The Sacrament of Penance忏悔圣事

Catholic Information天主教信息

Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same.忏悔是基督洗礼后所犯的罪赦免是通过牧师的赦免授予那些真正的悲哀承认他们的罪孽,为相同的承诺,以满足制定新的“圣餐。 It is called a "sacrament" not simply a function or ceremony, because it is an outward sign instituted by Christ to impart grace to the soul.这就是所谓的“圣事”不单纯是一个功能或仪式,因为它是由基督提起传授灵魂的宽限期,以向外的迹象。As an outward sign it comprises the actions of the penitent in presenting himself to the priest and accusing himself of his sins, and the actions of the priest in pronouncing absolution and imposing satisfaction.作为一个外向型的标志,它包括在宣判赦免和实施满意的行动,并在自己的牧师,并指责他的罪过的忏悔神父的行动。 This whole procedure is usually called, from one of its parts, "confession", and it is said to take place in the "tribunal of penance", because it is a judicial process in which the penitent is at once the accuser, the person accused, and the witness, while the priest pronounces judgment and sentence.这整个过程通常被称为其组成部分之一,“忏悔”,从,它是说,在“法庭”苦修的地方,因为它是一个司法过程中,忏悔一次原告,人被告,证人,而牧师宣告判决和判刑。 The grace conferred is deliverance from the guilt of sin and, in the case of mortal sin, from its eternal punishment; hence also reconciliation with God, justification.赋予宽限期是救我们脱离罪,弥天大罪的情况下,从永恒的惩罚,因此也与神和解,理由。Finally, the confession is made not in the secrecy of the penitent's heart nor to a layman as friend and advocate, nor to a representative of human authority, but to a duly ordained priest with requisite jurisdiction and with the "power of the keys", ie, the power to forgive sins which Christ granted to His Church.最后,供认是提出不是在秘密的忏悔的心也不是作为朋友和主张来说,也没有人类的权威代表,但一个必要的管辖权正式祝圣司铎和的“键的权力”,即有权赦罪,基督授予他的教会。

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By way of further explanation it is needful to correct certain erroneous views regarding this sacrament which not only misrepresent the actual practice of the Church but also lead to a false interpretation of theological statement and historical evidence.通过进一步的解释,它是needful纠正某些错误的观点,关于这个圣餐这不仅歪曲了教会的实际做法,但也导致一个虚假声明神学和历史证据的解释。 From what has been said it should be clear:从已表示,应该明确:

that penance is not a mere human invention devised by the Church to secure power over consciences or to relieve the emotional strain of troubled souls; it is the ordinary means appointed by Christ for the remission of sin.苦修是不是一个单纯的的人类发明的,由教会,以确保对良心的权力,或陷入困境的灵魂,以纾缓情绪紧张设计;它是普通的手段,由基督任命为缓解罪。 Man indeed is free to obey or disobey, but once he has sinned, he must seek pardon not on conditions of his own choosing but on those which God has determined, and these for the Christian are embodied in the Sacrament of Penance.人的确是自由地服从或不服从,但一旦他犯了罪,他必须寻求赦免,而不是他自己选择的条件,但对那些上帝已经确定,这些都是基督教的忏悔圣事体现。

No Catholic believes that a priest simply as an individual man, however pious or learned, has power to forgive sins.没有天主教认为,一个牧师只是作为一个单独的人,但是虔诚或据悉,有赦罪的权柄。 This power belongs to God alone; but He can and does exercise it through the ministration of men.这个权力属于只有上帝,但他可以行使的男子服侍。Since He has seen fit to exercise it by means of this sacrament, it cannot be said that the Church or the priest interferes between the soul and God; on the contrary, penance is the removal of the one obstacle that keeps the soul away from God.既然他已经看到适合来行使这圣餐它,也不能说,在教会或牧师的灵魂和神之间的干扰;相反,苦修是取消了之一的障碍记录的灵魂远离神。 It is not true that for the Catholic the mere "telling of one's sins" suffices to obtain their forgiveness.天主教单纯“的罪孽告诉”足以得到他们的宽恕,这是不正确的。Without sincere sorrow and purpose of amendment, confession avails nothing, the pronouncement of absolution is of no effect, and the guilt of the sinner is greater than before.没有真诚的悲伤和修订的目的,,供认援用什么,宣告赦免是没有效果的,有罪的罪人比以前更大。

While this sacrament as a dispensation of Divine mercy facilitates the pardoning of sin, it by no means renders sin less hateful or its consequences less dreadful to the Christian mind; much less does it imply permission to commit sin in the future.虽然这圣省却神的怜悯,促进了罪的赦免,它决不是呈现罪少仇恨或减少其后果不堪设想到基督教的心灵的;这是否意味要少得多承诺在未来的罪的权限。 In paying ordinary debts, as eg, by monthly settlements, the intention of contracting new debts with the same creditor is perfectly legitimate; a similar intention on the part of him who confesses his sins would not only be wrong in itself but would nullify the sacrament and prevent the forgiveness of sins then and there confessed.例如,在支付普通债务,每月定居点,同一债权人与承包新债的目的是完全合法的;类似的意图对他的一部分人交代他的罪孽的将不仅是本身的错误,但会抵消圣餐并防止罪的赦免,并有交待。

Strangely enough, the opposite charge is often heard, viz., that the confession of sin is intolerable and hard and therefore alien to the spirit of Christianity and the loving kindness of its Founder.奇怪的是,相反的电荷是经常听到,即,认罪是不能容忍的,坚硬,因此外来基督教的精神和它的创始人的慈爱。But this view, in the first place, overlooks the fact that Christ, though merciful, is also just and exacting.,摆在首位,但这种观点忽略了一个事实,基督,但仁慈的,也是公正和严格的。Furthermore, however painful or humiliating confession may be, it is but a light penalty for the violation of God's law.此外,但是痛苦或羞辱的供述可能,它不过是一个违反上帝的律法的光刑罚。Finally, those who are in earnest about their salvation count no hardship too great whereby they can win back God's friendship.最后,那些在有关他们的得救认真的罪名没有困难太大,使他们能够重新赢得上帝的友谊。

Both these accusations, of too great leniency and too great severity, proceed as a rule from those who have no experience with the sacrament and only the vaguest ideas of what the Church teaches or of the power to forgive sins which the Church received from Christ.这两个太大的宽大太大的严重性的指控,那些没有与圣餐的经验和教会的教导,教会收到来自基督赦罪的权力模糊的想法规则进行。

Teaching of the Church教学中的教会

The Council of Trent (1551) declares:安理会的遄达(1551)宣布:

As a means of regaining grace and justice, penance was at all times necessary for those who had defiled their souls with any mortal sin.作为收复恩典和正义的手段,忏悔是在任何时候都必要的,对于那些曾玷污了他们的灵魂与任何弥天大罪。...Before the coming of Christ, penance was not a sacrament, nor is it since His coming a sacrament for those who are not baptized.在基督,忏悔不是一个圣餐,也不是因为他的到来为那些未受洗的圣礼。But the Lord then principally instituted the Sacrament of Penance, when, being raised from the dead, he breathed upon His disciples saying: 'Receive ye the Holy Ghost.但主则主要实行的忏悔圣事的时候,从死里复活,他一口气后,他的弟子说:“你们受圣灵。Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained' (John 20:22-23).你应当原谅的罪孽,他们被赦免他们的罪,你应保留,他们保留“(约翰福音20:22-23)。By which action so signal and words so clear the consent of all the Fathers has ever understood that the power of forgiving and retaining sins was communicated to the Apostles and to their lawful successors, for the reconciling of the faithful who have fallen after Baptism.哪个动作,使信号和文字,清除所有的父亲同意,曾经理解的宽容和保留的罪孽的权力是传达使徒和调和的洗礼后倒下的忠实,其合法继承人。 (Sess. XIV, c. i) (Sess.十四,C.我)

Farther on the council expressly states that Christ left priests, His own vicars, as judges (praesides et judices), unto whom all the mortal crimes into which the faithful may have fallen should be revealed in order that, in accordance with the power of the keys, they may pronounce the sentence of forgiveness or retention of sins" (Sess. XIV, c. v)再往上会明确指出基督左祭司,他自己的教区牧师,作为法官(praesides等judices),祂的人所有的忠实可能下降到凡人犯罪应透露,按照与电源键,它们可能会发音的宽恕或保留的罪孽句子“(Sess.十四,C. v)

Power to Forgive Sins赦罪的权柄

It is noteworthy that the fundamental objection so often urged against the Sacrament of Penance was first thought of by the Scribes when Christ said to the sick man of the palsy: "Thy sins are forgiven thee."值得注意的是,从根本上反对,所以往往对忏悔圣事敦促首先想到的文士,当基督的麻痹病夫说:“你的罪赦了”"And there were some of the scribes sitting there, and thinking in their hearts: Why doth this man speak thus? he blasphemeth. Who can forgive sins but God only?"有一些文士坐在那里,并在他们的心中思维:为什么doth这名男子发言,因此,他亵渎谁能赦罪,但只有上帝吗?“But Jesus seeing their thoughts, said to them: "Which is easier to say to the sick of the palsy: Thy sins are forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, take up thy bed and walk? But that you may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (he saith to the sick of the palsy,) I say to thee: Arise, take up thy bed, and go into thy house" (Mark 2:5-11; Matthew 9:2-7).但耶稣看到他们的想法,对他们说:“这是比较容易生病麻痹说:你的罪赦了,或说,起来,拿你的床和步行,但是,您可能知道,儿子的男子祂所电源地球上赦罪,(他说:生病麻痹)我对你说:起来,拿起你的褥子,并进入你的房子“(马可福音2:5-11;马太福音9: 2-7)。Christ wrought a miracle to show that He had power to forgive sins and that this power could be exerted not only in heaven but also on earth.基督锻造了一个奇迹,以证明他有赦罪的权柄,这种权力不仅可以在天上,而且地球上施加。This power, moreover, He transmitted to Peter and the other Apostles.此外,这股力量,他传送到彼得和其他使徒。To Peter He says: "And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven" (Matthew 16:19).彼得,他说:“我会给你天国的钥匙凡你在地上必绑定,它应被约束在天上:任何你地球上的松动,应松动也是在天堂“(马太福音16:19)。 Later He says to all the Apostles: "Amen I say to you, whatsoever you shall bind upon earth, shall be bound also in heaven; and whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, shall be loosed also in heaven" (Matthew 18:18).后,他所有的使徒说:“阿我告诉你,无论你在地上约束力,应约束在天上;无论你应松在地上,应松动也是在天上”(马太18时18) 。As to the meaning of these texts, it should be noted:至于这些文本的意义,应注意:

that the "binding" and "loosing" refers not to physical but to spiritual or moral bonds among which sin is certainly included; the more so because the power here granted is unlimited -- "whatsoever you shall bind, . . . whatsoever you shall loose";“约束力”和“松”是指没有身体,但精神或道德罪,其中当然包括债券,更是这样,因为在这里授予的权力是无限的 - “无论你应绑定,无论你应。松“;

the power is judicial, ie, the Apostles are authorized to bind and to loose;权力是司法,即使徒授权绑定和松动;

whether they bind or loose, their action is ratified in heaven.是否结合或松散,他们的行动是在天上的批准。 In healing the palsied man Christ declared that "the Son of man has power on earth to forgive sins"; here He promises that what these men, the Apostles, bind or loose on earth, God in heaven will likewise bind or loose.在愈合麻痹人基督宣称,“人子在地上有赦罪的权柄”,在这里,他承诺,这些人,使徒,绑定或宽松的地球上,神在天上,将同样绑定或松散。 (Cf. also POWER OF THE KEYS.) (参见POWER键)。

But as the Council of Trent declares, Christ principally instituted the Sacrament of Penance after His Resurrection, a miracle greater than that of healing the sick.但是,作为安理会的遄达声明基督主要实行后,他的复活,一个奇迹大于医治病人的忏悔圣事。"As the Father hath sent me, I also send you. When he had said this, he breathed on them; and he said to them: Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained' (John 20:21-23). While the sense of these words is quite obvious, the following points are to be considered: “正如父差遣我,我也送你当他说这,他对他们吹一口气;他对他们说:你们受圣灵的罪,你应原谅,他们被赦免他们;和他们的罪过。您应保留,他们将保留“(约翰福音20:21-23)虽然这些词的意义是很明显的的,要考虑以下几点:

Christ here reiterates in the plainest terms -- "sins", "forgive", "retain" -- what He had previously stated in figurative language, "bind" and "loose", so that this text specifies and distinctly applies to sin the power of loosing and binding.基督在这里重申,在plainest - “罪”,“原谅”,“保留” - 他前面提到的形象化的语言中,“绑定”和“松”,使该文本指定,并明确适用于罪的功率损失和有约束力的。

He prefaces this grant of power by declaring that the mission of the Apostles is similar to that which He had received from the Father and which He had fulfilled: "As the Father hath sent me".他的序言宣布使徒的使命是相似的,这是他收到的父亲和他履行这种权力授予:“正如父差遣我”。Now it is beyond doubt that He came into the world to destroy sin and that on various occasions He explicitly forgave sin (Matthew 9:2-8; Luke 5:20; 7:47; Revelation 1:5), hence the forgiving of sin is to be included in the mission of the Apostles.现在是毋庸置疑的,他来到世上,以破坏罪和在不同场合明确地原谅了他的罪(马太福音9:2-8;路加福音5时20分,7时47分;启示录1:5),因此宽容的罪是使徒的使命包括。 Christ not only declared that sins were forgiven, but really and actually forgave them; hence, the Apostles are empowered not merely to announce to the sinner that his sins are forgiven but to grant him forgiveness-"whose sins you shall forgive".基督不仅宣布罪被宽恕,但确确实实地原谅了他们,因此,使徒有权不只是宣布的罪人,他的罪被赦免,但给他宽恕“你应原谅的罪过”。 If their power were limited to the declaration "God pardons you", they would need a special revelation in each case to make the declaration valid.如果他们的力量是有限的宣言“上帝赦免你”,他们将在每一种情况下需要特别的启示作出声明有效。

The power is twofold -- to forgive or to retain, ie, the Apostles are not told to grant or withhold forgiveness nondiscriminately; they must act judicially, forgiving or retaining according as the sinner deserves.电源是双重的 - 原谅或保留,也就是说,没有告诉使徒nondiscriminately授予或不宽恕;他们必须采取行动,司法,根据罪人值得原谅或保留。The exercise of this power in either form (forgiving or retaining) is not restricted: no distinction is made or even suggested between one kind of sin and another, or between one class of sinners and all the rest: Christ simply says "whose sins".这两种形式的电源(原谅或保留)的行使,并不限于:是没有什么区别,甚至建议一种罪恶和另一个之间,或一类的罪人,和所有其余的基督只是说“的罪孽” 。

The sentence pronounced by the Apostles (remission or retention) is also God's sentence -- "they are forgiven . . . they are retained".由使徒(减刑或保留)的判刑也是神的一句话 - “他们被赦免,他们将保留。”

It is therefore clear from the words of Christ that the Apostles had power to forgive sins.因此,它是从基督的话使徒赦罪的权柄。But this was not a personal prerogative that was to erase at their death; it was granted to them in their official capacity and hence as a permanent institution in the Church -- no less permanent than the mission to teach and baptize all nations.但是,这不是个人的特权,是为了清除其死亡,它被授予了他们在他们的官方身份,因此在教会中的一个常设机构 - 不低于永久的教导和施洗所有国家的任务。Christ foresaw that even those who received faith and baptism, whether during the lifetime of the Apostles or later, would fall into sin and therefore would need forgiveness in order to be saved.基督预见到,即使是那些接受信仰和洗礼,无论是在使徒的生命周期后,会陷入罪,因此将需要宽恕,以便保存。He must, then, have intended that the power to forgive should be transmitted from the Apostles to their successors and be used as long as there would be sinners in the Church, and that means to the end of time. ,那么,他必须有打算原谅的权力应该是从使徒传播他们的接班人,只要使用,将有在教会的罪人,这意味着到年底的时候。It is true that in baptism also sins are forgiven, but this does not warrant the view that the power to forgive is simply the power to baptize.它是真正的洗礼也罪被赦免了,但是,这并不值得原谅,仅仅是施洗。In the first place, as appears from the texts cited above, the power to forgive is also the power to retain; its exercise involves a judicial action.首先,从上面提到的文本出现,也原谅保留的权力,其行使涉及的司法行动。But no such action is implied in the commission to baptize (Matthew 28:18-20); in fact, as the Council of Trent affirms, the Church does not pass judgment on those who are not yet members of the Church, and membership is obtained through baptism.但是没有这样的行动是隐含在委员会施洗(马太福音28:18-20);事实上,作为安理会的遄达重申,教会不会对那些尚未教会的成员通过判断,成员借着洗礼获取。 Furthermore, baptism, because it is a new birth, cannot be repeated, whereas the power to forgive sins (penance) is to be used as often as the sinner may need it.此外,洗礼,因为它是一个新的诞生,不能重复,而赦罪的权柄(苦修)是经常被用来作为罪人可能需要它。Hence the condemnation, by the same Council, of any one "who, confounding the sacraments, should say that baptism itself is the Sacrament of Penance, as though these two sacraments were not distinct and as though penance were not rightly called the second plank after shipwreck" (Sess. XIV, can. 2 de sac. poen.).因此安理会的谴责,任何一个人,混杂的圣礼,洗礼本身应该说是忏悔圣事,虽然这两个圣礼不同和苦修,就好像是不正确地称之为后的第二板沉船“(Sess.第十四,可以2。DE囊中。poen)。

These pronouncements were directed against the Protestant teaching which held that penance was merely a sort of repeated baptism; and as baptism effected no real forgiveness of sin but only an external covering over of sin through faith alone, the same, it was alleged, must be the case with penance.这些言论是针对新教教学认为,苦修仅仅是一种反复洗礼;和洗礼影响没有真正的宽恕罪,但只有一个外部覆盖了通过信仰罪单独的,同样的,据称,必须与忏悔的情况下。 This, then, as a sacrament is superfluous; absolution is only a declaration that sin is forgiven through faith, and satisfaction is needless because Christ has satisfied once for all men.这一点,那么,作为一个圣餐的是多余的;赦免只是一个原谅的罪过是通过信仰的声明,因为基督一次为所有的人满意的满意是不必要的。 This was the first sweeping and radical denial of the Sacrament of Penance.这是第一次清扫和彻底的忏悔圣事的拒绝。Some of the earlier sects had claimed that only priests in the state of grace could validly absolve, but they had not denied the existence of the power to forgive.早期的教派,有些人宣称,在国家的宽限期只有祭司可以有效地免除,但他们也没有否认存在原谅。During all the preceding centuries, Catholic belief in this power had been so clear and strong that in order to set it aside Protestantism was obliged to strike at the very constitution of the Church and reject the whole content of Tradition.在上述所有的世纪,在这种权力的天主教信仰已如此清晰而强烈,为了把它放在一边新教有义务打击教会的宪法,并拒绝传统的全部内容。

Belief and Practice of the Early Church早期教会的信仰和实践

Among the modernistic propositions condemned by Pius X in the Decree "Lamentabili sane" (3 July, 1907) are the following:其中皮乌斯X谴责法令“Lamentabili理智”(7月3日,1907年)的现代主义主张有以下几种:

"In the primitive Church there was no concept of the reconciliation of the Christian sinner by the authority of the Church, but the Church by very slow degrees only grew accustomed to this concept. Moreover, even after penance came to be recognized as an institution of the Church, it was not called by the name of sacrament, because it was regarded as an odious sacrament." “在原始教会有没有和解的罪人基督教教会的权威的概念,但很慢度的教堂仅增长习惯于这个概念,而且,即使在苦修来作为机构认可教会,这是不是所谓的圣餐名称,因为它被视为一种令人憎恶的圣餐的。“ (46) "The Lord's words: 'Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain they are retained' (John xx, 22-23), in no way refer to the Sacrament of Penance, whatever the Fathers of Trent may have been pleased to assert." (46)“耶和华的话:”收到你们的圣灵,你应原谅的罪过,他们原谅了他们,和他们保留“(约翰XX,22日至23日)没办法,你应保留其罪孽的参考忏悔圣事,不管父亲的遄达可能已经高兴地断言。“ (47)(47)

According to the Council of Trent, the consensus of all the Fathers always understood that by the words of Christ just cited, the power of forgiving and retaining sins was communicated to the Apostles and their lawful successors (Sess. XIV, c. i).根据安理会的遄达,所有的父亲达成共识,一贯相互理解,基督的话,刚才提到的,宽容和保留的罪孽的力量传达给使徒和他们的合法继承人(C.我Sess.十四)。 It is therefore Catholic doctrine that the Church from the earliest times believed in the power to forgive sins as granted by Christ to the Apostles.因此,它是天主教的教义,从最早的时候教会相信原谅的罪孽,由基督授予使徒的权力。Such a belief in fact was clearly inculcated by the words with which Christ granted the power, and it would have been inexplicable to the early Christians if any one who professed faith in Christ had questioned the existence of that power in the Church.清楚地灌输这样一个事实上的信念是与基督赋予的权力的话,它会一直莫名早期的基督徒,如果任何一个自称在基督的信仰产生了质疑,在教会的力量的存在。 But if, contrariwise, we suppose that no such belief existed from the beginning, we encounter a still greater difficulty: the first mention of that power would have been regarded as an innovation both needless and intolerable; it would have shown little practical wisdom on the part of those who were endeavouring to draw men to Christ; and it would have raised a protest or led to a schism which would certainly have gone on record as plainly at least as did early divisions on matters of less importance.但是,反之,如果我们假设,从一开始就没有这样的信念,我们遇到一个更大的困难:首次提及这一权力,会被视为不必要的和不能容忍的一个创新,它会显示出一点上的实践智慧那些正在努力吸引男人基督;它会提出抗议,或导致一个,这无疑将有作为白了至少记录也不太重要的问题早日部门分裂的一部分。 But no such record is found; even those who sought to limit the power itself presupposed its existence, and their very attempt at limitation put them in opposition to the prevalent Catholic belief.但没有这样的记录发现,即使是那些试图限制权力本身的先决条件它的存在,他们的限制非常企图把他们反对普遍的天主教信仰。

Turning now to evidence of a positive sort, we have to note that the statements of any Father or orthodox ecclesiastical writer regarding penance present not merely his own personal view, but the commonly accepted belief; and furthermore that the belief which they record was no novelty at the time, but was the traditional doctrine handed down by the regular teaching of the Church and embodied in her practice.现在谈到一个积极的排序证据,我们要注意,任何父亲或有关苦修东正教教会作家的报表不只是他自己个人的看法,但普遍接受的信念;此外,相信他们的记录是没有新意的时间,但传统学说传世由教会的正常教学,并体现在她的做法。 In other words, each witness speaks for a past that reaches back to the beginning, even when he does not expressly appeal to tradition.换言之,每名证人谈到了过去,达到回到起点,甚至当他没有明确呼吁传统。

St. Augustine (d. 430) warns the faithful: "Let us not listen to those who deny that the Church of God has power to forgive all sins" (De agon. Christ., iii).圣奥古斯丁(卒于430)警告忠实:“让我们不听那些否认神的教会有权力原谅所有的罪孽”(德群祺基督,III。)。

St. Ambrose (d. 397) rebukes the Novatianists who "professed to show reverence for the Lord by reserving to Him alone the power of forgiving sins. Greater wrong could not be done than what they do in seeking to rescind His commands and fling back the office He bestowed. . . . The Church obeys Him in both respects, by binding sin and by loosing it; for the Lord willed that for both the power should be equal" (De poenit., I, ii,6).圣刘汉铨(卒于397)责骂Novatianists谁“自称,以显示主由他独自保留宽恕的罪恶的权力的敬畏。,大错不能做得比他们在寻求撤销他的命令做回一扔办公室,他赋予教会服从约束力罪和失去它,他在这两个方面。。。对主的意志,为的权力应该是平等的“(poenit,I,II,6)。

