Sibylline Oracles知未来的签

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The name given to certain collections of supposed prophecies, emanating from the sibyls or divinely inspired seeresses, which were widely circulated in antiquity.指定的名称应该预言的某些集合,从sibyls或神圣的seeresses,在古代被广泛传阅所产生的。

The derivation and meaning of the name Sibyl are still subjects of controversy among antiquarians.推导和女巫的名称的含义antiquarians之间仍有争议的主体。While the earlier writers (Eurìpides, Aristophanes, Plato) refer invariably to "the sibyl", later authors speak of many and designate the different places where they were said to dwell.虽然早期的作家(欧里庇得斯,阿里斯托芬,柏拉图)不约而同地提到“女巫”,后来作者的许多发言,并指定不同的地方,他们在那里说纠缠。 Thus Varro, quoted by Lactantius (Div. Instit., L, vi) enumerates ten sibyls: the Persian, the Libyan, the Delphian, the Cimmerian, the Erythræan, the Samarian, the Cumæan, and those of the Hellespont, of Phrygia, and of Tibur.因此沃罗,拉克唐修(Div. Instit,L,VI)引述列举了十个sibyls:波斯,利比亚,Delphian,基梅里,Erythræan,撒玛利亚,Cumæan的赫勒斯滂,弗里吉亚, Tibur。The Sibyls most highly venerated in Rome were those of Cumæ and Erythræa.在罗马最高度的崇敬Sibyls Cumæ和红霉素。

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In pagan times the oracles and predictions ascribed to the sibyls were carefully collected and jealously guarded in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, and were consulted only in times of grave crises.在异教冲高的sibyls神谕和预测进行了认真收集并小心翼翼地在木星Capitolinus庙守卫,并只有在严重的危机时期谘询。 Because of the vogue enjoyed by these heathen oracles and because of the influence they had in shaping the religious views of the period, the Hellenistic Jews in Alexandria, during the second century BC composed verses in the same form, attributing them to the sibyls, and circulated them among the pagans as a means of diffusing Judaistic doctrines and teaching.由于这些异教徒神谕所享有的时尚,因为他们在塑造这一时期的宗教观点,在亚历山大的希腊化的犹太人,在公元前二世纪,组成诗句在相同的形式,归因于他们的sibyls,并影响之间传阅的扩散Judaistic理论和教学手段的异教徒。 This custom was continued down into Christian times, and was borrowed by some Christians so that in the second or third century, a new class of oracles emanating from Christian sources came into being.这种习俗一直持续到基督教时代,借用一些基督徒,以便在第二个或第三个世纪,一个新类从基督教的来源所产生的神谕应运而生。 Hence the Sibylline Oracles can be classed as Pagan, Jewish, or Christian.因此可以被归类为异教徒,犹太人或基督教女巫神谕。 In many cases, however, the Christians merely revised or interpolated the Jewish documents, and thus we have two classes of Christian Oracles, those adopted from Jewish sources and those entirely written by Christians.然而,在许多情况下,基督徒只是修改或插在犹太的文件,因此,我们有两类基督教神谕,从犹太人的来源和那些完全由基督徒书面通过。 Much difficulty is experienced in determining exactly how much of what remains is Christian and how much Jewish.经历了很大的困难是在确定到底有多少仍然是基督教和多少犹太。Christianity and Judaism coincided on so many points that the Christians could accept without modification much that had come from Jewish pens.基督教和犹太教的正值就这么点,基督徒可以不加修改地接受许多犹太笔。It seems clear, however, that the Christian Oracles and those revised from Jewish sources all emanated from the same circle and were intended to aid in the diffusion of Christianity.然而,它似乎很清楚,基督教神谕和犹太来源修订的全部出自同一圈,旨在帮助在基督教的扩散。The Sibyls are quoted frequently by the early Fathers and Christian writers, Justin, Athenagoras, Theophilus, Clement of Alexandria, Lactantius, Augustine, etc. Through the decline and disappearance of paganism, however, interest in them gradually diminished and they ceased to be widely read or circulated, though they were known and used during the Middle Ages in both the East and the West. Sibyls是由早期的神父和基督教作家经常引用,贾斯汀,哥拉,西奥菲勒斯,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,拉克唐修,奥古斯丁,等通过异教的衰落和消失,但是,在他们的兴趣逐渐减少,他们不再被广泛读取或分发,虽然他们知道,无论是在东方和西方的中世纪期间所使用的。

Large collections of these Jewish and Christian oracles are still in existence.这些犹太教和基督教的神谕大集合仍然存在。In 1545 Xystus Betuleius (Sixtus Birken) published an edition of eight books of oracles with a preface dating from perhaps the sixth century AD At the beginning of the last century Cardinal Mai discovered four other books, which were not a continuation of the eight previously printed, but an independent collection.Xystus Betuleius(Sixtus Birken)在1545年出版的一版书的前言也许从公元六世纪早在上个世纪初,麦枢机发现四个其他书籍,这是不是延续以前印制的八个神谕八,而是一个独立的集合。 These are numbered XI, XII, XIII, XIV, in later editions.这些编号为第十一,十二,十三,十四,在以后的版本。Alexandre published a valuable edition with a Latin translation (Paris, 1841-56), and a new and revised edition appeared from the pen of Geffcken (Leipzig, 1902) as one of the volumes in the Berlin Corpus.亚历山大发表一个用拉丁文译本(巴黎,1841年至1856年)的宝贵版,并出现一个新的修订版Geffcken笔(莱比锡,1902年)在柏林语料库卷之一。 In addition to the books already enumerated several fragments of oracles taken from the works of Theophilus and Lactantius are printed in the later editions.除了已经列举的书籍,从西奥菲勒斯和拉克唐修工程采取的神谕的几个片段都印在以后的版本中。

