Saint Thomas Aquinas圣托马斯阿奎那

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St. Thomas Aquinas was a Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church (Angelicus Doctor), patron of Catholic universities, colleges, and schools.多瑪斯是一个哲学家,神学家,教会的医生(Angelicus医生),天主教大学的赞助人,学院,和学校。Born at Rocca Secca in the Kingdom of Naples, 1225 or 1227; died at Fossa Nuova, 7 March, 1274.罗卡Secca出生在那不勒斯王国,1225或1227;窝Nuova的,3月7日,1274年去世。

I. LIFE一,生命

The great outlines and all the important events of his life are known, but biographers differ as to some details and dates.伟大的轮廓和他的生活的所有重要事件是已知的,但传记作家不同,一些细节和日期。Death prevented Henry Denifle from executing his project of writing a critical life of the saint.死亡无法执行他写一个圣人的关键生活项目亨利德尼夫勒。Denifle's friend and pupil, Dominic Prümmer, OP, professor of theology in the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, took up the work and published the "Fontes Vitae S. Thomae Aquinatis, notis historicis et criticis illustrati"; and the first fascicle (Toulouse, 1911) has appeared, giving the life of St. Thomas by Peter Calo (1300) now published for the first time.德尼夫勒的朋友和学生,多米尼克Prümmer,OP,在瑞士弗里堡大学的神学教授,工作和出版的“丰特斯简历S. Thomae Aquinatis,NOTIS historicis等criticis illustrati”;和第一分册(图卢兹, 1911年)已经出现,现在的生活为首次公布圣托马斯彼得卡洛(1300)。From Tolomeo of Lucca .从卢卡Tolomeo。..we learn that at the time of the saint's death there was a doubt about his exact age (Prümmer, op. cit., 45).我们学习圣人的死亡时间,有​​一个关于他的确切年龄的疑问(Prümmer,同上,45)。The end of 1225 is usually assigned as the time of his birth.他出生时通常被分配到1225年底。Father Prümmer, on the authority of Calo, thinks 1227 is the more probable date (op. cit., 28).父亲Prümmer,卡洛管理局,认为1227是更可能的日期(同上,28)。All agree that he died in 1274.大家都同意,他在1274年去世。

Landulph, his father, was Count of Aquino; Theodora, his mother, Countess of Teano. Landulph,他的父亲,是阿基诺计数;西奥多拉,他的母亲,Teano伯爵夫人。His family was related to the Emperors Henry VI and Frederick II, and to the Kings of Aragon, Castile, and France.他的家庭与皇帝亨利六世和腓特烈二世,和阿拉贡,卡斯蒂利亚,法国国王。Calo relates that a holy hermit foretold his career, saying to Theodora before his birth: "He will enter the Order of Friars Preachers, and so great will be his learning and sanctity that in his day no one will be found to equal him" (Prümmer, op. cit., 18).卡洛涉及一个神圣的隐士预言他的职业生涯,在他出生前到西奥多拉说:“他将进入天主教方济会传教士的订单,如此之大,将他的学习和尊严,在他的天,没有人会发现他等于”( Prümmer,同上,18)。At the age of five, according to the custom of the times, he was sent to receive his first training from the Benedictine monks of Monte Cassino.在五岁以下,根据时代的习俗,他被送到接收来自本笃会修士蒙特卡西诺他的第一次训练。Diligent in study, he was thus early noted as being meditative and devoted to prayer, and his preceptor was surprised at hearing the child ask frequently: "What is God?"他勤于学习,因此,早在冥想和祈祷专门指出,他的辅导员在听证会上要求孩子经常感到惊讶:“什么是上帝吗?”About the year 1236 he was sent to the University of Naples.关于在1236年,他被送往那不勒斯大学。Calo says that the change was made at the instance of the Abbot of Monte Cassino, who wrote to Thomas's father that a boy of such talents should not be left in obscurity (Prümmcr, op. cit., 20).卡洛说,这种变化是在蒙特卡西诺,他写信给托马斯的父亲,一个男孩这样的人才不应该被留在默默无闻(Prümmcr,同上,20)的住持实例。 At Naples his preceptors were Pietro Martini and Petrus Hibernus.在那不勒斯,他preceptors彼得罗马提尼和佩特鲁斯Hibernus。 The chronicler says that he soon surpassed Martini at grammar, and he was then given over to Peter of Ireland, who trained him in logic and the natural sciences.编年史说,他很快就超越了在语法马提尼,而他当时给了爱尔兰的彼得,谁训练他的逻辑和自然科学。The customs of the times divided the liberal arts into two courses: the Trivium, embracing grammar, logic, and rhetoric; the Quadrivium, comprising music, mathematics, geometry, and astronomy .时代的海关分为两个课程文科:Trivium,拥抱语法,逻辑和修辞,四艺,包括音乐,数学,几何,和天文学。...Thomas could repeat the lessons with more depth and lucidity than his masters displayed.托马斯可以显示主人比他更深入和清晰,重复的教训。The youth's heart had remained pure amidst the corruption with which he was surrounded, and he resolved to embrace the religious life.由于他被包围的腐败,纯青年的心脏一直,他决心接受的宗教生活。

