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A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head.在确认为团长的神是一个文官政府的形式。The laws of the commonwealth are the commandments of God, and they are promulgated and expounded by the accredited representatives of the invisible Deity, real or supposed-generally a priesthood.联合体的法律是神的诫命,他们颁布的和无形的神的委派代表,真实的或假定一般神职人员阐述。Thus in a theocracy civic duties and functions form a part of religion, implying the absorption of the State by the Church or at least the supremacy of the latter over the State.因此,在政教合一的公民的职责和职能形式宗教的一部分,这意味着由教会吸收国家,或至少是后者在国家至上。

The earliest recorded use of the term "theocracy" is found in Josephus, who apparently coins it in explaining to Gentile readers the organization of the Jewish commonwealth of his time.长期的“政教合一”的最早记载使用被发现在约瑟夫,谁显然硬币在外邦读者解释他那个时代的犹太英联邦组织。 Contrasting this with other forms of government-monarchies, oligarchies, and republics-he adds: "Our legislator [Moses] had no regard to any of these forms, but he ordained our government to be what by a strained expression, may be termed a theocracy [theokratian], by ascribing the power and authority to God, and by persuading all the people to have a regard to him as the author of all good things" (Against Apion, book II, 16).对比这个共和国政府君主制,寡头政治,和其他形式,他补充说:“我们的立法者[摩西]没有任何形式的方面,但他祝我们的政府是什么紧张的表达,可以称之为一个政教合一[theokratian归咎于上帝的权力和权威,并说服所有的人,有一个关于他的一切美好的事物“(反对阿皮翁,第二册,16)的作者。 In this connection Josephus enters into a long and rather rambling discussion of the topic, but the entire passage is instructive.在这方面约瑟夫进入到一个长期的话题,而漫无边际的讨论,但整个通道是有启发的。

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The extent to which the ideals of the Mosaic theocracy were realized in the history of the Chosen People is a matter of controversy.在何种程度上实现马赛克政教合一的理想,在所选择的人历史,是一个有争议的问题。Many eminent scholars are inclined to restrict its sway almost exclusively to the post-exilic period, when unquestionably the hierocratic rule and the ordinances of the Priestly Code were more fully carried into effect than in any of the preceding epochs.许多知名学者都倾向于几乎完全限制其挥洒后放逐期间,hierocratic规则和条例的祭司码时,毫无疑问更充分生效比在前面的任何时代。 Be that as it may, and waiving critical discussion of the Old Testament writings with which the solution of the question is intimately connected, attention may be called to the fact that a belief in the theocratic rulership of nations and tribes is, in form more or less crude, characteristic of the common fund of Semitic religious ideas.无论如何,因为它可能和豁免与该问题的解决方案是紧密相连的旧约著作的关键讨论,注意可能被称为政教合一统治的民族和部落的信仰是事实,在形式上,更多的还是原油,犹太人的宗教思想的共同基金的特点。 The various deities were considered as having a territorial jurisdiction, fighting for their respective peoples and defending the lands in which they dwelled.被视为有领土管辖权,为各自人民的奋斗和捍卫的土地中,他们dwelled,各种神灵。This is amply proved by the extant historic and religious records of the Assyrians and Babylonians, and the same idea finds occasional expression in the Old Testament itself (see, for instance, Judges 11:23 sq.; 1 Samuel 26:19; Ruth 1:15-16, etc.).这是由现存的历史和宗教的亚述人,巴比伦人的记录充分证明,同样的想法认为在旧约本身(例如,法官11时23分平偶尔表达; 1塞缪尔26:19;露丝1 :15 - 16等)。In a passage of the Book of Judges, Gideon is represented as refusing to accept the kingship offered to him by the people after his victory over the Madianites, in terms implying that the establishment of a permanent monarchy would involve disloyalty to the rule of Yahweh.在法官通过图书,基甸表示拒绝接受,这意味着建立一个永久性的君主制将涉及不忠耶和华规则的条款,提供由人民给他后,他对Madianites胜利的王权。 "I will not rule over you, neither shall my son rule over you, but the Lord shall rule over you" (Judges 8:23).“我不会统治,既不应我对你的儿子统治,但耶和华必统治”(士8:23)。More explicit and stronger expression is given to the same view in the First Book of Kings in connection with the appeal of the people to the aged prophet Samuel to constitute a king over them after the manner of the other nations.更明确和更有力的表达,是在第一本书的国王在人民的呼吁岁的先知撒母耳,构成了对他们的后其他国家的地王同样的看法。 The request is displeasing to Samuel and to the Lord Himself, who commands the prophet to accede to the wishes of the people that they may be punished for their rejection of His kingship.请求不高兴萨穆埃尔和上帝,谁命令先知加入他们拒绝了他的王位,他们可能被处罚人的意愿。"And the Lord said to Samuel: Hearken to the voice of the people in all that they say to thee. For they have not rejected thee, but me, that I should not reign over them" (1 Samuel 8:7). “耶和华说塞缪尔:倾听的人,他们对你说的声音,因为他们没有拒绝你,但我,我不应该对他们的统治。”(撒上8:7)。Again in chap.同样是在第一章。 xii Samuel, in his final discourse to the people, reproaches them in similar words: "you said to me: Nay, but a king shall reign over us: whereas the Lord your God was your king".第十二萨穆埃尔,在他最后的话语的人,指责他们在类似的话:“你对我说:不,但王应我们的王而耶和华你的神是你的王”。 And at the call of the prophet the Lord sends thunder and rain as a sign of His displeasure, "and you shall know and see that you yourselves have done a great evil in the sight of the Lord, in desiring a king over you".并在主的先知的召唤,作为他的不快的标志发送“雷声大,雨点小”,你会知道,看看,你们做了一个巨大的邪恶,在主面前,希望国王,的“。