Again he teaches that this power was to be a function of the priesthood.他再次教导,这项权力是一个功能的神职人员。"It seemed impossible that sins should be forgiven through penance; Christ granted this (power) to the Apostles and from the Apostles it has been transmitted to the office of priests" (op. cit., II, ii, 12). “这似乎是不可能的,应通过苦修赦免罪孽;基督授予(电源)使徒和使徒已传送到办公室的牧师”(前引书,第二,第二,12。)。

The power to forgive extends to all sins: "God makes no distinction; He promised mercy to all and to His priests He granted the authority to pardon without any exception" (op. cit., I, iii, 10).宽恕的权力延伸到所有的罪孽:“上帝没有什么区别;他答应怜悯和他的祭司,他授予的权力,赦免,没有任何异常”(同前,我,三,10。)。

Against the same heretics St. Pacian, Bishop of Barcelona (d. 390), wrote to Sympronianus, one of their leaders: "This (forgiving sins), you say, only God can do. Quite true: but what He does through His priests is the doing of His own power" (Ep. I ad Sympron, 6 in PL, XIII, 1057).对相同的异端圣Pacian,巴塞罗那(390 D.)主教,写道Sympronianus,他们的领导人之一:“这(宽恕罪过),你说,只有上帝可以做很真实,但他通过他的祭司是做自己的权力“(插曲我的广告Sympron,PL,十三,1057 6)。

In the East during the same period we have the testimony of St. Cyril of Alexandria (d. 447): "Men filled with the spirit of God (ie priests) forgive sins in two ways, either by admitting to baptism those who are worthy or by pardoning the penitent children of the Church" (In Joan., 1, 12 in PG, LXXIV, 722).在东在同一时期,我们有圣西里尔亚历山大(卒于447)的证言:“男子充满了上帝的精神(即祭司)原谅我在两个方面的罪,承认那些都是值得的洗礼或赦免忏悔教会“(琼,1,12,722 PG,LXXIV)儿童。

St. John Chrysostom (d. 407) after declaring that neither angels nor archangels have received such power, and after showing that earthly rulers can bind only the bodies of men, declares that the priest's power of forgiving sins "penetrates to the soul and reaches up to heaven".宣布后,既不是天使也不大天使收到这样的实力,表明尘世统治者只能绑定的男子的尸体后,宣布牧师的宽恕的罪恶力量“渗透到灵魂,达到圣约翰金口(四407)天堂“。 Wherefore, he concludes, "it were manifest folly to condemn so great a power without which we can neither obtain heaven nor come to the fulfillment of the promises. . . . Not only when they (the priests) regenerate us (baptism), but also after our new birth, they can forgive us our sins" (De sacred., III, 5 sq.).因此,他总结道,“它是清单愚蠢谴责如此巨大的权力,没有这些,我们既不能获得天堂也不来履行承诺。。不仅当他们(祭司)再生(洗礼),但也是我们新诞生后,他们可以原谅我们的罪“(德神圣,三,5平方米)。

St. Athanasius (d. 373): "As the man whom the priest baptizes is enlightened by the grace of the Holy Ghost, so does he who in penance confesses his sins, receive through the priest forgiveness in virtue of the grace of Christ" (Frag. contra Novat. in PG, XXVI, 1315).圣athanasius(卒于373):“由于该名男子牧师施洗的人是开明的圣灵的恩典,使他在苦修交代他的罪孽,获得通过牧师在基督的恩典而宽恕” (Frag.禁忌Novat。PG,26,1315)。

These extracts show that the Fathers recognized in penance a power and a utility quite distinct from that of baptism.这些提取物显示,父亲在苦修公认的权力及公用事业相当鲜明的洗礼。Repeatedly they compare in figurative language the two means of obtaining pardon; or regarding baptism as spiritual birth, they describe penance as the remedy for the ills of the soul contracted after that birth.他们反复比较形象化的语言,两种手段获得赦免,或精神出生的洗礼,他们形容为承包的灵魂,出生后的弊病的补救苦修。But a more important fact is that both in the West and in the East, the Fathers constantly appeal to the words of Christ and given them the same interpretation that was given eleven centuries later by the Council of Trent.但更重要的事实是,无论在西方和东方,的父亲不断呼吁基督的话,并给予他们同样的解释,这是11世纪后的安理会的遄达。 In this respect they simply echoed the teachings of the earlier Fathers who had defended Catholic doctrine against the heretics of the third and second centuries.在这方面,他们根本呼应防御的第三和第二世纪的异端天主教教义的早期父亲的教诲。Thus St. Cyprian in his "De lapsis" (AD 251) rebukes those who had fallen away in time of persecution, but he also exhorts them to penance: "Let each confess his sin while he is still in this world, while his confession can be received, while satisfaction and the forgiveness granted by the priests is acceptable to God" (c. xxix).因此,在他的“德lapsis”圣塞浦路斯(公元251年)责骂那些已经下降迫害时间,但他也劝告他们的忏悔:“让每一个承认他的罪,而他仍然是在这个世界上,而他的供词可以接收,而表示满意,并给予宽恕的祭司是​​可以接受的上帝“(C. XXIX)。(See LAPSI.) The heretic Novatian, on the contrary, asserted that "it is unlawful to admit apostates to the communion of the Church; their forgiveness must be left with God who alone can grant it" (Socrates, "Hist. eccl.", V, xxviii). (见LAPSI)邪教Novatian,相反,声称“这是非法的变节者承认教会的共融;必须留给他们的宽恕与神的人就可以授予”(苏格拉底,“组织胺传道书。 “五,二十八)。Novatian and his party did not at first deny the power of the Church to absolve from sin; they affirmed that apostasy placed the sinner beyond the reach of that power -- an error which was condemned by a synod at Rome in 251 (See NOVATIANISM.) Novatian和他的党不否认在第一教会开脱罪的权力,他们肯定叛教放在达到这一权力之外的罪人 - 这是由主教谴责,在罗马(见NOVATIANISM在251错误。 )

The distinction between sins that could be forgiven and others that could not, originated in the latter half of the second century as the doctrine of the Montanists, and especially of Tertullian.可以原谅的罪孽和其他不能,在下半年的第二个世纪的Montanists学说,特别是德尔图良的起源之间的区别。 While still a Catholic, Tertullian wrote (AD 200-6) his "De poenitentia" in which he distinguishes two kinds of penance, one as a preparation for baptism, the other to obtain forgiveness of certain grievous sins committed after baptism, ie, apostasy, murder, and adultery.虽然仍然是一个天主教,良写道(公元200-6)他的“德poenitentia”中,他区分两种苦修,作为洗礼的准备之一,其他一些严重的洗礼后所犯的罪,即获得宽恕,叛教,谋杀和通奸。 For these, however, he allows only one forgiveness: "Foreseeing these poisons of the Evil One, God, although the gate of forgiveness has been shut and fastened up with the bar of baptism, has permitted it still to stand somewhat open. In the vestibule He has stationed a second repentance for opening to such as knock; but now once for all, because now for the second time; but never more, because the last time it had been in vain. . . . However, if any do incur the debt of a second repentance, his spirit is not to be forthwith cut down and undermined by despair. Let it be irksome to sin again, but let it not be irksome to repent again; let it be irksome to imperil oneself again, but let no one be ashamed to be set free again. Repeated sickness must have repeated medicine" (De poen., VII).然而,对于这些,他只允许有一个宽恕:“预见这些毒药的罪恶之一,神,虽然宽恕的大门已经关闭,固定与酒吧的洗礼,已经允许它仍然立场有所开放前庭他已进驻一个开放等作为敲第二悔改;但现在一次,因为现在的第二次,但从来没有更多的,因为它最后一次白费但是,如果任何人承担。。。第二悔改的债务,他的精神是不是要立即砍伐和破坏了绝望让它成为令人侧目的再次罪,但让这岂不是令人侧目的再次悔改;让它再次令人侧目危及自己,而是让没有人为耻,以自由,必须有反复重复病药“(德poen,七)。 Tertullian does not deny that the Church can forgive sins; he warns sinners against relapse, yet exhorts them to repent in case they should fall.德尔图良不否认,教会可以赦罪,他警告说,对复发的罪人,但劝告他们悔改的情况下,他们应属于。His attitude at the time was not surprising, since in the early days the sins above mentioned were severely dealt with; this was done for disciplinary reasons, not because the Church lacked power to forgive.他当时的态度并不奇怪,因为在初期,上述罪从重处理;这是出于惩戒的理由,而不是因为教会缺乏宽恕的权力。

In the minds, however, of some people the idea was developing that not only the exercise of the power but the power itself was limited.的头脑,然而,一些人的想法发展,不仅行使的权力,但权力本身是有限的。Against this false notion Pope Callistus (218-22) published his "peremptory edict" in which he declares: "I forgive the sins both of adultery and of fornication to those who have done penance."在这种错误的观念,教皇卡利斯图斯(218-22)出版他的“强制性诏书”中,他宣称:“我原谅那些已经做补赎通奸和私通罪。” Thereupon Tertullian, now become a Montanist, wrote his "De pudicitia" (AD 217-22).于是良,现在成为一个Montanist,写他的“德pudicitia”(公元217-22年)。In this work he rejects without scruple what he had taught as a Catholic: "I blush not at an error which I have cast off because I am delighted at being rid of it . . . one is not ashamed of his own improvement."在这项工作中,他无所顾忌地拒绝他作为一个天主教的教导:“我脸红不是因为我很高兴摆脱它在我摆脱错误之一是没有自己的进步感到羞愧。。” The "error" which he imputes to Callistus and the Catholics was that the Church could forgive all sins: this, therefore, was the orthodox doctrine which Tertullian the heretic denied. “错误”,他责难卡利斯图斯和天主教徒,教会可以原谅所有的罪孽,因此,这是德尔图良的异端否认的正统教义。In place of it he sets up the distinction between lighter sins which the bishop could forgive and more grievous sins which God alone could forgive.在它的地方,他较轻的罪主教可以原谅,更严重的罪,只有上帝可以原谅之间的区别。Though in an earlier treatise, "Scorpiace", he had said (c. x) that "the Lord left here to Peter and through him to the Church the keys of heaven" he now denies that the power granted to Peter had been transmitted to the Church, ie, to the numerus episcoporum or body of bishops.(C. X)虽然在前面的论述,“Scorpiace”,他说,“耶和华离开这里彼得并通过他向教会天上的钥匙”,他现在否认授予彼得权力已经转交教会,即物权法定episcoporum或主教的身体。 Yet he claims this power for the "spirituals" (pneumatici), although these, for prudential reasons, do not make use of it.然而,他声称这“灵”(pneumatici)的权力,虽然这些,为审慎原因,不利用它。To the arguments of the "Psychici", as he termed the Catholics, he replies: "But the Church, you say, has the power to forgive sin. This I, even more than you, acknowledge and adjudge. I who in the new prophets have the Paraclete saying: 'The Church can forgive sin, but I will not do that (forgive) lest they (who are forgiven) fall into other sins" (De pud., XXI, vii). “Psychici”的论点,因为他被称为天主教徒,他回答说:“但是,你说,教会有赦罪的权力,这点我,甚至比你,承认和裁定我在新的谁。先知说:“教会可以赦罪的圣灵,但我不会做,(原谅),以免他们(被赦免)到其他罪”(PUD,二十一,七。)下降。 Thus Tertullian, by the accusation which he makes against the pope and by the restriction which he places upon the exercise of the power of forgiving sin, bears witness to the existence of that power in the Church which he had abandoned.因此,良,指责他反对教皇和他呼吁宽恕罪恶的权力的行使地方的限制使得,见证该教会在他放弃的力量的存在。

Not content with assailing Callistus and his doctrine, Tertullian refers to the "Shepherd" (Pastor), a work written AD 140-54, and takes its author Hermas to task for favouring the pardon of adulterers.与调戏卡利斯图斯和他的学说的内容,良指的“牧羊人”(牧师),书面公元140-54工作,并采取有利于赦免奸淫其作者黑马任务。 In the days of Hermas there was evidently a school of rigorists who insisted that there was no pardon for sin committed after baptism (Simil. VIII, vi).在黑马的日子显然是有rigorists他坚持认为,没有洗礼后(Simil.第八,六)犯罪的赦免的一所学校。Against this school the author of the "Pastor" takes a resolute stand.针对这所学校的“牧师”的作者采取坚决的立场。He teaches that by penance the sinner may hope for reconciliation with God and with the Church.他教,苦修的罪人,可能与上帝和教会和解的希望。"Go and tell all to repent and they shall live unto God. Because the Lord having had compassion, has sent me to give repentance to all men, although some are not worthy of it on account of their works" (Simil. VIII, ii). “你去告诉所有的悔改,他们将生活所不欲,上帝。因为耶和华有怜悯,有送我给所有的人悔改,虽然有些不考虑他们的作品是值得的”(Simil.八,二)。 Hermas, however, seems to give but one opportunity for such reconciliation, for in Mandate IV, i, he seems to state categorically that "there is but one repentance for the servants of God", and further on in c.黑马,但是,似乎给,但这种和解的任务四,我的一个机会,他似乎明确“是一个神的仆人的忏悔”,并进一步在C.iii he says the Lord has had mercy on the work of his hands and hath set repentance for them; "and he has entrusted to me the power of this repentance. And therefore I say to you, if any one has sinned . . he has opportunity to repent once".第三,他说,耶和华有怜悯他手中的工作,和祂所为他们设置的悔改“,他已委托给我这个悔改的权力,因此,我对你说,如果任何一个犯了罪,他已。。一旦悔改“的机会。 Repentance is therefore possible at least once in virtue of a power vested in the priest of God.因此,悔改是可能至少一次凭借归于神的祭司电源。That Hermas here intends to say that the sinner could be absolved only once in his whole life is by no means a necessary conclusion.这黑马这里打算说,罪人可以免除他的整个生命只有一次,绝不是一个必要的结论。His words may well be understood as referring to public penance (see below) and as thus understood they imply no limitation on the sacramental power itself.他的话很可能被理解为是指公开忏悔(见下文),从而了解他们的圣事的权力本身就意味着没有限制。The same interpretation applies to the statement of Clement of Alexandria (d. circa AD 215): "For God being very merciful has vouchsafed in the case of those who, though in faith, have fallen into transgression, a second repentance, so that should anyone be tempted after his calling, he may still receive a penance not to be repented of" (Stromata, II, xiii).同样的解释适用克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(D.大约公元215)的声明:“对于上帝很仁慈的赐予那些人,但在信仰,堕落成侵,第二悔改的情况下,使应被诱惑的人后,他的呼吁,他仍可能会收到不忏悔赎罪“(Stromata,二,十三)。

The existence of a regular system of penance is also hinted at in the work of Clement, "Who is the rich man that shall be saved?", where he tells the story of the Apostle John and his journey after the young bandit.在克莱门特的工作例会制度存在的忏悔也暗示,“谁是富人应当保存的?”,在那里他告诉使徒约翰和他的旅程后,年轻的土匪的故事。 John pledged his word that the youthful robber would find forgiveness from the Saviour; but even then a long serious penance was necessary before he could be restored to the Church.约翰承诺,他的字,年轻的强盗会发现从救主的赦免,但即使再长的严重的忏悔是必要的,之前,他可以恢复到教会。And when Clement concludes that "he who welcomes the angel of penance . . . will not be ashamed when he sees the Saviour", most commentators think he alludes to the bishop or priest who presided over the ceremony of public penance.而当克莱门特的结论,他说:“欢迎苦修的天使。不会感到羞愧,当他看见救世主”,大多数评论家认为,他暗示公开忏悔仪式主持的主教或神父。 Even earlier, Dionysius of Corinth (d. circa AD 17O), setting himself against certain growing Marcionistic traditions, taught not only that Christ has left to His Church the power of pardon, but that no sin is so great as to be excluded from the exercise of that power.甚至更早,科林斯狄奥尼修斯(D.大约公元17O),自己对某些生长Marcionistic传统,教,基督不仅已经离开他的教会的赦免​​权,但没有罪是如此之大,从排除行使这一权力。 For this we have the authority of Eusebius, who says (Hist. eccl., IV, xxiii): "And writing to the Church which is in Amastris, together with those in Pontus, he commands them to receive those who come back after any fall, whether it be delinquency or heresy".为此,我们有权威的尤西比乌斯,谁说(Hist.传道书,四,二十三。):“书面形式向教会在Amastris,庞,他命令他们接受那些来后任何秋天,无论是拖欠或异端“。

The "Didache" (qv) written at the close of the first century or early in the second, in IV, xiv, and again in XIV, i, commands an individual confession in the congregation: "In the congregation thou shalt confess thy transgressions"; or again: "On the Lord's Day come together and break bread . . . having confessed your transgressions that your sacrifice may be pure." “十二使徒遗训”(QV)写的第一个世纪的结束或早在第二,四,第十四条,并在第十四,我命令在众的个人表白:“在众你要承认你的越轨行为“;或再次:”主日来一起打破面包交待你的越轨行为,你的牺牲可能是纯粹的“。 Clement I (d. 99) in his epistle to the Corinthians not only exhorts to repentance, but begs the seditious to "submit themselves to the presbyters and receive correction so as to repent" (c. lvii), and Ignatius of Antioch at the close of the first century speaks of the mercy of God to sinners, provided they return" with one consent to the unity of Christ and the communion of the bishop".我克莱门特(四99),在他的书信向科林蒂安不仅劝勉悔改,但回避了煽动性“服从的长老和接收矫正悔改如此”(C. LVII),并在安提阿的伊格内修密切讲的第一个世纪,神的怜悯罪人,只要他们回到“同意书,以基督和主教的共融团结”。The clause "communion of the bishop" evidently means the bishop with his council of presbyters as assessors.一句“主教的共融”显然是指他作为评审的长老会的主教。He also says (Ad Philadel,) "that the bishop presides over penance".他还表示,(广告Philadel)“主教主持过苦修”。

The transmission of this power is plainly expressed in the prayer used at the consecration of a bishop as recorded in the Canons of Hippolytus: "Grant him, 0 Lord, the episcopate and the spirit of clemency and the power to forgive sins" (c. xvii).显然是对这种权力的传输希波吕托斯的大炮录得主教祝圣的祈祷:“授予他,0主,主教和宽大的精神和力量赦罪”(C.第十七条)。 Still more explicit is the formula cited in the "Apostolic Constitutions" (qv): "Grant him, 0 Lord almighty, through Thy Christ, the participation of Thy Holy Spirit, in order that he may have the power to remit sins according to Thy precept and Thy command, and to loosen every bond, whatsoever it be, according to the power which Thou hast granted to the Apostles."更明确的是公式中的“使徒宪法”(QV)专利:“授予他,0万军之耶和华,通过你的基督,祢圣灵的参与,以职权范围的罪孽,他可能有权力根据对thy言教和你的命令,并放松每一个债券,任何,根据祢给予使徒的权力。“ (Const. Apost., VIII, 5 in P. (i., 1. 1073). For the meaning of "episcopus", "sacerdos", "presbyter", as used in ancient documents, see BISHOP; HIERARCHY. 。(“组织法”Apost,第八,第5(1一,1073年)为“episcopus”的意思,“sacerdos”,“长老”在古代文献中使用,看到主教;层次。

Exercise of the Power行使的权力

The granting by Christ of the power to forgive sins is the first essential of the Sacrament of Penance; in the actual exercise of this power are included the other essentials.由基督赦罪的权柄授予的第一个重要的忏悔圣事;在实际行使这种权力包括其他必需品。The sacrament as such and on its own account has a matter and a form and it produces certain effects; the power of the keys is exercised by a minister (confessor) who must possess the proper qualifications, and the effects are wrought in the soul of the recipient, ie, the penitent who with the necessary dispositions must perform certain actions (confession, satisfaction).圣如和自己的帐户上的问题和形式,它产生一定的影响;行使权力的关键是必须具备适当的资格由部长(忏悔),和灵魂造成的影响在收件人,即必要之处置,必须执行某些操作(供述,满意度)的忏悔。

Matter and Form物质和表格

According to St. Thomas (Summa, III, lxxiv, a. 2) "the acts of the penitent are the proximate matter of this sacrament".据圣托马斯(大全,三,LXXIV,A. 2)“的忏悔的行为是这个圣餐型材”。 This is also the teaching of Eugenius IV in the "Decretum pro Armenis" (Council of Florence, 1439) which calls the act's "quasi materia" of penance and enumerates them as contrition, confession, and satisfaction (Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchir.", 699).这也是叶夫根尼四,教学“Decretum Armenis”(佛罗伦萨委员会,1439),其中调用该法的“准本草”的忏悔和枚举悔悟,表白,和满意度(登青格,Bannwart,“Enchir他们。 “699)。The Thomists in general and other eminent theologians, eg, Bellarmine, Toletus, Francisco Suárez, and De Lugo, hold the same opinion.秘书长和其他杰出的神学家,例如,贝拉明,Toletus,弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,德卢戈Thomists,持有相同的看法。 According to Scotus (In IV Sent., d. 16, q. 1, n. 7) "the Sacrament of Penance is the absolution imparted with certain words" while the acts of the penitent are required for the worthy reception of the sacrament.根据司各脱(在第四发,D. 16,问:1,注7)“忏悔圣事是与某些词传授的赦免”而忏悔行为是值得圣餐接待需要。The absolution as an external ceremony is the matter, and, as possessing significant force, the form.作为外部仪式赦免问题,并具有显著的力量,形式。Among the advocates of this theory are St. Bonaventure, Capreolus, Andreas Vega, and Maldonatus.在这一理论的倡导者圣文德,狍,安德烈亚斯维加和Maldonatus。The Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, c. 3) declares: "the acts of the penitent, namely contrition, confession, and satisfaction, are the quasi materia of this sacrament".安理会的遄达(Sess.十四,C. 3)宣称:“忏悔行为,即忏悔,忏悔,并满意,这圣事的准本草”。The Roman Catechism used in 1913 (II, v, 13) says: "These actions are called by the Council quasi materia not because they have not the nature of true matter, but because they are not the sort of matter which is employed externally as water in baptism and chrism in confirmation".罗马在1913年(第二,五,13)的教义问答说:“这些行动被称为理事会准本草,不是因为他们没有真正的问题的性质,而是因为他们是没有问题的排序,这是聘用外部水的洗礼,并在确认chrism“。 For the theological discussion see Palmieri, op.对于神学的讨论,看到帕尔米耶,OP。cit., p.前,p.144 sqq.; Pesch, "Praelectiones dogmaticae", Freiburg, 1897; De San, "De poenitentia", Bruges, 1899; Pohle, "Lehrb. d. Dogmatik".144 SQQ;佩施,“Praelectiones dogmaticae”,弗赖堡,1897年,德圣,“poenitentia”,布鲁日,1899年; Pohle,“Lehrb D. Dogmatik。”

Regarding the form of the sacrament, both the Council of Florence and the Council of Trent teach that it consists in the words of absolution.关于圣餐的形式,无论是佛罗伦萨和安理会的遄达会教,它包含在赦免的话。"The form of the Sacrament of penance, wherein its force principally consists, is placed in those words of the minister: "I absolve thee, etc."; to these words indeed, in accordance with the usage of Holy Church, certain prayers are laudably added, but they do not pertain to the essence of the form nor are they necessary for the administration of the sacrament" (Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, c. 3).形式的忏悔圣事,其中主要是由它的力量,是摆在部长的这些话:“我赦免你,等”,这些话确实是在按照使用圣教,某些祈祷laudably增加,但他们不涉及到形式的本质,也不是必要的圣餐“的管理(安理会的遄达,SESS。十四,C. 3)。Concerning these additional prayers, the use of the Eastern and Western Churches, and the question whether the form is deprecatory or indicative and personal, see ABSOLUTION.关于这些额外的祈祷,使用的东方和西方教会,问题的形式是否是贬低或指示和个人,看到赦免。Cf.比照also the writers referred to in the preceding paragraph.也是作家提到在前款规定。