In form the Pagan, Christian, and Jewish Oracles are alike.在形式上的异教徒,基督教和犹太教的神谕的都是一样的。They all purport to be the work of the sibyls, and are expressed in hexameter verses in the so-called Homeric dialect.他们都声称要sibyls工作,并表示在所谓的荷马方言六步诗句。The contents are of the most varied character and for the most part contain references to peoples, kingdoms, cities, rulers, temples, etc. It is futile to attempt to find any order in the plan which governed their composition.最多样的字符的内容,包含大部分人民的王国,城市,统治者,寺庙等,这是徒劳的,试图找到在所管辖其组成的计划的任何顺序。 The perplexity occasioned by the frequent change of theme can perhaps be accounted for by the supposition that they circulated privately, as the Roman Government tolerated only the official collection, and that their present arrangement represents the caprice of different owners or collectors who brought them together from various sources.为主题的频繁变化所引起的困惑或许可以假设,他们私下传阅占,罗马政府容忍只有官方的收集,和他们目前的安排,代表不同的业主或收藏家谁给他们带来了来自的任性各种来源。 There is in some of the books a general theme, which can be followed only with difficulty.有一些在一般的主题,可以跟困难的书籍。Though there are occasionally verses which are truly poetical and sublime, the general character of the Sibylline Oracles is mediocre.虽然偶尔有真正的诗意和崇高的诗句是,女巫神谕一般性质的表现平平。The order in which the books are enumerated does not represent their relative antiquity, nor has the most searching criticism been able accurately to determine how much is Christian and how much Jewish.在其中的书列举的顺序并不代表其相对的古风,也最搜索的批评能够准确地确定有多少是基督徒和多少犹太人。

Book IV is generally considered to embody the oldest portions of the oracles, and while many of the older critics saw in it elements which were considered to be Christian, it is now looked on as completely Jewish.第四册是普遍认为体现神谕的最古老的部分,而上了年纪的的批评很多,看到这被认为是基督教的元素,它现在看上去完全犹太。 Book V has given rise to many divergent opinions, some claiming it as Jewish, others as the work of a Christian Jew, and others as being largely interpolated by a Christian.第五卷,已经引起了许多不同的意见,一些自称为犹太人,其他的工作作为一个基督徒犹太人,和其他人作为主要由基督教插。 It contains so little that can be considered Christian that it can safely be set down as Jewish.它包含了如此之少是可以考虑的基督教,它可以安全地设置为犹太。Books VI and VII are admittedly of Christian origin.丛书第六和第七是无可否认的是在基督教的起源。Some authors (Mendelssohn, Alexandre, Geffcken) describe Book VI as an heretical hymn, but this contention has no evidence in its favour.有些作者(门德尔松,亚历山大,Geffcken)形容为邪教的赞美诗书第六,但这一论点没有对其有利的证据。It dates most probably from the third century.它的日期最有可能从第三个世纪。Books I and II are regarded as a Christian revision of a Jewish original.丛书第一和第​​二被视为基督教的一个犹太原修订。 Book VIII offers peculiar difficulties; the first 216 verses are most likely the work of a second century Jew, while the latter part (verses 217-500) beginning with an acrostic on the symbolical Christian word Icthus is undoubtedly Christian, and dates most probably from the third century.图书第八提供了特殊的困难;第216诗句是最有可能的第二个世纪的犹太人的工作,而后者的一部分(217-500节)与象征性的基督教字Icthus的离合词开始无疑是基督教,日期最有可能从第三个世纪。 In the form in which they are now found the other four books are probably the work of Christian authors.其他四书,在他们现在发现的形式可能是基督教作家的工作。Books XII and XIII are from the same pen, XII being a revision of a Jewish original.从相同的笔,第十二修订的一个犹太原书籍第十二和第十三。Book XI might have been written either by a Christian or a Jew in the third century, and Book XIV of the same doubtful provenance dates from the fourth century.图书第十一可能已被写入一个基督徒或在第三个世纪的犹太人,和第十四书相同的怀疑从第四世纪出处日期。The general conclusion is that Books VI, VII, and XIII and the latter part of Book VIII are wholly Christian.总的结论是,丛书第六,第七和第十三条和第八册的后半部分是全基督教。Books I, II, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV received their present form from a Christian.从基督教的书籍我,第二,第十一,第十二,十三,和第十四收到其目前的形式。The peculiar Christian circle in which these compositions originated cannot be determined, neither can it be asserted what motive prompted their composition except as a means of Christian propaganda.奇特的基督教圈子,这些成分起源不能确定的,既不能断言什么动机促使其成分除了基督教宣传的一种手段。

Publication information Written by Patrick J. Healy.由Patrick J.书面希利的出版物信息。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.专用于耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,卷十三。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
GEFFCKEN, Komposition u.GEFFCKEN,Komposition U.Entstehungszeit der Oracula Sibyllina (Leipzig, 1902); HARNACK, Gesch.Entstehungszeit DER Oracula Sibyllina(莱比锡,1902年);哈纳克,Gesch。der altchrist.DER altchrist。Litt.利特。(Leipzig, 1893), I, pt. (莱比锡,1893年),我,PT。ii, 581-89; II, pt.二,581-89;二,PT。ii, 184-89; BARDENHEWER, Gesch.二,184-89;巴登黑韦尔,Gesch。der altkirch.DER altkirch。Litt., II (1902-3), 651, 656; SCHÜRER, Gesch.利特,II(1902-3),651,656; SCHÜRER,Gesch。des jud. DES达瓦慈善会。Volkes, III (Leipzig, 1910), 290 sqq.Volkes,三(莱比锡,1910年),290 SQQ。


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