Some time between 1240 and August, 1243, he received the habit of the Order of St. Dominic, being attracted and directed by John of St. Julian, a noted preacher of the convent of Naples.1240和8月,1243之间的一些时间,他获得了圣星订购的习惯,正吸引和圣朱利安,那不勒斯的修道院指出布道者约翰。 The city wondered that such a noble young man should don the garb of poor friar.城市不知道,这样一个高尚的年轻人应该穿上外衣差修道士。His mother, with mingled feelings of joy and sorrow, hastened to Naples to see her son.悲喜交织的感情,他的母亲,赶紧到那不勒斯看到她的儿子。The Dominicans, fearing she would take him away, sent him to Rome, his ultimate destination being Paris or Cologne.多米尼加,担心她会带他走,送他到罗马,他的最终目的地是巴黎或科隆。At the instance of Theodora, Thomas's brothers, who were soldiers under the Emperor Frederick, captured the novice near the town of Aquapendente and confined him in the fortress of San Giovanni at Rocca Secca.西奥多拉例如,托马斯的兄弟,谁是皇帝冯检基下的士兵,俘虏Aquapendente镇附近的新手,只限于在圣乔万尼在罗卡Secca的堡垒,他。 Here he was detained nearly two years, his parents, brothers, and sisters endeavouring by various means to destroy his vocation.在这里,他被拘留了近两年来,他的父母,兄弟,姐妹们努力通过各种手段来摧毁他的天职。The brothers even laid snares for his virtue, but the pure-minded novice drove the temptress from his room with a brand which he snatched from the fire.甚至下岗的兄弟为他凭借圈套,但纯志同道合的新手开车从他的同一个品牌,他从火中抢去的房间里的风月。Towards the end of his life, St. Thomas confided to his faithful friend and companion, Reginald of Piperno, the secret of a remarkable favour received at this time.圣托马斯走向他生命的终结,吐露他的忠实的朋友和伴侣,Piperno雷金纳德,在这个时候收到了显着的青睐的秘密。When the temptress had been driven from his chamber, he knelt and most earnestly implored God to grant him integrity of mind and body.当风月已经从他的房间的带动,他跪下来,最认真的恳求上帝给他的头脑和身体的完整性。He fell into a gentle sleep, and, as he slept, two angels appeared to assure him that his prayer had been heard.他掉进一个温柔的睡眠,而且,他睡觉的时候,两个天使出现了向他保证,已听到他的祈祷。They then girded him about with a white girdle, saying: "We gird thee with the girdle of perpetual virginity."然后,他们用白色腰带束约他,说:“我们束紧你永久童贞腰带”And from that day forward he never experienced the slightest motions of concupiscence.从那天他从未经历过的色欲丝毫议案。

The time spent in captivity was not lost.在圈养所用的时间是不会丢失。His mother relented somewhat, after the first burst of anger and grief; the Dominicans were allowed to provide him with new habits, and through the kind offices of his sister he procured some books - the Holy Scriptures, Aristotle's Metaphysics, and the "Sentences" of Peter Lombard.他的母亲心软了几分,后的愤怒和悲痛第一爆裂;多米尼加被允许向他提供新的习惯,并通过他的妹妹的那种办公室,他采购的一些书籍 - 的神圣经文,亚里士多德的形而上学,并在“刑罚”彼得隆巴德。After eighteen months or two years spent in prison, either because his mother saw that the hermit's prophecy would eventually be fulfilled or because his brothers feared the threats of Innocent IV and Frederick II, he was set at liberty, being lowered in a basket into the arms of the Dominicans, who were delighted to find that during his captivity "he had made as much progress as if he had been in a studium generale" (Calo, op. cit., 24).十八个个月或在监狱里花费两个年后,无论是因为他的母亲看到隐士的预言最终会被满足,或者是因为他的兄弟们担心无辜的第四和腓特烈二世的威胁,他是设置在自由,被一个篮子降低成多米尼加,欣喜地发现,他的囚禁期间的武器“,他取得了很大的进展,如果他在studium兴业”(卡洛,同上,24)。

