Pasch or Passover逾越节

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Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same eagerness as Christians do to Christmastide.各阶层和思维方式的犹太人期待逾越节假期,同样的渴望,作为基督徒到Christmastide。It is for them the great event of the year.这是他们今年的一件大事。With the exception of the Temple sacrifices, their manner of observing it differs but little from that which obtained in the time of Christ.寺牺牲的例外,其观察的方式,但小的时候,基督获得不同。Directions for keeping the feast were carefully laid down in the Law (see Exodus 12, 13, etc.), and carried out with great exactness after the Exile.保持盛宴的方向,精心布置法“(见出埃及记”12,13,等),并带有很大的正确性后,流亡国外。


The feast of the Passover begins on the fourteenth day of Nisan (a lunar month which roughly corresponds with the latter part of March and the first part of April) and ends with the twenty-first.逾越节开始于尼散月十四日(农历正月大致在3月下旬和四月的第一个部分对应)和二十一结束。 The Jews now, as in ancient times, make elaborate preparations for the festival.现在的犹太人,在远古时代,为节日精心准备。 Every house is subjected to a thorough spring cleaning.每个房子是一个彻底的大扫除。

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The Saturday preceding the day of the Pasch (fifteenth) is called a "Great Sabbath", because it is supposed that the tenth day of the month Abib (or Nisan) -- when the Israelites were to select the Paschal lambs, before their deliverance from Egypt -- fell on a Sabbath.星期六的前一天的Pasch(第十五届)是被称为“伟大的安息日”,因为它是应该月份亚笔(或尼散月)的第十天 - 当以色列人被选择的逾越节羔羊,他们解脱之前从埃及 - 下跌安息日。On this Sabbath, the day of the following week on which the Passover is to fall is solemnly announced.在这个安息日,逾越节是下跌的下一个星期是郑重宣布。

Some days before the feast, culinary and other utensils to be used during the festival are carefully and legally purified from all contact with leaven, or leavened bread.一些前几天的盛宴,美食和其他节日期间使用的餐具都经过精心和法律上从酵或酵的饼的所有联系纯化。They are then said to be kosher.然后,他们说要犹太教。Special sets of cooking and table utensils are not unfrequently kept in every household.没有特别的烹饪和表器皿unfrequently保持在每家每户。

On the evening of the thirteenth, after dark, the head of the house makes the "search for leaven" according to the manner indicated in the Mishna (Tractate Pesachim, I), which is probably the custom followed by the Jews for at least two thousand years.第十三日晚,天黑后,房子的头“酵搜索”根据在密西拿(Pesachim短文),我,这可能是犹太人,至少有两个自定义显示的方式两千多年。 The search is made by means of a lighted wax candle.搜索是燃着的蜡烛。A piece of ordinary, or leavened, bread is left in some conspicuous place, generally on a window-sill.一块普通,或熘,面包是留在一些显眼的地方,一般在窗台。The search begins by a prayer containing a reference to the command to put away all leaven during the feast.开始搜索包含一个命令的参考放好在宴席中所有的酵和有酵的祈祷。The place of the piece of bread just mentioned is first marked to indicate the beginning of the search.一块面包的地方,刚​​才提到的,是第一个标记,以指示开始搜索。The whole house is then carefully examined, and all fragments of leaven are carefully collected on a large spoon or scoop by means of a brush or bundle of quills.整个房子,然后仔细检查,并仔细酵所有碎片,一个大勺子或舀的刚毛刷子或捆绑的方式收集。The search is ended by coming back to the piece of bread with which it began.回来一块面包,它开始搜索结束。This, also is collected on the scoop.这也是舀上收集。The latter, with its contents, and the brush are then carefully tied up in a bundle and suspended over a lamp to prevent mice from scattering leaven during the night and necessitating a fresh search.后者,其内容和刷子,然后小心地捆绑捆绑和暂停超过一盏灯,以防止在夜间从散射面肥和需要一个新的搜索的小鼠。The master of the house then proclaims in Aramaic that all the leaven that is in his house, of which he is unaware, is to him no more than dust.这家的主人,然后在阿拉姆宣布,所有的酵,在他的房子,他不知道,是他没有浮尘。

During the forenoon of the next day (fourteenth) all the leaven that remains is burnt, and a similar declaration is made.所有的酵,剩下的就是在第二天(第十四届)午前烧毁,作出类似的声明是。 From this time till the evening of the 22nd, when the feast ends, only unleavened bread is allowed.从这时起,直到22日晚上,盛宴结束时,唯一的无酵饼是允许的。The legal time when the use of leavened bread was prohibited was understood to be the noon on the fourteenth Nisan; but the rabbis, in order to run no risks, and to place a hedge around the Law, anticipated this by one or two hours.法律酵的饼,禁止使用的时候被理解为第十四尼桑中午;但拉比,以运行没有风险,地方绕法的对冲,预计由一个或两个小时。


