Targum, Early History of the Bible尔 中文 - Zhong Wen


General Information一般资料

A Targum is any of the Aramaic translations, more or less literal, of portions of the Old Testament used in the synagogues of Palestine and Babylonia.一个Targum是任何阿拉姆语翻译,更多的还是比较少的文字,在巴勒斯坦和巴比伦的犹太教堂所用的旧约部分,。 When, after the Babylonian Captivity in the 6th century BC, Aramaic replaced Hebrew as the generally spoken language, it became necessary to explain the meaning of readings from the Scriptures.后,当在公元前6世纪巴比伦圈养,阿拉姆取代普遍使用的语言希伯来语,它成为必要的解释,从圣经中的读数的含义。 Only a small portion of the many oral Targums that were produced survived.只有一小部分的生产幸存下来的许多口头塔古姆译本。Among these are the originally Judean Targum known as the Targum Onkelos; three late and incomplete Targums, the so-called Jerusalem Targums, on the Pentateuch; the Judean Targum on the Prophets; later fragments of another paraphrase of the Prophets; and Targums on Psalms, Job, Proverbs, the five so-called megillahs (Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Esther, Ecclesiastes), Chronicles, and the deuterocanonical additions to Esther.其中有称为他尔根昂克罗斯最初朱迪亚Targum;三个塔古姆译本迟到,不完整的,所谓的耶路撒冷塔古姆译本,就pentateuch;先知朱迪亚Targum;以后的先知的另一个意译片段;诗篇塔古姆译本作业,谚语,5个所谓的megillahs(宋所罗门,露丝,哀歌,以斯帖记,传道书),方志,以斯帖次经增加。

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Advanced Information先进的信息

A Version is a translation of the holy Scriptures.一个版本的圣经的翻译。This word is not found in the Bible; nevertheless, as frequent references are made in this work to various ancient as well as modern versions, it is fitting that some brief account should be given of the most important of these.找不到这个词是在“圣经”;然而,在这项工作中经常提到各种古代以及现代的版本,它是恰当的,应该是其中最重要的一些简短的帐户。 These versions are important helps to the right interpretation of the Word.这些版本是很重要的,有助于正确的Word解释。(See Samaritan Pentateuch article, below.)(见撒玛利亚pentateuch文章,下文)。


Catholic Information天主教信息

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old Testament.他尔根是鲜明的阿拉姆语翻译或旧约释义指定。After the return from exile Aramaic gradually won the ascendancy as the colloquial language over the slowly decaying Hebrew until, from probably the last century before the Christian era, Hebrew was hardly more than the language of the schools and of worship.从流亡阿拉姆返回后逐渐获得优势在慢慢腐烂希伯来语口语,直到可能从上世纪的基督教时代之前,希伯来文是很难比语言学校和崇拜。 As the majority of the population ceased to be conversant with the sacred language it became necessary to provide translations for the better understanding of the passages of the Bible read in Hebrew at the liturgical services.由于大部分人口不再是熟悉的神圣的语言,它成为必要为更好地理解圣经的段落翻译希伯来文阅读的礼仪服务。Thus to meet this need it became customary to add to the portions of the Scriptures read on the Sabbath an explanatory oral translation - a Targum.因此,要满足这一需求,它成为习惯在安息日读解释性的口头翻译圣经的部分 - 一个Targum。At first this was probably done only for the more difficult passages, but as time went on, for the entire text.起初可能只对比较困难的段落,但随着时间的推移,整个文本。The "Mishna" gives more elaborate instructions as to the way in which this translating should be done. “密西拿”给出了更详细的说明,在这本翻译应该做的方式。According to the "Megillah" (IV, 4), when the lesson to be read aloud was from the "Torah" only one verse was to be read to the translator (Methurgeman).据“Megillah”(四,4)时,要大声朗读课从“圣经”,只有一首诗是读翻译(Methurgeman)。 When the lesson was from the "Nebi'im" it was permitted to read three to him, unless each verse formed a special division.当教训“Nebi'im”是被允许读三给他,除非每个诗形成一个特殊的分工。The directions also state which portions are to be read aloud but not translated (cf. for instance "Meg.", IV, 10), and a warning is given against translations that are either to free, palliative, allegorical, etc.的方向也说明这部分要大声朗读,但没有翻译(例如参见“梅格。”四,10),对翻译是免费的,治标不治本,寓意等,并发出警告

