Semiarians and SemiarianismSemiarians和Semiarianism

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A name frequently given to the conservative majority in the East in the fourth century as opposed to the strict Arians.经常在第四世纪保守的多数在东一个名称,而不是严格的亚利安。More accurately it is reserved (as by St. Epiphanius, "Hær" lxxiii) for the party of reaction headed by Basil of Ancyra in 358.更准确地说,它是保留圣埃皮法尼乌斯,“Hær”lxxiii党安该拉瓦西里为首的反应在358。The greater number of the Eastern bishops, who agreed to the deposition of St. Athanasius at Tyre in 335 and received the Arians to communion at Jerusalem on their repentance, were not Arians, yet they were far from being all orthodox.东部主教,谁同意沉积圣athanasius在轮胎335,并在耶路撒冷的arians共融他们的忏悔,不是亚利安,但他们远未所有正统。 The dedication Council of Antioch in 341 put forth a creed which was unexceptionable but for its omission of the Nicene "of One Substance".在341安提阿奉献理事会提出的信条是无懈可击,但遗漏尼西亚信经“的一种物质”。 Even disciples of Anius, such as George, Bishop of Laodicea (335-47) and Eustathius of Sebaste (c. 356-80), joined the moderate party, and after the death of Eusebius of Nicomedia, the leaders of the count faction, Ursacius, Valens, and Germinius, were not tied to any formula, for Constantius himself hated Arianism, though he disliked Athanasius yet more.即使弟子的Anius如乔治,老底嘉主教(335-47)和Sebaste欧斯塔修斯(公元前356-80),加入温和党,尤西比乌斯的尼科美底亚,伯爵派领导人去世后, Ursacius,瓦伦斯和Germinius,不依赖任何公式,对康斯坦丘斯自己讨厌阿里乌斯教,虽然他不喜欢他那修,但更多。When Marcellus of Ancyra was deposed in 336, he was succeeded by Basil.当安该拉马塞勒斯336废黜,他成功罗勒。Marcellus was reinstated by the Council of Sardica and the pope in 343, but Basil was restored in 350 by Constantius, over whom he gained considerable influence.马塞勒斯是恢复Sardica理事会和教皇在343,但罗勒350恢复由康斯坦丘斯,他获得了相当大的影响。 He was the leader of a council at Sirmium in 351 held against Photinus who had been a deacon at Ancyra, and the canons of this synod begin by condemning Arianism though they do not quite come up to the Nicene standard.他是在351对已在安该拉执事Photinus在西锡尔米乌姆举行理事会的领导者,本主教会议的大炮开始谴责阿里乌斯教,虽然他们不很来尼西亚标准。 Basil had afterwards a disputation with the Arian Aëtius.罗勒事后争议与阿里安Aëtius。After the defeat of Magnentius at Mursa in 351, Valens, bishop of that city, became the spiritual director of Constantius.Magnentius在那个城市351,瓦伦斯,主教Mursa战败后,成为康斯坦丘斯精神的导演。In 355 Valens and Ursacius obtained the exile of the Western confessors Eusebius, Lucifer, Liberius, and that of Hilary followed.在355瓦伦斯和Ursacius获得流亡西方的忏悔尤西比乌斯,路西法,Liberius,并遵循希拉里,。 In 357 they issued the second Creed of Sirmium, or "formula of Hosius", in which homoousios and homoiousios were both rejected. 357,他们发出西锡尔米乌姆的第二个信条,或“Hosius公式”,其中homoousios和homoiousios均拒绝。Eudoxius, a violent Arian, seized the See of Antioch, and supported Aëtius and his disciple Eunomius. Eudoxius,暴力阿里安,抓住见的安提阿,并支持Aëtius和他的弟子Eunomius。