On this day, the fourteenth, the first-born son of each family, if he be above thirteen, fasts in memory of the deliverance of the first-born of the Israelites, when the destroying angel passed over Egypt.在这一天,第十四,每个家庭的长子,如果他是上述十三,在内存中解脱斋戒的第一个出生的以色列人,摧毁天使在埃及通过。 On the evening of the fourteenth the male members of the family, attired in their best, attend special services in the synagogue.第十四家族的男性成员,他们的最佳穿着,晚上,在犹太教堂参加的“特殊服务”。

On their return home they find the house lit up and the Seder, or Paschal Table, prepared.在他们返回家园,他们找到房子亮了起来,家宴,或逾越节表,准备。The head of the family takes his place at the head of the table, where there is an arm-chair prepared for him with cushions or pillows.一家之主在表头需要他的地方,那里是一个为他准备的垫子或枕头的安乐椅。A similar chair is also ready for the mistress of the house.类似的椅子也是女主人准备。The meal is called Seder by the Ashkenaziac Jews, and Haggadah (because of the story of the deliverance recited during it) by the Sephardic Jews.餐被称为Ashkenaziac犹太人,和哈加达家宴(因为解救过程中,背诵的故事)由Sephardic犹太人。All the members of the Jewish family, including servants, sit round the table.犹太家庭的所有成员,包括公务员,坐围着桌子。

In front of the head of the family is the Seder-dish, which is of such a kind as to allow three unleavened cakes or matzoth, each wrapped in a napkin, to be placed on it one above the other.在前面的户主是家宴的菜,是这样一种允许上述其他三个无酵饼或matzoth,每个包裹在一张餐巾纸,的。 A shank bone of lamb (with a small portion of meat attached) which has been roasted on the coals is placed, together with an egg that has been roasted in hot ashes, on another dish above the three unleavened cakes.一个已对煤烤羊肉柄骨与肉连接的一小部分是放置,连同已被烤热灰烬,另一碟上述三个无酵饼,鸡蛋。The roasted shank represents the Paschal lamb, and the roasted egg the chagigah, or free will offerings, made daily in the Temple.烤柄代表逾越节的羔羊,烤鸡蛋chagigah,或提供的自由意志,每天都在寺庙。Bitter herbs, such as parsley and horseradish, a kind of sop called charoseth, consisting of various fruits pounded into a mucilage and mixed with vinegar, and salt water, are arranged in different vessels, sometimes disposed like candelabra above the leavened bread.苦菜,如香菜和辣根,一种称为charoseth,捣烂成粘液和各种水果与醋混合组成的SOP,水及咸水,被安排在不同的船只,有时像烛台以上酵的饼处置。 The table is also furnished with wine, and cups or glasses for each person, an extra cup being always left for the prophet Elias, whom they expect as the precursor of the Messiah.该表还配备了葡萄酒,和每个人的杯子或眼镜,一个额外的世界杯总是先知埃利亚斯,他们作为弥赛亚的易制毒化学期望左。

The First Cup第一杯

When all are seated around the table the first cup of wine is poured out for each.当所有围着桌子坐在第一杯的酒泼出去的每个。The head of the house rises and thanks God for the fruits of the vine and for the great day which they are about to celebrate.房子的上升,并感谢神的藤本植物的果实和伟大的日子,他们即将庆祝头。He then sits down and drinks his cup of wine in a reclining posture, leaning on his left arm.然后,他坐下他杯中的酒和饮料在躺卧的姿势,扶着他的左胳膊。The others drink at the same time.其他饮料在同一时间。In the time of the Temple the poorest Jew was to drink four cups of wine during this joyful meal; and if he happened to be too poor, it was to be supplied out of public funds.最贫穷的犹太人在圣殿的时间是在这个欢乐的用餐喝四杯葡萄酒,如果他碰巧是太可怜了,这是要提供公共资金。Though four cups are prescribed, the quantity is not restricted to that amount.虽然规定了四杯,数量并不限于这一数额。 Some water is generally added to the wine.有些水是一般的葡萄酒。In early days red wine was used; but on account of the fear of fostering the groundless blood accusations against Jews, this usage was discontinued.在初期的红葡萄酒,但帐户的促进针对犹太人的毫无根据的血液指责的恐惧,这种用法已经停产。Unfermented raisin wine or Palestinian wine is now generally used.现在普遍使用未经发酵的葡萄干的酒或巴勒斯坦葡萄酒。

