this early version of the Gospels.一个亚美尼亚圣Ephraem Diatessaron的评论版拉丁文译本是在喜欢的方式见证这个早期版本的福音。Scholars are inclined to make Tatian's to be the earliest Syriac translation of the Gospel.学者们倾向于让塔蒂安的最早的福音叙利亚翻译。

(3) The Peshitto(3)在Peshitto

The earliest manuscript of this Syriac Vulgate is a Pentateuch dated AD 464; this is the earliest dated Biblical manuscripts; it is in the British Museum.本叙利亚文的武加大最早的手稿是于公元464摩西五,这是日期最早的圣经手稿在大英博物馆。There are two New Testament manuscripts of the fifth century.第五世纪有两个新约手抄本。In all, the Peshitto manuscripts number 125 of Gospels, 58 of Acts and the Catholic Epistles, and 67 of the Pauline Epistles.在所有Peshitto手稿125的福音,行为和天主教教会中,58和67的宝莲书信。

(4) The Philoxenian Syriac version(4)Philoxenian叙利亚文版本

The Philoxenian Syriac version of the New Testament has come down to us only in the four minor Catholic Epistles, not included in the original Peshitto, and a single manuscript of the Apoc., now at Trinity College, Dublin. Philoxenian叙利亚版本的新约已经下降到我们只能在不包括在原Peshitto四个未成年的天主教教会,和一个单一的载脂蛋白C手稿,现在在都柏林三一学院。

(5) The Harklean Syriac version(5)Harklean叙利亚文版本

This version of the New Testament is represented by some 35 manuscripts dating from the seventh century and later; they show kinship with a text like to D.此版本的新约是代表了大约35约会从第七世纪和以后的手稿,他们一文,喜欢到D亲属

(6) The Palestinian Syriac version(6)巴勒斯坦叙利亚版本

This version of the New Testament has reached us by lectionaries and other fragmentary manuscripts discovered within the past sixteen years.这个版本的新约已经达到了我们在过去16年中发现的lectionaries和其他零碎的手稿。The three principal manuscripts are dated AD 1030, 1104, and 1118.三个主要手稿的日期为公元1030,1104和1118。

VI.六。ARMENIAN MANUSCRIPTS亚美尼亚手稿

Armenian manuscripts date from AD 887, and are numerous.从公元887年,亚美尼亚手稿日期是多方面的。

VII.七。COPTIC MANUSCRIPTS科普特人手稿

(1) Sahidic(1)Sahidic

The Apocalypse is the only book of the New Testament which has come down to us complete in a single manuscript of this dialect of Upper Egypt.启示录是新约的唯一的书,其中已回落,我们在一个单一的手稿这种方言上埃及完成。Many isolated fragments have of recent years been recovered by excavation in Egypt; from these it may soon be possible to reconstruct the Sahidic New Testament.许多孤立的片段近年来在埃及挖掘被收回;从这些可能很快就可以重建Sahidic新约。The earliest fragments seem to belong to the fifth century.最早的碎片似乎属于第五世纪。Some of these manuscripts are bilingual (see T of New Testament manuscripts).这些手稿是双语(见新约圣经的手稿T)。

(2) Boharic(2)Boharic

This version in the dialect of Lower Egypt is well represented by manuscripts of the same character as B-aleph.这下埃及方言的版本是代表相同的字符为B - ALEPH的手稿。The Curzon Catena is the earliest extant Boh.寇卡泰纳是现存最早的BOH。manuscript of the Gospels; it is dated AD 889 and is in the Parham Library.手稿的福音,它是公元889日和帕勒姆图书馆。Others are of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.其他人则是12和13世纪。None is at all so old as the Sah.没有在所有SAH老。fragments.片段。

(3) Middle Egyptian(3)埃及中东

Middle Egyptian fragments on vellum and papyrus, have been found in Fayum and near to Akhmim and to Memphis.中东埃及羊皮纸和纸莎草纸碎片,已经发现在法尤姆附近Akhmim和孟菲斯。The largest of these fragments is a British Museum sixth-century palimpsest of John, iii and iv.这些碎片中最大的是一个大英博物馆六世纪的约翰,第三和第四的重写本。