Another regulation was that the Targum was not to be written down ("Jer. Meg.", IV, i = fol. 74d).另一项规例Targum不写下来(“哲。梅格。”四,I = FOL。74D)。This prohibition, however, probably referred only to the interpretation given in the synagogue and did not apply to private use or to its employment in study.然而,这一禁令,可能只提到,在犹太教堂所作的解释并没有适用于研究个人使用或其就业。In any case, written Targums must have existed at an early date.在任何情况下,必须有书面塔古姆译本早日存在。Thus, for instance, one on the Book of Job is mentioned in the era of Gamaliel I (middle of the first century AD), which he, however, was not willing to recognize ("Sabb.", 115a; cf. "Tos. Sabb.", 13, 2=p. 128, ed. Zuckermandel).因此,举例来说,一个约伯记提到加马利亚我(公元一世纪中),然而,是不是愿意承认(时代,115A“SABB。”比照“TOS。 SABB。“,13,2 =第128页。Zuckermandel)。If Matt., xxvii, 46, gives the Aramaic form of Ps., xxi, 2, the last utterance of the Saviour upon the Cross, this shows that even then the Psalms were current among the people in the Aramaic language; moreover, Ephes., iv, 8, has a closer connection with the Targum to Ps., lxvii, 19, than with the Masoretic text.如果马特,二十七,46岁,给人的PS阿拉姆形式,XXI,2,救主在十字架上的最后话语,这表明,即使在当时的诗篇在阿拉姆语言的人之间的电流;此外,Ephes ,四,八,有密切的联系,以PS的Targum,LXVII,19,比马所拉文本。In addition, the "Mishna Yadayim", IV, 5, and "Sabb.", XVI, also indicates the early existence of manuscripts of the Targum.此外,“密西拿Yadayim”,四,五,和“SABB。”十六,也表明了早期存在的Targum的手稿。These manuscripts, however, were only owned privately not officially as for a long period the Targums were without authoritative and official importance in Palestine.然而,这些手稿,只有拥有私人长时间没有正式塔古姆译本没有在巴勒斯坦的权威和官方的重要性。This authoritative position was first gained among the Babylonian Jews and through their influence the Targums were also more highly esteemed in Palestine, at least the two older ones.这种权威地位首次获得之间的巴比伦的犹太人,并通过他们的影响力塔古姆译本也更巴勒斯坦的高度尊敬,至少有两个年纪稍长的。 In the form in which they exist at present no Targum that has been preserved goes back further than the fifth century.在目前存在的形式,即他们没有一直保存Targum进一步追溯到比五世纪。Various indication, however, show the great antiquity of the main contents of many Targums, their theology among other things.然而,各种迹象显示许多塔古姆译本,除其他事项外神学的主要内容非常古老。That as early as the third century the text, for instance, of the Targum on the Pentateuch was regarded by the synagogue as traditionally settled is evident from the "Mishna Meg.", IV, 10, "Jer. Meg.", 74d, "Hab. Kidd.", 49d, "Tos. Meg.", IV, 41.的第三个世纪早期的文字,例如,在Pentateuch Targum犹太教堂被视为传统的结算是显而易见的,从“密西拿梅格。”四,10,“耶。梅格”,74D, “民政事务局。基德”,49D,“TOS。梅格。”四,41。There are Targums to all the canonical books excepting Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah; for some books of the Bible there are several Targums.有所有典型的书籍,除了丹尼尔,以斯拉和尼希米塔古姆译本;一些“圣经”的书籍有几个塔古姆译本。 As regards age and linguistic character they may be divided into three classes: (1) Targum of Onkelos and Targum of Jonathan; (2) Jerusalem Targums; (3) Targum on the Hagiographa.至于年龄和语言的字符,他们可分为三类:(1)他尔根的昂克罗斯和他尔根乔纳森;(2)耶路撒冷塔古姆译本;(3)对Hagiographa Targum。

The form of language used in the Targums is called specifically "Targum dialect".塔古姆译本所用的语言形式被称为专门的“Targum方言”。It belongs to western Aramaic and more particularly to the Aramaic of Palestine.它属于西部阿拉姆,特别是对巴勒斯坦的阿拉姆。 Its home in to be sought in Judea, the ancient seat of the learning of the scribes.其家中,以寻求在朱迪亚,古代文士学习的席位。 It should be borne in mind that this Targumic language does not represent the spoken Aramaic, but is the result of the labours of scholars.应该牢记,这Targumic语言并不代表发言阿拉姆,但学者的劳动的结果。Consequently the point under discussion turns on a literary Aramaic originally formed in Judea.因此正在讨论的问题,将原本在朱迪亚形成了文学阿拉姆。This is particularly true of the two earlier Targums; the later ones show generally an artificially mixed type of language.这是真实的,尤其是前两个塔古姆译本;,后面的显示一般人为的混合型的语言。The traditional pointing of the texts is valueless and misleading: a more certain basis was first offered by manuscripts from Southern Arabia in which the pointing for the vowels was placed above the line.传统的文本指向是毫无价值和误导:最早是由从南部阿拉伯其中元音的指向线之上的手稿提供更一定的基础。 In Arabia the old synagogal custom of reciting the Targum at the religious services had been retained, and consequently more interest was felt there in the pronunciation.老背诵宗教服务Targum synagogal定制,在阿拉伯被保留下来,并因此更多的利益,感受到了那里的发音。It must be acknowledged, however, that this cannot be regarded as a direct pronunciation of the Palestinian pronunciation; it may have sprung from a formal treatment of the Targum of Onkelos customary among the Babylonian scholars.但是,必须承认,这不能作为巴勒斯坦的发音直接发音;,它可能已经从一个正规的治疗昂克罗斯巴​​比伦学者之间的习惯Targum如雨后春笋般涌现。 As regards the method of translation all Targums in common strive to avoid as much as possible anthropomorphisms and anthropopathic terms, as well as other apparently undignified expressions concerning, and descriptive of God.至于翻译的方法,共同所有塔古姆译本的努力,以避免可能anthropomorphisms和拟人的条款,以及其他明显不体面的表达式尽可能有关,和神的描述。 The Targums are printed in the Rabbinical and Polyglot Bibles, although the two do not always contain the same Targums or an equal number of them.塔古姆译本都印在犹太教和多语种的“圣经”,虽然两者并不总是包含相同的塔古姆译本或他们的人数相等。See below for particulars as to individual editions.个别版本的详情,请参阅下面。