Thomas immediately pronounced his vows, and his superiors sent him to Rome.托马斯立即宣判他的誓言,他的上司送他到罗马。Innocent IV examined closely into his motives in joining the Friars Preachers, dismissed him with a blessing, and forbade any further interference with his vocation.诺森四到他的动机密切合作,研究在加入天主教方济会传教士,驳回了他的祝福,并禁止任何进一步的干扰与他的天职。 John the Teutonic, fourth master general of the order, took the young student to Paris and, according to the majority of the saint's biographers, to Cologne, where he arrived in 1244 or 1245, and was placed under Albertus Magnus, the most renowned professor of the order.约翰的日耳曼人,订单的第四个掌握一般,到巴黎的年轻学生,根据多数圣人的传记作家,科隆,其中他在1244或1245抵达,并根据阿尔伯图斯马格努斯,在最负盛名的教授安置该命令。 In the schools Thomas's humility and taciturnity were misinterpreted as signs of dullness, but when Albert had heard his brilliant defence of a difficult thesis, he exclaimed: "We call this young man a dumb ox, but his bellowing in doctrine will one day resound throughout the world."的学校托马斯的谦卑和沉默寡言误解的浊音的迹象时,阿尔伯特曾听到他一个难以论断辉煌的辩护,他感叹道:“我们称之为这个年轻的男人一个愚蠢的牛,但他的学说下面将之一一天回荡在整个世界。“

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In 1245 Albert was sent to Paris, and Thomas accompanied him as a student.于1245阿尔贝被送往巴黎,和托马斯陪同他作为一名学生。 In 1248 both returned to Cologne.在1248年回到科隆。Albert had been appointed regent of the new studium generale, erected that year by the general chapter of the order, and Thomas was to teach under him as Bachelor.阿尔伯特被任命为摄政王新studium兴业,架设由一般章节的顺序,今年,和托马斯是根据他教为学士。(On the system of graduation in the thirteenth century see ORDER OF PREACHERS -- II, A, 1, d). (在13世纪的系统,在毕业传道令 - 二,一,1,D)。During his stay in Cologne, probably in 1250, he was raised to the priesthood by Conrad of Hochstaden, archbishop of that city.可能在1250,他在科隆逗留期间,他提出的祭司Hochstaden,该城的大主教康拉德。Throughout his busy life, he frequently preached the Word of God, in Germany, France, and Italy.纵观他忙碌的生活,他经常宣扬神的话语,在德国,法国和意大利。His sermons were forceful, redolent of piety, full of solid instruction, abounding in apt citations from the Scriptures.他的布道是有力的,虔诚的芳香,充满了坚实的指令,从圣经中充满APT引文。

In the year 1251 or 1252 the master general of the order, by the advice of Albertus Magnus and Hugo a S. Charo (Hugh of St. Cher), sent Thomas to fill the office of Bachelor (sub-regent) in the Dominican studium at Paris.在1251或1252年阿尔伯图斯Magnus和雨果一个S.沙罗(圣休雪儿)的意见,掌握一般的顺序发送托马斯填写在多米尼加studium办公室学士(分摄政)在巴黎。 This appointment may be regarded as the beginning of his public career, for his teaching soon attracted the attention both of the professors and of the students.这一任命可能会被视为他的公职生涯的开始,他的教学的教授和学生的注意力很快就吸引了。His duties consisted principally in explaining the "Sentences" of Peter Lombard, and his commentaries on that text-book of theology furnished the materials and, in great part, the plan for his chief work, the "Summa theologica".他的职责主要包括解释,课本提供的材料,在很大程度上,他的主要工作,“神学大全”的计划,神学上的“刑罚”彼得隆巴德,和他的评论。

