TheodoretTheodoret 中文 - Zhong Wen

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Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457.赛勒斯主教和神学家,出生在叙利亚,在安提约393;死亡约457人。

He says himself that his birth was an answer to the prayers of the monk Macedonius ("Hist. rel.", IX; Epist. lxxi).他说自己是他的出生是一个和尚Macedonius祈祷的答案(九“组织胺REL。”;。Epist lxxi)。On account of a vow made by his mother he was dedicated from birth to the service of God and was brought up and educated by the monks Macedonius and Peter.在由他的母亲发誓,他是专门从出生到神服务,长大和教育由僧侣Macedonius和彼得。At a very early age he was ordained lector.在一个非常早期的年龄他被任命为讲师。In theology he studied chiefly the writings of Diodorus of Tarsus, St. John Chrysostom, and Theodore of Mopsuestia.他在神学研究的著作,主要是狄奥多罗斯的塔尔苏斯,圣约翰金口,摩普绥提亚西奥多。Theodoret was also well trained in philosophy and literature.Theodoret也训练有素,在哲学和文学。He understood Syriac as well as Greek, but was not acquainted with either Hebrew or Latin.他理解叙利亚文,以及希腊,但不熟悉希伯来文或拉丁文。When he was twenty-three years old and both parents were dead, he divided his fortune among the poor (Epist. cxiii; PG, LXXXIII, 1316) and became a monk in the monastery of Nicerte not far from Apamea, when he lived for seven years, devoting himself to prayer and study.当他二十三年岁,双方父母都死了,他分之间的差(Epist. cxiii; PG捌拾叁,1316)他的财富,成为一个Nicerte寺院的僧人,不远处,从麦穗,当他居住7年,致力于以祈祷和研究。Much against his will about 423 he was made Bishop of Cyrus.许多反对他的约423,他是居鲁士的主教。His diocese included nearly 800 parishes and was suffragan of Hierapolis.他的教区包括了近800个教区和希拉波利斯副主教。 A large number of monasteries and hermitages also belonged to it, yet, notwithstanding all this, there were many heathen and heretics within its borders.一个大量的寺庙和修砌,也属于它的,但尽管如此,有许多在其境内的异教徒和异端。Theodoret brought many of these into the Church, among others more than a thousand Marcionites. Theodoret这些带进教会很多,其中包括超过一千Marcionites。He also destroyed not less than two hundred copies of the "Diatessaron" of Tatian, which were in use in that district ("Hæret. fab.", I, xix; PG, LXXXIII, 372).他还摧毁了“Diatessaron”塔蒂安,在该地区使用(“Hæret晶圆厂。”我,十九; PG,捌拾叁,372)不低于两百份。He often ran great risks in his apostolic journeys and labours; more than once he suffered ill-usage from the heathen and was even in danger of losing his life.他经常跑在他的使徒的行程和劳动力的巨大的风险;超过一次,他从异教徒遭受不当使用,即使在失去他的生命的危险。His fame as a preacher was widespread and his services as a speaker were much sought for outside of his diocese; he went to Antioch twenty-six times.他作为一个牧师的名声十分普遍,他作为主讲人的服务,为他的教区外的追捧,他到安提阿二十六倍。

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Theodoret also exerted himself for the material welfare of the inhabitants of his diocese. Theodoret也对自己为他的教区居民的物质福利。Without accepting donations (Epist. lxxxi) he was able to build many churches, bridges, porticos, aqueducts, etc. (Epist. lxxxi, lxxviii, cxxxviii).没有接受捐赠(Epist.捌拾)来说,他是能够建立许多教堂,桥梁,门廊,渡槽等(Epist.捌拾LXXVIII,cxxxviii)。