The official Targum to the Pentateuch is designated by the name of Onkelos.摩西五是指定的官方Targum昂克罗斯名称。In the Babylonian Talmud and in the Tosephta, Onkelos is the name of a proselyte who is mentioned as a contemporay of the elder Gamaliel ("Aboda zara", 11a; cf. "Tos. sabb.", 8=p. 119, ed. Zuckermandel).在巴比伦塔木德和在Tosephta,昂克罗斯是一个人是作为一个老加马利亚(“Aboda ZARA”,11A contemporay提到的proselyte的名称;“。。TOS SABB”比照,8 = 119页,主编Zuckermandel)。The labours of Onkelos are referred to in "Meg.", 3a, in the following words: "Rab Jeremiya, according to others Rab Hiya bar Abba says: 'According to the statement of Rab Eliezer and Rab Josua, Onkelos the proselyte has said, that is, has orally formulated, the Targum of the Torah'".昂克罗斯的劳作,3A,在下面的话:“梅格。”:“拉布Jeremiya,根据其他人拉布Hiya酒吧阿爸说:”据拉布埃利泽和拉布Josua声明,昂克罗斯proselyte说,也就是口头制定,Targum托拉“。 Gaon Sar Shalon (d. 859) was the first who, taking this passage as a basis, called the Pentateuch-Targum the Targum of Onkelos. Gaon特区Shalon(卒于859)的第一人,同时以此为基础这段话,所谓的pentateuch他尔根昂克罗斯Targum。This he did in an opinion concerning the Targum which he evidently had before him at the time in a written copy.这是他没有在有关Targum他显然之前他曾在一份书面的副本时的意见。The designation that thus arose became customary through its acceptance by Rashi and others. Rashi和其他的指定,以致出现成为习惯通过其接受。It is evident, however, that in the passage mentioned ("Meg.", 3a) there has been a confusion with the name of Aquila, the translator of the Bible, for the older parallel passage of the Palestinian Talmud ("Meg.", I, 11 = fol. 71c) says the same of Aquila and his Greek translation of the Bible.这是显而易见的,然而,提到中的一段话(“梅格。”3A)有一个旧的平行通道的巴勒斯坦犹太法典(拉奎拉,“圣经”翻译的名称混乱,“梅格。”我,11 = FOL。71C)说,拉奎拉和他的“圣经”的希腊文翻译的相同。Compare also Midrash, Tanchuma, Mishpatim, 91, 92 (ed. Mantua, 1863, fol. 36b).也比较米德拉士,Tanchuma,Mishpatim,91,92(主编曼图亚,1863年,FOL。36B)。Thus it seems that in Babylonia the old and correct knowledge of the Greek translation of the proselyte Aquila was erroneously transferred to the anonymous Aramaic translation, that consequently Onkelos (instead of Akylas) is a corrupted form or a provincial modification of Aquila.因此,它似乎在巴比伦的希腊翻译proselyte拉奎拉旧的和正确的认识是错误地转移到匿名的阿拉姆语翻译,因此昂克罗斯(而不是Akylas)是一个损坏的形式或拉奎拉省修改。 xxxxx always (five times) for xxxxx.--> It is not necessary to discuss here earlier views concerning this point.XXXXX XXXXX总是(5次).-->这是没有必要在这里讨论的意见这一点。The effort to prove the existence of an Onkelos distinct from Aquila is still made by Friedmann ("Onkelos and Aquila" in "Jahresber. der Israelit.-theol. Lehranstalt in Wien", 1896), but the proof adduced is not convincing (cf. Blau in "Jewish Quarterly Review," IX, 1897, p. 727 sqq.).弗里德曼(“昂克罗斯和拉奎拉”“Jahresber。DER Israelit. theol。Lehranstalt在维也纳”,1896年)的努力证明了一个昂克罗斯从拉奎拉不同的存在仍然是由,但举出的证据是不能令人信服(CF布劳在“犹太季刊,”九,1897年,第727 SQQ)。

Thus it is not known who wrote the Targum named after Onkelos.因此,它是不知道是谁写昂克罗斯后命名为Targum。In any case the Targum, at least the greater part of it, is old, a fact indicated by the connection with Rab Eliezer and Rab Josua, and belongs probably to the second, or it may be to the first century of our era. Targum,至少它的较大部分,在任何情况下,是老的,由拉布埃利泽和拉布Josua连接表示一个事实,可能属于第二,也可能是我们这个时代的第一个世纪。 It arose, as the idiom shows, in Judea, but it received official recognition first from the Babylonian Rabbis, and is therefore called by them "our Targum", or is quoted with the formula "as we translate".它产生,作为成语显示,在朱迪亚,但它从巴比伦拉比收到正式承认,并因此被称为“我们的Targum”,或者是引用公式“翻译”。 Rab Natronay (d. 869) in speaking of this says, that it is not permitted to replace it in the services of the synagogue by any other translation of the Pentateuch.拉布Natronay(卒于869),在此发言说,这是不允许在犹太教堂的服务,以取代任何其他翻译的pentateuch的。 The high reputation of this authorized translation is shown by the fact that it has a Masorah of its own.本授权翻译很高的声誉,是事实,即它有其自身的Masorah。The fixing of the written form, and thereby the final settlement of the text as well, should not be assigned to a date before the fifth century.书面形式固定,从而最终解决以及文本,不应该被分配到一个日期前第五世纪。 The language is, in general, an artificial form of speech closely connected with the Biblical Aramaic.语言是,在一般情况下,人工讲话的形式,密切与圣经阿拉姆连接。It is probably not the spoken Aramaic used as a dialect by the Jewish people, but a copy made by scholars of the Hebraic original, of which the Targum claims to give the most faithful reproduction possible.这可能是不作为犹太人民的一种方言的口语阿拉姆,但希伯来原,其中Targum声称给最忠实的再生产成为可能的学者提出的一个副本。 In doing this the Aramaic language is treated similarly to the Greek in the translation of Aquila, consequently the many Hebraic idioms.在阿拉姆语的语言,这样做是在拉奎拉,因此许多希伯来成语翻译的希腊同样对待。There is no positive proof (Dalman, "Gramm", 13) of a corrupting influence of the Babylonian dialect as Noldeke held ["Semit. Sprachen" (1887), 32; (2nd ed., 1899), 38].没有积极的证明的巴比伦方言破坏的影响(达尔曼“格拉姆”,13)Noldeke举行[“Semit Sprachen”(1887年),32;(第二版,1899年),38]。