The bearing of these passages on the historic institution of the theocracy varies in the estimation of different scholars according to the date assigned by them to the sources to which the passages belong.这些通道的轴承上的政教合一的历史机构根据由他们分配给该通道属于来源的日期而有所不同,在不同学者的估计。Wellhausen and his school, chiefly on a priori grounds, consider them a retouches of the post-exilic period, but it is far more probable that they form a part of a much older tradition, and indicate that a belief in the Lord's kingship over the Chosen People existed prior to the establishment of the earthly monarchy.豪森和他的学校,主要是对一个先验的理由,考虑后放逐时期的一个retouches,但它远远更多的可能,他们形成一个更古老的传统的一部分,并显示一个在信仰上帝的王权选择的人之前就存在尘世的君主立宪制的建立。 At the same time, there is no sufficient warrant for assuming on the authority of these texts that the theocratic rule in Israel came to an end with the inauguration of the monarchy, as is plain from the narration of the Lord's covenant with King David and his descendants (2 Samuel 7:1-17).与此同时,有是没有假设这些文本的权威,在以色列的政教合一统治了君主制的就职典礼结束,从叙述主的王大卫和他的盟约平原的足够令后裔(撒母耳记上7:1-17)。 According to the terms of this covenant the earthly monarch remains under the control of the heavenly King, and is constituted His vicegerent and representative.根据本公约的条款尘世的君主仍然天王的控制下,是构成他的vicegerent和有代表性的。And this direct dependence of the king on the Lord for wisdom and guidance is assumed throughout the historical records of the Hebrew monarchy.假设整个希伯来君主制的历史记录,而这直接依赖上主的智慧和指导之王。The supreme test of the worthiness of any king to occupy his exalted position is his fidelity to the Lord and His revealed law.老有所为王占据了崇高的地位至高无上的测试,是他的保真度主,他发现法。The historical books, and still more the writings of the prophets, voice the constant belief that God exercised a special and efficient rule over Israel by blessings, punishments, and deliverances.历史书籍,更先知的著作,语音神行使对以色列的特殊和有效率的祝福,处罚,并拯救规则的不断信念。In the post-exilic period the hierocratic rule became the dominant feature of the Jewish theocracy, and, in spite of its limitations and perversions, it prepared, according to the designs of a wise Providence, the way for the New Dispensation-the Kingdom of Heaven so often mentioned in the Gospels.在后放逐期间hierocratic规则成为犹太神权政治的主导功能,尽管有其局限性和变态,它准备根据一个明智的普罗维登斯,新的豁免王国方式的设计,天堂中经常提到的福音。

Publication information Written by James F. Driscoll.由詹姆斯楼斯科尔编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Herman F. Holbrook.转录由赫尔曼楼霍尔布鲁克。Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.Iesus Nazarenus雷克斯Iudaeorum天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
VIGOUROUX, Dictionnaire de la Bible, svVIGOUROUX,辞典德拉圣经,SV

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