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In the Lent of 358 Basil with many bishops was holding the dedicatory feast of a new church he had built at Ancyra, when he received a letter from George of Laodicea relating how Eudoxius had approved of Aëtius, and begging Macedonius of Constantinople, Basil, and the rest of the assembled bishops to decree the expulsion of Eudoxius and his followers from Antioch, else that great see were lost.在许多主教,他在安该拉,当他收到信从乔治的劳迪西亚有关如何Eudoxius Aëtius批准兴建一个新的教会的奉献盛宴,君士坦丁堡,罗勒和乞讨Macedonius借给358罗勒,其余的组装主教法令驱逐Eudoxius和他的追随者从安提阿,否则,伟大的看到丢失。 In consequence the Synod of Ancyra published a long reply addressed to George and the other bishops of Phoenicia, in which they recite the Creed of Antioch (341), adding explanations against the "unlikeness" of the Son to the Father taught by the Arians (Anomoeans, from anomoios), and showing that the very name of father implies a son of like substance (homoiousios, or homoios kat ousian) Anathematisms are appended in which Anomoeanism is explicitly condemned and the teaching of "likeness of substance" enforced.在后果主教的安该拉发表长篇答复给乔治和腓尼基的其他主教,他们背诵的信条安提(341),对“不似”的解释,儿子的父亲教的arians( Anomoeans,从anomoios),且呈现出父亲的名字意味着一个样物质的儿子(homoiousios,或homoios吉ousian)Anathematisms,在其中Anomoeanism追加明确谴责和执行“实质相似性”的教学。 The nineteenth of these canons forbids the use also of homoousios and tautoousios; this may be an afterthought due to the instance of Macedonius, as Basil does not seem to have insisted on it later.这些大炮19禁止使用homoousios和tautoousios的;这可能是一种事后由于Macedonius实例,如罗勒似乎并没有坚持就可以了,以后。 Legates were dispatched to the Count at Sirmium-Basil, Eustathius of Sebaste, an ascetic of no dogmatic principles, Eleusius of Cyzicus, a follower of Macedonius, and Leontius, a priest who was one of the emperor's chaplains.使节被派往伯爵在西锡尔米乌姆罗勒,欧斯塔修斯Sebaste,没有教条式的原则的苦行僧,Cyzicus,Macedonius追随者,和一个牧师,他是皇帝的一个牧师Leontius,Eleusius。 They arrived just in time, for the emperor had been lending his ear to an Eudoxian; but he now veered round, and issued a letter (Sozomen, IV, xiv) declaring the Son to be "like in substance" to the Father, and condemning the Arians of Antioch.他们抵达就在这时,皇帝已经贷款到Eudoxian他的耳朵;但他现在转向轮,并发出的信(Sozomen,四,十四)宣布子“的实质一样”的父亲,并谴责安提阿的arians。

According to Sozomen it was at this point that Libenius was released from exile on his signing three fornmulæ combined by Basil; against this story see LIBERIUS, POPE.据Sozomen它是在这一点上Libenius从流放发布罗勒结合他签署三个fornmulæ对这个故事中看到LIBERIUS,教皇。 Basil persuaded Constantius to summon a general council, Ancyra being proposed then Nicomedia; but the latter city was destroyed by an earthquake; Basil, therefore, was again at Sirmium in 359 where the Arianizers had meanwhile regained their footing With Germinius of Sirmium, George of Alexandria, Ursacius and Valens, and Marcus of Arethusa, he held a conference which lasted until night.罗勒说服康斯坦丘斯召集总理事会,安该拉建议,然后尼科美底亚,但后者的城市是由地震破坏,因此,罗勒,再次在359西锡尔米乌姆的Arianizers同时收复Germinius西锡尔米乌姆,乔治立足亚历山德里亚,Ursacius和瓦伦斯,兰科植物马库斯,他举行了一次会议,历时直到晚上。 A confession of faith, ridiculed under the name of the "dated creed", was drawn up by Marcus on 22 May (Hilary, "Fragment. xv").的信仰告白,嘲笑的“过时的信条”名称下,制定了由Marcus 5月22日(希拉里,“片段。XV”)。 Arianism was of course rejected, but the homoios kata ten ousian was not admitted, and the expression kata panta homoios, "like in all things", was substituted.阿里乌斯教的拒绝当然是,但homoios卡塔十个ousian不承认,表达卡塔潘塔homoios,“在所有的事情一样”,被替换下场。 Basil was disappointed, and added to his signature the explanation that the words "in all things" mean not only in will, but in existence and being (kata ten hyparxin kai kata to einai).罗勒感到失望,并添加到他的签名的解释,“在所有的事情”的话,不仅会,而且存在和(十hyparxin偕卡塔卡塔以einai的)的意思。 Not content with this, Basil, George of Laodicea, and others published a joint explanation (Epiph., lxxiii, 12-22) that "in all things" must include "substance";不与此内容,罗勒,乔治的劳迪西亚,和其他人发表了一项联合的解释“(Epiph.,lxxiii,12-22),”在所有的事情“必须包括”物质“;