As regards the character of the translation it is, taken altogether, fairly literal.至于翻译的性质,采取完全,公正文字。Anthropomorphic and anthropopathic expressions are avoided by roundabout expressions or in other ways; obscure Hebrew words are often taken without change into the text; proper names are frequently interpreted, as Shinar-Babylon, Ishmaelites-Arabs; for figurative expressions are substituted the corresponding literal ones.拟人化和拟人的表情,避免迂回表达或以其他方式;晦涩的希伯来语单词没有到文本的变化往往采取适当的名称经常被解释为古巴比伦希纳尔巴比伦,以实玛利阿拉伯人,形象化表达式替换相应的文字。 Haggadic interpretation is only used at times, for instance in prophetic passages, as Gen., xlix; Num., xxiv; Deut., xxxii.有时只用Haggadic的解释是,例如在先知的段落,作为将军,XLIX NUM,XXIV;申,三十二。This Targum was first printed at Bologna (1482) together with the Hebrew text of the Bible and the commentary of Rashi; later, in the Rabbinical Bibles of Bomberg and Buxtorf, and with a Latin translation in the Complutensian Polyglot (1517), and the Polyglots of Antwerp (1569), Paris (1645), and London (1657).这是第一次印刷Targum在博洛尼亚(1482)与“圣经”的希伯来文和Rashi的评论后,在邦贝里和Buxtorf,犹太教的“圣经”和用拉丁文译本在Complutensian多语种(1517),和Polyglots的安特卫普(1569),巴黎(1645),伦敦(1657年)。 Among separate editions of the Targum special mention should be made of that printed in 1557 at Sabbioneta.其中应于1557年在Sabbioneta印刷出版单行本Targum特别提到。More modern editions are: Berliner, "Targum Onkelos" (2 vols., Berlin, 1884), in which vol.更现代的版本是:柏林,“他尔根昂克罗斯”(2卷,柏林​​,1884年),其中第一卷。I contains the text according to the Sabbioneta edition, and vol.我根据Sabbioneta版,卷包含文本。II, elucidations; the Yemanites at Jerusalem have printed with an edition of the Pentateuch (sefer Keter tora) from manuscripts the Arabic translation by Saadya (Jerusalem, 1894-1901), in which publication the vowel pointing above the line has been changed to sublinear pointing; Barnheim, "The Targum of Onkelos to Genesis" (London, 1896), on the text of the Yemen manuscripts.第二,阐发;在耶路撒冷Yemanites印版从手稿的pentateuch(之书海科特TORA)由Saadya阿拉伯语翻译(耶路撒冷,1894年至1901年),在它出版的元音,指着上面的行已更改为次线性指点; Barnheim“的昂克罗斯Targum创世记”(伦敦,1896年)也门手稿文本。In addition to the Latin translations in the Polyglot Bibles there is one by Fagius (Strasburg, 1546); there is also an English translation by Etheridge, "The Targum of Onkelos and Jonathan ben Uzziel on the Pent., with the Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum", from the Chaldee (2 vols., London, 1862-65).除了在多语种圣经拉丁翻译Fagius(斯特拉斯堡,1546);也有由Etheridge的英文翻译,“被压抑Targum昂克罗斯和乔纳森奔乌薛,耶路撒冷的片段。他尔根“,从沙尔(2卷,伦敦,1862年至1865年)。


The Targum to the Prophets (priores, historical books; posteriores, the actual Prophets) now in existence is ascribed to Jonathan ben Uzziel, who is said on the authority of the Babylonian "Megillah", 3a, to have formulated it orally, in accordance with the instructions of Haggai, Zachariah, and Malachi.先知(priores,历史书籍; posteriores,实际先知)Targum现在存在,是归因于乔纳森奔乌薛,巴比伦“Megillah”,3A的权力是谁在说,已经制定,按照口头,哈,撒迦利亚,玛拉基书的说明。 This assertion probably means that in his exposition he gives the traditional interpretation that had been handed down from one generation to another since early times.这种说法可能意味着,在他的论述中,他给人的传统解释,已传世年初以来,从一代到另一个。According to the Babylonian "Sukkah" (28a = baba bathra 134a), he was the most noted pupil of the elder Hillel, and is therefore assigned to the first Christian century.根据巴比伦“Sukkah”(28A =巴巴bathra 134A),他是最引人注目的老希勒尔瞳孔,因此分配给第一个基督教世纪。The Babylonian Talmud in quoting passages from this Targum ascribes them to Rab Joseph bar Hiya (d. 333), the head of the school at Pumbaditha.巴比伦塔木德中援引Targum从这个通道把他们拉布约瑟夫酒吧Hiya(卒于333),学校Pumbaditha头。 Rab Joseph was regarded as a great authority on the tradition of the Targum and his judgment on the translation of many individual passages was eagerly listened to; he may perhaps be considered as the editor of this Targum.拉布约瑟夫Targum和他的判断,对许多个别段落的翻译传统上的一个极大的权威,是热切地听了他也许认为这Targum编辑。 For Jonathan as for Onkelos the final settlement of the written form did not occur until the fifth Christian century.对于乔纳森昂克罗斯书面形式的最终解决,没有发生直到第五基督教世纪。Cornill claims to show ("Einleitung", 2nd., ed., 1893, p. 308) that the Targum on the Prophets is older than the Torah-Targum, but the reasons produced are not convincing (cf. Dalman, 15, passim). Cornill声称显示(“导论”,第二,版,1893年,第308页),先知Targum是年纪比律法,他尔根,但产生的原因是没有说服力的(参见达尔曼,15日,各处)。 Linguistically, this Targum approaches most closely that of Onkelos; in grammatical construction the two are alike but the words used differ, and this Targum is more paraphrastic.语言学的方法,这Targum最密切的昂克罗斯;两个语法结构都是一样的,但使用的话不同,而这Targum是更paraphrastic。 In the historical books Jonathan himself is often the expounder, but in the actual prophetic books the exposition is in reality Haggadic.自己在历史书籍乔纳森中往往是expounder,但在实际的预言书的论述,在现实Haggadic中是。The religious opinions and theological conceptions of the era that are interwoven are very instructive.宗教观点和神学观念的相互交织的时代,是非常有启发性。The text, further, is not free from later additions; from this cause arise the double translations of which the Targum contains several.进一步的文字,是不是后来增加的这项事业中出现的,其中Targum包含了几个双翻译。 The "Prophetae priores" was the first printed with the Hebrew text and the commentaries of Gimhi and Levi at Leiria, Portugal, in 1494.“Prophetae priores”是第一个与希伯来文和葡萄牙莱里亚,Gimhi和Levi评论打印,于1494年。At a later date the whole Targum was printed in the Rabbinical Bibles of Bomberg and Buxdorf and in the Polyglot Bibles of Antwerp, Paris, and London.在以后的日子,整个Targum印邦贝里和Buxdorf犹太教“圣经”,并在安特卫普,巴黎和伦敦的多语种“圣经”。 The last edition is that of de Lagarde, "Prophetae chaldice e fide codicis Reuchliniani" (Leipzig, 1872).上一版DE拉加德,“Prophetae chaldice Ë真正codicis Reuchliniani”(莱比锡,1872年)。There are supplementary additions to this from an Erfurt manuscript in "Symmicta", I, 139.从埃尔富特“Symmicta”,我139手稿本的补充增加。The Targum to the Haphtarah is to be found in what is called the Pentateuch edition of the Yemanites at Jerusalem.在什么是所谓的Yemanites摩西五版在耶路撒冷发现的Haphtarah Targum。English translations are: Pauli, "The Chaldee Paraphrase on the Prophet Isaiah Translated" (London, 1871); Levy, "Targum on Isaiah," I (London, 1889).英文翻译:圣保利,(伦敦,1871年),“先知以赛亚译沙尔意译”征费“,他尔根对以赛亚说:”我(伦敦,1889年)。