Effect影响

"The effect of this sacrament is deliverance from sin" (Council of Florence). “这圣事的效果是从罪恶中解脱”(佛罗伦萨委员会)。The same definition in somewhat different terms is given by the Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, c. 3): "So far as pertains to its force and efficacy, the effect (res et effectus) of this sacrament is reconciliation with God, upon which there sometimes follows, in pious and devout recipients, peace and calm of conscience with intense consolation of spirit".在相同的定义有所不同,是安理会的遄达(Sess.十四,C. 3):“到目前为止,涉及到它的力量和有效性,这圣餐(水库等effectus)的效果是与上帝和解,赖以有时如下,虔诚,虔诚的收件人,和平与平静与激烈的精神安慰“良心。 This reconciliation implies first of all that the guilt of sin is remitted, and consequently also the eternal punishment due to mortal sin.这意味着首先和解,汇往罪,并因此也由于弥天大罪,永恒的惩罚。As the Council of Trent declares, penance requires the performance of satisfaction "not indeed for the eternal penalty which is remitted together with the guilt either by the sacrament or by the desire of receiving the sacrament, but for the temporal penalty which, as the Scriptures teach, is not always forgiven entirely as it is in baptism" (Sess. VI, c. 14).颞处罚,作为安理会的遄达声明苦修需要表现的满意度“不可谓永恒的刑罚,这是汇出连同有罪圣餐或接受圣餐的愿望,但其中,作为圣经教,是不是总是完全原谅,因为它是在洗礼“(Sess.六,C. 14)。In other words baptism frees the soul not only from all sin but also from all indebtedness to Divine justice, whereas after the reception of absolution in penance, there may and usually does remain some temporal debt to be discharged by works of satisfaction (see below).换句话说洗礼释放,不仅所有的罪,但也从所有债务,以神圣的正义的灵魂,而赦免后在苦修的接待,也有可能和通常不会留一些时间的债务,以满意的作品被排出(见下文) 。"Venial sins by which we are not deprived of the grace of God and into which we very frequently fall are rightly and usefully declared in confession; but mention of them may, without any fault, be omitted and they can be expiated by many other remedies" (Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, c. 3). “Venial罪孽我们不被神的恩典,并融入其中,我们非常频繁下降是理所当然的和有益的宣布在忏悔,但他们可能会提到,没有任何过错,被省略,他们可以通过许多其他补救措施,抵偿“(理事会)的遄达,SESS。十四,C. 3。Thus, an act of contrition suffices to obtain forgiveness of venial sin, and the same effect is produced by the worthy reception of sacraments other than penance, eg, by Holy Communion.因此,行为的忏悔,足以获得宽恕venial单,同样的效果是由值得比忏悔,如圣餐,圣礼接待。

The reconciliation of the sinner with God has as a further consequence the revival of those merits which he had obtained before committing grievous sin.和解与上帝的罪人,这些实质复苏,这是他之前犯下严重的罪获得进一步的后果。Good works performed in the state of grace deserve a reward from God, but this is forfeited by mortal sin, so that if the sinner should die unforgiven his good deeds avail him nothing.在国家的宽限期进行好的作品应该有一个从神的奖励,但没收,这是弥天大罪,因此,如果罪人死不可饶恕他的善行利用他无关。 So long as he remains in sin, he is incapable of meriting: even works which are good in themselves are, in his case, worthless: they cannot revive, because they never were alive.只要他仍然在罪中,他是无能的meriting的,在他的案件,即使是在自己的工程不值钱,他们不能恢复,因为他们从来没有还活着。 But once his sin is cancelled by penance, he regains not only the state of grace but also the entire store of merit which had, before his sin, been placed to his credit.但是,一旦他的罪是苦修取消,他不仅恢复恩典的状态,但也整个商店的优点,之前,他的罪过,被放置到他的信用。On this point theologians are practically unanimous: the only hindrance to obtaining reward is sin, and when this is removed, the former title, so to speak, is revalidated.在这一点上的神学家都几乎一致:获得奖励的唯一障碍是罪,并删除,这是前题,可以这么说,是重新验证。On the other hand, if there were no such revalidation, the loss of merit once acquired would be equivalent to an eternal punishment, which is incompatible with the forgiveness effected by penance.另一方面,如果没有这样的重新验证,一旦收购值得的损失将相当于一个永恒的惩罚,这是不符合苦修影响宽恕。As to the further question regarding the manner and extent of the revival of merit, various opinions have been proposed; but that which is generally accepted holds with Francisco Suárez (De reviviscentia meritorum) that the revival is complete, ie, the forgiven penitent has to his credit as much merit as though he had never sinned.至于进一步的问题的方式和优异的复苏程度,各方面的意见已经提出,但是,这是普遍接受的弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯(德reviviscentia meritorum)认为复苏是完整的,即原谅忏悔尽可能多的优点,他的功劳,虽然他从来没有犯过罪。See De Augustinis, "De re sacramentaria", II, Rome, 1887; Pesch, op.见德Augustinis,“德重sacramentaria”,二,罗马,1887年;佩施,运。cit., VII; Göttler, "Der hl. Thomas v. Aquin u. die vortridentinischen Thomisten über die Wirkungen d. Bussakramentes", Freiburg, 1904.CIT,第七;。Göttler,“明镜HL托马斯诉阿坎U.死vortridentinischen Thomisten黚死Wirkungen D. Bussakramentes”,弗赖堡,1904年。

The Minister (ie, the Confessor)部长(即忏悔)

From the judicial character of this sacrament it follows that not every member of the Church is qualified to forgive sins; the administration of penance is reserved to those who are invested with authority.从这个圣餐的司法性质,不是每一个教会的成员资格赦罪;苦修的管理是留给那些有权威的投资。That this power does not belong to the laity is evident from the Bull of Martin V "Inter cunctas" (1418) which among other questions to be answered by the followers of Wyclif and Huss, has this: "whether he believes that the Christian . . . is bound as a necessary means of salvation to confess to a priest only and not to a layman or to laymen however good and devout" (Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchir.", 670).这种权力不属于俗人,是显而易见的:从马丁五世“间cunctas”(1418)威克里夫和胡斯的追随者要回答的其他问题,其中有这样的牛市“是否他认为,基督教。必然的救恩的必要手段,一个牧师承认,而不是一个门外汉或外行但是好和虔诚“(登青格Bannwart,”Enchir。“,670)。 Luther's proposition, that "any Christian, even a woman or a child" could in the absence of a priest absolve as well as pope or bishop, was condemned (1520) by Leo X in the Bull "Exurge Domine" (Enchir., 753).路德的主张,即“任何基督教,甚至一个女人或一个孩子”在没有牧师的情况下,可以免除以及教皇或主教,谴责在牛市“Exurge Domine”(1520)(Enchir. 753利​​奥十)。The Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, c. 6) condemns as "false and as at variance with the truth of the Gospel all doctrines which extend the ministry of the keys to any others than bishops and priests, imagining that the words of the Lord (Matthew 18:18; John 20:23) were, contrary to the institution of this sacrament, addressed to all the faithful of Christ in such wise that each and every one has the power of remitting sin".安理会的遄达(Sess.十四,C. 6)延长的关键部比任何其他主教和司铎,想象所有的教义谴责“假方差与福音的真理的话主(马太福音18点18分,约翰20时23分),相反这圣事的机构,在这种明智的每一名基督信徒的汇款罪的权力“。 The Catholic doctrine, therefore, is that only bishops and priests can exercise the power.天主教的教义,因此,只有主教和司铎可以行使的权力。These decrees moreover put an end, practically, to the usage, which had sprung up and lasted for some time in the Middle Ages, of confessing to a layman in case of necessity.这些法令,此外,务实,用法,如雨后春笋般涌现,并持续一段时间在中世纪承认一个门外汉在必要的情况下,杜绝。 This custom originated in the conviction that he who had sinned was obliged to make known his sin to some one -- to a priest if possible, otherwise to a layman.这种习俗起源于他已经犯了罪,不得不作出一些人知道他的罪过的信念 - 如果可能的话,否则一个门外汉牧师。In the work "On true penance and false" (De vera et falsa poenitentia), erroneously ascribed to St. Augustine, the counsel is given: "So great is the power of confession that if a priest be not at hand, let him (the person desiring to confess) confess to his neighbour."在“真正的忏悔和假”(德芦荟等falsa poenitentia),错误地归因于圣奥古斯丁,律师的工作:“如此之大,是供认的权力,如果一个牧师在手,让他(人愿意承认)承认他的邻居。“ But in the same place the explanation is given: "although he to whom the confession is made has no power to absolve, nevertheless he who confesses to his fellow (socio) becomes worthy of pardon through his desire of confessing to a priest" (PL, XL, 1113).但在同一个地方的解释是:“虽然他所供认是没有权力来开脱,但他承认他的同胞(社会)成为值得赦免通过他承认一个牧师的愿望”(特等XL,1113)。 Lea, who cites (I, 220) the assertion of the Pseudo-Augustine about confession to one's neighbour, passes over the explanation.LEA,濒危物种贸易公约(我220)的伪-奥古斯丁关于供认的断言一个人的邻居,通过以上的解释。He consequently sets in a wrong light a series of incidents illustrating the practice and gives but an imperfect idea of the theological discussion which it aroused.因此,他套在一个错误的光说明实践的一系列事件,并给出了,但它引起的神学讨论不完善的想法。Though Albertus Magnus (In IV Sent., dist. 17, art. 58) regarded as sacramental the absolution granted by a layman while St. Thomas (IV Sent., d. 17, q. 3, a. 3, sol. 2) speaks of it as "quodammodo sacramentalis", other great theologians took a quite different view.虽然阿尔伯图斯马格努斯(四派,区17,第58条)圣礼由一个门外汉给予赦免,而圣托马斯(四发送,D. 17,问:3,答:3,2溶胶。 )说,作为“quodammodo sacramentalis”,其他伟大的神学家参加了一个完全不同的看法。Alexander of Hales (Summa, Q. xix, De confessione memb., I, a. 1) says that it is an "imploring of absolution"; St. Bonaventure ("Opera', VII, p. 345, Lyons, 1668) that such a confession even in cases of necessity is not obligatory, but merely a sign of contrition; Scotus (IV Sent., d. 14, q. 4) that there is no precept obliging one to confess to a layman and that this practice may be very detrimental; Durandus of St. Pourcain (IV Sent., d. 17, q. 12) that in the absence of a priest, who alone can absolve in the tribunal of penance, there is no obligation to confess; Prierias (Summa Silv., sv Confessor, I, 1) that if absolution is given by a layman, the confession must be repeated whenever possible; this in fact was the general opinion. It is not then surprising that Dominicus Soto, writing in 1564, should find it difficult to believe that such a custom ever existed: "since (in confession to a layman) there was no sacrament .亚历山大黑尔斯(大全,问:第十九confessione MEMB,我答:1)说,这是一个“恳求赦免”圣文德(“戏”,第七章,第345页,里昂,1668)这样的表白,甚至在必要的情况下,是不是强制性的,但只是一个忏悔的迹象;司各脱(四发送,D. 14,问:4)有没有戒律迫使承认一个门外汉,而且这种做法可能是非常不利; Durandus圣Pourcain(四发送,D. 17,问:12)在一个牧师的情况下,就可以免除在法庭的忏悔,也没有义务承认; Prierias(大全思虑,SV忏悔,我,1),如果赦免是由一个门外汉,供认必须反复尽可能;,这其实是一般的看法是不那么令人惊讶,Dominicus索托,写于1564,应发现很难相信,曾经存在过这样一个习惯:“因为(在供认是门外汉)有没有圣餐。 ..it is incredible that men, of their own accord and with no profit to themselves, should reveal to others the secrets of their conscience" (IV Sent., d. 18, q. 4, a. 1). Since, therefore, the weight of theological opinion gradually turned against the practice and since the practice never received the sanction of the Church, it cannot be urged as a proof that the power to forgive sins belonged at any time to the laity. What the practice does show is that both people -and theologians realized keenly the obligation of confessing their sins not to God alone but to some human listener, even though the latter possessed no power to absolve.令人难以置信的是男人,自己并没有对自己的利润,应该向他人透露自己的良心的秘密“(第四发送,D. 18,问:4,答:1),因此,自神学民意的重量逐渐转向反对这种做法以来的实践从来没有收到教会的制裁,也不能作为一个证明,赦罪的权力在任何时间俗人属于呼吁的做法并不表明是,既人,和神学家意识到敏锐地承认他们的罪不是只有上帝,但一些人的听众的义务,即使后者拥有没有权力免除。

The same exaggerated notion appears in the practice of confessing to the deacons in case of necessity.同样夸张的概念出现在承认在必要的情况下执事实践中。They were naturally preferred to laymen when no priest was accessible because in virtue of their office they administered Holy Communion.他们自然首选外行时,没有牧师访问,因为他们凭借自己的办公室管理圣餐。 Moreover, some of the earlier councils (Elvira, AD 300; Toledo, 400) and penitentials (Theodore) seemed to grant the power of penance to the deacon (in the priest's absence).此外,一些较早的议会(公元300埃尔维拉,托莱多,400)和penitentials(西奥多)似乎授予权力的忏悔执事(牧师的情况下)。 The Council of Tribur (895) declared in regard to bandits that if, when captured or wounded they confessed to a priest or a deacon, they should not be denied communion; and this expression "presbytero vel diacono" was incorporated in the Decree of Gratian and in many later documents from the tenth century to the thirteenth. Tribur(895)理事会宣布关于土匪,被俘或受伤时,如果他们承认自己是一个牧师或执事,他们不应该被剥夺共融;和“presbytero VEL diacono”这种表达Gratian法令成立在后来的许多文件,从十世纪到第十三。The Council of York (1195) decreed that except in the gravest necessity the deacon should not baptize, give communion, or "impose penance on one who confessed".纽约理事会(1195)下令,除了在最严重的必要性执事不应洗礼,让共融,或“强加给谁交待的忏悔”。Substantially the same enactments are found in the Councils of London (1200) and Rouen (1231), the constitutions of St. Edmund of Canterbury (1236), and those of Walter of Kirkham, Bishop of Durham (1255).大致相同的成文法则发现在伦敦(1200)和鲁昂(1231),圣坎特伯雷(1236)埃德蒙的宪法,并Kirkham的Walter(1255),达勒姆主教议会。 All these enactments, though stringent enough as regards ordinary circumstances, make exception for urgent necessity.所有这些成文法,虽然不够严谨,至于一般情况下,迫切需要的例外。No such exception is allowed in the decree of the Synod of Poitiers (1280): "desiring to root out an erroneous abuse which has grown up in our diocese through dangerous ignorance, we forbid deacons to hear confessions or to give absolution in the tribunal of penance: for it is certain and beyond doubt that they cannot absolve, since they have not the keys which are conferred only in the priestly order".没有这样的例外是允许在普瓦捷的主教(1280)的法令:“渴望根出一个错误的滥用已成长在我们的教区,通过危险的无知,我们禁止执事听到口供,或在法庭赦免苦修:这是一定毋庸置疑,他们无法开脱,因为他们没有只在祭司为了“赋予的钥匙。 This "abuse" probably disappeared in the fourteenth or fifteenth century; at all events no direct mention is made of it by the Council of Trent, though the reservation to bishops and priests of the absolving power shows plainly that the Council excluded deacons.这种“虐待”可能消失在第十四或十五世纪,没有直接提及的所有事件是由安理会的遄达,但保留的赦免权力的主教和神父显示明明白白,会排除执事。

The authorization which the medieval councils gave the deacon in case of necessity did not confer the power to forgive sins.中世纪议会在必要的情况下作了执事的授权,也没有授予赦罪的权柄。In some of the decrees it is expressly stated that the deacon has not the keys -- claves non habent.在一些法令明文规定,执事有没有键 - 恒山非habent。In other enactments he is forbidden except in cases of necessity to "give" or "impose penance", poenitentiam dare, imponere.在其他成文法则,他是被禁止的必要性“给予”或“强加的忏悔”,poenitentiam不敢,imponere的情况除外。 His function then was limited to the forum externum; in the absence of a priest he could "reconcile" the sinner, ie, restore him to the communion of the Church; but he did not and could not give the sacramental absolution which a priest would have given (Palmieri, Pesch).然后他的功能是有限的论坛externum;在没有牧师的情况下,他可以“调和”的罪人,也就是说,恢复他的教会的共融,但他没有,不能给圣礼赦免一名牧师(帕尔米耶,佩施)。 Another explanation emphasizes the fact that the deacon could faithfully administer the Holy Eucharist.另一种解释强调的事实,圣餐执事忠实地管理。The faithful were under a strict obligation to receive Communion at the approach of death, and on the other hand the reception of this sacrament sufficed to blot out even mortal sin provided the communicant had the requisite dispositions.此外,教友们受到了严格的义务,接受死亡的方法的共融,另一方面接收这个圣餐足以抹煞甚至是弥天大罪communicant了必要的处置。 The deacon could hear their confession simply to assure himself that they were properly disposed, but not for the purpose of giving them absolution.执事可以听到他们的供述,仅仅是为了保证自己,他们妥善处置,但不给他们赦免的目的。If he went further and "imposed penance" in the stricter, sacramental sense, he exceeded his power, and any authorization to this effect granted by the bishop merely showed that the bishop was in error (Laurain, "De l'intervention des laïques, des diacres et des abbesses dans l'administration de la pénitence", Paris, 1897).如果他更进一步,“强加赎罪”在严格,圣事的意义,他超出了他的权力,并授权由主教授予这种效果只是表明,主教是错误的(Laurain,“DE L'干预DES laïques DES diacres ET DES abbesses DANS L'管理DE LA忏悔“,巴黎,1897年)。 In any case, the prohibitory enactments which finally abolished the practice did not deprive the deacon of a power which was his by virtue of his office; but they brought into clearer light the traditional belief that only bishops and priests can administer the Sacrament of Penance.在任何情况下,最后取消的做法禁止成文法没有剥夺执事的电源,这是他凭借他的办公室,但他们带来更清晰的光,只有主教和司铎可以管理的忏悔圣事的传统信仰。 (See below under Confession.) (下供认,请参阅下文)。

For valid administration, a twofold power is necessary: the power of order and the power of jurisdiction.对于有效的管理,双重电源是必要的:为了权力和管辖权的权力。The former is conferred by ordination, the latter by ecclesiastical authority (see JURISDICTION).前者所赋予的协调,后者由教会权威(见管辖权)。At his ordination a priest receives the power to consecrate the Holy Eucharist, and for valid consecration he needs no jurisdiction.一个牧师在他的协调接收功率奉献的圣体圣事,和有效的奉献,他的需求没有司法管辖权。As regards penance, the case is different: "because the nature and character of a judgment requires that sentence be pronounced only on those who are subjects (of the judge) the Church of God has always held, and this Council affirms it to be most true, that the absolution which a priest pronounces upon one over whom he has not either ordinary or delegated jurisdiction, is of no effect" (Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, c. 7).至于苦修,情况是不同的:“因为一个判断的性质和特点需要的那句话,只对那些科目(法官),神的教会历来认为明显,本会肯定它是最真实,免除其中一个牧师对他已不是普通或委派的管辖范围后宣布,是没有效果“(安理会的遄达,SESS。十四,C. 7)。Ordinary jurisdiction is that which one has by reason of his office as involving the care of souls; the pope has it over the whole Church, the bishop within his diocese, the pastor within his parish.普通管辖权,其中之一涉及照顾的灵魂的原因,因为他的办公室,在整个教会的教皇,在他的教区的主教,在他的教区的牧师。 Delegated jurisdiction is that which is granted by an ecclesiastical superior to one who does not possess it by virtue of his office.委托的​​司法管辖区,这是由一个教会优于不具备凭借他的办公室授予的。The need of jurisdiction for administering this sacrament is usually expressed by saying that a priest must have "faculties" to hear confession (see FACULTIES).管理这圣餐需要的管辖权通常是表示说,一个牧师,必须有“学院”听到供述(见院系)。Hence it is that a priest visiting in a diocese other than his own cannot hear confession without special authorization from the bishop.因此,它是一个访问一个比他自己的其他教区的牧师不能听到没有主教的特别授权的自白。Every priest, however, can absolve anyone who is at the point of death, because under those circumstances the Church gives all priests jurisdiction.每一个牧师,但是,可以免除任何人在死亡的一点是,因为在这种情况下,教会给所有祭司的管辖范围。As the bishop grants jurisdiction, he can also limit it by "reserving" certain cases (see RESERVATION) and he can even withdraw it entirely.他作为主教授予的司法管辖权,也可以限制某些情况下,“保留”(见预订),他甚至可以完全退出。

Recipient (ie, the Penitent)收件人(即忏悔)

The Sacrament of Penance was instituted by Christ for the remission of Penance was instituted by Christ for the remission of sins committed after baptism.忏悔圣事是建立基督的忏悔基督实行减免,为缓解洗礼后所犯的罪。Hence, no unbaptized person, however deep and sincere his sorrow, can be validly absolved.因此,没有未受洗礼的人,但是深切和诚挚的悲痛的,可以依法免除。Baptism, in other words, is the first essential requisite on the part of the penitent.洗礼,换句话说,就是第一个重要的必要忏悔的一部分。This does not imply that in the sins committed by an unbaptized person there is a special enormity or any other element that places them beyond the power of the keys; but that one must first be a member of the Church before he can submit himself and his sins to the judicial process of sacramental Penance.这并不意味着,在未受洗礼的人所犯的罪,有一个特殊的艰巨性,或任何其他元素地方超出了电源键,但人们必须先教会的成员,才可以提交自己和他忏悔圣事的司法过程中的罪过。

Contrition and Attrition忏悔和流失

Without sorrow for sin there is no forgiveness. Hence the Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, c. 4): "Contrition, which holds the first place among the acts of the penitent, is sorrow of heart and detestation for sin committed, with the resolve to sin no more".没有悲伤的罪有没有宽恕 ,因此,安理会的遄达(Sess.十四,C. 4):“悔悟,其持有的第一名之间的忏悔行为,是为罪的心脏和厌恶的悲哀承诺,与决心没有更多的“罪。The Council (ibid.) furthermore distinguishes perfect contrition from imperfect contrition, which is called attrition, and which arises from the consideration of the turpitude of sin or from the fear of hell and punishment.此外,理事会(同上)区别于不完善的忏悔,这就是所谓的减员完美的悔悟,并从罪沦丧的考虑,还是从地狱和惩罚的恐惧而产生的。 See ATTRITION; CONTRITION, where these two kinds of sorrow are more fully explained and an account is given of the principal discussions and opinions.见磨损;悔悟,这两种悲哀更充分的解释和帐户是主要的讨论和意见。 See also treatises by Pesch, Palmieri, Pohle.佩施,帕尔米耶,Pohle也论文。For the present purpose it need only be stated that attrition, with the Sacrament of Penance, suffices to obtain forgiveness of sin.对于现在的目的,只需要指出,减员与忏悔圣事,足以获得赦罪。The Council of Trent further teaches (ibid.): "though it sometimes happens that this contrition is perfect and that it reconciles man with God before the actual reception of this sacrament, still the reconciliation is not to be ascribed to the contrition itself apart from the desire of the sacrament which it (contrition) includes".安理会的遄达进一步教导(同上):“虽然有时会发生悔悟,这是完美的,它之前圣餐的实际接待协调人与神的,仍然是和解不是归因于悔悟本身除了圣餐(忏悔)的愿望,包括“。 In accordance with this teaching Pius V condemned (1567) the proposition of Baius asserting that even perfect contrition does not, except in case of necessity or of martyrdom, remit sin without the actual reception of the sacrament (Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchir.", 1071).皮乌斯V谴责(1567)主张,甚至是完美的悔悟不Baius的必要性或殉难,没有罪的圣餐的实际接待的职权范围(登青格,Bannwart,命题,教学按照“Enchir。” ,1071)。It should be noted, however, that the contrition of which the Council speaks is perfect in the sense that it includes the desire (votum) to receive the sacrament.但是,应该指出,这其中会说话的悔悟是在这个意义上,它包含的愿望(votum)接受圣餐。Whoever in fact repents of his sin out of love for God must be willing to comply with the Divine ordinance regarding penance, ie, he would confess if a confessor were accessible, and he realizes that he is obliged to confess when he has the opportunity.谁在他的罪,对上帝的爱其实悔改必须愿意遵守神的苦修,即条例,他也承认,如果一个忏悔访问,他意识到,他不得不承认,当他有机会。 But it does not follow that the penitent is at liberty to choose between two modes of obtaining forgiveness, one by an act of contrition independently of the sacrament, the other by confession and absolution.不过,这并不遵循的忏悔是在自由选择两种模式获得宽恕,忏悔行为独立圣餐,认罪和赦免。This view was put forward by Peter Martinez (de Osma) in the proposition: "mortal sins as regards their guilt and their punishment in the other world, are blotted out by contrition alone without any reference to the keys"; and the proposition was condemned by Sixtus IV in 1479 (Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchir.", 724).彼得马丁内兹(奥萨马)提出这一观点的命题:“凡人的罪过至于在另一个世界他们有罪,他们的处罚,抹杀悔悟单独没有任何参考的键”;和命题被谴责在1479 Sixtus IV(登青格,Bannwart“Enchir。”,724)。Hence it is clear that not even heartfelt sorrow based on the highest motives, can, in the present order of salvation, dispense with the power of the keys, ie, with the Sacrament of Penance.因此,它是明确的,并非基于最高的动机,甚至是发自内心的悲痛,在目前的救赎秩​​序,免除电源键,即与忏悔圣事。