The court party arranged that two councils should be held, at Rimini and Seleucia respectively.法院党的安排,两个市政局应在里米尼和塞琉西亚举行。At Seleucia (359) the Semiarians were in a majority, being supported by such men as St. Cyril of Jerusalem, his friend Silvanus of Tarsus, and even St. Hilary, but they were unable to obtain their ends.塞琉西亚(359)Semiarians在多数,圣西里尔耶路撒冷,他的朋友西拉大数,甚至是圣希拉里这样的男人支持,但他们无法获得他们的目的。 Basil, Silvanus, and Eleusius, therefore, went as envoys to Constantinople, where a council was held (360) which followed Rimini in condemning homoiousios together with homoousios, and allowed homoios alone, without addition.罗勒,西拉,Eleusius,因此,作为特使前往君士坦丁堡,在那里举行的议会(360),跟着一起谴责homoousios homoiousios里米尼,并允许homoios单独无此外,。This new phrase was the invention of Acacius of Cæsarea, who now deserted the extremer Arians and became leader of the new "Homoean" party.这个新词的发明Acacius的cæsarea,现在冷清的extremer亚利安并成为新的“Homoean”党的领导。 He procured the exile of Macedonius, Eleusius, Basil, Eustathius, Silvanus, Cyril, and others.他采购Macedonius,Eleusius,罗勒,欧斯塔修斯,西拉,西里尔和其他的流亡者。

Constantius died at the end of 361.康斯坦丘斯死亡361年底。Under Julian the exiles returned.在朱利安的流亡者返回。Basil was probably dead.瓦西里是可能死亡。Macedonius organized a party which confessed the Son to be kata panta homoios, while it declared the Holy Ghost to be the minister and servant of the Father and a creature. Macedonius举办了党的供述儿子卡塔潘塔homoios,同时宣布圣灵部长和仆人的父亲和一个生物。Eleusius joined him, and so did Eustathius for a time.Eleusius加入了他,所以没有时间欧斯塔修斯。This remnant of the Semiarian party held synods at Zele and elsewhere.这Semiarian党的残余Zele和其他地方举行的主教会议。 The accession of Jovian, who was orthodox, induced the versatile Acacius, with Meletius of Antioch and twenty-five bishops, to accept the Nicene formula, adding an explanation that the Nicene Fathers meant by homoousios merely homoios kat ousian.木星的加入,谁是正统,诱导多功能Acacius,安提阿和二十五位主教Meletius,接受尼西亚公式,尼西亚教父homoousios只是homoios吉ousian意味着增加一个解释。 Thus Acacius had taken up the original formula of the Semiarians.因此Acacius采取了原公式的Semiarians。In 365 the Macedonians assembled at Lampsacus under the presidency of Eleusius, and condemned the Councils of Ariminum and Antioch (360), asserting again the likeness in substance.在365马其顿组装的主持下,Eleusius Lampsacus,并谴责Ariminum和安提(360)局,再次主张在实质上的相似。But the threats of the Arian emperor Valens caused Eleusius to sign an Arian creed at Nicomedia in 366.但阿里安皇帝瓦伦斯的威胁所造成的Eleusius签署366尼科美底亚阿里安信条。He returned to his diocese full of remorse, and begged for the election of another bishop; but his diocesans refused to let him resign.他回到他的教区充满悔意,并央求另一个主教的选举,但他diocesans拒绝让他辞职。The West was at peace under Valentinian, so the Semiarians sent envoys to that emperor and to the pope to get help.西方国家在和平下瓦伦蒂安,所以Semiarians派出使节,皇帝和教皇得到帮助。Liberius refused to see them until they presented him with a confession of faith which included the Nicene formula.Liberius拒绝见他们,直到他们提出了他的信条,其中包括尼西亚公式。He seems to have been unaware that the party now rejected the Divinity of the Holy Ghost; but this was perhaps not true of the envoys Eustathius and Silvanus.他似乎已经不知道党现在拒绝圣灵的神,但这也许不是真正的使节欧斯塔修斯和西拉。On the return of the legates, the documents they brought were received with great joy by a synod at Tyana, which embraced the Nicene faith.在返回的使节,他们带来的文件,共收到主教在Tyana,拥抱尼西亚信仰的巨大喜悦。 But another synod in Caria still refused the homoousion.但另一位主教在Cari​​a仍然拒绝了homoousion。For the rest of the history of the sect, who are now to be called Macedonians, see PNEUMATOMACHI.该教派的历史,现在被称为马其顿休息,看到PNEUMATOMACHI。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息书面约翰查普曼。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.专用于耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,卷十三。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
In addition to bibliography under ARIANISM and BISHOP EUSEBIUS OF NICOMEDIA, see articles Basilius of Ancyra, Eleusius, Eustathius of Sebaste by VENABLES in Dict .Christ.此外书目下阿里乌斯教和主教尤西比乌斯的尼科美底亚,安该拉,Eleusius Sebaste欧斯塔修斯看到维纳布尔斯在快译通的文章Basilius。基督。Biog.; LICHTENSTEIN, Eusebius von Nikomedien (Halle, 1903); LOOFS, Eustathius von Sebaste und die Chronologie der Basilius-Briefe (Halle, 1898).尤西比乌斯Biog;列支敦士登,冯Nikomedien(哈雷,1903年); LOOFS,欧斯塔修斯冯Sebaste与Chronologie DER Basilius - Briefe(哈雷,1898年)。


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