This designation is not correct; the older and more correct name, "Palestinian Targum", is found for instance in the writings of Gaon Hai (d. 1038).这一名称是不正确的,老的和比较正确的名称,“巴勒斯坦Targum”,例如发现在海Gaon(卒于1038)的著作。 date this designation was displaced by the term xxxxxxx, just as before this the Palestinian Talmud (xxxx xxx xxxx) is called in the writings of Gaon Sar Shalon xxxxxxxxx.--> Fundamentally the language of these Targums is Palestinian Aramaic but of a very mixed type.迄今为止,这个称号是像以前一样这个巴勒斯坦塔木德(XXXX XXX XXXX)Gaon特区Shalon XXXXXXXXX的著作称为长期XXXXXXX流离失所.-->基本上这些塔古姆译本的语言是巴勒斯坦阿拉姆语,但一个很混类型。Neither of them is homogeneous grammatically and lexically.他们都不是均匀的语法和词法。Besides expressions that recall the Galilean dialect of the Palestinian Talmud a preference is shown for imitation of the language of the Targum of Onkelos, while there are also various terms belonging to the language of the Babylonian Talmud.除了记得伽利略方言的巴勒斯坦犹太法典的表达式偏好模仿昂克罗斯Targum的语言,同时也有属于巴比伦塔木德语言的各种条款。

A. Targum Yerushalmi I on the PentateuchA.他尔根•耶路莎米我就pentateuch

This is generally called the Targum of Jonathan or of the Pseudo-Jonathan, because it is cited in the first printed edition (Venice, 1591) under the name of Jonathan ben Uzziel.这通常是所谓的乔纳森或伪乔纳森Targum,因为它是在第一次印刷版(威尼斯,1591)的乔纳森奔乌薛的名字下引。 This designation, however, rests on a mistaken solution of an abbreviation.这个称号,但是,依赖于一个误认为一个缩写解决方案。 The Targum could not have appeared in its present form before the second half of the seventh century. Targum可能没有出现在其目前的形式下半年七世纪前。For example (Genesis 21:21), a wife and daughter of Mohammed are mentioned.例如(创世记21:21),穆罕默德的妻子和女儿被提及。 Compare also (Genesis 49:26) the position of Esau and Ishmael as representatives of the Mohammedan world.也比较(创世记49:26)为代表的伊斯兰教世界中的地位扫和以实玛利。The Targum covers the entire Pentateuch.Targum涵盖整个五经。The only passages that are lacking are: Gen., vi, 15; x, 23; xviii, 4; xx, 15; xxiv, 28; xli, 49; xliv, 30-31; Exod., iv, 8; Lev., xxiv, 4; Num., xxii, 18; xxx, 20b, 21a; xxxvi, 8-9.缺乏的唯一通道是:将军,六,15,X,23;十八,4,XX,15; XXIV,28; XLI,49; XLIV,30-31;出埃及记,四,8列弗。 24,4;数,22,18,XXX,20B,21A; XXXVI,8-9。As to its form it is a free Haggadic treatment of the text, that is, an exposition of rather than a translation.至于它的形式,它是一个免费的Haggadic治疗的文字,就是翻译的论述,而不是。A large part of it is made up of legendary narratives; there are also dialogues, rhetorical and poetical digressions.很大一部分是它的一个传奇叙事,也有对话,修辞学和诗的离题。The paraphrase also discusses religious and metaphysical conceptions, as was the custom of the Jewish mystics of the seventh century.意译还讨论了宗教和形而上学的概念,是七世纪的犹太神秘主义者的习俗。This Targum was first printed at Venice in 1591.这Targum是第一本印刷于1591年在威尼斯。It was also to be found in volume IV of the London Polyglot.它也将被发现在伦敦多语种第四卷。A separate edition of this Targum was edited from the manuscript in the British Museum (manuscript Addit. 27031) by Ginsburger, "Targum Jonathan ben Usiel zum Pentat," (Berlin, 1903).从手稿在大英博物馆(手稿Addit 27031)金斯布格尔被编辑了一本Targum单行本,“他尔根乔纳森本Usiel ZUM Pentat”(柏林,1903年)。Concerning this codex cf.关于这个法典比照。Barnstein in "Jew. Quart Rev.", XI (1899), 167 sqq.在Barnstein“犹太人。夸脱启示录”,第十一章(1899年),167 SQQ。An English translation has been published by Etheridge (supra).已经出版的英文译本由Etheridge(同上)。