Towards the end of 430 Theodoret became involved in the Nestorian controversy.接近430 Theodoret年底成为参与景教争议。In conjunction with John of Antioch he begged Nestorius not to reject the expression Theotókos as heretical (Mansi, IV, 1067).在与安提阿的约翰一起,他央求涅斯不要拒绝邪教的表达Theotókos(曼西,IV,1067)。Yet he held firmly with the other Antiochenes to Nestorius and to the last refused to recognize that Nestorius taught the doctrine of two persons in Christ.然而,他曾坚定地与其他Antiochenes涅斯和最后拒绝承认,聂斯脱利教两个人​​在基督的教义。Until the Council of Chalcedon in 451 he was the literary champion of the Antiochene party.安理会的迦克墩在451之前,他是安提阿学派党的文学冠军。In 436 he published his 'Anatropé (Confutation) of the Anathemas of Cyril to which the latter replied with an Apology (PG, LXXVI, 392 sqq.).在436,他出版了他的“西里尔Anathemas后者道歉(PG,LXXVI,392 SQQ)回答Anatropé(Confutation)。At the Council of Ephesus (431) Theodoret sided with John of Antioch and Nestorius, and pronounced with them the deposition of Cyril and the anathema against him.在安理会的以弗所(431)Theodoret片面安提阿和涅斯约翰,并与他们明显西里尔沉积和对他的诅咒。He was also a member of the delegation of "Orientals", which was to lay the cause of Nestorius before the emperor but was not admitted to the imperial presence a second time (Hefele-Leclerq, "Hist. des Conc.", II, i, 362 sqq.).他也是一个“东方人”,这是始皇帝奠定涅斯事业,但不承认帝国存在的第二次(黑弗勒Leclerq,代表团的成员,“历史。DES浓。”二,我,362 SQQ)。The same year he attended the synods of Tarsus and Antioch, at both of which Cyril was again deposed and anathematized.同年,他出席大数和安提阿的主教,在这两个西里尔再次被废黜,诅咒。Theodoret after his return to Cyrus continued to oppose Cyril by speech and writing. Theodoret后,他返回赛勒斯继续反对西里尔讲话和写作。The symbol (Creed) that formed the basis of the reconciliation (c. 433) of John of Antioch and others with Cyril was apparently drawn up by Theodoret (PG, LXXXIV, 209 sqq.), who, however, did not enter into the agreement himself because he was not willing to condemn Nestorius as Cyril demanded.符号(信条),形成了和解的安提阿的约翰(公元前433)和其他与西里尔的基础显然是制订了Theodoret(PG,LXXXIV,209 SQQ),谁,但是,没有进入协议自己,因为他不愿意谴责西里尔涅斯要求。It was not until about 435 that Theodoret seems to have become reconciled with John of Antioch, without, however, being obliged to agree to the condemnation of Nestorius (Synod. cxlvii and cli; Epist. clxxvi).直到约435 Theodoret似乎已经成为安提阿的约翰不甘心,不,但是,被迫同意谴责涅斯(Synod. cxlvii和CLI。Epist clxxvi)。 The dispute with Cyril broke out again when in 437 the latter called Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia the real originators of the Nestorian heresy.与西里尔的争端再次爆发,在437时,后者称为大数狄奥多罗斯和西奥多的摩普绥提亚景教异端的真正发起人。Theodore entered the lists in their defence.西奥多进入的名单,他们的防守。The bitterness with which these polemics were carried on is shown both by the letter and the speech of Theodoret when he learned of the death in 444 of the Patriarch of Alexandria (Epist. clxxx).这些论战进行的辛酸是由字母和Theodoret讲话既当他得知死亡亚历山大(Epist. clxxx)祖师444。