The Bitter Herbs and Afikoman苦菜和Afikoman

After drinking the first cup the master rises and washes his hands, the others remaining seated, and Eldersheim is of the opinion that it was at this point of the supper that Christ washed the disciples feet.主人喝第一杯后上升,并清洗双手,其他的剩余就座,并Eldersheim认为,在这点晚饭,基督洗门徒的脚。After washing his hands, the head of the family sits down, takes a small quantity of bitter herbs, dips them in salt water, and eats them, reclining on his left elbow.清洗双手后,户主坐下,需要少量的苦菜,逢低他们在盐水中,吃他们,斜倚在他的左胳膊肘。Jewish interpreters say that only the first Passover was to be eaten standing, and with circumstances of haste.犹太口译员说,只有第一个逾越节被吃掉的地位,并与匆忙的情况下。During the Passovers commemorative of the first they reclined "like a king [or free man] at his ease, and not as slaves" -- in this probably following the example of the independent Romans with whom they came into contact.在纪念逾越节他们倾斜“,像一个国王[或自由人]他安心,而不是作为奴隶” - 这大概以下的独立罗马人与他们接触到的例子。After the head of the family has eaten his portion of bitter herbs, he takes similar portions, dips them in salt water, and hands them round to be eaten by the others.一家之主后吃了他的部分苦菜,他采取了类似的部分,逢低它们在海水中,和他们一轮的手被别人吃掉。

He then takes out the middle unleavened cake, breaks it in two, and hides away one-half under a pillow or cushion, to be distributed and eaten after supper.然后,他取出中间的无酵饼,休息两个,隐藏了一个枕头或坐垫下的一半,分发和晚饭后食用。If this practice existed in the time of Christ, it is not improbable that it was from this portion, called afikoman, that the Eucharist was instituted.如果这种做法的时候,基督存在,它是不是不可能的,从这个部分,所谓afikoman,圣体提起。As soon as this portion is laid aside, the other half is replaced, the dish containing the unleavened cakes is uncovered, and all, standing up, take hold of the dish and solemnly lift it up, chanting slowly in Aramaic: "This is the bread of affliction which our fathers ate in Egypt. This year here, next year in Jerusalem. This year slaves, next year free."只要这部分搁置,另一半则是取代,查获无酵饼的菜是,和所有,站立起来,把握的菜,并庄严地抬不起来,慢慢地诵经在阿拉姆:“这是面包,这一年,我们的祖宗在埃及吃的苦恼。明年在耶路撒冷。今年的奴隶,明年的自由。“

The Second Cup第二杯

The dish is then replaced and the shank bone, roasted egg, etc. restored to their places above it.这道菜,然后更换和骨柄,烤鸡蛋,等恢复到它上面的地方。All sit down, and the youngest son asks why this night above all other nights they eat bitter herbs, unleavened bread, and in a reclining posture.全部坐下,和最小的儿子问为什么这个夜晚上述所有其他夜,他们吃的苦菜,无酵饼,在斜倚的姿态。The head of the house then tells how their fathers were idolaters when God chose Abraham, how they were slaves in Egypt, how God delivered them, etc. God is praised and blessed for His wondrous mercies to their nation, and this first part of the ceremony is brought to a close by their breaking forth with the recitation of the first part of the Hallel (Psalms 112 and 114) and drinking the second cup of wine, which is triumphantly held aloft and called the cup of the Haggadah or story of deliverance.房子的头,然后告诉他们的父亲是拜偶像如何当上帝拣选亚伯拉罕,他们是如何在埃及的奴隶,神如何交付他们,等上帝是赞扬和祝福自己的民族,他的奇妙的怜悯,这第一部分仪式结束提出背诵Hallel第一部分(诗篇112和114)和喝第二杯的酒,这是得意洋洋地高举并呼吁一杯哈加达或解脱的故事。

The Meal Proper膳食适当

The ceremony so far has been only introductory.仪式至今只介绍。The meal proper now begins.饭后适当现在开始。First all wash their hands; the president then recites a blessing over the unleavened cakes, and, after having dipped small fragments of them in salt water, he eats them reclining.首先洗手;总统,然后背诵过的无酵饼的祝福,并在其中蘸盐水的小片段后,他吃他们斜倚。He next distributes pieces to the others.他接着件给了别人。He also takes some bitter herbs, dips them in the charoseth, and gives them to the others to be eaten.他还需要一些苦菜,他们在charoseth逢低,并让他们的其他被吃掉。He next makes a kind of sandwich by putting a portion of horse-radish between two pieces of unleavened bread and hands it around, saying that it is in memory of the Temple and of Hillel, who used to wrap together pieces of the paschal lamb, unleavened bread, bitter herbs, and eat them, in fulfilment of the command of Exodus 12:8.他接着把两片无酵饼和手周围部分辣根的夹心,说它是在寺的内存和希勒尔,用于包装件逾越节的羔羊,无酵饼,苦菜,和吃,在履行出埃及记12:8的命令。