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息写沃尔特鼓。Transcribed by Bryan R. Johnson.转录由Bryan R.约翰逊。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全书,卷第九。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
HEBREW MANUSCRIPTS: STRACK AND HARKAVY, Catalog der hebr.希伯来文手稿:施特拉克和HARKAVY,目录明镜黑布尔。Bibelhandschriften der kaiserlichen Bibliothek (Leipzig 1875); NEUBAUER, Facsimilies of Hebrew manuscripts in the Bodleian Library (Oxford, 1886); NEUBAUER, Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library and in the College Libraries of Oxford (Oxford, 1886); KRAFT AND DEUTSCH, Die handschriftl.Bibelhandschriften DER kaiserlichen Bibliothek(莱比锡1875年);纽鲍尔,希伯来文手稿在Bodleian图书馆Facsimilies(牛津,1886年);纽鲍尔,在大学图书馆和牛津大学图书馆的希伯来文手稿目录(牛津,1886);牛皮纸和Deutsch,模具handschriftl。 hebräischen Werke der KK Hofbibliothek (Vienna, 1857); STEINSCHNEIDER, Die hebräisch.hebräischen Werke公司DER株式会社Hofbibliothek(维也纳,1857年); STEINSCHNEIDER,模具hebräisch。Handschriften der K. Hof. Handschriften DER K.霍夫。und Staatsbibliothek (Munich, 1895); SCHILLER-SZINESSY, Catalogue of the Hebrew manuscripts preserved in the University Library (Cambridge, 1876); ASSEMANI, Bibliothecæ Apostolicæ Vaticanæ codices Orientales (Rome, 1756); MAI, Appendix to Assemani (Rome, 1831).和Staatsbibliothek(慕尼黑,1895年);席勒SZINESSY,保存在大学图书馆(剑桥,1876年)的希伯来文手稿目录; ASSEMANI,Bibliothecæ Apostolicæ Vaticanæ抄本Orientales(罗马,1756)麦,附录Assemani(罗马,1831 )。

GREEK MANUSCRIPTS (OLD TESTAMENT): SWETE, Introduction to the OT in Greek; KENYON, Our Bible and the Ancient manuscripts (1898); NESTLE, Septuagintastudien (1886-1907); FIELD, Origenis Hexaplorum quæ supersunt (Oxford, 1875).希腊手稿(旧约):SWETE,介绍在希腊旧约;凯尼恩,我们的圣经和古代手稿(1898),雀巢,Septuagintastudien(1986至07年);场,Origenis Hexaplorum quæ supersunt(牛津,1875)。

GREEK MANUSCRIPTS (NEW TESTAMENT): SCRIVENER, Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament (1894); GREGORY, Textkritik des NT (1900); Die Griechischen Handschriften des NT (1908); HARRIS, Further researches into the history of the Ferrar-group (1900).希腊手稿(新约):代书,介绍新约(1894)的批评;格雷戈里Textkritik DES NT(1900);模具Griechischen Handschriften DES新台币(1908年);哈里斯,进入了历史上进一步研究Ferrar组(1900年)。

LATIN MANUSCRIPTS: BURKITT, The Old Latin and the Itala (Cambridge, 1896); WORDSWORTH, SANDAY, AND WHITE, Old Latin Biblical Texts (Oxford, 1883-97); GREGORY, Textkritik des NT (1900).拉丁手稿:伯基特,旧拉丁美洲和伊泰莱(剑桥,1896年);华兹华斯,桑迪,和白色的,旧的拉丁经文(牛津,1883年至1897年),格雷戈里,Textkritik DES NT(1900)。WORDSWORTH AND WHITE, Edition of the Vulgate (1889-1905)华兹华斯和白色版(1889年至1905年)的武加大

SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS: LEWIS, The Four Gospels translated from the Sinaitic Palimpsest (1894); WOODS AND GWILLIAM in Studia Biblica, vols.叙利亚的手稿:刘易斯,翻译的Sinaitic重写本(1894)从四福音;伍兹和GWILLIAM Studia Biblica,二卷。I and III.第一和第三。

COPTIC MANUSCRIPTS: CRUM, Catalogue of Coptic manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 1905); HYVERNAT, Etude sur les versions coptes de la Bible in Rev. Bibl.科普特人手稿:克拉姆,目录的科普特人手稿在大英博物馆(伦敦,1905年); HYVERNAT,练习曲SUR LES版本coptes DE LA圣经启示录Bibl。(1896). (1896年)。


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