Confession (Necessity)自白(必要性)

"For those who after baptism have fallen into sin, the Sacrament of Penance is as necessary unto salvation as is baptism itself for those who have not yet been regenerated" (Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, c. 2). “对于那些洗礼后已下降到罪,忏悔圣事是得救的必要的洗礼,对于那些尚未再生自己”(安理会的遄达,SESS。十四,C. 2)。Penance, therefore, is not an institution the use of which was left to the option of each sinner so that he might, if he preferred, hold aloof from the Church and secure forgiveness by some other means, eg, by acknowledging his sin in the privacy of his own mind.忏悔,因此,不使用左每个罪人的选项,使他可能,如果他的首选,从教会和其他一些手段,例如,安全宽恕举行超然在承认自己的罪的机构他自己心中的隐私。 As already stated, the power granted by Christ to the Apostles is twofold, to forgive and to retain, in such a way that what they forgive God forgives and what they retain God retains.如前所述,由基督使徒授予的权力是双重的,在这样一种方式,他们原谅上帝原谅他们保留神的保留,原谅,并保留。But this grant would be nullified if, in case the Church retained the sins of penitent, he could, as it were, take appeal to God's tribunal and obtain pardon.但是,这笔款项将无效的情况下,如果教会保留的罪孽忏悔,他可以,因为它是,呼吁上帝的法庭,并获得赦免。Nor would the power to retain have any meaning if the sinner, passing over the Church, went in the first instance to God, since by the very terms of the grant, God retains sin once committed so long as it is not remitted by the Church.保留的权力也没有任何意义,如果罪人,在教会的传球,在一审去神,因为很条款授予神保留一次犯这么长时间的罪,因为它不是由教会汇。 It would indeed have been strangely inconsistent if Christ in conferring this twofold power on the Apostles had intended to provide some other means of forgiveness such as confessing "to God alone".这的确已经奇怪​​的不一致,如果在这两个方面的权力赋予使徒基督本来打算提供一些其他手段,如请罪“只有上帝”宽恕。 Not only the Apostles, but any one with an elementary knowledge of human nature would have perceived at once that the easier means would be chosen and that the grant of power so formally and solemnly made by Christ had no real significance (Palmieri, op. cit., thesis X).一次,会选择更容易的手段,将有感知不仅使徒,但任何一个与人性的基本知识,并正式和郑重由基督授予的权力并没有真正的意义(帕尔米耶,同上,论文的X)。 On the other hand, once it is admitted that the grant was effectual and consequently that the sacrament is necessary in order to obtain forgiveness, it plainly follows that the penitent must in some way make known his sin to those who exercise the power.另一方面,一旦承认的授予是行之有效的,因此,圣餐是必要的,以获得宽恕,说白了,忏悔者必须以某种方式使他的罪那些行使权力。 This is conceded even by those who reject the Sacrament of Penance as a Divine institution.这是承认,即使那些拒绝接受作为一个神圣的机构的忏悔圣事。"Such remission was manifestly impossible without the declaration of the offences to be forgiven" (Lea, "History etc.", I, p. 182). “这种缓解显然是不可能的,没有被原谅的罪行的声明”(LEA,“等历史”,我,第182页)。The Council of Trent, after declaring that Christ left his priests as His vicars unto whom as rulers and judges the faithful must make known their sins, adds: "It is evident that the priests could not have exercised this judgment without knowledge of the cause, nor could they have observed justice in enjoining satisfaction if (the faithful) had declared their sins in a general way only and not specifically and in detail" (Sess. XIV, c. 5).宣称基督作为他教区牧师离开他的祭司后,安理会的遄达统治者和法官忠实必须让人知道他们的罪孽,祂的人补充说:“这是明显的祭司不能行使,而造成的知识这样的判断,他们也无法观察到(忠实)已宣布他们的罪孽,在一般的方式,不具体和详细“(Sess.十四,C. 5)责令满意的司法。

Since the priest in the pardoning of sin exercises a strict judicial function, Christ must will that such tremendous power be used wisely and prudently.既然在罪的赦免的祭司实行严格的司法职能,基督一定会明智和审慎的使用,这种巨大的力量。Moreover, in virtue of the grant of Christ the priest can forgive all sins without distinction, quoecumque solveritis.此外,凭借在基督授予的牧师可以原谅你所有的罪孽,不加区分,quoecumque solveritis。 How can a wise and prudent judgment be rendered if the priest be in ignorance of the cause on which judgment is pronounced?如何可以呈现一个明智和审慎的的判断,如果牧师在判决宣告事业的无知吗?And how can he obtain the requisite knowledge unless it come from the spontaneous acknowledgment of the sinner?他怎么能获得所需的知识,除非它从自发的罪人确认?This necessity of manifestation is all the clearer if satisfaction for sin, which from the beginning has been part of the penitential discipline, is to be imposed not only wisely but also justly.这种必要性体现的更清楚,如果满意的罪,从一开始就已经悔罪的纪律的一部分,是要不仅明智,但也公正地实施。That there is a necessary connection between the prudent judgment of the confessor and the detailed confession of sins is evident from the nature of a judicial procedure and especially from a full analysis of the grant of Christ in the light of tradition.之间的忏悔和罪恶的详细供词审慎判断,是一个必要的连接是显而易见的,从司法程序的性质,并在传统的基督授予充分的分析,特别是从。 No judge may release or condemn without full knowledge of the case.任何法官可能没有充分了解的情况下释放或谴责。And again the tradition of the earliest time sees in the words of Christ not only the office of the judge sitting in judgment, but the kindness of a father who weeps with the repentant child (Aphraates, "Ep. de Poenitentia", dem. 7) and the skill of the physician who after the manner of Christ heals the wounds of the soul (Origen in PG, XII, 418; PL, Xll, 1086).和传统的最早时间再次看到基督不仅法官判决坐在办公室的话,但父亲的恩情哭泣悔改的孩子(Aphraates,“EP。DE Poenitentia”,DEM。 )和基督的方式后愈合的伤口的灵魂(PG,12,418奥利医师技能; PL,XLL,1086)。Clearly, therefore, the words of Christ imply the doctrine of the external manifestation of conscience to a priest in order to obtain pardon.很明显,因此,基督的话意味着良心的外在表现形式,以一个牧师的学说,以获得赦免。

Confession (Various Kinds)自白(各类)

Confession is the avowal of one's own sins made to a duly authorized priest for the purpose of obtaining their forgiveness through the power of the keys.自白是承认自己的罪孽,获得他们的宽恕,通过电源键的目的正式授权的牧师。Virtual confession is simply the will to confess even where, owing to circumstances, declaration of sin is impossible; actual confession is any action by which the penitent manifests his sin.虚拟供述是承认,由于情况下,申报罪是不可能简单地将实际供认是任何行动的忏悔体现了他的罪过。It may be made in general terms, eg, by reciting the "Confiteor", or it may consist in a more or less detailed statement of one's sins; when the statement is complete, the confession is distinct.例如,它可能从总体上看,通过背诵“Confiteor”,或它可能包括一个人的罪孽或多或少详细的声明;语句完成时,供认是截然不同的。 Public confession, as made in the hearing of a number of people (eg a congregation) differs from private, or secret, confession which is made to the priest alone and is often called auricular, ie, spoken into the ear of the confessor.公共供认,在一些人(如众)的听证会作出不同于私人,或明或暗,忏悔,它是由祭司,通常被称为耳廓,即,到耳忏悔发言。 We are here concerned mainly with actual distinct confession which is the usual practice in the Church and which so far as the validity of the sacrament is concerned, may be either public or private.我们在这里主要是与实际不同的供述是在教会的惯例,迄今圣餐的有效性而言,可能是公共或私人。"As regards the method of confessing secretly to the priest alone, though Christ did not forbid that any one, in punishment of his crimes and for his own humiliation as also to give others an example and to edify the Church, should confess his sins publicly, still, this has not been commanded by Divine precept nor would it be prudent to decree by any human law that sins, especially secret sins, should be publicly confessed. Since, then, secret sacramental confession, which from the beginning has been and even now is the usage of the Church, was always commended with great and unanimous consent by the holiest and most ancient Fathers; thereby is plainly refuted the foolish calumny of those who make bold to teach that it (secret confession) is something foreign to the Divine command, a human invention devised by the Fathers assembled in the Lateran Council" (Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, c. 5). “至于坦白秘密地单独牧师的方法,虽然基督没有禁止任何人,他的罪行的惩罚,并为自己的屈辱,也给别人一个例子,陶冶教会,应该承认他的罪孽公开,仍然没有被指挥的神圣戒律也不会是审慎的罪过,尤其是秘密的罪孽,应当公开承认任何人的法律法令。以来,然后,秘密圣礼的忏悔,这从一开始就一直,甚至现在是教会的用法,总是赞扬伟大和最神圣和最古老的父亲一致同意;从而显然是愚蠢的诽谤,驳斥了那些大胆教(秘密供认)是神圣的外国命令,人类的发明,在拉特兰会议“(安理会的遄达,SESS。十四,C. 5)组装的父亲设计。It is therefore Catholic doctrine, first, that Christ did not prescribe public confession, salutary as it might be, nor did He forbid it; second, that secret confession, sacramental in character, has been the practice of the Church from the earliest days.第一,因此,天主教的教义,即基督没有规定公众表白,有益的,因为它可能会,他也没有禁止它;第二,秘密的供述,在性质上的圣事,已经从最早的教会实践。

Traditional Belief andPractice传统的信仰和实践

How firmly rooted in the Catholic mind is the belief in the efficacy and necessity of confession, appears clearly from the fact that the Sacrament of Penance endures in the Church after the countless attacks to which it has been subjected during the last four centuries.如何牢牢地扎根在天主教的心态是供认的有效性和必要性的信念,清晰显示,从忏悔圣事在教会的事实,忍受无数的攻击后,它已在过去四个世纪遭受。 If at the Reformation or since the Church could have surrendered a doctrine or abandoned a practice for the sake of peace and to soften a "hard saying", confession would have been the first to disappear.如果在改革以来的教会可能有自首的学说或放弃一个为了和平的实践和软化“很难说”,招供就已经率先消失。Yet it is precisely during this period that the Church has defined in the most exact terms the nature of penance and most vigorously insisted on the necessity of confession.但恰恰是在这期间教会苦修的性质,并在最准确的定义最大力坚持供认的必要性。It will not of course be denied that at the beginning of the sixteenth century confession was generally practised throughout the Christian world.它当然不会否认,在十六世纪表白初整个基督教世界的普遍实行。The Reformers themselves, notably Calvin, admitted that it had been in existence for three centuries when they attributed its origin to the Fourth Lateran Council (1215).改革者本身,尤其是加尔文承认,它已存在的三个世纪时,他们由于其原产地的第四次拉特兰会议(1215年)。At that time, according to Lea (op. cit., I, 228), the necessity of confession "became a new article of faith" and the canon, omnis utriusque sexus, "is perhaps the most important legislative act in the history of the Church" (ibid., 230).当时,根据LEA(同前,我228),供认的必要性“成为新的信仰的文章”,佳能,omnis utriusque sexus,“也许是历史上最重要的立法行为教会“(同上,230)。But, as the Council of Trent affirms, "the Church did not through the Lateran Council prescribe that the faithful of Christ should confess -- a thing which it knew to be by Divine right necessary and established -- but that the precept of confessing at least once a year should be complied with by all and every one when they reached the age of discretion" (Sess., XIV, c. 5).但是,安理会的遄达申明,“教会没有通过拉特兰会议订明的基督信徒应该承认 - 知道的事情,它由神权的必要,并建立 - 但请罪于言教每年一次至少应遵守所有和每一个当他们到达自由裁量权的时代“(Sess.,第十四条,C. 5)。 The Lateran edict presupposed the necessity of confession as an article of Catholic belief and laid down a law as to the minimum frequency of confession -- at least once a year.拉特兰法令的先决条件作为一个天主教信仰的文章供认的必要性,并供认的最低频率奠定了一个法律 - 每年至少举行一次。

In the Middle Ages在中世纪

In constructing their systems of theology, the medieval doctors discuss at length the various problems connected with the Sacrament of Penance.在他们的神学系统建设,中世纪的医生详细讨论与忏悔圣事的各种问题。They are practically unanimous in holding that confession is obligatory; the only notable exception in the twelfth century is Gratian, who gives the arguments for and against the necessity of confessing to a priest and leaves the question open (Decretum, p. II, De poen., d. 1, in PL, CLXXXVII, 1519-63).他们几乎一致供认是强制性的,仅在12世纪值得注意的例外是Gratian,承认一个牧师的必要性提供了支持和反对的论据和叶解决这一问题(Decretum,第II,德poen ,PL,CLXXXVII,1519年至1563年,D. 1)。Peter Lombard (d. about 1150) takes up the authorities cited by Gratian and by means of them proves that "without confession there is no pardon" .彼得伦巴第(约1150 D.)占用Gratian,并通过他们引当局证明“没有表白,没有赦免”。.."no entrance into paradise" (IV Sent., d. XVII, 4, in PL, CXCII, 880-2).“没有进入天堂的入口”(第四发送,D.第十七4 PL,CXCII,880-2)。The principal debate, in which Hugh of St. Victor, Abelard, Robert Pullus, and Peter of Poitiers took the leading parts, concerned the origin and sanction of the obligation, and the value of the different Scriptural texts cited to prove the institution of penance.主要的辩论,其中圣维克多,阿伯拉尔,罗伯特Pullus,和彼得普瓦捷休了领先的部分,有关的起源和制裁的义务,和不同的经文的价值引证明机构的忏悔。 This question passed on to the thirteenth century and received its solution in very plain terms from St. Thomas Aquinas.这个问题转嫁到十三世纪,在很平淡多瑪斯的解决方案。Treating (Contra Gentes, IV, 72) of the necessity of penance and its parts, he shows that "the institution of confession was necessary in order that the sin of the penitent might be revealed to Christ's minister; hence the minister to whom the confession is made must have judicial power as representing Christ, the Judge of the living and the dead. This power again requires two things: authority of knowledge and power to absolve or to condemn. These are called the two keys of the Church which the Lord entrusted to Peter (Matthew 16:19). But they were not given to Peter to be held by him alone, but to be handed on through him to others; else sufficient provision would not have been made for the salvation of the faithful. These keys derive their efficacy from the passion of Christ whereby He opened to us the gate of the heavenly kingdom".治疗的忏悔和其零件的必要性(魂斗罗氏族,四,72),他显示了“供认机构是必要的,以该罪的忏悔可能被发现基督部长;因此部长对谁的表白必须有代表基督,活人与死人的法官的司法权,这股力量再次要求两件事情:。权威的知识和力量,以免除或谴责这些被称为教会的两个键,主委托彼得(马太福音16:19),但他们并没有给彼得由他单独举行,而是要通过他交给给他人,不会被其他人提供足够的忠实救赎这些键。来自基督的激情,让他开给我们的天国之门“的功效。 And he adds that as no one can be saved without baptism either by actual reception or by desire, so they who sin after baptism cannot be saved unless they submit to the keys of the Church either by actually confessing or by the resolve to confess when opportunity permits.和他补充说,因为没有人可以是没有的洗礼保存要么由实际接收或由欲望,他们谁洗礼后的罪可以不被保存,除非他们提出要么由实际忏悔或由教会的钥匙解决,以承认时的机会许可证。 Furthermore, as the rulers of the Church cannot dispense any one from baptism as a means of salvation neither can they give a dispensation whereby the sinner may be forgiven without confession and absolution.此外,作为教会的统治者不能免除任何手段的救恩从洗礼的人,既不是他们给可能不认罪和赦免的罪人一项赦免豁免。 The same explanation and reasoning is given by all the Scholastics of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.同样的解释和推理给出所有的scholastics在第十三和第十四世纪。They were in practical agreement as to the necessity of jurisdiction in the confessor.他们在实际协议管辖权的忏悔的必要性。 Regarding the time at which confession had to be made, some held with William of Auvergne that one was obliged to confess as soon as possible after sinning; others with Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas that it sufficed to confess within the time limits prescribed by the Church (Paschal Time); and this more lenient view finally prevailed.关于供认不得不作出的时刻,一些威廉与奥弗涅一个不得不承认犯罪的后尽快举行;阿尔伯图斯Magnus和圣托马斯他人,它足以承认的时间内限制的规定教会(逾越节时间);这种较为宽松的最终占了上风。 Further subjects of discussion during this period were the choice of confessor; the obligation of confessing before receiving other sacraments, especially the Eucharist; the integrity of confession; the obligation of secrecy on the part of the confessor, ie, the seal of confession.在此期间进一步讨论的议题是忏悔的选择;收到其他圣礼,尤其是圣体前请罪的义务;供认的完整性,保密义务的忏悔,即供认印章。 The careful and minute treatment of these points and the frank expression of divergent opinions were characteristic of the Schoolmen but they also brought out more clearly the central truths regarding penance and they opened the way to the conciliar pronouncements at Florence and Trent which gave to Catholic doctrine a more precise formulation.小心这些点和坦诚表达不同的意见和分钟的治疗Schoolmen特征,但他们同时也带来了更明确中央关于苦修的真理,他们开辟了道路,给天主教教义在佛罗伦萨和遄达conciliar的声明一个更精确的表述。 See Vacandard and Bernard in "Dict. de theol. cath.", sv Confession; Turmel, "Hist. de la theologie positive", Paris, 1904; Cambier, "De divina institutione confessionis sacramentalis", Louvain, 1884.看到Vacandard和Bernard区SV自白“快译通DE theol导管。”; Turmel,“组织胺DE LA神学积极的。”,巴黎,1904年; Cambier,“德divina institutione confessionis sacramentalis”,1884年,鲁汶。

Not only was the obligation recognized in the Catholic Church throughout the Middle Ages, but the schismatic Greeks held the same belief and still hold it.不仅是在整个中世纪的天主教会承认的义务,但分裂希腊人举行了相同的信念,仍持有。They fell into schism under Photius in 869, but retained confession, which therefore must have been in use for some time previous to the ninth century.在869下Photius他们陷入分裂,但保留了供述,因此必须在使用至第九世纪前一段时间。The practice, moreover, was regulated in detail by the Penitential Books (qv), which prescribed the canonical penance for each sin, and minute questions for the examination of the penitent.此外,实践中,详细规定的悔罪书(QV),其中规定每个罪规范的忏悔,并审查忏悔分钟的问题。The most famous of these books among the Greeks were those attributed to John the Faster and to John the Monk.希腊人之间的这些书,最有名的是那些由于约翰的速度越快,约翰和尚。In the West similar works were written by the Irish monks St. Columbanus (d. 615) and Cummian, and by the Englishmen Ven.在西方类似的作品被写了爱尔兰僧侣圣Columbanus(卒于615)和Cummian,由英国人法师。Bede (d. 735), Egbert (d. 767), and Theodore of Canterbury (d. 690).贝德(卒于735),埃格伯特(D. 767),和坎特伯雷西奥多(卒于690)。Besides the councils mentioned above (Minister) decrees pertaining to confession were enacted at Worms (868), Paris (820), Châlons (813, 650), Tours (813), Reims (1113).除了以上(部长)提到的议会法令颁布的有关供认蠕虫(868),巴黎(820),沙隆(813,650),旅游(813),兰斯(1113)。 The Council of Chaleuth (785) says: "if any one (which God forbid) should depart this life without penance or confession he is not to be prayed for". Chaleuth理事会(785)说:“如果任何一个(其中上帝保佑)应该没有苦修或忏悔离开这辈子他是不是要祈祷”。The significant feature about these enactments is that they do not introduce confession as a new practice, but take it for granted and regulate its administration.有关这些成文法的显著特点是,他们不引进一个新的实践表白,但想当然,并规范其管理。Hereby they put into practical effect what had been handed down by tradition.据此,他们把已转交由传统的实际效果。

St. Gregory the Great (d. 604) teaches "the affliction of penance is efficacious in blotting out sins when it is enjoined by the sentence of the priest when the burden of it is decided by him in proportion to the offence after weighing the deeds of those who confess" (In I Reg., III, v, n. 13 in PL, LXXIX, 207); Pope Leo the Great (440-61), who is often credited with the institution of confession, refers to it as an "Apostolic rule".圣格雷戈里大(D. 604)教“苦修的苦恼是有效的,在杂交时,它是由牧师的句子时,它的负担比例的罪行重的事迹后,他决定责成的罪孽那些承认“(在我注册,三,五,PL,LXXIX,207 N. 13。);教皇利奥大(440-61),往往是与供认机构进账,是指它作为“使徒规则”。Writing to the bishops of Campania he forbids as an abuse "contrary to the Apostolic rule" (contra apostolicam regulam) the reading out in public of a written statement of their sins drawn up by the faithful, because, he declares, "it suffices that the guilt of conscience be manifested to priests alone in secret confession" (Ep. clxviii in PL, LIV, 1210).他写的坎帕尼亚主教禁止滥用“违背使徒规则”(禁忌apostolicam regulam)阅读公众忠实制定了他们的罪孽的书面声明,因为,他宣称,“就足够了,表现为祭司单独秘密自白“(插曲clxviii在PL,LIV,1210)良心的罪责。 In another letter (Ep. cviii in PL, LIV, 1011), after declaring that by Divine ordinance the mercy of God can be obtained only through the supplications of the priests, he adds: "the mediator between God and men, Christ Jesus, gave the rulers of the Church this power that they should impose penance on those who confess and admit them when purified by salutary satisfaction to the communion of the sacraments through the gateway of reconciliation. "The earlier Fathers frequently speak of sin as a disease which needs treatment, something drastic, at the hands of the spiritual physician or surgeon.在另一封信(插曲cviii在PL,LIV,1011),后宣布神圣条例,只能通过祭司恳求得到神的怜悯,他补充说:“神和人之间的调停人,基督耶稣,给教会的统治者的这种权力,他们应该强加给那些承认和承认他们有益的满意纯化通过网关的和解共融的圣礼的忏悔。“较早的父亲经常罪作为一种疾病​​,需要发言治疗,大刀阔斧的东西,在精神医生或外科医生的手。 St. Augustine (d. 450) tells the sinner: "an abscess had formed in your conscience; it tormented you and gave you no rest. . . . confess, and in confession let the pus come out and flow away" (In ps. lxvi, n. 6).圣奥古斯丁(卒于450)告诉罪人:“在你的良心形成脓肿,它折磨着你,给了你没有休息承认,供认出来让脓液流走。。”(PS LXVI,注6)。St. Jerome (d. 420) comparing the priests of the New Law with those of the Old who decided between leprosy and leprosy, says: "likewise in the New Testament the bishops and the priest bind or loose . . . in virtue of their office", having heard various sorts of sinners, they know who is to be bound and who is to be loosed" . . . (In Matt., xvi, 19); in his "Sermon on Penance" he says: "let no one find it irksome to show his wound vulnus confiteri) because without confession it cannot be healed." St. Ambrose (d. 397): "this right (of loosing and binding) has been conferred on priests only" (De pen., I, ii, n. 7); St. Basil (d. 397): "As men do not make known their bodily ailments to anybody and everybody, but only to those who are skilled in healing, so confession of sin ought to be made to those who can cure it" (Reg. brevior., 229).圣杰罗姆(卒于420)岁的麻风病和麻风病之间的决定与新的法律祭司,说:“同样在新约中的主教和牧师结合或松散凭借其办公室“,在听取各种罪人,他们知道谁是要绑定的,谁是被松动”(在马特,十六,19);在他的“忏悔讲道”,他说:。。“没有让一个发现它令人侧目,以显示他的伤口vulnus confiteri),因为它没有供认无法愈合的“圣刘汉铨(D. 397):”这一权利(松动和有约束力的的)一直在祭司赋予唯一的“(德笔,。 I,II,7);圣罗勒(卒于397):“正如男人不知道他们的身体疾病任何人,每个人都,但只有那些熟练的愈合,所以认罪应该那些可治“(注册brevior,229)。