The episcopate of Dioscurus, the successor of Cyril, was a period of much trouble for Theodoret.Dioscurus主教团,西里尔的继任者,是一个很麻烦Theodoret的时期。Dioscurus, by the mediation of Eutyches and the influential Chrysaphius, obtained an imperial edict which forbade Theodoret to leave his diocese (Epist. lxxix-lxxxii). Dioscurus,Eutyches和有影响力的Chrysaphius的调解,获得了圣旨,禁止Theodoret离开他的教区(Epist. LXXIX捌拾)。In addition Theodoret was accused of Nestorianism (Epist. lxxxiii-lxxxvi); in answer to this attack he wrote his most important polemical work, called "Eranistes".此外Theodoret被指控景教(Epist. LXXXIII捌拾);在回答这种攻击中,他写道:他最重要的论战的工作,被称为“Eranistes”。Theodoret was also considered the prime mover of the condemnation of Eutyches by the Patriarch Flavian. Theodoret也被认为是由族长弗拉维安谴责Eutyches的原动力。In return Dioscurus obtained an imperial decree in 449 whereby Theodoret was forbidden to take any part in the synod of Ephesus (Robber Council of Ephesus).在返回Dioscurus获得圣旨在449 Theodoret,即禁止采取任何部分在以弗所(以弗所强盗会)的主教。At the third session of this synod Theodoret was deposed by the efforts of Dioscurus and ordered by the emperor to re-enter his former monastery near Apamea.在这个世界主教会议Theodoret三届会议被废黜Dioscurus的努力,由皇帝下令重新进入前修道院附近的麦穗。 Better times, however, came before long.更好的时间,但是,用不了多久。Theodoret appealed to Pope Leo who declared his deposition invalid, and, as the Emperor Theodosius II died the following year (450), he was allowed to re-enter his diocese. Theodoret呼吁教皇利奥宣布他的沉积无效,而且,作为皇帝狄奥多西二世去世的次年(450),他被允许重新进入他的教区。In the next year, notwithstanding the violent opposition of the Alexandrine party, Theodoret was admitted as a regular member to the sessions of the Council of Chalcedon, but refrained from voting.在接下来的一年,尽管亚历山大党的猛烈反对,Theodoret被接纳为正式成员Chalcedon委员会会议,但避免投票。 At the eighth session (26 Oct., 451), he was admitted to full membership after he had agreed to the anathema against Nestorius; probably he meant this agreement only in the sense: in case Nestorius had really taught the heresy imputed to him (Mansi, VII, 190).在第八届会议(10月26日,451),他被录取的正式成员后,他已同意对涅斯的诅咒,也许他的意思是只有在这个意义上本协议的情况下涅斯真的教归咎于他的异端(曼西,第七章,190)。 It is not certain whether Theodoret spent the last years of his life in the city of Cyrus, or in the monastery where he had formerly lived.这是不能肯定是否Theodoret度过他生命的最后几年,在城市居鲁士,或在寺院里,他以前住。There still exists a letter written by Pope Leo in the period after the Council of Chalcedon in which he encourages Theodoret to co- operate without wavering in the victory of Chalcedon (PG, LXXXIII, 1319 sqq.).仍然存在在此期间由教皇利奥书面的信后,他鼓励Theodoret合作,不摇摆不定的迦克墩(PG捌拾叁,1319 SQQ)的胜利Chalcedon委员会。The writings of Theodoret against Cyril of Alexandria were anathematized during the troubles that arose in connexion with the war of the Three Chapters.对亚历山大的Cyril Theodoret著作被诅咒在三章战争产生的烦恼,在Connexion。


A. Exegetical答:训诂

Theodoret wrote brief treatises in the form of questions and answers on special passages of the Octateuch, four Books of Kings, and two Books of Paralipomenon (PG, LXXX, 75-858). Theodoret简短的论文中写道Octateuch,四个国王的书籍,两个的Paralipomenon图书公司(PG,LXXX,75-858)的特别通道的问题和答案的形式。 He wrote commentaries covering the whole books on: The Psalms (PG, LXXX, 857-1998, and LXXXIV, 19-32), written before 436 (Epist. lxxxi); Canticles (PG, LXXXI, 27-214); the Greater Prophets, Daniel and Ezechiel before 436, Isaias and Jeremias before 448, of which the commentary on Isaias has been lost, excepting some fragments preserved in the "Catenæ"; the Minor Prophets before 436 (PG, LXXXI, 495-1988); and the Epistles of St. Paul, written before 448 (PG, LXXXII, 35-878).他写了评论,覆盖整个书籍:诗篇(19-32)PG,LXXX 857-1998,并LXXXIV,436(Epist.捌拾)日前书面; canticle的“公司(PG,捌拾,27-214);大先知,丹尼尔和前436,伊萨亚斯和赫雷米亚斯Ezechiel,其中前448对伊萨亚斯的评论已经失去了,除了在保存一些片断“Catenæ”;前436的小先知(PG,捌拾,495-1988);圣保禄写的,前448(PG,捌拾,35-878)的书信。

B. ApologeticB.护教

"Græcarum affectionum curatio" (Remedy for the diseases of the Greeks), twelve books, written before 437, "the last and probably also the most complete of the numerous apologies which Greek antiquity has produced" (Bardenhewer, "Patrologie", 3rd ed., 1910, p. 327).“Græcarum affectionum curatio”(希腊人的疾病补救),12个书籍,写前437,“最后,可能也是最完整的古希腊已经制作了大量的道歉”(巴登黑韦尔,“Patrologie”,第3版1910年,第327页)。 "De divina Providentia", ten sermons, probably his best work, in which he proves the administration of Divine Providence from the physical, moral, and social systems of the world. “德divina Providentia”,十布道,可能是他最好的作品,在其中,他证明了神圣的普罗维登斯从生理,道德,社会制度和世界的管理。