In due time he was ordered to prepare himself to obtain the degree of Doctor in Theology from the University of Paris, but the conferring of the degree was postponed, owing to a dispute between the university and the friars.在适当的时候,他下令准备自己在从巴黎大学神学获得博士学位,但学位授予被推迟,由于大学和修士之间的纠纷。The conflict, originally a dispute between the university and the civic authorities, arose from the slaying of one of the students and the wounding of three others by the city guard.原本是大学和公民当局之间的争端,冲突,产生杀害的学生之一,其他三个城市后卫受伤。The university, jealous of its autonomy, demanded satisfaction, which was refused.大学,嫉妒的自治权,满意的要求,但遭拒绝。The doctors closed their schools, solemnly swore that they would not reopen them until their demands were granted, and decreed that in future no one should be admitted to the degree of Doctor unless he would take an oath to follow the same line of conduct under similar circumstances.医生关闭了自己的学校,郑重发誓,他们将无法重新打开他们,直到他们的要求是理所当然的,颁布法令,在未来的任何人都不应被接纳为博士学位,除非他将宣誓按照“类似行为的同一行情况。 The Dominicans and Franciscans, who had continued to teach in their schools, refused to take the prescribed oath, and from this there arose a bitter conflict which was at its height when St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure were ready to be presented for their degrees.多米尼加和方济会,继续在学校任教,拒绝采取订明的誓言,并从这个出现在它的高度是一场激烈的冲突时圣托马斯和圣文德准备要提交学位。 William of St-Amour extended the dispute beyond the original question, violently attacked the friars, of whom he was evidently jealous, and denied their right to occupy chairs in the university.圣倾慕威廉延长超越了原来的问题的争议,猛烈攻击的修士,他显然是嫉妒,并否认他们有权在大学中占据的椅子。 Against his book, "De periculis novissimorum temporum" (The Perils of the Last Times), St. Thomas wrote a treatise "Contra impugnantes religionem", an apology for the religious orders (Touron, op. cit., II, cc. vii sqq.).对他的书,“periculis novissimorum temporum”(最后时报“的危险),圣托马斯写了论文”魂斗罗impugnantes religionem“,为宗教订单道歉(Touron,同上,二,CC七SQQ。)The book of William of St-Amour was condemned by Alexander IV at Anagni, 5 October, 1256, and the pope gave orders that the mendicant friars should be admitted to the doctorate.书圣倾慕威廉阿纳尼亚历山大四,10月5日,1256年,教皇谴责了,托钵修士应该承认博士学位的订单。

About this time St. Thomas also combated a dangerous book, "The Eternal Gospel" (Touron, op. cit., II, cxii).大约在这个时候,圣托马斯也打击了一个危险的书,“永恒的福音”(Touron,同上,第二,cxii)。 The university authorities did not obey immediately; the influence of St. Louis IX and eleven papal Briefs were required before peace was firmly established, and St. Thomas was admitted to the degree of Doctor in Theology.大学当局没有立即服从;圣路易斯九和11个教皇简报的影响前,必须牢固确立和平,和圣托马斯被承认神学博士学位。 The date of his promotion, as given by many biographers, was 23 October, 1257.日期,许多传记作者,他的升迁,1257年10月23日。 His theme was "The Majesty of Christ".他的主题是“基督的威严。”His text, "Thou waterest the hills from thy upper rooms: the earth shall be filled with the fruit of thy works" (Psalm 103:13), said to have been suggested by a heavenly visitor, seems to have been prophetic of his career.他的文字,“你waterest从你的上层房间的山丘:地球,应与你的作品的水果充满”(诗篇103:13),说有一个天堂般的游客被建议,他的职业生涯的预言似乎已经。 A tradition says that St. Bonaventure and St. Thomas received the doctorate on the same day, and that there was a contest of humility between the two friends as to which should be promoted first.传统说,圣文德和圣托马斯在同一天获得博士学位,并有一个谦卑的这两个朋友之间的较量,首先应该提倡。

