Saint Mary Magdalen抹大拉的马利亚

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Mary Magdalen was so called either from Magdala near Tiberias, on the west shore of Galilee, or possibly from a Talmudic expression meaning "curling women's hair," which the Talmud explains as of an adulteress.玛利亚抹大拉是所谓的从抹大拉附近的太巴列,加利利西岸,或可能从一个塔木德表达的意思是“妇女卷曲的头发,”犹太法典作为一个淫妇的解释。 In the New Testament she is mentioned among the women who accompanied Christ and ministered to Him (Luke 8:2-3), where it is also said that seven devils had been cast out of her (Mark 16:9).在新约中,她陪同基督和伺候他(路加福音8:2-3)之间的妇女中提到,它是还表示,七个鬼子已投她(马可福音16:9)。 She is next named as standing at the foot of the cross (Mark 15:40; Matthew 27:56; John 19:25; Luke 23:49).她是下一个名为站在脚下的交叉(马克15:40;马太福音27:56;约翰19时25分,卢克23时49分)。She saw Christ laid in the tomb, and she was the first recorded witness of the Resurrection.她看到了基督墓奠定,她是第一次记录到复活的见证。

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The Greek Fathers, as a whole, distinguish the three persons:希腊教父,作为一个整体,区分三人:

the "sinner" of Luke 7:36-50;路加福音7:36-50的“罪人”;

the sister of Martha and Lazarus, Luke 10:38-42 and John 11; and玛莎和拉撒路的姐姐,路加福音10:38-42和约翰11;

Mary Magdalen.玛利亚抹大拉。

On the other hand most of the Latins hold that these three were one and the same.另一方面大多数拉丁人认为,这三个是同一个。Protestant critics, however, believe there were two, if not three, distinct persons.新教的批评,但是,相信有两个,如果没有三,不同的人。It is impossible to demonstrate the identity of the three; but those commentators undoubtedly go too far who assert, as does Westcott (on John 11:1), "that the identity of Mary with Mary Magdalene is a mere conjecture supported by no direct evidence, and opposed to the general tenour of the gospels."这是无法证明身份的三个的,但毫无疑问,这些评论家走得太远谁主张,不韦斯科特(约翰福音11:1),“玛丽抹大拉的马利亚的身份仅仅是一种推测,没有直接的证据支持,反对的福音tenour。“ It is the identification of Mary of Bethany with the "sinner" of Luke 7:37, which is most combatted by Protestants.这是伯大尼玛丽与鉴定的“罪人”,这是最新教徒combatted卢克7时37。It almost seems as if this reluctance to identify the "sinner" with the sister of Martha were due to a failure to grasp the full significance of the forgiveness of sin.它似乎不愿确定的“罪人”玛莎的妹妹仿佛这是由于未能掌握赦罪的全部意义。The harmonizing tendencies of so many modern critics, too, are responsible for much of the existing confusion.这么多的现代评论家的协调倾向,也有许多现有的混乱负责。