B. Targum Yerushalmi IIB.他尔根•耶路莎米II

Targum Yerushalmi on the Pentateuch is also called the Fragmentary targum because the Targum on the entire Pentateuch has not been preserved, but only portions of it on numerous longer and shorter passages, frequently only the Targum on individual verses or parts of such.他尔根耶路莎米就pentateuch是也被称为零星的targum,因为整个pentateuch Targum还没有被保存下来,但只有部分无数较长和较短的通道上,往往只有个别这样的诗句或部分Targum。These fragments were first printed in the rabbinical Bible of 1517.这些片段,第一次印刷在1517犹太教的圣经。In language, method of translation, and exegetical form they are related to the Pseudo-Jonathan.在语言,翻译方法,训诂的形式,它们是相关的伪乔纳森。A perspicuously arranged compilation of the fragments that have been preserved is given by Ginsburger in the "ZDMG", LVII (1903), 67 sqq., and in loc.一个已保存的碎片perspicuously安排的编译是由金斯布格尔在“ZDMG”,第五十七(1903),67 SQQ,LOC。cit., LVIII (1904), 374 sqq., on a page that came from a geniza or repository in a synagogue for damaged manuscripts.CIT,第五十八(1904年),374 SQQ,页面上,从geniza或在犹太教堂损坏手稿库。A Latin translation from the Venice edition of 1517 was published by Taylor (London, 1649); English tr.来自威尼斯的1517版的拉丁语翻译出版由泰勒(伦敦,1649年);英语TR。by Etheridge (supra). Etheridge(同上)。Opinions concerning the connection between the Targums Jerushalmi I and Jerushalmi II agree in general that both are to be traced back to different recensions of an old Jerusalem Targum.塔古姆译本Jerushalmi我和Jerushalmi二之间的连接问题的意见同意一般都是要追溯到一个古老的耶路撒冷他尔根不同的recensions。 This is the view of Zunz (p. 73, and passim), and also that of Geiger, "Urschrift und Udersetzungen der Bibel" (Berlin, 1857), 454.这是聪茨(第73页,并各处)的看法,也盖格说,“Urschrift和Udersetzungen DER Bibel”(柏林,1857年),454。Bassfreund (infra) reaches the conclusion that the basis both of the Fragmentary Targum and that of the Pseudo-Jonathan is a complete Jerusalem Targum of post-Talmudic origin, but that the two Targums, Jerushalmi I and II, presuppose the existence of the Targum of Onkelos. Bassfreund(红外线)得出的结论的基础上,双方的零碎Targum和伪乔纳森是一个完整的耶路撒冷Targum后塔木德出身,但Jerushalmi I和II,两个塔古姆译本,Targum存在为前提昂克罗斯。The Fragmentary Targum gives from this ancient Jerusalem Targum gives from this ancient Jerusalem Targum, according to Bassfreund, only matter supplementary to Onkelos, while Onkelos and the Jerusalem Targum have been used in preparing the Pseudo-Jonathan.从这个古老的耶路撒冷他尔根零星Targum赋予给这个古老的耶路撒冷他尔根,根据Bassfreund,只有物质补充到昂克罗斯,而昂克罗斯和耶路撒冷他尔根已准备伪乔纳森。 In the preface to his edition of the Pseudo-Jonathan (see below) Ginsburger tries to prove that both the Fragmentary Targum and the Pseudo-Jonathan may be traced back to a very ancient Palestinian Targum, which was not influenced by the Targum of Onkelos until a later date.在他的伪乔纳森(见下文)金斯布格尔试图证明,无论是零碎的Targum和伪乔纳森可以追溯到一个非常古老的巴勒斯坦Targum,这是不影响昂克罗斯Targum版本的序言中,直到稍后的日期。 The Fragmentary Targum, in Ginsburger's opinion, represents a variant collection, not to Onkelos (as Bassfreund thinks), but to another recensions of that ancient Jerusalem Targum.金斯布格尔的意见,零碎的Targum,代表一个变种集合,不昂克罗斯(Bassfreund认为),但另一个的recensions,古耶路撒冷他尔根。 Ginsburger's views will have to be accepted as the more probable.金斯布格尔的意见,将要接受更可能。

C. Targum Yerushalmi IIIC.他尔根•耶路莎米III

Targum Yerushalmi III is the name assigned by Dalman (Gramm., 29) to fragments which are given in old editions of the Pentateuch, as Lisbon (1491), Salonica (1520), Constantinople (1546), Venice (1591), and in several manuscripts Nearly all have been published by Ginsburger, "Das Fragmententargum" (1899), 71-74.他尔根•耶路莎米三是达尔曼(Gramm. 29)分配到里斯本(1491),萨洛尼卡(1520),君士坦丁堡(1546),威尼斯(1591),是在老版本的pentateuch片段的名称,并在许多手稿,几乎所有已公布的金斯布格尔,“资本Fragmententargum”(1899),71-74。

D. Other Jerusalem TargumsD.其他耶路撒冷塔古姆译本

There have also been Jerusalem Targums on the Prophets and on individual books of the Hagiographa.也有先知和个别书籍的Hagiographa耶路撒冷塔古姆译本。As regards the Targums on the Prophets de Lagarde has given Reuchlin's notes from the "Nebi'im Codex" in the introduction (pp. VI-XLII) to his "Prophetae chaldice" (infra).至于DE拉加德先知塔古姆译本的“Nebi'im法典”(第VI - XLII)在引进Reuchlin的笔记,以他的“Prophetae chaldice”(红外线)。There are fragments on Josue, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaias, Jeremias, Amos, Jonas, Zacharias.有若苏埃片段,法官,萨穆埃尔,国王,伊萨亚斯,赫雷米亚斯,阿莫斯,乔纳斯,撒迦利亚。[Cf.[比照。Bacher in "ZDMG", XXVIII (1874), 1-72; XXIX (1875), 157 sqq., 319 sq.]巴切尔在“ZDMG”,二十八(1874),1-72 SQQ;第二十九届(1875年),157,319平方米]。


They are the work of various authors and have the character more or less of private undertakings, with the production of which the schools had nothing to do.他们是不同作者的工作,和有性格或多或少的私人事业与生产,其中学校事不关己,。Linguistically they are to be regarded as the work artificially produced of a late age.在语言学上,他们是被人为地产生一个年龄较晚的工作。They depend in the main on the Jerusalem Targums and probably belong to the same era; the Targum on Chronicles may be somewhat later.他们依靠在耶路撒冷塔古姆译本的主要可能属于同一个时代;编年史Targum可能有点迟。 Three groups are to be distinguished as regards linguistic character and relation to the original text:至于语言的字符和有关原始文本区别开来的三组:

(a) Targums to Proverbs, Psalms, and Job;(一)塔古姆译本箴言,诗篇和作业;

(b) Targums to the five Megilloth, that is Ruth, Esther, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Canticles;(二)五个Megilloth塔古姆译本,这是露丝,以斯帖,哀歌,传道书,canticle的;