From this time St. Thomas's life may be summed up in a few words: praying, preaching, teaching, writing, journeying.圣托马斯的寿命可能会从这个时候总结了几句话:祈祷,讲经,教学,写作,痴痴。Men were more anxious to hear him than they had been to hear Albert, whom St. Thomas surpassed in accuracy, lucidity, brevity, and power of exposition, if not in universality of knowledge.男人们更渴望听到他比他们已经听到伟业,其中圣托马斯的准确,清晰,,简洁,论述的权力,如果不是在知识的普遍性超过。 Paris claimed him as her own; the popes wished to have him near them; the studia of the order were eager to enjoy the benefit of his teaching; hence we find him successively at Anagni, Rome, Bologna, Orvieto, Viterbo, Perugia, in Paris again, and finally in Naples, always teaching and writing, living on earth with one passion, an ardent zeal for the explanation and defence of Christian truth.巴黎她自己声称他的教皇希望他在他们附近的顺序studia渴望享受他的教学的好处,因此我们发现在阿纳尼,罗马,博洛尼亚,奥维多,维泰博,佩鲁贾,他先后在巴黎再次,终于在那不勒斯,始终教学和写作,生活在地球上一个激情,为基督教真理的解释和国防的殷切热情。 So devoted was he to his sacred task that with tears he begged to be excused from accepting the Archbishopric of Naples, to which he was appointed by Clement IV in 1265.如此热衷,他以他的神圣的任务,用泪水,他恳求接受那不勒斯的大主教,他被任命克莱门特四在1265原谅。Had this appointment been accepted, most probably the "Summa theologica" would not have been written.如果这一任命被接受,最有可能的“神学大全”将不会被写入。

Yielding to the requests of his brethren, he on several occasions took part in the deliberations of the general chapters of the order.屈从于他的弟兄们的要求,他参加了多次在该命令的一般章节的审议工作的一部分。One of these chapters was held in London in 1263.这些章节之一,在伦敦举行,在1263。In another held at Valenciennes (1259) he collaborated with Albertus Magnus and Peter of Tarentasia (afterwards Pope Innocent V) in formulating a system of studies which is substantially preserved to this day in the studia generalia of the Dominican Order (cf. Douais, op. cit.).在举行的另一次在瓦朗谢讷(1259),他与阿尔伯图斯Magnus和Tarentasia彼得(事后教皇英诺森V)制定实质上这是保存在多米尼加令studia generalia(参见Douais,运到这一天的系统研究同前。)

It is not surprising to read in the biographies of St. Thomas that he was frequently abstracted and in ecstasy.这并不奇怪读传记,他经常在抽象和摇头丸在圣托马斯。Towards the end of his life the ecstasies became more frequent.走向他生命的终结狂喜变得更加频繁。On one occasion, at Naples in 1273, after he had completed his treatise on the Eucharist, three of the brethren saw him lifted in ecstasy, and they heard a voice proceeding from the crucifix on the altar, saying "Thou hast written well of me, Thomas; what reward wilt thou have?"有一次,在那不勒斯在1273,之后,他已经完成了他的论文的圣体圣事,弟兄三人看到他在狂喜解除,而他们听到一个声音,从祭坛上的十字架出发,说:“祢我写的托马斯;什么奖励祢有“? Thomas replied, "None other than Thyself, Lord" (Prümmer, op. cit., p. 38).托马斯回答说,“没有其他比你自己,上帝”(Prümmer,同上,第38页)。Similar declarations are said to have been made at Orvieto and at Paris.类似的声明说,已在奥维多,并在巴黎。

On 6 December, 1273, he laid aside his pen and would write no more. 12月6日,1273,他搁置他的笔下,就写没有更多的。That day he experienced an unusually long ecstasy during Mass; what was revealed to him we can only surmise from his reply to Father Reginald, who urged him to continue his writings: "I can do no more. Such secrets have been revealed to me that all I have written now appears to be of little value" (modica, Prümmer, op. cit., p. 43).在弥撒那一天,他经历了一个不同寻常的漫长的“忘我”;是向他透露,我们只能推测,从他的答复父亲雷金纳德,敦促他继续他的著作:“我可以做没有更多的已经向我透露这些机密所有我写的,现在看来是没有什么价值“(莫迪卡,Prümmer,同上,第43页)。 The "Summa theologica" had been completed only as far as the ninetieth question of the third part (De partibus poenitentiae).“神学大全”已经完成,只有尽可能的第三部分(德partibus poenitentiae)90问题。