The first fact, mentioned in the Gospel relating to the question under discussion is the anointing of Christ's feet by a woman, a "sinner" in the city (Luke 7:37-50).正在讨论的有关问题的福音中提到的第一个事实,是一个女人,一个“罪人”(路加福音7:37-50)在城市基督的脚恩膏。 This belongs to the Galilean ministry, it precedes the miracle of the feeding of the five thousand and the third Passover.这属于伽利略部,它前面的五千年的喂养和第三逾越节奇迹。Immediately afterwards St. Luke describes a missionary circuit in Galilee and tells us of the women who ministered to Christ, among them being "Mary who is called Magdalen, out of whom seven devils were gone forth" (Luke 8:2); but he does not tell us that she is to be identified with the "sinner" of the previous chapter.紧接着,圣路加描述在加利利传教电路,并告诉我们事奉基督的妇女,其中,“玛丽被称为抹大拉人,其中7个鬼子走了来回”(路加福音8:2),但他并没有告诉我们,她是要确定与前一章的“罪人”。 In 10:38-42, he tells us of Christ's visit to Martha and Mary "in a certain town"; it is impossible to identify this town, but it is clear from 9:53, that Christ had definitively left Galilee, and it is quite possible that this "town" was Bethany. 10:38-42,他告诉我们,基督的访问马大和马利亚“在某镇”,以确定这个小镇,它是不可能的,但很显然,从9:53,基督已经明确离开加利利,和它很可能,这个“镇”是伯大尼。 This seems confirmed by the preceding parable of the good Samaritan, which must almost certainly have been spoken on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem.这似乎证实了前面的比喻好撒玛利亚人,必须几乎可以肯定已经杰里科和耶路撒冷之间的道路上发言。But here again we note that there is no suggestion of an identification of the three persons (the "sinner", Mary Magdalen, and Mary of Bethany), and if we had only St. Luke to guide us we should certainly have no grounds for so identifying them.但在这里再次,我们注意到,没有一个确定的三人(“罪人”,玛丽马格德林和玛丽贝瑟尼)的建议,如果我们只圣卢克来指导我们,我们当然应该没有理由所以识别他们。 St. John, however, clearly identifies Mary of Bethany with the woman who anointed Christ's feet (12; cf. Matthew 26 and Mark 14).然而,圣约翰,清楚地标识伯大尼的玛利亚女子受膏者基督英尺(12;比照马修26和14马克)。It is remarkable that already in 11:2, St. John has spoken of Mary as "she that anointed the Lord's feet", he aleipsasa; It is commonly said that he refers to the subsequent anointing which he himself describes in 12:3-8; but it may be questioned whether he would have used he aleipsasa if another woman, and she a "sinner" in the city, had done the same.值得注意的是,已经在11时02分,圣约翰玛丽说“她膏抹主的脚”,他aleipsasa,它通常是说,他指的是随后的恩膏,而他自己在12:3介绍 - 8,但它可能会受到质疑他是否会用他aleipsasa如果另外一个女人,她一个“罪人”在城市,做了同样的。It is conceivable that St. John, just because he is writing so long after the event and at a time when Mary was dead, wishes to point out to us that she was really the same as the "sinner."可以想象的是,圣约翰,只是因为他是在事件发生后,当玛丽死了一次写这么长,希望给我们指出,她真的是相同的“罪人”。 In the same way St. Luke may have veiled her identity precisely because he did not wish to defame one who was yet living; he certainly does something similar in the case of St. Matthew whose identity with Levi the publican (5:7) he conceals.圣卢克以同样的方式可能有遮掩她的身份,正是因为他没有想诋毁谁是尚未居住,他确实在圣马太的情况下,与列维的税吏(5:7),他的身份类似的东西隐瞒。 If the foregoing argument holds good, Mary of Bethany and the "sinner" are one and the same.如果上述论点成立好,玛丽伯大尼和“罪人”是同一个。But an examination of St. John's Gospel makes it almost impossible to deny the identity of Mary of Bethany with Mary Magdalen.但检查圣约翰福音,使得它几乎不可能否认与玛丽抹大拉的玛丽伯大尼的身份。From St. John we learn the name of the "woman" who anointed Christ's feet previous to the last supper.圣约翰我们学习的受膏者基督的脚前最后的晚餐“女人”的名称。We may remark here that it seems unnecessary to hold that because St. Matthew and St. Mark say "two days before the Passover", while St. John says "six days" there were, therefore, two distinct anointings following one another.我们可能句话在这里,它似乎是不必要的,认为的,因为圣马修和圣马克说:“逾越节”前两天,而圣约翰说,“六天”,因此,有以下两个彼此不同的anointings。 St. John does not necessarily mean that the supper and the anointing took place six days before, but only that Christ came to Bethany six days before the Passover.圣约翰并不一定意味着,晚餐和恩膏发生前6天,而只是说,基督来到伯大尼的逾越节前六天。At that supper, then, Mary received the glorious encomium, "she hath wrought a good work upon Me . . . in pouring this ointment upon My body she hath done it for My burial . . . wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached . . . that also which she hath done shall be told for a memory of her."晚饭,然后,玛丽获得了辉煌的推崇,“她已经造成一个良好的工作在我身上。浇筑软膏后,我的身体,她祂所为我安葬。。wheresoever宣扬福音。也她祂所应告诉了她的记忆。“ Is it credible, in view of all this, that this Mary should have no place at the foot of the cross, nor at the tomb of Christ?可信的,这一切,这个玛丽在交叉的脚有没有一个地方,也不在基督墓,?Yet it is Mary Magdalen who, according to all the Evangelists, stood at the foot of the cross and assisted at the entombment and was the first recorded witness of the Resurrection.然而,这是玛利亚抹大拉,根据所有的福音,站在脚下的交叉和协助的窀穸,是第一次记录到复活的见证。And while St. John calls her "Mary Magdalen" in 19:25, 20:1, and 20:18, he calls her simply "Mary" in 20:11 and 20:16.而圣约翰呼吁她的“玛丽马格德林”在19时25分,20时01分,和20时18分,他打电话给她简单的“玛丽”,在20点11和20点16。