C. Dogmatico-PolemicalC. Dogmatico的论战

"Refutatio duodecim Anathematum", against St. Cyril; it has been preserved in Cyril's answer (PG, LXXVI, 392 sqq.; Latin by Marius Mercator, PL, XLVIII, 972 sqq.).“Refutatio duodecim Anathematum”,对圣西里尔;(PG,LXXVI,392 SQQ;。马吕斯麦卡托,PL,四十八,972 SQQ拉丁美洲),它已被保存在西里尔的回答。"De Sancta et vivifica Trinitate" (PG, LXXV, 1147-90), and "De Incarnatione Domini" (ib., 1419-78); these two last mentioned treatises have been proved by A. Ehrhard to have been written by Theodoret (see bibliography).“德Sancta等vivifica Trinitate”(PG,LXXV,1147年至1190年),“德Incarnatione多米尼”(同上,1419年至1478年);这两个最后提到的论文已被已被Theodoret书面证明,由A. Ehrhard (见参考书目)。"Eranistes seu Plymorphos" (PG, LXXXIII, 27-l336), written in 448 in the form of three dialogues between an Orthodox (Theodoret) and a beggar (Eutyches); these dialogues sought to prove that the Divinity of Christ is (a) unchangeable, (b) unmixed with humanity, (c) incapable of suffering.“Eranistes SEU Plymorphos”公司(PG,捌拾叁,27 - l336),448三东正教(Theodoret)和一个乞丐(Eutyches)之间对话的形式写在这些对话寻求证明基督的神性( )不变,(二)纯与人性,(三)不能的痛苦。In the fourth book the first three are briefly summed up in syllogisms.在第四册前三简要总结了三段论。"Hæreticarum fabularum compendium" in five books (ib., 336-556); the first four contain a brief summary of heresies up to the time of Theodoret, and the last book contrasts them with Catholic faith and morals.“Hæreticarum fabularum纲要”五书“(同上,336-556)的前四个包含的异端邪说的简要介绍Theodoret时间,和最后一本书,与天主教的信仰和道德。

D. HistoricalD.历史

"Historia Ecclesiastica" (PG, LXXXII, 881-1280) treats in five books the period from Arius up to 429.“Historia Ecclesiastica”(PG,捌拾,881-1280)将在五本书从阿里乌斯高达429期。In this work Theodoret used Eusebius, Rufinus, Socrates, Sozomenus, Philostorgius, as well as documents long since lost.在这项工作中Theodoret使用尤西比乌斯,Rufinus,苏格拉底,Sozomenus,Philostorgius,以及文件长,因为失去。 As an ecclesiastical historian, however, he is inferior to his predecessors.然而,作为一个教会历史学家,他是比不上他的前辈。"Historia religiosa" (ib., 1283-1522) contains the biographies of thirty celebrated ascetics or hermits; the treatise "De divina charitate" forms the close of the work.“Historia religiosa”(同上,1283年至1522年)包含30个庆祝苦行者或隐士的传记;论文“德divina charitate”形式的工作结束。

E. Letters E.快报

Theodoret's lettters are of much value, both for his personal history and for that of his era.Theodoret的lettters是多大的价值,无论是对他个人的历史和他的时代。Cf.比照PG, LXXXIII, 1173-1494, and Sakkelion, "Forty-eight Letters of Theodoret of Cyrus" (Athens, 1885). PG,捌拾叁,1173年至1494年,和Sakkelion,“42个字母赛勒斯Theodoret”(雅典,1885年)。

F. Lost Writings楼失落的著作

"Opus mysticum", in twelve books; "Responsiones ad quæstiones magorum persarum" (Epist. lxxxii and cxiii), five "Sermones in laudem S. Johannis Chrysostomi", of which the fragments are to be found in Photius, "Bibl.", 273; and other "Sermones". “作品mysticum”,在十二个月书籍;“Responsiones广告quæstiones magorum persarum”(Epist.捌拾和cxiii),五个“laudem S. Johannis Chrysostomi Sermones”,其中的片段被发现,“Bibl在Photius的。” ,273;和其他“Sermones”。Von Harnack ("Texte und Untersuchungen", NF 6, IV, 1901) assigned the "Responsiones ad quæstiones" to Diodorus of Tarsus, but a manuscript of the tenth century, edited by Papadopulos Kerameus (St. Petersburg, 1895), ascribes the work to Theodoret (see A. Erhard in "Byzantinische Zeitschrift", VII, 1898, 609 sqq.).冯的Harnack(“Texte和Untersuchungen”,NF 6,第四,1901年)分配“Responsiones广告quæstiones”狄奥多罗斯的塔尔苏斯,但十世纪的手稿,编辑Papadopulos Kerameus(圣彼得堡,1895年),归因于工作Theodoret(见A.艾哈德在“Byzantinische(杂志)”,第七章,1898年,609 SQQ)。