(c) Targums to the Books of Chronicles.(三)塔古姆译本编年史书籍。

The Targums mentioned under (a) adhere relatively closest to the text of the Bible. (一)坚持“下提到的塔古姆译本相对最接近的”圣经“的文本。The Targum to Proverbs is in language and contents very dependent on the text of the Syriac Peschitto, and is but little more than a Jewish recension of the same. Targum箴言是非常依赖叙利亚Peschitto的文本在语言和内容,但比同一个犹太人的recension。[Cf.[比照。Noldeke in "Merx' Archiv fur wissenschaftl. Erforschung des AT", II (1872), 246 sqq.'在“MERX Noldeke论坛存档毛皮wissenschaftl。Erforschung DES AT”,二(1872),246 SQQ“。Baumgartner, "Etude critique sur l'etat du texte du livre des Proverbes" (Leipzig, 1890), 267 sqq.] Haggadic additions are found only occasionally in the Targum on the Psalms.鲍姆加特纳,“练习曲批判SUR L'政变杜texte杜livre DES Proverbes”(莱比锡,1890年),267 SQQ。Haggadic增加诗篇Targum只是偶尔发现。In a number of passages a second translation is introduced with the remark "another Targum".在一些段落中的第二个翻译介绍所说的“另一个Targum”。The Targum to Job contains many more additions.到了职业Targum包含有更多的补充。There are also variants of the usual formula of citation, and much oftener than in the Targum on the Psalms.也有变种,通常引用的公式和多比诗篇Targum oftener。In style and language this Targum resembles that on the Psalms, consequently both perhaps are the work of the same author.这Targum类似于在风格和语言上的诗篇,因此两者也许是同一作者的工作。

(b) The Targums on the Megilloth are not in reality translations but rather Haggadic commentaries.(二)Megilloth塔古姆译本是不是在现实的翻译而是Haggadic评论。the Biblical text is most clearly evident in the Targums to Ruth and to Lamentations.圣经的文字是最清楚的露丝和以哀歌塔古姆译本明显。The Targum to Ecclesiastes is a tasteless declamation upon the text on which it is based; that on Canticles is an allegorico-mystical Midrash.传道书Targum时,它是基于文本的无味declamation; canticle的是一个allegorico神秘的米德拉士。There are two Targums to Esther, the one closely resembles a paraphrase and has no legends interwoven with it; the other, called Targum scheni, has altogether the character of a Midrash.以斯帖塔古姆译本有两个,一个非常类似于意译,并与它交织没有传说;另一方面,所谓的他尔根scheni,共米德拉士的字符。 It is only to a small degree a translation; the greater part of it consists of stories, legends, and discourses that have but slight connection with the contents of the book.它只是一个小的程度翻译;它的更大的一部分,传说,故事和话语,但与书的内容略有连接组成。

(c) A Targum on the Books of Chronicles was edited from a manuscript in Erfurt by Matthias Beck (2 pts., Augsburg, 1680-83); a more complete and correct text taken from a manuscript at Cambridge was edited by Wilkins, "Paraphrasis Chaldica in librum priorem et posteriorem Chronicorum" (Amsterdam, 1715). (三)Targum编年史书手稿在埃尔富特的编辑由Matthias贝克(2分,奥格斯堡,1680年至1683年。);一个更完整的和正确的文字,从手稿在剑桥威尔金斯编辑,“ Paraphrasis Chaldica librum priorem等posteriorem Chronicorum“(阿姆斯特丹,1715)。 All the Targums to the Hagiographa (excepting Chronicles) were printed for the first time in the Bomberg Bible in 1517; afterwards in the "Polyglots" of Antwerp, Paris, and London.所有塔古姆译本Hagiographa(除编年史)被印在1517年邦贝里圣经的第一次,之后在安特卫普,巴黎和伦敦的“Polyglots”。 A modern edition from the Bomberg text, with Chronicles from the Erfurt Codex, was edited by de Lagarde, "Hagiographa chaldaice" (Leipzig, 1873).一个从邦贝里文的现代版,与从爱尔福特食品法典委员会的编年史,是由de拉加德编辑,“Hagiographa chaldaice”(莱比锡,1873年)。

Publication information Written by Fr.神父编写的出版物信息。Schühlein.Schühlein。 Transcribed by John D. Beetham.转录由约翰D比瑟姆。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,第十四卷。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


GENERAL: ZUNZ, Die gottesdienstlichen Vortrage der Juden (Berlin, 1832), 61-83; HAUSDORFF, Zur Gesch.一般:聪茨,模具gottesdienstlichen Vortrage DER Juden(柏林,1832),61-83;豪斯多夫,祖尔Gesch。der Targumim nach talmudischen Quellen in Monatschr.DER Targumim nach talmudischen Quellen Monatschr。 fur Gesch.毛皮Gesch。u.U.Wissensch.Wissensch。 des Judentums, XXXVIII (1894), 203 sqq., 241 sqq.; MAYBAUM, Die Anthropomorphien u.DES Judentums,三十八(1894),203 SQQ,241 SQQ;。MAYBAUM,模具Anthropomorphien U.Anthropopathien bei Onkelos u. Anthropopathien北昂克罗斯U.in den spateren Targumim (Breslau, 1878); GINSBURGER, Die Anthropomorphismus in den Thargumim in Jahrbucher fur prot.在书房spateren Targumim(布雷斯劳,1878年);金斯布格尔中,死在巢穴中Jahrbucher毛皮PROT Thargumim Anthropomorphismus。Theol.Theol。(Brunswick, 1891), 262 sqq., 430 sqq.(不伦瑞克,1891年),262 SQQ,“430 SQQ”。As regards the language: DALMAN, Grammatik des judisch-palastinischen Aramaisch (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1905); IDEM, Aramaisch-neuhebr.至于语言:达尔曼,Grammatik DES judisch - palastinischen Aramaisch(第二版,莱比锡,1905年);同上,Aramaisch neuhebr。Worterbuch (Frankfort, 1897-1901).服务条款(法兰克福,1897年至1901年)。