For those who sought to escape the obligation of confession it was natural enough to assert that repentance was the affair of the soul alone with its Maker, and that no intermediary was needed.对于那些试图逃跑的供述义务,这是自然足以断言悔改的灵魂与它的制造者的内政,没有中介,需要。It is this pretext that St. Augustine sweeps aside in one of his sermons: "Let no one say I do penance secretly; I perform it in the sight of God, and He who is to pardon me knows that in my heart I repent".这是以此为借口,圣奥古斯丁扫描一边在他的讲道:“没有人说我偷偷做的忏悔,我在神的眼中,它执行,他是谁对不起的人都知道,在我的心脏我悔改” 。Whereupon St. Augustine asks: "Was it then said to no purpose, 'What you shall loose upon earth shall be loosed in heaven?'届时圣奥古斯丁问:“然后是它没有任何意义,说”你应松在地球上的松动应在天上?“Was it for nothing that the keys were given to the Church?"是什么,关键是给教会?“(Sermo cccxcii, n. 3, in PL, XXXIX, 1711).(Sermo cccxcii,N. 3,在PL,XXXIX,1711)。The Fathers, of course, do not deny that sin must be confessed to God; at times, indeed, in exhorting the faithful to confess, they make no mention of the priest; but such passages must be taken in connection with the general teaching of the Fathers and with the traditional belief of the Church.父亲,当然,不否认罪必须承认上帝的确,有时,在劝勉信徒承认,他们没有提到的牧师,但这些经文必须采取与一般教学与传统信仰的教会的神父。 Their real meaning is expressed, eg, by Anastasius Sinaita (seventh century): "Confess your sins to Christ through the priest" (De sacra synaxi), and by Egbert, Archbishop of York (d. 766): "Let the sinner confess his evil deeds to God, that the priest may know what penance to impose" (Mansi, Coll. Conc., XII, 232).他们表达的真正含义是,例如,由阿纳斯塔修斯Sinaita(七世纪):“承认你的罪,基督的祭司”(萨克拉synaxi),埃格伯特,约克大主教(卒于766):“让罪人忏悔他的劣迹上帝,牧师可能知道苦修施以“(曼西,科尔。浓,第十二章,232)。 For the passages in St. John Chrysostom, see Hurter, "Theol. dogmat.", III, 454; Pesch, "Praelectiones", VII, 165.就在圣约翰金口的通道,看到Hurter,Theol dogmat“,三,454;佩施,”Praelectiones“,第七,有165个。

The Fathers, knowing well that one great difficulty which the sinner has to overcome is shame, encourage him in spite of it to confess.父亲,知道一个伟大的罪人克服的困难是“耻辱”,鼓励他,尽管它承认。"I appeal to you, my brethren", says St. Pacian (d. 391), ". . . you who are not ashamed to sin and yet are ashamed to confess . . . I beseech you, cease to hide your wounded conscience. Sick people who are prudent do not fear the physician, though he cut and burn even the secret parts of the body" (Paraenesis ad poenit., n. 6, 8). “我呼吁你们,我的弟兄们”,说圣Pacian(卒于391),“。。你不以为耻罪,但都羞于承认。。我求求你,不再隐藏自己的受伤的良心。审慎有病的人不要害怕医生,虽然他削减和烧伤甚至身体的秘密“(Paraenesis广告poenit,N. 6,8)。St. John Chrysostom (d. 347) pleads eloquently with the sinner: "Be not ashamed to approach (the priest) because you have sinned, nay rather, for this very reason approach. No one says: Because I have an ulcer, I will not go near a physician or take medicine; on the contrary, it is just this that makes it needful to call in physicians and apply remedies. We (priests) know well how to pardon, because we ourselves are liable to sin. This is why God did not give us angels to be our doctors, nor send down Gabriel to rule the flock, but from the fold itself he chooses the shepherds, from among the sheep He appoints the leader, in order that he may be inclined to pardon his followers and, keeping in mind his own fault, may not set himself in hardness against the members of the flock" (Hom. "On Frequent Assembly" in PG, LXIII, 463).圣约翰金口(四347)罪人雄辩地恳求:“不以为耻的方法(牧师),因为你已经犯了罪,不仅如此,而这个原因的方法,没有人说:因为我有一个溃疡,我不会去附近的医生或吃药;相反,它仅仅是,它使needful呼吁医师和采取补救方法,我们(祭司)以及知道如何宽恕,因为我们自己被判罪这是 。为什么上帝没有给我们的天使,是我们医生,也不发送加布里埃尔规则羊群,但褶皱本身,他选择的牧羊人,为了从他任命的领导者之间的羊,他可能会倾向于原谅他追随者,并牢记自己的过错,可以不设置硬度对自己的羊群“(Hom.”频繁大会在PG,LXIII,463“)。

Tertullian had already used the same argument with those who, for fear of exposing their sins, put off their confession from day to day -- "mindful more of their shame than of their salvation, like those who hide from the physician the malady they suffer in the secret parts of the body, and thus perish through bashfulness. . . . because we withhold anything from the knowledge of men, do we thereby conceal it from God? . . . Is it better to hide and be damned than to be openly absolved?"德尔图良已经与那些人,害怕暴露自己的罪孽,他们供认从日常使用的相同的参数 - “铭记他们的耻辱像那些从医生隐藏他们遭受的弊病超过他们的得救,在身体的秘密部分,从而通过臊灭亡。。因为我们拒绝任何从人的知识,我们从而隐瞒神?。。是更好地隐藏和被诅咒比公开赦免?“ ("De poenit.", x). (“德poenit。”,X)。St. Cyprian (d. 258) pleads for greater mildness in the treatment of sinners, "since we find that no one ought to be forbidden to do penance and that to those who implore the mercy of God peace can be granted through His priests. . . . And because in hell there is no confession, nor can exomologesis be made there, they who repent with their whole heart and ask for it, should be received into the Church and therein saved unto the Lord" (Ep. lv, "Ad Antonian.", n. 29).圣塞浦路斯(卒于258)恳求更加温和治疗的罪人“,因为我们发现,没有人应该被禁止做的忏悔,并恳求上帝和平的怜悯那些可以通过授予他的祭司。 而且,因为在地狱里有没有表白,也可以exomologesis在那里,他们悔改与他们的整个心脏,并要求它应该接收到教会,其中保存献给耶和华“(插曲LV,”广告Antonian“,注29)。 Elsewhere he says that many who do not do penance or confess their guilt are filled with unclean spirits; and by contrast he praises the greater faith and more wholesome fear of those who, though not guilty of any idolatrous action, "nevertheless, because they thought of [such action], confess [their thought] in sorrow and simplicity to the priests of God, make the exomologesis of their conscience, lay bare the burden of their soul, and seek a salutary remedy even for wounds that are slight" ("De lapsis", xxvi sqq.).他在别处说,许多谁不这样做的忏悔,或交代自己的内疚与污秽的灵充满,相反,他称赞更大的信心和更有益健康,虽然没有犯任何偶像崇拜的行动,“不过,因为他们认为这些担心[这样的行动,承认他们的思想]在悲伤和简单的神的祭司,使自己的良心exomologesis“,道破了他们的灵魂的负担,即使是轻微的伤口,并寻求一个有益的补救”(“德lapsis“,XXVI SQQ)。Origen (d. 154) compares the sinner to those whose stomachs are overloaded with undigested food or with excess of humours and phlegm if they vomit, they are relieved, "so, too, those who have sinned, if they conceal and keep the sin within, they are distressed and almost choked by its humour or phlegm. But if they accuse themselves and confess, they at the same time vomit the sin and cast off every cause of disease" (Homil. on Ps. xxxvii, n. 6, in PG, XII, 1386).奥利(154 D.)比较罪人与未消化的食物,或与过量的体液和化痰超载的肚子,如果他们呕吐,他们都松了一口气,“所以,太,那些犯了罪,如果他们隐瞒和保留的罪内,他们痛心和其幽默或痰几乎哽咽,但如果他们指责自己承认,他们在同一时间吐的罪,摆脱所有的病因“(PS Homil.三十七,12月31日6。在PG,第十二,1386)。St. Irenæus (130-102) relates the case of certain women whom the Gnostic Marcus had led into sin.圣irenæus(130-102)与诺斯底马库斯堕入罪恶领导的某些妇女的案件。"Some of them", he says, "perform their exomologesis openly also [etiam in manifesto], while others, afraid to do this, draw back in silence, despairing to regain the life of God" ("Adv. haer.", I, xiii, 7, in PG, VII, 591). “有些”,他说,“履行自己的exomologesis也公开[etiam宣言],而其他人,恐怕要做到这一点,退缩沉默,绝望,恢复神的生命”(“ADV。haer。”我,十三,7,PG,第七,591)。 This etiam in manifesto suggests at least that they had confessed privately, but could not bring themselves to make a public confession.这个宣言etiam表明,至少,他们私下承认,但不能把自己作出公开的供认。The advantage of confession as against the concealment of sin is shown in the words of St. Clement of Rome in his letter to the Corinthians: "It is better for a man to confess his sins than to harden his heart" (Ep. I, "Ad Cor.", li, 1).对隐瞒罪认罪的优势是在他的信给哥林多教会的圣克莱门特的罗马字:“这是一个人更好地承认他的罪比硬化,他的心脏”(插曲我, “广告心病。”李,1)。

This outline of the patristic teaching shows:这教父的教学纲要显示:

that the Fathers insisted on a manifestation of sin as the necessary means of unburdening the soul and regaining the friendship of God; ,父亲坚持一个罪恶的unburdening的灵魂和恢复上帝的友谊的必要手段的体现;

that the confession was to be made not to a layman but to priests;供认是一个门外汉,但不给神父们的;

that priests exercise the power of absolving in virtue of a Divine commission, ie, as representatives of Christ;神职人员行使权力,作为基督的代表在一个神圣的佣金,即凭借开脱;

that the sinner, if he would be saved, must overcome his shame and repugnance to confession.罪人,如果他将被保存,必须克服他的耻辱忏悔和反感。

And since the series of witnesses goes back to the latter part of the first century, the practice of confession must have existed from the earliest days.以来的一系列证人追溯到的第一个世纪的后半部分,认罪的做法必须已经存在,从最早的日子。St. Leo had good reason for appealing to the "Apostolic rule" which made secret confession to the priest sufficient without the necessity of a public declaration.圣利奥呼吁秘密供认足够的教士没有公开宣布的必要性“使徒规则”的很好的理由。Nor is it surprising that Lactantius (dc 330) should have pointed to the practice of confession as a characteristic of the true Church: "That is the true Church in which there is confession and penance, which applies a wholesome remedy to the sins and wounds whereunto the weakness of the flesh is subject" ("Div. lnst.", IV, 30).它也不是奇怪,拉克唐修(330直流)已供认作为一个真正的教会的特点的实践指出:“这是真正的教会,其中有坦白和忏悔,适用于一个健康的罪恶和创伤的补救谨此肉体的弱点是受“(”DIV。lnst。“四,30)。

WHAT SINS ARE TO BE CONFESSED什么罪过是承认

Among the propositions condemned by the Council of Trent is the following: "That to obtain forgiveness of sins in the Sacrament of Penance, it is not necessary by Divine law to confess each and every mortal sin which is called to mind by due and careful examination, to confess even hidden sins and those that are against the last two precepts of the Decalogue, together with the circumstances that change the specific nature of the sin; such confession is only useful for the instruction and consolation of the penitent, and of old was practised merely in order to impose canonical satisfaction" (Can de poenit., vii).在谴责安理会的遄达命题是:“在忏悔圣事,要获得罪的赦免,这是不神圣的法律要承认,经审慎及仔细检查每一个弥天大罪,这就是所谓想到,承认甚至是隐藏的罪恶和那些对十诫的最后两个戒律,连同罪的具体性质的情况下,改变这样的表白是有用的指导和安慰的忏悔,和老练习只是为了强加规范的满意度“(可以poenit,七)。 The Catholic teaching consequently is: that all mortal sins must be confessed of which the penitent is conscious, for these are so related that noone of them can be remitted until all are remitted.天主教教学的结果是:必须承认的忏悔意识的这些,都是如此相关,他们没有一个人可以汇往直到所有汇入所有凡人的罪过。 Remission means that the soul is restored to the friendship of God; and this is obviously impossible if there remain unforgiven even a single mortal sin.减免意味着灵魂是恢复到神的友谊,这显然是不可能的的,如果仍然存在不可饶恕甚至一个单一的弥天大罪。Hence, the penitent, who in confession willfully conceals a mortal sin, derives no benefit whatever; on the contrary, he makes void the sacrament and thereby incurs the guilt of sacrilege.因此,忏悔,供认故意掩盖了弥天大罪,派生的任何好处,相反,他不管;圣餐无效,从而招致亵渎有罪。If, however, the sin be omitted, not through any fault of the penitent, but through forgetfulness, it is forgiven indirectly; but it must be declared at the next confession and thus submitted to the power of the keys.但是,如果罪省略,不通过任何过错的忏悔,而是通过健忘,这是情有可原间接,但它必须宣布在未来的供述,从而提交的电源键。

While mortal sin is the necessary matter of confession, venial sin is sufficient matter, as are also the mortal sins already forgiven in previous confessions.弥天大罪认罪的必要事项,venial单是足够的问题,作为凡人的罪过也已经原谅了以前的口供。This is the common teaching of theologians, in accord with the condemnation pronounced by Leo X on Luther's assertion, 'By no means presume to confess venial sins .这是共同教学的神学家,在符合发音利奥十路德的说法,相信绝不承认venial罪孽“的谴责。..in the primitive Church only manifest mortal sins were confessed" (Bull, "Exurge Domine"; Denzinger, "Enchir.", 748). In the constitution "Inter cunctas" (17 Feb., 1304), Benedict XI, after stating that penitents who had confessed to a priest belonging to a religious order are not obliged to reiterate the confession to their own priest, adds: "Though it is not necessary to confess the same sins over again, nevertheless we regard it as salutary to repeat the confession, because of the shame it involves, which is a great part of penance; hence we strictly enjoin the Brothers (Dominicans and Franciscans] to admonish their penitents and in sermons 'exhort them that they confess to their own priests at least once a year, assuring them that this will undoubtedly conduce to their spiritual welfare" (Denzinger, "Enchir.", 470). St. Thomas gives the same reason for this practice: the oftener one confesses the more is the (temporal) penalty reduced; hence one might confess over and over again until the whole penalty is cancelled, nor would he thereby offer any injury to the sacrament" (IV Sent., d. xvii, q. 3, sol. 5 ad 4).在原始教会只有清单致命的罪过供认不讳“(牛,”Exurge Domine“;登青格”。Enchir“,748)。”间cunctas“(2月17日,1304),本笃十一,在宪法后说明曾供认属于一个宗教秩序的一个牧师的忏悔是没有义务重申供述自己的牧师补充说:“虽然这是没有必要承认一遍同样的罪,不过,我们把它作为有益的重复的自白,因为它涉及的耻辱,这是一个苦修的很大一部分,因此,我们严格责成兄弟(多米尼加和方济各会告诫他们悔罪,并叮咛他们在布道“,他们承认自己的牧师,每年至少举行一次,保证,这无疑将有助于他们的精神福利“(登青格,”。Enchir“,470)圣托马斯给人的这种做法同样的原因:oftener之一交代更是(时间)的罚款减少,因此可能承认一遍,直到整个的处罚是取消,他也不会因此提供任何伤害圣餐“(四发送,四十七,问:3,溶胶广告4)。

SATISFACTION满意度

As stated above, the absolution given by the priest to a penitent who confesses his sins with the proper dispositions remits both the guilt and the eternal punishment (of mortal sin).如上所述,由牧师给一个交代与妥善处置他的罪过的忏悔免除汇款内疚和永恒的惩罚(弥天大罪)。There remains, however, some indebtedness to Divine justice which must be cancelled here or hereafter (see PURGATORY).然而,仍然有一些神圣的正义必须取消或以后(见炼狱)的债务。In order to have it cancelled here, the penitent receives from his confessor what is usually called his "penance", usually in the form of certain prayers which he is to say, or of certain actions which he is to perform, such as visits to a church, the Stations of the Cross, etc. Alms, deeds, fasting, and prayer are the chief means of satisfaction, but other penitential works may also be enjoined.为了取消在这里,忏悔收到什么是通常被称为他的“赎罪”,通常是在一定的祈祷,他是说的形式,或者他是执行某些操作,如来访问,从他的忏悔一个十字架的教堂,车站,等施舍,事迹,禁食,并祈祷的满意度的主要手段,但也可以责成其他悔罪工程。 The quality and extent of the penance is determined by the confessor according to the nature of the sins revealed, the special circumstances of the penitent, his liability to relapse, and the need of eradicating evil habits.据透露罪的性质决定的质量和程度的苦修忏悔的忏悔,他复发的责任,并需要消除坏习惯的特殊情况。Sometimes the penance is such that it may be performed at once; in other cases it may require a more or less considerable period, as, eg, where it is prescribed for each day during a week or a month.有时苦修的是,它可能是在一次执行;在其他情况下可能需要更多或更少相当的时期,作为,例如,它是每天在一个星期或一个月规定。 But even then the penitent may receive another sacrament (eg, Holy Communion) immediately after confession, since absolution restores him to the state of grace.但即使这样的忏悔,可能会收到另一个圣餐后,立即供认(例如,圣餐),因为赦免,恢复他的国家的宽限期。He is nevertheless under obligation to continue the performance of his penance until it is completed.不过他有义务继续表现他的苦修,直到完成。

In theological language, this penance is called satisfaction and is defined, in the words of St. Thomas: "The payment of the temporal punishment due on account of the offence committed against God by sin" (Suppl. to Summa, Q. xii, a. 3).苦修神学语言,这被称为满意,被定义,在圣托马斯的话:“支付的时间处罚,由于对上帝的罪所犯下的罪行”(增刊大全,问:第十二, A. 3)。It is an act of justice whereby the injury done to the honour of God is required, so far at least as the sinner is able to make reparation (poena vindicativa) ; it is also a preventive remedy, inasmuch as it is meant to hinder the further commission of sin (poena medicinalis).这是一个正义之举,即神的荣誉的伤害是必需的,到目前为止,至少罪人能够作出赔偿(无明文不vindicativa);它也是预防的补救办法,因为它是阻碍进一步委员会(无明文不medicinalis)罪。 Satisfaction is not, like contrition and confession, an essential part of the sacrament, because the primary effect, ie, remission of guilt and eternal punishment -- is obtained without satisfaction; but it is an integral part, because it is requisite for obtaining the secondary effect -- ie, remission of the temporal punishment.的满意度不一样,悔悟和忏悔,圣餐的一个重要组成部分,因为无满意取得的主要作用,即缓解内疚和永恒的惩罚 - 但它是一个组成部分,因为它是必要的取得二次效应 - 即缓解颞处罚。The Catholic doctrine on this point is set forth by the Council of Trent, which condemns the proposition: "That the entire punishment is always remitted by God together with the guilt, and the satisfaction required of penitents is no other than faith whereby they believe that Christ has satisfied for them"; and further the proposition: "That the keys were given to the Church for loosing only and not for binding as well; that therefore in enjoining penance on those who confess, priests act contrary to the purpose of the keys and the institution of Christ; that it is a fiction [to say] that after the eternal punishment has been remitted in virtue of the keys, there usually remains to be paid a temporal penalty" (Can. "de Sac. poenit.", 12, 15; Denzinger, "Enchir.", 922, 925).天主教教义在这一点上是阐明安理会的遄达,谴责命题:“整个的惩罚总是汇神与有罪,并悔罪需要的满意是没有其他比信仰,使他们相信,基督已经为他们感到满意“,并进一步主张:”这两把钥匙以及具有约束力的,而不是失去教会,因此,责令谁承认的忏悔,牧师违背键的目的和基督的机构,它是一个虚构的[说],永恒的惩罚后已汇往凭借键,通常仍然要付出时间的惩罚“(Can.”脱囊poenit“。。 12,15;“。Enchir”登青格,922,925)。As against the errors contained in these statements, the Council (Sess. XIV, c. viii) cites conspicuous examples from Holy Scripture.至于对这些语句中的错误,理事会(Sess.十四,C.八)引用圣经的突出例子。The most notable of these is the judgment pronounced upon David: "And Nathan said to David: the Lord also hath taken away thy sin: thou shalt not die. Nevertheless, because thou hast given occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, for this thing, the child that is born to thee, shall surely die" (2 Samuel 12:13, 14; cf. Genesis 3:17; Numbers 20:11 sqq.).其中最值得注意的是,判决宣判后,大卫:“弥敦道对大卫说:主也祂所带走你的罪,你不可死不过,因为你赐给场合亵渎耶和华的敌人,这件事情,就是向你出生的孩子,必死亡“(2塞缪尔12时13分,14个;比照创世记3:17;。号20点11 SQQ)。David's sin was forgiven and yet he had to suffer punishment in the loss of his child.大卫的罪被赦免,但他必须在失去他的孩子遭受的惩罚。The same truth is taught by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 11:32): "But whilst we are judged, we are chastised by the Lord, that we be not condemned with this world".圣保罗(1哥林多前书11时32)不变的真理教:“不过,虽然我们判断,我们严厉谴责主,我们不会与这个世界的谴责”。 The chastisement here mentioned is a temporal punishment, but a punishment unto Salvation.这里提到的惩罚是一个时间的处罚,但得救的惩罚。