In hermeneutics Theodoret followed the principles of the Antiochene school, but avoided the bias of Theodore of Mopsuestia.在诠释学Theodoret安提阿学派学校遵循的原则,但避免摩普绥提亚西奥多的偏见。In his Christology also he followed the terminology of Diodorus and Theodore, and saw in the teaching of Cyril a revival of Apollinarianism.随后他在他的基督也狄奥多罗斯和西奥多的术语,并在西里尔教学的Apollinarianism复苏看到。 He would never acknowledge that the teaching of Nestorius presupposed the acceptance of two persons in Christ or, as Cyril believed, necessarily led to it.他绝不会承认,涅斯教学的先决条件是两个人在基督里的验收,或如西里尔相信,必然导致。

Publication information Written by Chrysostom Baur.金口鲍尔编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录WGKofron。In memory of Fr.在神父的记忆。 John Hilkert, Akron, Ohio -- Fidelis servus et prudens, quem constituit Dominus super familiam suam The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.约翰Hilkert,俄亥俄州阿克伦 - 菲德利斯你好等prudens,quem constituit Dominus超级familiam suam天主教百科全书,卷第十四。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
TILLEMONT, Mémoires, XV (Paris, 1700-13), 207-340; CAVE, Hist. TILLEMONT,Mémoires,第十五(巴黎,1700至13年),207-340;洞穴,组织胺。lett., I (Oxford, 1740-43), 405 sqq.; CEILLIER, Auteurs sacrés, X (Paris, 1729-63), 19-142; NEANDER, Church History, ed.。lett,我(牛津,1740年至1743年),405 SQQ; CEILLIER,作者风sacrés,X(巴黎,1729年至1763年),19-142;尼安德,教会历史,主编。CLARK, IV (Edinburgh, 1851-58), 141-247; NEWMAN, Trials of Theodoret in Hist. CLARK,四(爱丁堡,1851年至1858年),141-247;纽曼,Theodoret试验中组织胺。Sketches, III (2 vols., London, 1890), 307-62; GLUBOKOVSKIJ, Der seelige Theodoret, Bischof von Cyrus (2 vols., Moscow, 1890), in Russian; SPECHT, Der exegetische Standpunkt des Theodor von Mopsuestia u.素描(2卷,伦敦,1890年),三,307-62; GLUBOKOVSKIJ,明镜seelige Theodoret,比朔夫冯赛勒斯(2卷,莫斯科,1890年),在俄罗斯,施佩希特,DER exegetische Standpunkt西奥多冯摩普绥提亚U.Theodoret von Cyrus … (Munich, 1871); SALTET, Les sources de l'Eranistes de Théodoret in Revue d'Histoire Ecclés., VI (Louvain, 1905), 289-303, 513-536, 741-754; GÜLDENPENNING, Die Kirchengesch.Theodoret冯赛勒斯 (慕尼黑,1871年); SALTET,莱斯来源DE L' Eranistes DE Théodoret在评论历史埃克尔斯,六(鲁汶,1905年),289-303,513-536,741-754; GÜLDENPENNING,模具Kirchengesch。des Theodoret von Kyrrhos, Eine Untersuchung über Quellen (Halle, 1889); SCHULTE, Theodoret von Cyrus als Apologet (Vienna, 1904); EHRHARD, Die Cyrill von Alexandrien zugeschriebene Schrift Perí tês toû kuríon 'enandropéseos, ein Werk Theodorets von Cyrus (Tübingen, 1888); MAHÉ, Les anathématismes de S. Cyrille d'Aléxandrie et les évêques orientaux du patriarchat d'Antioche in Revue d'Hist.DES Theodoret冯Kyrrhos,Eine Untersuchung黚Quellen(哈雷,1889年);舒尔特,Theodoret冯赛勒斯ALS Apologet(维也纳,1904年); EHRHARD,模具Cyrill冯Alexandrien zugeschriebene Schrift围工商业污水附加费溪头kuríon“enandropéseos,EIN WERK Theodorets冯赛勒斯(蒂宾根,1888);马埃岛,莱斯anathématismes DE S. Cyrille D' Aléxandrie ET LES évêques orientaux patriarchat D' Antioche D'组织胺杂志。Eccl., VII (Louvain, 1906), 505-542; BERTRAM, Theodoreti Episcopi Cyrensis Doctrina christologica (Hildesheim, 1883).传道书,七(鲁汶,1906年),505-542;。伯特伦,Theodoreti Episcopi Cyrensis Doctrina christologica(希尔德斯海姆,1883年)。

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