In the view we have advocated the series of events forms a consistent whole; the "sinner" comes early in the ministry to seek for pardon; she is described immediately afterwards as Mary Magdalen "out of whom seven devils were gone forth"; shortly after, we find her "sitting at the Lord's feet and hearing His words."在视图中,我们都主张系列事件形成一个一致的整体的;部寻求赦免,“罪人”来得早,她随即被描述为玛丽抹大拉“出其中7鬼子都走了出来”后不久, ,我们发现她“坐在主的脚,并听了他的话。”To the Catholic mind it all seems fitting and natural.天主教的头脑,这一切似乎拟合和自然。At a later period Mary and Martha turn to "the Christ, the Son of the Living God", and He restores to them their brother Lazarus; a short time afterwards they make Him a supper and Mary once more repeats the act she had performed when a penitent.在后期的马利亚和马大“基督,是永生神的儿子”,和他恢复到他们的弟弟拉撒路,很短的时间之后,他们让他晚饭和玛丽再次重复她时执行的行为一个忏悔。 At the Passion she stands near by; she sees Him laid in the tomb; and she is the first witness of His Resurrection--excepting always His Mother, to whom He must needs have appeared first, though the New Testament is silent on this point.激情,她站在附近,她看见他在墓中奠定了,她是他复活的第一个证人 - 除了他的母亲,到人,他必须首先出现,虽然新约在这一点上是无声的。In our view, then, there were two anointings of Christ's feet--it should surely be no difficulty that St. Matthew and St. Mark speak of His head--the first (Luke 7) took place at a comparatively early date; the second, two days before the last Passover.然后,我们认为,有两个基督的脚anointings - 它应该肯定是没有任何困难,圣马修和圣马克说他的头 - 第(路加福音7)发生在一个比较早的日期;第二,逾越节前的最后两天。But it was one and the same woman who performed this pious act on each occasion.但它是一个相同的女子,每次执行这个虔诚的行为。

Subsequent history of St. Mary Magdalen随后的历史圣玛丽抹大拉

The Greek Church maintains that the saint retired to Ephesus with the Blessed Virgin and there died, that her relics were transferred to Constantinople in 886 and are there preserved.希腊教会保持圣退休以弗所圣母去世,她的遗物被转移到君士坦丁堡在886和有保留的。Gregory of Tours (De miraculis, I, xxx) supports the statement that she went to Ephesus.旅游格雷戈里(德miraculis,我XXX)支持的声明说,她去到以弗所。However, according to a French tradition (see SAINT LAZARUS OF BETHANY), Mary, Lazarus, and some companions came to Marseilles and converted the whole of Provence.不过,据到法国传统(见圣伯大尼的拉撒路),玛丽,拉撒路,和一些同伴来到马赛,并转换整个普罗旺斯。Magdalen is said to have retired to a hill, La Sainte-Baume, near by, where she gave herself up to a life of penance for thirty years.抹大拉是说退休附近一座小山,洛杉矶圣波美,在那里她给自己下一个三十年的苦修生活。When the time of her death arrived she was carried by angels to Aix and into the oratory of St. Maximinus, where she received the viaticum; her body was then laid in an oratory constructed by St. Maximinus at Villa Lata, afterwards called St. Maximin.当她去世时,她所进行的天使到AIX,到圣Maximinus的演讲,在那里她收到的viaticum;然后在圣Maximinus建造别墅拉塔演讲奠定了她的身体,后来被称为圣极大极小。 History is silent about these relics till 745, when according to the chronicler Sigebert, they were removed to Vézelay through fear of the Saracens.历史是对这些文物的沉默,直到745,根据编年史Sigebert时,他们被拆除维泽莱通过撒拉逊人的恐惧。No record is preserved of their return, but in 1279, when Charles II, King of Naples, erected a convent at La Sainte-Baume for the Dominicans, the shrine was found intact, with an inscription stating why they were hidden.他们的返回,但没有记录保存,于1279年,当查尔斯二世,那不勒斯国王,竖立在多米尼加的La圣波美修道院,靖国神社是完整的,说明他们为什么被隐藏的铭文,。 In 1600 the relics were placed in a sarcophagus sent by Clement VIII, the head being placed in a separate vessel.在1600年文物被安置在由克莱门特八,头被放置在一个单独的容器发送一个石棺。In 1814 the church of La Sainte-Baume, wrecked during the Revolution, was restored, and in 1822 the grotto was consecrated afresh.1814年大革命期间的洛杉矶圣波美,教堂破坏,恢复,并在1822年石窟被重新奉献。 The head of the saint now lies there, where it has lain so long, and where it has been the centre of so many pilgrimages.圣人的头,现在躺在那里,在那里还处在这么久,而且它已被如此众多的朝圣中心。

Publication information Written by Hugh T. Pope.由Hugh T.教皇编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Paul T. Crowley.转录由Paul T.克劳利。In Memoriam, Sr. Mary Leah, OP and Sr. Mary Lilly, OP The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.在悼念中,高级玛丽莉娅,OP和老玛丽莉莉,OP天主教百科全书,卷第九。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


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