"Of all the parts of penance", says the Council of Trent (loc. cit.), "satisfaction was constantly recommended to the Christian people by our Fathers". “苦修”,说,安理会的遄达(如上),“满意度不断建议我们祖先的基督教的人”。This the Reformers themselves admitted.这改革者自己承认。Calvin (Instit., III, iv, 38) says he makes little account of what the ancient writings contain in regard to satisfaction because "nearly all whose books are extant went astray on this point or spoke too severely".卡尔文(Instit.,三,四,38)说,他很少考虑什么古代著作方面的满意度包含,因为“几乎所有的书是现存误入歧途这一点上,或给予过于严苛”。 Chemnitius ("Examen C. Trident.", 4) acknowledges that Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose, and Augustine extolled the value of penitential works; and Flacius Illyricus, in the "Centuries", has a long list of Fathers and early writers who, as he admits, bear witness to the doctrine of satisfaction.Chemnitius(“。Examen C.”三叉戟“,4)承认,良,塞浦路斯,刘汉铨,和奥古斯丁赞扬悔罪作品的价值; Flacius Illyricus在”世纪“,父亲和早期作家的一个长长的清单,他承认,见证了满意的学说。Some of the texts already cited (Confession) expressly mention satisfaction as a part of sacramental penance.一些已经列举文本(自白)明确提到满意作为圣事的忏悔的一部分。To these may be added St. Augustine, who says that "Man is forced to suffer even after his sins are forgiven, though it was sin that brought down on him this penalty. For the punishment outlasts the guilt, lest the guilt should be thought slight if with its forgiveness the punishment also came to an end" (Tract. cxxiv, "In Joann.", n. 5, in PL, XXXV, 1972); St. Ambrose: "So efficacious is the medicine of penance that [in view of it] God seems to revoke His sentence" ("De poenit.", 1, 2, c. vi, n. 48, in PL, XVI, 509); Caesarius of Arles: "If in tribulation we give not thanks to God nor redeem our faults by good works, we shall be detained in the fire of purgatory until our slightest sins are burned away like wood or straw" (Sermo civ, n. 4).这些可能是加圣奥古斯丁,他说,“人是被迫忍受,甚至他的罪被赦免后,虽然它是罪,他带来了这个点球。处罚outlasts有罪,以免有罪应认为如果与它的宽恕的处罚轻微也走到了尽头“(Tract. cxxiv,”乔安“,注5,PL,第三十五卷,1972年,圣刘汉铨):”那么灵验苦修药[在它的上帝似乎撤销他的判决“(”德poenit。“,1,2,六,C. N. 48,PL,十六,509); Caesarius阿尔勒:”如果我们在患难中给不感谢上帝,也没有赎回的优秀作品我们的缺点,我们应被关押在炼狱之火烧毁了,直到我们丝毫罪孽像木头或稻草“(Sermo CIV,4)。Among the motives for doing penance on which the Fathers most frequently insist is this: If you punish your own sin, God will spare you; but in any case the sin will not go unpunished.苦修的父亲最经常坚持这样做的动机之一是这样的:如果上帝会惩罚你自己的罪过,饶你,但在任何情况下的罪恶不会逍遥法外。 Or again they declare that God wants us to perform satisfaction in order that we may clear off our indebtedness to His justice.他们再次宣布,上帝要我们执行秩序的满意度,我们可以明确我们的债务,他的公义。It is therefore with good reason that the earlier councils -- eg, Laodicaea (AD 372) and Carthage IV (397) -- teach that satisfaction is to be imposed on penitents; and the Council of Trent but reiterates the traditional belief and practice when it makes the giving of "penance" obligatory on the confessor.它有很好的理由,因此,早期的议会 - 例如,Laodicaea(公元372)和迦太基(397)IV - 教的满意就是要施加悔罪;和安理会的遄达,但重申传统的信仰和实践时它使得给予强制性的忏悔的“赎罪”。Hence, too, the practice of granting indulgences, whereby the Church comes to the penitent's assistance and places at his disposal the treasury of Christ's merits.因此,也给予的宽容,教会忏悔的援助和地方国库基督的优点在他的处置,实践。Though closely connected with penance, indulgences are not a part of the sacrament; they presuppose confession and absolution, and are properly called an extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment incurred by sin.虽然紧密相连,与苦修放纵是不是圣餐的一部分,他们的前提忏悔和赦免,并妥善称为颞处罚罪所产生的额外圣礼缓解。(See INDULGENCES.)(见放纵。)

SEAL OF CONFESSION供述密封

Regarding the sins revealed to him in sacramental confession, the priest is bound to inviolable secrecy.有关的罪圣礼供认他透露,牧师势必不可侵犯的保密。From this obligation he cannot be excused either to save his own life or good name, to save the life of another, to further the ends of human justice, or to avert any public calamity.从这一义务,他不能原谅他自己的生活还是不错的名称保存,保存的另一种生活,进一步对人类正义的两端,或避免任何公共灾难。 No law can compel him to divulge the sins confessed to him, or any oath which he takes -- eg, as a witness in court.任何法律都不能迫使他透露作为证人在法庭上供认他的罪孽,或任何他的誓言 - 例如,。He cannot reveal them either directly -- ie, by repeating them in so many words -- or indirectly -- ie, by any sign or action, or by giving information based on what he knows through confession.他不能透露他们直接 - 也就是说,在这么多的话重复 - 或间接 - 即任何迹象或行动,或给基于他通过供认知道的信息。The only possible release from the obligation of secrecy is the permission to speak of the sins given freely and formally by the penitent himself.唯一可能释放的保密义务的权限,发言的自由,并正式忏悔自己的罪孽。 Without such permission, the violation of the seal of confession would not only be a grievous sin, but also a sacrilege.如果没有这样的许可,违反供认印章,不仅是一个严重的罪过,但也是一种亵渎。It would be contrary to the natural law because it would be an abuse of the penitent's confidence and an injury, very serious perhaps, to his reputation.这将是违背自然法,因为这将是一个忏悔的信心的虐待和伤害,很严重,也许,他的名声。It would also violate the Divine law, which, while imposing the obligation to confess, likewise forbids the revelation of that which is confessed.这也违反了神圣的法律,而强加的义务承认,同样禁止的启示,这是事实供认不讳。 That it would infringe ecclesiastical law is evident from the strict prohibition and the severe penalties enacted in this matter by the Church.它将侵犯教会法是显而易见的,从严格禁止和教会在这个问题上制定了严厉的处罚。 "Let him beware of betraying the sinner by word or sign or in any other way whatsoever. . . we decree that he who dares to reveal a sin made known to him in the tribunal of penance shall not only be deposed from the priestly office, but shall moreover be subjected to close confinement in a monastery and the performance of perpetual penance" (Fourth Lateran Council, cap. xxi; Denzinger, "Enchir.", 438). “让他提防背叛单词或符号的罪人,或在其他任何方式任何。。我们的法令,他敢于揭示一种罪过知道他在法庭的忏悔,不得只被废黜从祭司办公室,但应当此外受到密切禁闭在一个修道院和永久忏悔的表现“(第四次拉特兰会议,第XXI。登青格”。Enchir“,438)。 Furthermore, by a decree of the Holy Office (18 Nov., 1682), confessors are forbidden, even where there would be no revelation direct or indirect, to make any use of the knowledge obtained in confession that would displease the penitent, even though the non-use would occasion him greater displeasure.此外,由罗马教廷办公室的法令,1682年)11月(18,忏悔是禁止的,即使有没有直接或间接的启示,使任何使用的忏悔,那将得罪忏悔获得的知识,即使不使用场合他更大的不满。

These prohibitions, aswell as the general obligation of secrecy, apply only to what the confessor learns through confession made as part of the sacrament.这些禁令,以及保密义务,仅适用于通过圣餐的一部分作出的供认学习什么忏悔。He is not bound by the seal as regards what may be told him by a person who, he is sure, has no intention of making a sacramental confession but merely speaks to him "in confidence"; prudence, however, may impose silence concerning what he learns in this way.至于什么可以告诉他一个人的人,他是肯定他是不是密封的约束,无意作出圣礼供认,而只是说他“有信心”;谨慎,然而,关于什么可以并处沉默他学会这种方式。 Nor does the obligation of the seal prevent the confessor from speaking of things which he has learned outside confession, though the same things have also been told him in confession; here again, however, other reasons may oblige him to observe secrecy.密封的义务,也没有防止讲他学到的东西外供述的忏悔,虽然同样的事情也有人告诉他在忏悔;在这里,但是其他的原因,可能迫使他遵守保密。 The same obligation, with the limitations indicated, rests upon all those who in one way or another acquire a knowledge of what is said in confession, eg, an interpreter who translates for the priest the words of the penitent, a person who either accidentally or intentionally overhears the confession, an ecclesiastical superior (eg, a bishop) to whom the confessor applies for authorization to absolve the penitent from a reserved case.同样的义务,表示的局限性,在于呼吁所有这些,在这种或那种方式获取知识是什么供认说,例如,翻译转换为牧师的忏悔的话,一个人谁或无意有意偷听的供述,一个教会的优越(例如,一位主教),他们的忏悔授权,适用于保留的情况下免除的忏悔。 Even the penitent, according to some theologians, is bound to secrecy; but the more general opinion leaves him free; as he can authorize the confessor to speak of what he has confessed, he can also, of his own accord, speak to others.根据一些神学家,即使是忏悔,是必然要保密;但更普遍的看法让他自由,他可以授权的忏悔发言,他已经承认,他还可以,自己给别人说话。 But he is obliged to take care that what he reveals shall cast no blame or suspicion on the confessor, since the latter cannot defend himself.但他有责任照顾他透露,应投上的忏悔没有指责或怀疑,因为后者无法为自己辩护。 In a word, it is more in keeping with the intention of the Church and with the reverence due to the sacrament that the penitent himself should refrain from speaking of his confession.总之,它是在教会的意图和崇敬由于圣餐,忏悔自己不要讲他的供词。Such, undoubtedly, was the motive that prompted St. Leo to condemn the practice of letting the penitent read in public a written statement of his sins (see above); and it needs scarcely be added that the Church, while recognizing the validity of public confession, by no means requires it; as the Council of Trent declares, it would be imprudent to prescribe such a confession by any human enactment. ,无疑的动机,促使圣利奥谴责,让市民对他的罪过的书面声明(见上文)的忏悔读的做法;它需要几乎被加入教会,同时也认识到公众的有效性供述,绝不需要,作为安理会的遄达声明,这将是轻率的订明任何人的颁布这样的表白。 (For provisions of the civil law regarding this matter, see SEAL OF CONFESSION.) (关于此事的民事法律的规定,见封表白。)

PUBLIC PENANCE公开忏悔

An undeniable proof both of the practice of confession and of the necessity of satisfaction is found in the usage of the early Church according to which severe and often prolonged penance was prescribed and performed.一个不可否认的证明供认的实践和满意度的必要性发现在早期教会使用,根据该规定严重和经常长时间的苦修和执行。 The elaborate system of penance exhibited in the "Penitentials" and conciliar decrees, referred to above, was of course the outcome of a long development; but it simply expressed in greater detail the principles and the general attitude towards sin and satisfaction which had prevailed from the beginning.阐述系统的忏悔“Penitentials”,并展出conciliar的法令,上面提到的,当然是一个漫长的发展成果,但它只是在更详细的原则和对罪的一般态度和满意度普遍表示开始。 Frequently enough the latter statutes refer to the earlier practice either in explicit terms or by reiterating what had been enacted long before.足够频繁后者的章程,是指以往的做法,无论是在明确或重申很久以前已颁布。 At times, also, they allude to documents which were then extant, but which have not yet come down to us, eg, the libellus mentioned in the African synods of 251 and 255 as containing singula capitum placita, ie, the details of previous legislation (St. Cyprian, Ep. xxi).有时,同时,他们提到的文件,然后现存的,但尚未下来给我们,例如,在非洲主教会议的251和255中提到的含有singula capitum placita,即先前法例的细节libellus (圣塞浦路斯,EP。XXI)。Or again, they point to a system of penance that was already in operation and needed only to be applied to particular cases, like that of the Corinthians to whom Clement of Rome wrote his First Epistle about AD 96, exhorting them: "Be subject in obedience to the priests (presbyteris) and receive discipline [correctionem) unto penance, bending the knees of your hearts" (Ep. I "Ad Cor.", lvii).或再次,他们已经在运作和哥林多人一样,适用于特定情况下只需要一个系统的忏悔人克莱门特的罗马写下了他的第一书信,约公元96告诫他们:“受服从祭司(presbyteris)和接收纪律[correctionem你们的忏悔),你的心“(插曲我”的广告心病。“LVII)膝盖弯曲。 At the close, therefore, of the first century, the performance of penance was required, and the nature of that penance was determined, not by the penitent himself, but by ecclesiastical authority.因此,截至收盘,第一世纪,苦修的性能要求,并苦修的性质确定,忏悔自己没有,但教会的权威。(See EXCOMMUNICATION.) (见逐出教会。)

Three kinds of penance are to be distinguished canonical, prescribed by councils or bishops in the form of "canons" for graver offences. 3种苦修来加以区分规范,由议会或主教在“大炮”更严重的罪行的形式规定。This might be either private, ie, performed secretly or public ie, performed in the presence of bishop, clergy and people.这可能是私人的,即暗中或公共的,即执行,执行中存在的主教,神职人员和人民。When accompanied by certain rites as prescribed in the Canons, it was solemn penance.当伴随着的大炮所规定的某些仪式,这是庄严的忏悔。The public penance was not necessarily canonical; it might be undertaken by the penitent of his own accord.公开忏悔是没有一定的规范,它可能是由他自己的忏悔承诺。Solemn penance, the most severe of all, was inflicted for the worst offences only, notably for adultery, murder, and idolatry, the "capital sins".庄严的苦修,所有最严重的,造成的最坏的罪行只,特别是通奸,谋杀,和偶像崇拜,“资本的罪孽”。The name of penitent was applied especially to those who performed public canonical penance.尤其是那些执行公共规范的忏悔忏悔名称应用。"There is a harder and more grievous penance, the doers of which are properly called in the Church penitents; they are excluded from participation in the sacraments of the altar, lest by unworthily receiving they eat and drink judgment unto themselves "(St. Augustine, "De utilitate agendae poenit.", ser. cccxxxii, c. iii). “有一个困难和更严重的的苦修,其中呼吁教会悔罪的实干家;他们被排除在参与祭坛的圣礼,以免被混迹接收他们吃,喝你们自己的判断,”(圣奥古斯丁,“德utilitate agendae poenit”。cccxxxii辑,C. III)。

The penitential process included a series of acts, the first of which was confession.悔罪过程包括一系列的行为,其中第一个是表白。Regarding this, Origen, after speaking of baptism, tells us: "There is a yet more severe and arduous pardon of sins by penance, when the sinner washes his couch with tears, and when he blushes not to disclose his sin to the priest of the Lord and seeks the remedy" (Homil. "In Levit.", ii, 4, in PG, XII, 418).对此,奥利,讲的洗礼后,告诉我们:“有是还更严重的,艰巨的罪的赦免的忏悔,当罪人泪水洗他的沙发,和时,他红着脸,不透露他的罪过的祭司主,旨在“(Levit”,二,四,PG,12,418的补救措施Homil.“)。 Again he says: "They who have sinned, if they hide and retain their sin within their breast, are grievously tormented; but if the sinner becomes his own accuser, while he does this, he discharges the cause of all his malady. Only let him carefully consider to whom he should confess his sin; what is the character of the physician; if he be one who will be weak with the weak, who will weep with the sorrowful, and who understands the discipline of condolence and fellow-feeling. So that when his skill shall be known and his pity felt, you may follow what he shall advise. Should he think your disease to be such that it should be declared in the assembly of the faithful-whereby others may be edified, and yourself easily reformed-this must be done with much deliberation and the skillful advice of the physician" (Homil. "In Ps. xxxvii", n. 6, in PG, XII, 1386).他再次说:“他们都犯了罪,如果他们隐藏在他们的乳房和留住他们的罪恶,悲伤的折磨,但如果罪人成为自己的原告,而他这个,只有让他履行他的所有弊病的原因。他慎重考虑,他应该承认自己的罪;医生的性格是什么,如果他是一个将弱弱,谁就会流泪的悲哀,了解慰问和同胞感情的纪律。时,他的技能应被称为和他的怜悯感到,你可以按照他应告知,如果他认为你的病是这样的,应该忠实的熏陶,让其他人可能在大会宣布,和自己容易改革,这是一定要做想来想去,“(在诗篇三十七”,在PG,第十二,1386 N. 6,熟练的医师Homil.意见“)。Origen here states quite plainly the relation between confession and public penance.奥利这里的国家,很显然的供述和公开忏悔之间的关系。The sinner must first make known his sins to the priest, who will decide whether any further manifestation is called for.罪人必须先知道他的罪过的牧师,他们将决定是否有任何进一步的体现,是呼吁。

Public penance did not necessarily include a public avowal of sin.公开忏悔并不一定包括公众承认的罪。As St. Augustine also declares, "If his sin is not only grievous in itself, but involves scandal given to others, and if the bishop [antistes] judges that it will be useful to the Church [to have the sin published], let not the sinner refuse to do penance in the sight of many or even of the people at large, let him not resist, nor through shame add to his mortal wound a greater evil" (Sermo cli, n. 3).正如圣奥古斯丁还宣布,“如果他的罪是不仅本身严重,但涉及的丑闻给他人,如果主教[antistes]法官,这将是有益的教会[已发表的罪,让不是罪人拒绝做苦修中的许多人甚至广大人民的视线,让他无法抗拒,也添加到他的致命伤一个更大的恶“(3)Sermo CLI,通过耻辱。It was therefore the duty of the confessor to determine how far the process of penance should go beyond sacramental confession.因此,责任的忏悔,以确定苦修的过程中,应该超越圣礼供认多远。It lay with him also to fix the quality and duration of the penance: "Satisfaction", says Tertullian, "is determined by confession; penance is born of confession, and by penance God is appeased" (De poenit., viii).它也在于他修复的质量和持续时间的苦修:“满意”,良,说:“供认确定;苦修出生忏悔,苦修神是安抚”(poenit,第八)。 In the East there existed from the earliest times (Sozomen, HE, VII, xvi) or at least from the outbreak of the Novatianist schism (Socrates, HE, V, xix) a functionary known as presbyter penitentiarius, i, e, a priest especially appointed on account of his prudence and reserve to hear confessions and impose public penance.在东方存在着从最早的时候(Sozomen,何,七,十六),或至少从Novatianist分裂(苏格拉底,他,V XIX)长老penitentiarius,I,E称为一个职能,一个牧师的爆发尤其是他的谨慎和保留委任听到口供,并实行公开忏悔。If the confessor deemed it necessary, he obliged the penitent to appear before the bishop and his council [presbyterium) and these again decided whether the crime was of such a nature that it ought to be confessed in presence of the people.如果认为有必要忏悔,他有责任的忏悔出现前的主教和他的理事会[presbyterium),而这些又决定犯罪是否是这样一种性质,它应该是在场的人交待。 Then followed, usually on Ash Wednesday, the imposition of public penance whereby the sinner was excluded for a longer or shorter period from the communion of the Church and in addition was obliged to perform certain penitential exercises, the exomologesis.接着,通常在复活节前的第七个星期三,实行公开忏悔,罪人被排除一个或长或短的时期从教会的共融,除了被迫进行一定的悔罪演习,exomologesis。 This term, however, had various meanings: it designated sometimes the entire process of penance (Tertullian), or again the avowal of sin at the beginning or, finally, the public avowal which was made at the end -- ie, after the performance of the penitential exercises.然而,这一届,有不同的含义:它指定的演出结束后,有时整个过程的忏悔(德尔图良),或再次承认罪恶的开始或最后,公众承认这是在结束 - 即悔罪演习。

The nature of these exercises varied according to the sin for which they were prescribed.这些演习的性质不同,按照他们规定的罪。According to Tertullian (De poenit., IX), "Exomologesis is the discipline which obliges a man to prostrate and humiliate himself and to adopt a manner of life that will draw down mercy. As regards dress and food, it prescribes that he shall lie in sackcloth and ashes, clothe his body in rags, plunge his soul in sorrow, correct his faults by harsh treatment of himself, use the plainest meat and drink for the sake of his soul and not of his belly: usually he shall nourish prayer by fasting, whole days and nights together he shall moan, and weep, and wail to the Lord his God, cast himself at the feet of the priests, fall on his knees before those who are dear to God, and beseech them to plead in his behalf".据德尔图良(德poenit,第九章),“Exomologesis纪律迫使一个人匍匐在羞辱自己,并采取一种生活的方式,将动用怜悯。至于衣服和食品,它规定,他须向在麻布和炉灰,衣服破破烂烂的他的身体,他的灵魂沉浸在悲伤,纠正他的缺点,通过自己的苛刻待遇,为了他的灵魂和他的肚子不使用plainest的肉和喝:平时他滋养祈祷他应禁食,整个昼夜一起呻吟,哭泣,哀号到耶和华他的神,投下自己的祭司的脚,落在他的膝盖上那些亲爱的上帝之前,恳求他们在他的恳求代表“。 At a very early period, the exomologesis was divided into four parts or "stations", and the penitents were grouped in as many different classes according to their progress in penance.在非常早的时期,exomologesis被分为四个部分或“站”,和悔罪者,根据他们在苦修的进展,在许多不同的类分组。 The lower class, the flentes (weeping) remained outside the church door and besought the intercession of the faithful as these passed into the church.低下阶层,flentes(哭泣)仍然教堂大门之外,哀求,因为这些通过教会的信徒代祷。The audientes (hearers) were stationed in the narthex of the church behind the catechumens and were permitted to remain during the Mass of the Catechumens, ie, until the end of the sermon. audientes(听众)驻扎在背后的教会慕道的前厅和被允许留在地下的慕道者,即的,直到结束的说教。The substrati (prostrate), or genuflectentes (kneeling), occupied the space between the door and the ambo, where they received the imposition of the bishop's hands or his blessing. substrati(匍匐),或genuflectentes(跪),占用的空间之间的门和安博,在那里他们收到征收主教的手或他的祝福。Finally, the consistentes were so called because they were allowed to hear the whole Mass without communicating, or because they remained at their place while the faithful approached the Holy Table.最后,consistentes被所谓的,因为他们被允许听到没有沟通的整体质量,或者是因为他们仍然在自己的位置而忠实走近圣表。 This grouping into stations originated in the East, where at least the three higher groups are mentioned about AD 263 by Gregory Thaumaturgus, and the first or lowest group by St. Basil (Ep. cxcix, e. xxii; ccxvii, c. lvi).这起源于东,其中至少有三个较高的群体大约在公元263格雷戈里Thaumaturgus提到,和圣罗勒(插曲cxcix,E. XXII; ccxvii,C. LVI)的第一个或最低组分组到车站。In the West the classification did not exist, or at any rate the different stations were not so clearly marked; the penitents were treated pretty much as the catechumens.在西方的分类不存在,或不同的地点,在任何速度没有那么清楚标明;悔罪者的处理相当多的慕道者。The exomologesis terminated with the reconciliation, a solemn function which took place on Holy Thursday just before Mass. The bishop presided, assisted by his priests and deacons. exomologesis终止和解了前马萨诸塞州主教主持圣周四举行一个庄严的功能,他的司铎和执事的协助下,。A consultation (concilium) was held to determine which of the penitents deserved readmission; the Penitential Psalms and the litanies were recited at the foot of the altar; the bishop in a brief address reminded the penitents of their obligation to lead henceforth an upright life; the penitents, lighted candles in hand, were then led into the church; prayers, antiphons and responses were said, and, finally, the public absolution was given.举行了一个咨询(concilium)来确定的悔罪当之无愧的重新接纳;悔罪的诗篇和litanies在祭坛的脚下背诵;主教在一个简短的讲话中提醒他们有义务悔罪导致今后一个堂堂正正的生活;悔罪,手里拿着点燃的蜡烛,然后带领到教堂祈祷,antiphons和答复说,最后,公共赦免。 (See Schmitz, "Die Bussbucher u. die Bussdisciplin d. Kirche", Mainz, 1883; Funk in "Kirchenlex.", sv "Bussdisciplin"; Pohle in "Kirchl. Handlex.", sv "Bussdisciplin"; Tixeront, "Hist. des dogmes", Paris, 1905; Eng. tr., St. Louis, 1910.) Regarding the nature of this absolution given by the bishop, various opinions have been put forward.(见施密茨,“模具Bussbucher U.死Bussdisciplin D. Kirche”,美因茨,1883年;恐怖“Kirchenlex。”SV“Bussdisciplin”; Pohle,SV“Bussdisciplin”“Kirchl Handlex。”; Tixeront,“组织胺DES dogmes“,巴黎,1905年;。工程TR,圣路易斯,1910年)关于主教赦免的性质,各方面的意见,已经提出。According to one view, it was the remission, not of guilt but of the temporal punishment; the guilt had already been remitted by the absolution which the penitent received in confession before he entered on the public penance.有一种看法认为,这是缓解,不内疚,但颞处罚;罪责已经被赦免的忏悔,在忏悔之前,他公开忏悔进入汇。This finds support in the fact that the reconciliation could be effected by a deacon in case of necessity and in the absence of a priest, as appears from St. Cyprian (Ep. xviii).发现在和解可以在必要的情况下和在没有牧师的情况下执事,其实的支持,似乎从圣塞浦路斯(插曲第十八)。