I. THE TARGUM OF ONKELOS: KAUTZSCH, Mitteilung uber eine alte Handschr.一,昂克罗斯的TARGUM:KAUTZSCH,Mitteilung尤伯杯eine ALTE Handschr。 des Targ.DES Targ。Onk.Onk。in Cod.在鳕鱼。Socini, No. 84 (Halle, 1893); BERLINER, Die Massorah zum Targ.Socini,第84号(哈雷,1893年);柏林,模具Massorah ZUM Targ。O. (Leipzig, 1877); LANDAUER, Die Masorah zum O. (Amsterdam, 1896); BREDERECK, Concordanz zum TO (Giessen, 1906); IDEM, Uber die Art der Ubersetzung im T. Onk. O.(莱比锡,1877年);兰洁,模具Masorah ZUM澳(阿姆斯特丹,1896年);,Concordanz ZUM(吉森,1906年)BREDERECK;同上,尤伯杯死艺术DER Ubersetzung IM T. Onk。in Theol.在Theol。Studien u.(研究)U.Kritiken (Gotha, 1901), 351-77. Kritiken(哥达,1901),351-77。THE TARGUM OF JONATHAN: PRACTORIUS, Das Targum zu Josua nach Yemenischer Uberlieferung (Berlin, 1899); IDEM, Das Targum zum Buch der Richter nach yemen.乔纳森TARGUM:PRACTORIUS,DAS他尔根祖Josua nach Yemenischer Uberlieferung(柏林,1899年);同上,DAS他尔根ZUM布赫DER里氏nach也门。Uberlieferung (Berlin, 1900); WOLFSOHN, Das Targum zum Propheten Jeremias in yemen.Uberlieferung(柏林,1900年); WOLFSOHN,DAS他尔根ZUM Propheten赫雷米亚斯在也门。Uberl.Uberl。(Halle, 1902), ch. (哈雷,1902年),CH。i-xii; SILBERMANN, Das Targum zu Ezechiel nach einer sudarabischen Handschrift (Strasburg, 1902), ch.I - XII;席伯尔曼,DAS他尔根祖Ezechiel nach einer sudarabischen Handschrift(斯特拉斯堡,1902年),CH。ix; WRIGHT, Targum zu Jonas (London, 1857); ADLER, Targum to Nahum in Jew. IX;赖特,他尔根祖乔纳斯(伦敦,1857年);阿德勒,他尔根在犹太人Nahum说。Quart.夸脱。Rev., VII (1895), 630 sqq.; BACHER, Kritische Untersuchungen zum Prophetentargum in ZD MG, XXVIII (1874), I sqq.; KLEIN in loc.牧师,第七(1895年),630 SQQ。巴切尔,在ZD MG Kritische Untersuchungen ZUM Prophetentargum,二十八(1874),我SQQ; LOC KLEIN。cit., XXIX (1875), 157 sqq.; FRANKEL, Zu dem Targum der Propheten (Breslau, 1872).同前,第二十九届(1875年),157 SQQ;弗兰克尔,祖DEM他尔根DER Propheten(布雷斯劳,1872年)。

TARGUM YERUSHALMI I: SELIGSOHN AND TRAUB, Uber den Geist der Ubersetzung des Jonathan ben Usiel zum Pent.他尔根•耶路莎米我:SELIGSOHN TRAUB,尤伯杯巢穴盖斯特DER Ubersetzung DES乔纳森本Usiel ZUM被压抑。etc. in Monatschrift fur Gesch.在Monatschrift毛皮Gesch等。u.U.Wissenschaft des Judentums (1857), 96 sqq., 138 sqq.; MARMORSTEIN, Studien zum Pseudo-Jonathan Targum (Presburg, 1905).Wissenschaft DES Judentums(1857),96 SQQ,138 SQQ;。MARMORSTEIN,(研究)ZUM伪乔纳森他尔根(Presburg 1905年)。

TARGUM YERUSHALMI II: GINSBURGER, Das Fragmententargum (Berlin, 1899); (1) Targum according to Cod.他尔根•耶路莎米二:金斯布格尔,DAS Fragmententargum(柏林,1899年);(1)按化学需氧量他尔根。 110 of the National Library at Paris; (2) variants from Cod.110在巴黎的国家图书馆(2)从鳕鱼的变种。Vat.增值税。440 and Lips.440和嘴唇。 1; (3) quotations from old writers; matter supplementary to this work is given by MARX in Zeitschrift fur hebr.1;(3)老作家的报价;问题补充这项工作是由马克思在(杂志)的皮毛黑布尔。Bibliographie (1902), 55-58. Bibliographie(1902),55-58。

TARGUMS YERUSHALMI I & II: BASSFREUND, Das Fragmententargum u.塔古姆译本耶路莎米我和II:BASSFREUND,DAS Fragmententargum U.sein Verhaltnis zu den anderen palast.盛Verhaltnis祖书房anderen皇宫。Targumim in Monatschrift fur Gesch.Targumim在Monatschrift毛皮Gesch。u.U.Wissenschaft des Judentums, XL (1896), 1 sqq., 49 sqq., 97 sqq., 145 sqq., 241 sqq., 352 sqq., 396 sqq.; GINSBURGER, loc.DES Judentums。Wissenschaft,XL(1896年),1 SQQ,49 SQQ,97 SQQ,145 SQQ,241 SQQ,352 SQQ,396 SQQ;。。。金斯布格尔,LOC。cit., XLI (1897), 289 sqq., 340 sqq.; preface to Pseudo-Jonathan, ed.引书,四十一(1897),289 SQQ,340 SQQ;。序言伪乔纳森,主编。IDEM (Berlin, 1903); NEUMARK, Lexikalische Untersuchungen zur Sprache der jerusalemischen Pentat.同上(柏林,1903年); NEUMARK,Lexikalische Untersuchungen楚Sprache DER jerusalemischen Pentat。Targume (Berlin, 1905). Targume(柏林,1905年)。

TARGUM YERUSHALMI III: LEVY, Das Targums zu Koheleth nach sudarab.他尔根•耶路莎米三:征费,DAS塔古姆译本祖Koheleth nach sudarab。Handschriften (Berlin, 1905); GOLLANCZ, Targum to the Song of Songs (London, 1908), translation; POSNER, Das Targum Rischon zu d.Handschriften(柏林,1905年); GOLLANCZ,他尔根宋歌(伦敦,1908年),翻译;波斯纳,他尔根达斯Rischon祖D.bibl.bibl。B. Esther (Breslau, 1896); DAVID, Das Targum scheni zum B. Esther (Berlin, 1898); TAYLOR, Targ. B.以斯帖(布雷斯劳,1896年),大卫泰勒,Targ,达斯他尔根scheni ZUM B.以斯帖(柏林,1898年);prius et posterius in Estheram .普锐斯等posterius在Estheram。..in linguam Latinam translatum (London, 1655); GELBHAUS, Das Targum scheni zum B. Esther (Frankfort, 1893). linguam Latinam translatum(伦敦,1655年); GELBHAUS,达斯他尔根scheni ZUM B.以斯帖(法兰克福,1893年)。

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