The supper proper is now served, and consists of many courses of dishes loved by Jews, such as soup, fish, etc., prepared in curious ways unknown to Gentiles.晚饭适当的服务,并包括许多犹太人喜爱的课程,菜肴,如汤,鱼等,准备在外邦人未知的好奇的方式。At the end of the meal some of the children snatch the afikoman that has been hidden away, and it has to be redeemed by presents -- a custom probably arising from a mistranslation of the Talmud.在用餐结束,一些孩子抢夺afikoman已被隐藏起来的,它已经呈现赎回 - 自定义可能是由一个犹太法典的误译产生。 It is then divided between all present and eaten.这是再除以所有目前和吃之间。Oesterly and Box think that this is a survival from an earlier time when a part of the paschal lamb was kept to the end and distributed, so as to be the last thing eaten. Oesterly和Box认为这是一个从一个较早的时间,当逾越节的羔羊保持到年底,分布式的生存,从而被吃掉的最后一件事情。

The Third Cup第三杯

When the afikoman is eaten, the third cup is filled; and grace after meals is said, and the third cup drunk in a reclining posture.当afikoman是吃,第三杯是充满;饭后宽限期说,和第三杯醉在躺卧的姿势。A cup of wine is now poured out for the prophet Elias, in a dead silence which is maintained for some time, and the door is opened.现在一杯酒泼出去的先知埃利亚斯,在死一般的寂静,这是维持一段时间,门被打开。Imprecations against unbelievers, taken from the Psalms and Lamentations, are then recited.对不信的,取自诗篇和哀歌,诅咒,然后背诵。These were introduced only during the Middle Ages.这些只有在中世纪被引入。

The Fourth Cup第四杯

After this the fourth cup is filled and the great Hallel (Psalms 115-118) and a prayer of praise are recited.在此之后的第四次世界杯充满的伟大Hallel(诗篇115-118)和赞美的祈祷是背诵。 Before drinking the fourth cup, the Jews of some countries recite five poetical pieces and then the fourth cup is drunk.喝第四杯之前,一些国家的犹太人背诵五个诗意的片段,然后第四杯是喝醉了。At the end a prayer asking God to accept what they have done is added.在最后的祈祷,祈求神接受自己所做的事。Among the German and Polish Jews this prayer is followed by popular songs.其中德国和波兰的犹太人祈祷其次是流行的歌曲。


The same ceremonies are observed the next evening.同样的仪式被观察到的第二天晚上。According to the Law the fifteenth and twenty-first were to be kept as solemn festivals and days of rest.根据该法第十五届和第二十一届保持庄严的节日和休息日。At present the fifteenth and sixteenth, the twenty-first and twenty-second are whole holidays, a custom introduced among the Jews of the Dispersion to make sure that they fulfilled the precepts of the Law on the proper day.目前,十五,十六,二十一和第二十二届整个假期,分散,以确保他们履行适当一天的“戒律的犹太人之间引入一个自定义。The other days are half-holidays.其他日子,有一半的假期。Special services are held in the synagogues throughout the Passover week.在整个逾越节一周的犹太教堂举行的特别服务。 Formerly the date of the Pasch was fixed by actual observations [Schurer, History of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1902), I, II, Append.以前的日期是固定的Pasch [Schurer,犹太人民的历史(爱丁堡,1902年),一,二,追加的实际观察。3].3]。It is now deduced from astronomical calculations.现在是从天文计算得出的结论。

Publication information Written by Cornelius Aherne.科尼利厄斯Aherne编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by John Looby.转录由约翰Looby。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
OESTERLY AND BOX, Religion and Worship of the synagogue (London, 1907); DEMBITZ, Jewish Services in the Synagogue and Home (Philadelphia, 1898); GINSBURG in KITTO, Cyclop.OESTERLY和箱,宗教和崇拜的犹太教堂(伦敦,1907年); DEMBITZ,犹太服务在犹太教堂和家庭(费城,1898年); KITTO,Cyclop金斯伯格。Of Bibl.Bibl。Lit.; ABRAHAMS in HASTINGS, Dict.点亮 ;亚伯拉罕在黑斯廷斯,快译通。Of the Bible, sv Passover; SMITH, Bibl.圣经,SV逾越节;史密斯,Bibl。Dict.; ZANGWILL, Dreamers of the Ghetto (London): JACOBS, Jewish Year Book (LONDON, annual); EDERSHEIM, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, II (London, 1900), 479.快译通;赞格威尔,梦想家的犹太人(伦敦):雅各布犹太年鉴“(伦敦,每年);爱德生,生活和时代的耶稣弥赛亚II(伦敦,1900年),479。

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