Speaking of those who had received libelli from the martyrs he says: "If they are overtaken by illness, they need not wait for our coming, but may make the exomologesis of their sin before any priest, or, if no priest be at hand, and death is imminent, before a deacon, that thus, by the imposition of his hands unto penance, they may come to the Lord with the peace which the martyrs had besought us by letters to grant."谁收到了从烈士libelli时,他说:“如果他们因生病超越,他们不必等待我们来了,但可能使他们的罪恶exomologesis前牧师,或者,如果没有牧师就在眼前,和死亡是迫在眉睫,前执事,因此,强加在他手中所不欲,苦修,他们可能会与烈士哀求由字母授予我们的和平,向上帝祷告。“ On the other hand, the deacon could not give sacramental absolution; consequently, his function in such cases was to absolve the penitent from punishment; and, as he was authorized herein to do what the bishop did by the public absolution, this could not have been sacramental.另一方面,执事不能圣礼赦免,因此,他在这种情况下的功能,免除处罚的忏悔;,因为他做主教公共赦免,这可能没有授权本被圣事。 There is the further consideration that the bishop did not necessarily hear the confessions of those whom he absolved at the time of reconciliation, and moreover the ancient formularies prescribe that at this time a priest shall hear the confession, and that the bishop, after that, shall pronounce absolution.有进一步的考虑,主教并不一定听到这些人在和解的时候,他开脱,而且古代的处方规定,此时祭司听到的供述的口供,以及主教,在这之后,应宣布赦免。 But sacramental absolution can be given only by him who hears the confession.但圣礼赦免可以只由他听到的自白。And again, the public penance often lasted many years; consequently, if the penitent were not absolved at the beginning, he would have remained during all that time in the state of sin, incapable of meriting anything for heaven by his penitential exercises, and exposed to the danger of sudden death (Pesch, op. cit., p. 110 sq. Cf. Palmieri, op. cit., p. 459; Pignataro, "De disciplina poenitentiali", Rome, 1904, p. 100; Di Dario, "II sacramento della penitenza nei primi secoli del cristianesimo", Naples, 1908, p. 81).再次,公开忏悔往往持续多年,因此,如果不免除开始的忏悔,他将一直保持在罪的状态,在所有时间,不能值得什么天堂,他的悔罪演习,并暴露猝死的危险(佩施,同上,第110页平方米比照帕尔米耶,同上,第459页;。。。Pignataro,“德disciplina poenitentiali”,罗马,1904年,第100页;迪达里奥“二萨克拉门托德拉penitenza内原语secoli DEL cristianesimo”,那不勒斯,1908年,第81页)。

The writers who hold that the final absolution was sacramental, insist that there is no documentary evidence of a secret confession; that if this had been in existence, the harder way of the public penance would have been abandoned; that the argument from prescription loses its force if the sacramental character of public penance be denied; and that this penance contained all that is required in a sacrament.作家持,最终赦免圣礼,坚持认为是没有秘密供词的书面证据;,如果这个一直存在的困难的方式,公开忏悔将被抛弃;从处方参数失去其如果拒绝公开忏悔的神圣性;苦修包含所有需要在圣餐生效。 (Boudinhon, "Sur l'histoire de la pénitence" in "Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses", II, 1897, p. 306 sq. Cf. Hogan in "Am. Cath. Q. Rev.", July, 1900; Batiffol, "Etudes d'histoire et de theologie positive", Paris, 1902, p. 195 sq.; Vacandard in "Dict. de theol.", sv "Absolution", 156-61; O'Donnell, "Penance in the Early Church", Dublin 1907, p. 95 sq.) While this discussion concerns the practice under ordinary circumstances, it is commonly admitted that sacramental absolution was granted at the time of confession to those who were in danger of death. (Boudinhon“SUR L'历史的忏悔”在“杂志历史ET DE litterature religieuses”,二,1897年,第306页平方米参“。蛋白酶。问冯霍根在”七月, 1900年Batiffol,“练习曲”历史与神学积极的“,巴黎,1902年,第195页平方米; Vacandard,SV”赦免“,156-61。”快译通德theol。“奥唐奈,”忏悔在早期教会“,1907年都柏林,第95页平方米),虽​​然本次讨论涉及一般情况下的做法,这是普遍承认,圣礼赦免在认罪时授予那些在死亡的危险。 The Church, in fact, did not, in her universal practice, refuse absolution at the last moment even in the case of those who had committed grievous sin.教会,事实上,没有在她的普遍做法,在最后时刻拒绝赦免,即使在那些犯了严重罪的情况下。St. Leo, writing in 442 to Theodore, Bishop of Fréjus, says: "Neither satisfaction is to be forbidden nor reconciliation denied to those who in time of need and imminent danger implore the aid of penance and then of reconciliation."圣利奥,写在442西奥多主教弗雷瑞斯,说:“满意度都不是被禁止的,也不和解否认那些需要时间和恳求援助的忏悔,然后和解迫在眉睫的危险。” After pointing out that penance should not be deferred from day to day until the moment "when there is hardly space either for the confession of the penitent or his reconciliation by the priest"; he adds that even in these circumstances "the action of penance and the grace of communion should not be denied if asked for by the penitent" (Ep. cviii, c. iv,in PL, LIV, 1011).后指出,苦修不应该推迟从第一天开始,直到此刻一天“时,是很难有空间的忏悔,或由牧师他和解的自白”,他补充说,即使在这种情况下“采取行动的忏悔和共融的恩宠不应该被剥夺的忏悔“(插曲cviii,C.四,在PL,LIV,1011),如果要求的。 St. Leo states expressly that he was applying the ecclesiastical rule (ecclesiastica regula).圣利奥国家明确表示,他申请的教会规则(ecclesiastica调节)。

Shortly before, St. Celestine (428) had expressed his horror at learning that "penance was refused the dying and that the desire of those was not granted who in the hour of death sought this remedy for their soul"; this, he says, is "adding death to death and killing with cruelty the soul that is not absolved" (Letter to the bishops of the provinces of Vienne and Narbonne, c. ii).前不久,圣圣境(428)曾表示在得知他的恐怖“赎罪被拒绝奄奄一息,而那些没有被授予在死亡的时刻寻求这一补救措施,为他们的灵魂的渴望”,这,他说,是“死亡,死亡和残酷杀害的灵魂,是不能开脱”(C第二维埃纳省和纳博讷,各省的主教们的信)。 That such a refusal was not in accordance with the earlier practice is evident from the words of the Council of Nicaea (325): "With respect to the dying, the ancient canonical law shall now also be observed, namely, that if any one depart from this life, he shall by no means be deprived of the last and most necessary viaticum" (can. xiii). ,这样的拒绝没有按照以往的做法是显而易见的尼西亚会议(325)的话:“关于”垂死的,古代的规范法,现在也应得到遵守,即,如果任何一个离开从这样的生活,他绝不应被剥夺了最后和最必要的viaticum的“(can.十三)。 If the dying person could receive the Eucharist, absolution certainly could not be denied.如果临终者可以接受圣体,赦免肯定不能被剥夺。If at times greater severity seems to be shown, this consisted in the refusal, not of absolution but of communion; such was the penalty prescribed by the Council of Elvira (306) for those who after baptism had fallen into idolatry.如果在更大的严重性似乎显示,包括拒绝,而不是赦免,但共融等埃尔维拉会(306)规定的罚款后下降到偶像崇拜洗礼。 The same is true of the canon (22) of the Council of Arles (314) which enacts that communion shall not be given to "those who apostatize, but never appear before the Church, nor even seek to do penance, and yet afterwards, when attacked by illness, request communion".同样是阿尔勒理事会佳能(22)(314)颁布,共融的,不得给予“谁apostatize,但从来没有出现之前,教会,甚至也不是寻求做的忏悔,但事后的真实,疾病袭击时,要求共融“。 The council lays stress on the lack of proper disposition in such sinners, as does also St. Cyprian when he forbids that they who "do no penance nor manifest heartfelt sorrow" be admitted to communion and peace if in illness and danger they ask for it; for what prompts them to seek (communion] is, not repentance for their sin, but the fear of approaching death" (Ep. ad Antonianum, n. 23).安理会规定对缺乏适当处置在这样的罪人的压力,也一样圣塞浦路斯时,他禁止他们“不苦修也不明显发自内心的悲哀”承认共融与和平,如果在疾病和危险,他们要求是什么促使他们寻求(共融,没有悔改他们的罪,但接近死亡的恐惧“(插曲广告Antonianum 23)。

A further evidence of the severity with which public penance, and especially its solemn form, was administered is the fact that it could be performed only once.一个进一步的证据是公开忏悔,尤其是它的庄严的形式,与被管理的严重性,它可能是只执行一次。This is evident from some of the texts quoted above (Tertullian, Hermas).这是显而易见的,从上面所引用的一些文本(良,黑马)。Origen also says: "For the graver crimes, there is only one opportunity of penance" (Hom. xv, "In Levit.", c. ii); and St. Ambrose: "As there is one baptism so there is one penance, which, however, is performed publicly" (De poenit., II, c. x, n. 95).也奥利说:“对于更严重的罪行,只有一次机会的忏悔”;和圣刘汉铨(Hom.第十五,C. II“在Levit。”):“有一个洗礼,所以之一的忏悔然而,公开进行“(德poenit,二,三X,95)。St. Augustine gives the reason: "Although, by a wise and salutary provision, opportunity for performing that humblest kind of penance is granted but once in the Church, lest the remedy, become common, should be less efficacious for the sick . . . yet who will dare to say to God: Wherefore dost thou once more spare this man who after a first penance has again bound himself in the fetters of sin?"圣奥古斯丁给出的原因:“虽然,一个明智的和有益的条款,表演,卑微的那种苦修机会,但一旦在教会授予,以免补救措施,成为共同的病人,应少有效。尚未敢对神说:人哪,难道你再次备用,谁第一个苦修后再次罪的羁绊约束自己的人“ (Ep. cliii, "Ad Macedonium"). (插曲cliii,“广告Macedonium”)。It may well be admitted that the discipline of the earliest days was rigorous, and that in some Churches or by individual bishops it was carried to extremes.或许有人会承认,最早的纪律是严格的,并在一些教会或个别主教进行极端。This is plainly stated by Pope St. Innocent (405) in his letter (Ep. vi, c. ii) to Exuperius, Bishop of Toulouse.这显然​​是说在他的信(插曲六,C. II)Exuperius,图卢兹主教由教皇圣无辜(405)。

The question had been raised as to what should be done with those who, after a lifetime of licentious indulgence, begged at the end for penance and communion.这个问题已经提出应与那些人,一生荒淫纵欲后的忏悔和共融年底恳求做什么。"Regarding these", writes the pope, "the earlier practice was more severe, the later more tempered with mercy. The former custom was that penance should be granted, but communion denied; for in those times persecutions were frequent, hence, lest the easy admission to communion should fail to bring back from their evil ways men who were sure of reconciliation, very rightly communion was refused, while penance was granted in order that the refusal might not be total. . . . But after Our Lord had restored peace to his Churches, and terror had ceased, it was judged well that communion be given the dying lest we should seem to follow the harshness and sternness of the heretic Novatian in denying pardon. Communion, therefore, shall be given at the last along with penance, that these men, if only in the supreme moment of death, may, with the permission of Our Saviour, be rescued from eternal destruction." “关于这些,教皇写道,”早先的做法是更严重,后来更与怜悯锻炼前的习俗是苦修应准予,但共融否认迫害在那个时代频繁,因此以免轻松入学共融失败带来的邪道的人肯定和解,非常正确地共融,而被拒绝的忏悔是为了拒绝可能不共。授予,但我们的主后已经恢复和平他的教会,和恐怖活动已经停止,这是判断以及给予共融的死去,免得我们似乎遵循的平顺性和邪教Novatian严厉拒绝赦免。共融,因此,应在最后与苦行这些人,如果只在死亡的最高时刻,可能与我们的救主的权限,从永恒的毁灭救出。“

The mitigation of public penance which this passage indicates continued throughout the subsequent period, especially the Middle Ages.公开忏悔的缓解整个后续期间继续这段话表明,尤其是中世纪。 The office of poenitentiarius had already (390) been abolished in the East by Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, in consequence of a scandal that grew out of public confession.poenitentiarius办公室(390)已被废除,君士坦丁堡牧首涅斯增长的公共供认出丑闻而在东。 Soon afterwards, the four "stations" disappeared, and public penance fell into disuse.不久,四个“站”消失了,淘汰了公开忏悔。ln the West it underwent a more gradual transformation.在西它经历了一个逐步转变。Excommunication continued in use, and the interdict was frequently resorted to.逐出教会继续在使用,而且动辄以停职是。The performance of penance was left in large measure to the zeal and good will of the penitent; increasing clemency was shown by allowing the reconciliation to take place somewhat before the prescribed time was completed; and the practice was introduced of commuting the enjoined penance into other exercises or works of piety, such as prayer and almsgiving.苦修的性能在很大程度上是左的热情和良好的忏悔将增加宽大允许和解采取有些地方在规定的时间前完成;和实践引入到其他通勤责成苦修演习或虔诚的作品,如祈祷和施舍。 According to a decree of the Council of Clermont (1095), those who joined a crusade were freed from all obligation in the matter of penance.据克莱蒙理事会法令(1095年),加入了讨伐那些被释放苦修问题的所有义务。Finally it became customary to let the reconciliation follow immediately after confession.最后,它成为习惯,让和解跟进后,立即供认。With these modifications the ancient usage had practically disappeared by the middle of the sixteenth century.这些修改实际上已经消失的古老用法十六世纪中叶。Some attempts were made to revive it after the Council of Trent, but these were isolated and of short duration.作了一些尝试复苏后,安理会的遄达,但这些被孤立的和持续时间短。(See INDULGENCES.)(见放纵。)

IN THE BRITISH AND IRISH CHURCHES在英国和爱尔兰教会

The penitential system in these countries was established simultaneously with the introduction of Christianity, was rapidly developed by episcopal decrees and synodal enactments, and was reduced to definite form in the Penitentials.迅速发展,同时引进与基督教这些国家的悔罪制度的建立,是由主教法令和主教会议成文法,并减少在Penitentials一定的形式。 These books exerted such an influence on the practice in Continental Europe that, according to one opinion, they "first brought order and unity into ecclesiastical discipline in these matters" (Wasserschleben, "Bussordnungen d. abendlandischen Kirche", Halle, 1851, p. 4. -- For a different view see Schmitz, "Die Bussbucher u. die Bussdisciplin d. Kirche", Mainz, 1888, p. 187).这些书籍产生这样一个在欧洲大陆上的做法的影响力,一种意见认为,他们“先在这些问题上带来秩序和团结到教会的纪律”(Wasserschleben,“Bussordnungen D. abendlandischen Kirche”,哈雷,1851年,第4 - 对于不同的看法施密茨,“模具Bussbucher U.死Bussdisciplin D. Kirche”,美因茨,1888年,第187页)。In any case, it is beyond question that in their belief and practice the Churches of Ireland, England, and Scotland were at one with Rome.在任何情况下,这是毫无疑问,在自己的信仰和实践,爱尔兰,英格兰,和苏格兰的教会与罗马。

The so-called Synod of St. Patrick decrees that a Christian who commits any of the capital sins shall perform a year's penance for each offence and at the end shall "come with witnesses and be absolved by the priest" (Wilkins, "Concilia", I, p. 3).所谓的圣帕特里克主教法令,一个基督徒人犯任何资本的罪孽应当履行一年的苦修,每项罪名,并在年底应“拿出证人,由牧师赦免”(威尔金斯,“Concilia” ,我第3页)。Another synod of St. Patrick ordains that "the Abbot shall decide to whom the power of binding and loosing be committed, but forgiveness is more in keeping with the examples of Scripture; let penance be short, with weeping and lamentation, and a mournful garb, rather than long and tempered with relaxations "(Wilkins, ibid., p. 4).另一个主教圣帕特里克ordains“方丈应决定的约束力和松动致力于的权力,但宽恕是谁更符合圣经的例子,让苦修短哭泣和悲叹,一个​​凄厉的外衣,而比放宽“(威尔金斯,同上,第4页)长和锻炼。 For various opinions regarding the date and origin of the synods, see Haddan and Stubbs, "Councils", II, 331; Bury, "Life of St. Patrick", London, 1905.主教会议的日期和原产地的各方面的意见,请参阅Haddan及司徒拔,“议会”,二,331;埋葬,“圣帕特里克的生命”,伦敦,1905年。 The confessor was called anmchara (animae carus), ie, "soul's friend".忏悔被称为anmchara(animae carus),即“灵魂的朋友”。St. Columba was anmchara to Aidan, Lord of Dalraida, AD 574 (Adamnan's "Life of St. Columba", ed. Reeves, p. lxxvi); and Adamnan was "soul's friend" to Finnsnechta, Monarch of Ireland, AD 675 (ibid., p. xliii).圣鸽anmchara是公元574(Adamnan的“生命”圣鸽,里夫斯版,第LXXVI。)Dalraida,艾丹,主; Adamnan是“灵魂​​的朋友”,以Finnsnechta,爱尔兰,公元675君主(同上,第XLIII)。The "Life of St. Columba" relates the coming of Feachnaus to Iona, where, with weeping and lamentation, he fell at Columba's feet and "before all who were present confessed his sins. “圣鸽的生命”与未来的Feachnaus IONA,,哭泣和哀悼,他倒在鸽的脚和之前所有的人出席供认他的罪孽“。

Then the Saint weeping with him, said to him: 'Arise, my son and be comforted; thy sins which thou hast committed are forgiven; because, as it is written, a contrite and humble heart God doth not despise,'" (ibid., I, 30). The need and effects of confession are explained in the Leabhar Breac: "Penance frees from all the sins committed after baptism.然后与他哭泣的圣,对他说:“出现时,我的儿子和安慰;祢承诺你的罪被赦免,因为,因为它是书面的,痛悔和谦卑的心上帝doth不鄙视,”(同上释放所有的洗礼后所犯的罪,我30)供认的必要性和影响Leabhar Breac解释说:“忏悔。Every one desirous of a cure for his soul and happiness with the Lord must make an humble and sorrowful confession; and the confession with the prayers of the Church are as baptisms to him.必须使每一个渴望治愈,为他的灵魂和幸福与主谦逊和悲怆的供述;供认与教会的祈祷,为他洗礼。 As sickness injures the body, so sin injures the soul; and as there is a cure for the disease of the body, so there is balm for that of the soul.由于疾病伤害身体,所以罪伤害的灵魂;以及有身体疾病的治疗,所以存在的灵魂的慰藉。And as the wounds of the body are shown to a physician, so, too, the sores of the soul must be exposed.作为身体的伤口显示医生,所以,太,心灵的疮,必须暴露。As he who takes poison is saved by a vomit, so, too, the soul is healed by confession and declaration of his sins with sorrow, and by the prayers of the Church, and a determination henceforth to observe the laws of the Church of God.作为他者的毒药呕吐物保存,因此,灵魂是医治他的罪过与悲哀的供述和声明,以及教会的祷告,并决心今后遵守神的教会的法律。 ...Because Christ left to His Apostles and Church, to the end of the world, the power of loosing and binding."因为基督离开他的门徒和教会,到世界的尽头,松动和有约束力的的权力。“

That confession was required before Communion is evident from the penitential ascribed to St. Columbanus, which orders (can. xxx) "that confessions be given with all diligence, especially concerning commotions of the mind, before going to Mass, lest perchance any one approach the altar unworthily, that is, if he have not a clean heart. For it is better to wait till the heart be sound and free from scandal and envy, than daringly to approach the judgment of the tribunal; for the altar is the tribunal of Christ, and His Body, even there with His Blood, judges those who approach unworthily. As, therefore, we must beware of capital sins before communicating, so, also, from the more uncertain defects and diseases of a languid soul, it is necessary for us to abstain and to be cleansed before going to that which is a conjunction with true peace and a joining with eternal salvation".该供认是前需要圣餐是显而易见的,从归因于圣Columbanus,订单(can. XXX)“,口供与所有勤奋,特别是关于心灵的骚动,质量之前,以免或许任何一个方法,在悔罪坛混迹,也就是说,如果他不是一个干净的心脏最好是等到心脏被丑闻和羡慕的声音和大胆,接近法庭的判决。坛是法庭基督和他的身体,甚至有他的血,法官的做法混迹。正如,因此,我们必须提防资本的罪孽前沟通,所以,也从一个懒洋洋的灵魂更加不确定的缺陷和疾病,这是必要的我们弃权,才去,这是一个真正的和平和一个永恒的救赎“的加入一起清洗。 In the "Life of St. Maedoc of Ferns" it is said of the murdered King Brandubh: "And so he departed without confession and the communication of the Eucharist."在“圣Maedoc蕨类植物的生命”,它是被谋杀国王Brandubh说:“因此,他没有忏悔和圣体圣事的沟通离去。” But the saint restored him to life for a while, and then, "having made his confession and received absolution and the viaticum of the Body of Christ, King Brandubh went to heaven, and was interred in the city of St. Maedoc which is called Ferns, where the kings of that land are buried" (Acta SS. Hib., col. 482).但圣人恢复了他生活了一段时间,然后,“他的供词,并获得赦免和基督的身体viaticum,Brandubh国王去了天堂,是interred在城市,这就是所谓的圣Maedoc蕨类植物,土地的国王被埋葬“(SS文献。Hib疫苗,COL 482)。

The metrical "Rule of St. Carthach", translated by Eugene O'Curry, gives this direction to the priest: "If you go to give communion at the awful point of death, you must receive confession without shame, without reserve."圣Carthach格律“规则”,由Eugene O'Curry翻译,使这个方向的牧师:“如果你去给在死亡的可怕点的共融,你必须接受表白毫无羞耻,毫无保留,。”In the prayer for giving communion to the sick (Corpus Christi Missal) we read: "O God, who hast willed that sins should be forgiven by the imposition of the hands of the priest . . ."在生病(科珀斯克里斯Missal)我们读到让共融祈祷:“神啊,祢任性,应实施牧师手中原谅的罪孽。”and then follows the absolution: "We absolve thee as representatives of blessed Peter, Prince of the Apostles, to whom the Lord gave the power of binding and loosing."然后如下的赦免:“我们祝福彼得王子的使徒,谁主给的约束力和松动的力量的代表,你开脱。”That confession was regularly a part of the preparation for death is attested by the Council of Cashel (1172) which commands the faithful in case of illness to make their will "in the presence of their confessor and neighbours", and prescribes that to those who die "with a good confession" due tribute shall be paid in the form of Masses and burial (can. vi, vii).供认是定期为死亡做准备的一部分是证明卡舍尔理事会(1172),该命令的忠实病例,使“他们将在他们的忏悔和邻居的存在”,并规定那些死“的一个很好的交代”赞扬应在群众和安葬(can.六,七)的形式支付。

The practice of public penance was regulated in great detail by the Penitenitials.公开忏悔的做法是规定了非常详细的Penitenitials。That of St. Cummian prescribes that "if any priest refuses penance to the dying, he is guilty of the loss of their souls . . . for there can be true conversion at the last moment, since God has regard not of time alone, but of the heart also, and the thief gained Paradise in the last hour of his confession" (C. xiv, 2).圣Cummian的条规定,“如果任何牧师拒绝垂死的苦修,他是犯了他们的灵魂损失。。不可能有真正的转换,在最后时刻因为上帝时间方面并不孤单,但心脏也获得的小偷在他的供词“(C.十四,2)的最后一小时的天堂。 Other Penitentials bear the names of St. Finnian, Sts.其他Penitentials承担圣Finnian,STS的名称。David and Gildas, St. Columbanus, Adamnan.大卫和吉尔达斯,Columbanus,Adamnan。The collection of canons known as the "Hibernensis" is especially important, as it cites, under the head of "Penance" (bk. XLVII), the teaching of St. Augustine, St. Jerome, and other Fathers, thus showing the continuity of the Irish faith and observance with that of the early Church.收集的被称为“Hibernensis”大炮是特别重要,因为它濒危物种贸易公约,在“赎罪”(bk.四十七),圣杰罗姆,圣奥古斯丁,和其他父亲的教学负责人,从而呈现出连续性爱尔兰与早期教会的信仰和遵守。 (See Lanigan, "Eccl. Hist. of Ireland", Dublin, 1829; Moran, "Essays on the Early Irish Church", Dublin, 1864; Malone, "Church Hist. of Ireland", Dublin, 1880; Warren, "The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church", Oxford, 1881; Salmon, "The Ancient Irish Church", Dublin, 1897.) (见Lanigan,“传道书组织胺爱尔兰。”都柏林,1829;莫兰,都柏林,1864年“爱尔兰早期教会论丛”;马龙,“爱尔兰教会组织胺。”都柏林,1880年,沃伦,“礼仪和凯尔特教会“,牛津大学,1881年,鲑鱼,”礼古爱尔兰教会“,都柏林,1897年)。

IN THE ANGLO-SAXON CHURCH在盎格鲁撒克逊教会

In the Anglo-Saxon Church penance was called behreowsung, from the verb hreowan, whence our word "to rue".在盎格鲁撒克逊教会苦修被称为behreowsung从动词hreowan,何处,我们的话“街”。 The confessor was the scrift; confession, scrift spraec; and the parish itself was the scriftscir, ie, "confession district" -- a term which shows plainly the close relation between confession and the work of religion in general.忏悔scrift;供认,scrift spraec教区本身scriftscir,也就是说,“自白区” - 这显然说明供述和一般的宗教工作之间的密切关系的一个长期的。The practice in England can be traced back to the times immediately following the country's conversion.在英格兰的做法可以追溯到要与时俱进,紧跟国家的转换。Ven.法师Bede (HE, IV, 23 [25]) gives the story of Adamnan, an Irish monk of the seventh century, who belonged to the monastery of Coldingham, England.贝德(HE,四,23 [25])为Adamnan,第七世纪的爱尔兰僧侣,属于修道院,英国Coldingham的故事。In his youth, having committed some sin, he went to a priest, confessed, and was given a penance to be performed until the priest should return.在他的青年时期,犯了罪,他去了一个牧师,事实供认不讳,并给出一个要执行,直到牧师应该返回的苦修。But the priest went to Ireland and died there, and Adamnan continued his penance to the end of his days.但前往爱尔兰的祭司,并死在那里,并Adamnan继续他的忏悔,他的日子结束。When St. Cuthbert (635-87) on his missionary tours preached to the people, "they all confessed openly what they had done, . . . and what they confessed they expiated; as he commanded them, by worthy fruits of penance" (Bede, op. cit., IV, 25).当圣伯特(635-87),他的传教之旅宣扬的人,“他们都供认公开他们所做的一切,以及他们供认,他们抵偿。。因为他指挥的忏悔值得水果,”(贝德,同上,四,25)。 Alcuin (735-804) declares that "without confession there is no pardon" (PL, C, 337); that "he who accuses himself of his sins will not have the devil for an accuser in the day of judgment" (PL, CI, 621); that "he who conceals his sins and is ashamed to make wholesome confession, has God as witness now and will have him again as avenger" (ibid., 622).阿尔昆(735-804)声明说:“没有表白,没有赦免”(PL,C 337),“他指责他的罪过自己不会有魔鬼原告在审判的日子”(特等, CI,621);他说:“谁掩盖了他的罪过羞于有益健康的供述,作为证人的神和他再次将作为复仇者”(同上,622)。Lanfranc (1005-89) has a treatise, "De celunda confessione", ie, on keeping confession secret, in which he rebukes those who give the slightest intimation of what they have heard in confession (PL, CL, 626).朗弗朗(一零零五年至1089年)的论文,“德celunda confessione”,即,保持供认秘密,他斥责那些给他们所听到的自白(PL,CL 626)的丝毫暗示。

The penitentials were known as scrift bocs.penitentials被称为scrift英国海外公民。The one attributed to Archbishop Theodore (602-90) says: "The deacon is not allowed to impose penance on a layman; this should be done by the bishop or priests" (bk. II, 2): and further; "According to the canons, penitents should not receive communion until their penance is completed; but we, for mercy's sake, allow them to receive at the end of a year or six months" (I, 12).一个大主教西奥多(602-90)说:“执事是不允许强加给一个门外汉的苦修,由主教或​​神父”(bk.二,2):应该是这样的,并进一步“;据的大炮,悔罪不应收到共融,直到完成他们的忏悔,但我们,怜悯的缘故,让他们接受一年或半年的结束“(我12)。 An important statement is that "public reconciliation is not established in this province, for the reason that there is no public penance"- which shows that the minute prescriptions contained in the penitential were meant for the guidance of the priest in giving penance privately, ie, in confession.重要声明公共和解“是不成立的,在全省的原因,也没有公开忏悔,” - 这表明,在忏悔中包含的分钟处方私下给苦修,即意味着在牧师的指导在忏悔。Among the excerptiones, or extracts, from the canons which bear the name of Archbishop Egbert of York (d. 766), canon xlvi says that the bishop shall hear no cause without the presence of his clergy, except in case of confession (Wilkins, "Concilia", I, 104). excerptiones,或提取的大炮承担约克大主教埃格伯特(卒于766)的名称,其中,佳能XLVI说,主教应听到除供认的情况下,就没有存在他的僧侣事业,(威尔金斯, “Concilia”,我104)。His Penitential prescribes (IX) that "a bishop or priest shall not refuse confession to those who desire it, though they be guilty of many sins" (ibid., 126).他的悔罪规定(九)主教或神父“不得拒绝供述那些渴望,虽然他们犯了很多的罪”(同上,126页)。The Council of Chalcuth (AD 787): "If any one depart this life without penance or confession, he shall not be prayed for" (can. xx).Chalcuth理事会(公元787年):“如果任何一个离开这辈子没有苦修或忏悔,他不得被祈祷”(can. XX)。The canons published under King Edgar (960) have a special section "On Confession which begins: "When one wishes to confess his sins, let him act manfully, and not be ashamed to confess his misdeeds and crimes, accusing himself; because hence comes pardon, and because without confession there is no pardon; confession heals; confession justifies" (ibid., 229). The Council of Eanham (1009): "Let every Christian do as behooves him, strictly keep his Christianity, accustom himself to frequent confession, fearlessly confess his sins, and carefully make amends according as he is directed" (can. xvii, Wilkins, ibid., 289). Among the ecclesiastical laws enacted (1033) by King Canute, we find this exhortation: "Let us with all diligence turn back from our sins, and let us each confess our sins to our confessor, and ever [after] refrain from evil-doing and mend our ways" (XVIII, Wilkins, ibid., 303).根据国王埃德加(960)公布的大炮了“关于供认开始:”特殊的部分,当一个人的愿望承认他的罪孽,让他manfully行为,而不是羞于承认他的劣迹和罪行,指责自己,因为因此来自原谅,因为没有表白,没有赦免;供认愈合;供述证明“(同上,229)Eanham理事会(1009):”让每一个基督徒认真地看他,严格保持他的基督教,习惯于自己频繁“(can.十七,威尔金斯,同上,289)在教会的法律颁布国王克努特(1033),我们发现这样的告诫:”供认,无畏地承认他的罪孽,并认真弥补,根据他执导让我们与所有勤奋回头从我们的罪,并让我们每个人都承认我们的罪,我们的忏悔,并且还在不断[后]不要从邪恶做修补我们的方式“(第十八,威尔金斯,同上,303)。

The Council of Durham (c. 1220): "How necessary is the sacrament of penance, those words of the Gospel prove: Whose sins, etc. . . . But since we obtain the pardon of our sins by true confession, we prescribe in accordance with the canonical statutes that the priest in giving penance shall carefully consider the amount of the penance, the quality of the sin, the place, time, cause, duration and other circumstances of the sin; and especially the devotion of the penitent and the signs of contrition."达勒姆理事会(约1220):“忏悔圣事是多么的必要,福音的那些话证明:谁的罪,等,但是,因为我们获得赦免我们的罪的真情告白,我们订明。按照规范的章程给苦修教士的苦修的数量,质量的罪过,地点,时间,原因,时间长短和其他罪的情况下,应当认真考虑,特别是虔诚的忏悔和忏悔的迹象。“ Similar directions are given by the Council of Oxford (1222), which adds after various admonitions: "Let no priest dare, either out of anger or even through fear of death, to reveal the confession of anyone by word or sign . . . and should he be convicted of doing this he ought deservedly to be degraded without hope of relaxation" (Wilkins, ibid., 595).牛津理事会(1222),增加了各种告诫后:相似的方向。“让我们没有牧师不敢,无论是出于愤怒,甚至通过对死亡的恐惧,通过文字或符号来揭示人的供述和他应该这样做,他应该当之无愧没有希望放松退化“(威尔金斯,同上,595)被定罪。 The Scottish Council (c. 1227) repeats these injunctions and prescribes "that once a year the faithful shall confess all their sins either to their own [parish] priest or, with his permission, to some other priest" (can. lvii).苏格兰议会(公元前1227年)重复这些禁令和规定“,每年一次的忠实应当承认他们的罪孽自己[教区神父,或与他的许可,一些其他的牧师”(can. LVII)。Explicit instructions for the confessor are found in the statutes of Alexander, Bishop of Coventry (1237), especially in regard to the manner of questioning the penitent and enjoining penance.忏悔的明确指示,被发现在考文垂(1237)亚历山大主教的法规,特别是在关于质疑的忏悔,并责令苦修的方式。The Council of Lambeth (1261) declares: "Since the sacrament of confession and penance, the second plank after shipwreck, the last part of man's seafaring, the final refuge, is for every sinner most necessary unto salvation, we strictly forbid, under pain of excommunication, that anyone should presume to hinder the free administration of this sacrament to each who asks for it" (Wilkins, ibid., 754). “的兰贝斯理事会(1261)宣布:”由于表白和苦修的圣事,在后沉船第二板,最后部分的人的航海,在最终避难,每一个罪人最得救必要的是,我们严格禁止痛下,逐出教会,任何人都应该假定每个人要求“(威尔金斯,同上,754)阻碍自由管理这个圣餐。

To give some idea of the ancient discipline, the penalties attached to graver crimes are cited here from the English and Irish Penitentials.为了给一些古老的学科的想法,更严重的罪行的惩罚是引用这里从英国和爱尔兰Penitentials。 For stealing, Cummian prescribes that a layman shall do one year of penance; a cleric, two; a subdeacon three; a deacon, four; a priest, five; a bishop, six.对于盗窃,Cummian的规定,一个门外汉做一年的苦修;牧师,两个,一个subdeacon三个执事,四,一个牧师,五;主教,六个。 For murder or perjury, the penance lasted three, five, six, seven, ten or twelve years according to the criminal's rank.因谋杀罪或伪证罪,苦修历时三,五,六,七,十或十二年,根据犯罪分子的排名。Theodore commands that if any one leave the Catholic Church, join the heretics, and induce others to do the same, he shall, in case he repent, do penance for twelve years.西奥多如果任何一个离开天主教教会,加入的异端,并诱使他人做同样的命令,他,万一他悔改,十二年的苦修。For the perjurer who swears by the Church, the Gospel, or the relics of the saints, Egbert prescribes seven or eleven years of penance.埃格伯特规定对于作伪证者由教会,福音,或圣徒的遗物发誓,七,十多年苦修。Usury entailed three years; infanticide, fifteen; idolatry or demon-worship, ten.高利贷entailed三年;女婴,十五个;的偶像崇拜或恶魔崇拜,十。Violations of the sixth commandment were punished with great severity; the penance varied, according to the nature of the sin, from three to fifteen years, the extreme penalty being prescribed for incest, ie, fifteen to twenty-five years.第六诫极严重的违法行为进行了处罚;苦修不同,根据罪的性质,三到十五年,极端的刑罚规定为乱伦,即十五至二十五年。 Whatever its duration, the penance included fasting on bread and water, either for the whole period or for a specified portion.无论其持续时间,包括空腹面包和水,无论是对整个期间或指定部分,苦修。Those who could not fast were obliged instead to recite daily a certain number of psalms, to give alms, take the discipline (scourging) or perform some other penitential exercise as determined by the confessor.那些不能快被迫,而不是背诵每日一定数量的诗篇,施舍,采取纪律​​(鞭打),或执行一些其他悔罪演习忏悔决定。 (See Lingard, "Hist. and Antiq. of the Anglo-Saxon Church", London, 1845; Thurston, "Confession in England before the Conquest" in "The Tablet", February and March, 1905.) (见Lingard“组织胺和盎格鲁撒克逊教会Antiq。”伦敦,1845年,瑟斯顿,“忏悔之前征服英格兰”在“片”,二月,三月,1905年。)

CONFESSION IN THE ANGLICAN CHURCH圣公会的供述中

In the Anglican Church, according to the rule laid down in the "Prayer Book", there is a general confession prescribed for morning and evening Service, also for Holy Communion; this confession is followed by a general absolution like the one in use in the Catholic Church.在圣公会,根据“祈祷书”规定的规则,有规定的早晨和晚上服务,圣餐一般的供述;供认是像一个在使用一般赦免天主教教会。 Also in the "Prayer Book" confession is counselled for the quieting of conscience and for the good that comes from absolution and the peace that arises from the fatherly direction of the minister of God.在“祈祷书”的表白,也是为平息良心和好,赦免和从神部长父爱方向产生的和平辅导。There is also mention of private confession in the office for the sick: "Here shall the sick person be moved to make a special confession of his sins if he feel his conscience troubled with any weighty matter. After which the priest shall absolve him (if he humbly and heartily desire it) after this sort: 'Our Lord Jesus Christ, who has left the power to his Church' etc."也有提及在为患病的办公室私人供认:“在这里应有病的人被转移到特殊供认了他的罪过,如果他觉得自己的良心与任何有分量的问题困扰之后,祭司免除他(如果。他谦卑,并由衷地希望这样做)后这种:“我们的主耶稣基督,已经离开了权力,他的教会”等“ Since the beginning of the Oxford Movement confession after the manner practised in the Catholic Church has become more frequent among those of the High Church party.由于牛津运动在天主教教会实行的方式后供认开始越来越频繁地之间的高教会党的。In 1873 a petition was sent to the Convocation of the Archdiocese of Canterbury asking provision for the education and authorization of priests for the work of the confessional.在1873年发出了一份请愿书要求提供的教育和神父忏悔的工作授权的坎特伯雷大主教管区召开。In the joint letter of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York disapprobation of such course was markedly expressed and the determination not to encourage the practice of private confession openly avowed.在坎特伯雷和约克大主教的联名信,这类课程的非难是明显表示,决心不鼓励私人供认公开宣称的实践。The Puseyites replied citing the authority of the "Prayer Book" as given above. Puseyites回答援引权威的“祈祷书”,上面给出。In our time among the High Church folk one notices confessionals in the churches and one hears of discourses made to the people enjoining confession as a necessity to pardon.在我们之间的高教会民间的时候,发现在教堂的告解和一听到人供认作为赦免的必要性责令话语。Those who hear confessions make use generally of the rules and directions laid down in Catholic "Manuals", and especially popular is the "Manual" of the Abbé Gaume (AG Mortimer "Confession and Absolution", London, 1906).那些听到口供普遍使用的规则和规定的天主教“手册”上下方向,特别是流行的是“手册”阿贝Gaume(公司莫蒂默“忏悔与赦免”,伦敦,1906年)。

UTILITY OF CONFESSION供述效用

Mr. Lea ("A History of Auricular Confession", Vol. II, p. 456) says: "No one can deny that there is truth in Cardinal Newman's argument: 'How many souls are there in distress, anxiety and loneliness, whose one need is to find a being to whom they can pour out their feelings unheard by the world. They want to tell them and not to tell them, they wish to tell them to one who is strong enough to hear them, and yet not too strong so as to despise them'"; and then Mr. Lea adds: "It is this weakness of humanity on which the Church has speculated, the weakness of those unable to bear their burdens . . . who find comfort in the system built up through the experience of the ages", etc. It has been made clear that the Church has simply carried out the mind of Christ: "Whatever you shall loose shall be loosed"; still we do not hesitate to accept Mr. Lea's reason, that this institution answers in large measure to the needs of men, who morally are indeed weak and in darkness. LEA(“耳穴供认史”,第二卷,第456页)先生说:“没有人可以否认有真理红衣主教纽曼的说法:”多少灵魂都在痛苦,焦虑和孤独,其有人需要的是找到一个他们可以倾吐自己的感情世界闻所未闻他们想告诉他们,而不是告诉他们,他们想告诉他们谁是强大到足以听到他们的,但不是太强劲,因此轻视他们“;然后LEA先生补充说:”教会推测,正是这种人性的弱点,对那些无法承受的负担的弱点找到系统的舒适性建立起来的通过古往今来的经验“,已明确指出,教会只是进行了基督的心:”不管你应松应松动“,我们仍然毫不犹豫地接受Lea的原因,即这个机构在很大程度上,谁在道义上确实是弱,在黑暗中的人的需要的答案。 True, Mr. Lea denies the probability of finding men capable of exercising aright this great ministry, and he prefers to enumerate the rare abuses which the weakness of priests has caused, rather than to listen to the millions who have found in the tribunal of penance a remedy for their anxieties of mind, and a peace and security of conscience the value of which is untold.诚然,LEA先生否认发现男性能够正确地行使这一伟大部的概率,他更喜欢列举的牧师的弱点,引起少见的滥用,而不是听的人在法庭的忏悔百万为弥补他们的疑虑的心态,和一个和平与安全的良心的价值是无尽的。 The very abuses of which he speaks at such length have been the occasion of greater care, greater diligence, on the part of the Church.其中他讲了这么长的很滥用已在更大的关怀,更大的尽职调查,对教会的一部分,之际。The few inconveniences arising from the perversity of men, which the Church has met with admirable legislation, should not blind men to the great good that confession has brought, not only to the individual, but even to society.从男子的反常,教会会见了以令人钦佩的立法的所带来的一些不便,不应该盲目以极大的利好,表白,不仅带来了个人,但即使对社会男子。

Thinking men even outside the Church have acknowledged the usefulness to society of the tribunal of penance.思考,即使教会之外的男人有苦修法庭社会承认的用处。Amongst these the words of Leibniz are not unknown ("Systema theologicum", Paris, 1819, p. 270): "This whole work of sacramental penance is indeed worthy of the Divine wisdom and if aught else in the Christian dispensation is meritorious of praise, surely this wondrous institution. For the necessity of confessing one's sins deters a man from committing them, and hope is given to him who may have fallen again after expiation. The pious and prudent confessor is in very deed a great instrument in the hands of God for man's regeneration. For the kindly advice of God's priest helps man to control his passions, to know the lurking places of sin, to avoid the occasions of evil doing, to restore ill-gotten goods, to have hope after depression and doubt, to have peace after affliction, in a word, to remove or at least lessen all evil, and if there is no pleasure on earth like unto a faithful friend, what must be the esteem a man must have for him, who is in very deed a friend in the hour of his direst need?"莱布尼兹的话,在这些并不陌生(“SYSTEMA theologicum”,巴黎,1819年,第270页):“这整个圣事的忏悔的工作确实是值得神的智慧,如果在基督教免除其他任何事物的赞美立功,当然这个奇妙的机构必须承认自己的罪过。阻碍触犯他们一个人,希望是给予他谁可能已经下降后赎罪再次。的虔诚和审慎的忏悔非常契税是一个在手中伟大的仪器神人的再生。对于在上帝的神父慈祥的意见的人来控制他的激情,知道罪的潜伏的地方,避免邪恶做的场合,恢复赃物,抑郁症和怀疑后的希望,要和平后的痛苦,在一个字,以消除或至少减少一切邪恶,如果地球上没有像你们一个忠实的朋友的乐趣,必须是一个人必须有他的自尊心,谁是在非常契税一个朋友在他最可怕的需要的时刻?“

Nor is Leibniz alone in expressing this feeling of the great benefits that may come from the use of confession.也独自在表达这种感觉可能来自使用供认了极大的好处,是莱布尼茨。Protestant theologians realize, not only the value of the Catholic theological position, but also the need of the confessional for the spiritual regeneration of their subjects.新教的神学家意识到,不仅是天主教神学立场的价值,但也需要忏悔其臣民的精神复兴。Dr. Martensen, in his "Christian Dogmatics" (Edinburgh, 1890), p.马敦生,博士在他的“基督教教义”(爱丁堡,1890年),第 443, thus outlines his views: "Absolution in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, derived from the full power of binding and loosing which the church has inherited from the apostles, is not unconditional, but depends on the same condition on which the gospel itself adjudges the forgiveness of sins, namely, change of heart and faith. If reform is to take place here, it must be effected either by endeavouring to revive private confession, or, as has been proposed, by doing away with the union between confession and the Lord's Supper, omitting, that is, the solemn absolution, because what it presupposes (personal confession of sin) has fallen into disuse, and retaining only the words of preparation, with the exhortation to self-examination, a testifying of the comfortable promises of the gospel, and a wish for a blessing upon the communicants." 443,因此概述了他的看法:“在父亲的姓名和子和圣灵的赦免,从全功率的约束力和松动教会从使徒的继承,并不是无条件的派生,而是取决于福音本身adjudges罪的赦免,即心脏和信仰的变化。相同的条件下,如果改革是在这里举行,它必须被有效通过努力振兴私人供认,或已提出,这样做离供述和主的晚餐之间的联合,漏报,,就是在庄严的赦免,因为它的先决条件(罪的个人供述)已被废弃下降,并保留唯一的单词编制的规劝,自我考试,一个作证的福音舒适的承诺,和希望时圣餐的祝福。“ Under the head of "Observations" he states: "It cannot easily be denied that confession meets a deep need of human nature. There is a great psychological truth in the saying of Pascal, that a man often attains for the first time a true sense of sin, and a true stayedness in his good purpose, when he confesses his sins to his fellow man, as well as to God. Catholicism has often been commended because by confession it affords an opportunity of depositing the confession of his sins in the breast of another man where it remains kept under the seal of the most sacred secrecy, and whence the consolation of the forgiveness of sins is given him in the very name of the Lord."根据“观察”的负责人,他的国家:“它可以不容易被拒绝,供认符合一对人性的深层需要有是一伟大的帕斯卡说心理真相,,一个人往往首次达到真正意义。罪,并在他的美意,当他承认他的罪孽,他的人,以及对上帝的真实stayedness。天主教经常被赞扬,因为由供认它提供了一个机会,存放在乳房他的罪过的忏悔另一个男人的地方,它仍然保留下最神圣的保密性,以及在何时赦罪的安慰的是他在主的名字的印章。“

True, he believes that this great need is met more fully with the kind of confession practised in Lutheranism, but he does not hesitate to add: "It is a matter of regret that private confession, as an institution, meeting as it does this want in a regular manner, has fallen into disuse; and that the objective point of union is wanting for the many, who desire to unburden their souls by confessing not to God only but to a fellowman, and who feel their need of comfort and of forgiveness, which anyone indeed may draw for himself from the gospel, but which in many instances he may desire to hear spoken by a man, who speaks in virtue of the authority of his holy office."诚然,他认为,这非常需要供认在路德教实行更充分满足,但他没有犹豫地补充道:“这是一个遗憾的是,私人供认,作为一个机构,会议,因为它本想在常规的方式,淘汰下降;该联盟的目标是要为多,谁的愿望来表白自己的灵魂忏悔不是上帝只是一个fellowman,谁觉得他们需要安慰和宽恕这人确实可能为自己绘制福音,但在许多情况下,他可能希望听到一个人,凭借他的神圣的办公室的权威说话的发言。“

Publication information Written by Edward J. Hanna.由爱德华J.汉娜书面的公开信息。Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.转录由Donald J.恩赐。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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