Thomas began his immediate preparation for death.托马斯开始了他死亡的直接准备。Gregory X, having convoked a general council, to open at Lyons on 1 May, 1274, invited St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure to take part in the deliberations, commanding the former to bring to the council his treatise "Contra errores Graecorum" (Against the Errors of the Greeks).格雷戈里,在召集总理事会于1274年5月,邀请圣托马斯和圣文德参加审议的一部分,在里昂,打开,指挥前把安理会他的论文“魂斗罗ERRORES Graecorum”(反对希腊人的错误)。He tried to obey, setting out on foot in January, 1274, but strength failed him; he fell to the ground near Terracina, whence he was conducted to the Castle of Maienza, the home of his niece the Countess Francesca Ceccano.他试图服从,设置在1274年一月,徒步,但实力没有他,他倒特拉西,从那里他进行Maienza,他的侄女家伯爵夫人弗朗西斯Ceccano城堡附近的地面。 The Cistercian monks of Fossa Nuova pressed him to accept their hospitality, and he was conveyed to their monastery, on entering which he whispered to his companion: "This is my rest for ever and ever: here will I dwell, for I have chosen it" (Psalm 131:14).窝Nuova的修道院的僧侣按下,他接受了他们的好客,他转达他们的寺院,在进入他低声对他的同伴:“这是我永永远远的休息:在这里,我将住,因为我已经选择了它“(诗篇131:14)。 When Father Reginald urged him to remain at the castle, the saint replied: "If the Lord wishes to take me away, it is better that I be found in a religious house than in the dwelling of a lay person."当雷金纳德父亲劝他留在城堡,圣人回答说:“如果上帝希望把我带走,这是比居住在一个世俗的人,我发现在一个宗教房子。” The Cistercians were so kind and attentive that Thomas's humility was alarmed.熙是如此的亲切和周到,托马斯的谦卑感到震惊。"Whence comes this honour", he exclaimed, "that servants of God should carry wood for my fire!" “因此而来此荣誉”,他感叹道,“上帝的仆人应该进行木材为我的火!”At the urgent request of the monks he dictated a brief commentary on the Canticle of Canticles.在僧侣的迫切要求,他口授了一个简短评论canticle的canticles。

The end was near; extreme unction was administered.到底是附近;临终管理。When the Sacred Viaticum was brought into the room he pronounced the following act of faith:当神圣的Viaticum进了房间,他带来了显着的信仰的下列行为:

If in this world there be any knowledge of this sacrament stronger than that of faith, I wish now to use it in affirming that I firmly believe and know as certain that Jesus Christ, True God and True Man, Son of God and Son of the Virgin Mary, is in this Sacrament .如果在这个世界上还有比信仰任何这圣礼的知识,我现在想使用它,在肯定,我坚信一定知道的真神耶稣基督,和真正的人,上帝的儿子和儿子的圣母玛利亚,是在这圣事。 ..I receive Thee, the price of my redemption, for Whose love I have watched, studied, and laboured.我收到你,我的赎回价格,对父母的爱,我都看过,研究和辛勤。Thee have I preached; Thee have I taught.你有我宣扬祢我教。Never have I said anything against Thee: if anything was not well said, that is to be attributed to my ignorance.我从来没有攻击你说的话:如果有什么是不能很好地说,那是要归功于我的无知。Neither do I wish to be obstinate in my opinions, but if I have written anything erroneous concerning this sacrament or other matters, I submit all to the judgment and correction of the Holy Roman Church, in whose obedience I now pass from this life.我也不希望我的意见顽固,但如果我写了关于这个圣餐或其他事项的任何错误,我提交的所有神圣罗马教会的判断和修正,在其服从我现在通过这种生活。

He died on 7 March, 1274.他死于1274年3月7日,。Numerous miracles attested his sanctity, and he was canonized by John XXII, 18 July, 1323.无数奇迹证明了他的神圣,他被册封约翰二十二,7月18日,1323。The monks of Fossa Nuova were anxious to keep his sacred remains, but by order of Urban V the body was given to his Dominican brethren, and was solemnly translated to the Dominican church at Toulouse, 28 January, 1369.窝Nuova的僧侣急于保住自己的神圣仍然,而是为了城市V身体给他的多明尼加弟兄,并郑重地转换为在图卢兹的多米尼加教堂,1月28日,1369。 A magnificent shrine erected in 1628 was destroyed during the French Revolution, and the body was removed to the Church of St. Sernin, where it now reposes in a sarcophagus of gold and silver, which was solemnly blessed by Cardinal Desprez on 24 July, 1878.一个宏伟靖国神社建于1628年在法国大革命期间被拆毁了,身体被删除的圣Sernin,现在座落在黄金和白银的石棺,7月24日隆重枢机主教Desprez的祝福,1878年教会。 The chief bone of his left arm is preserved in the cathedral of Naples.行政左臂骨被保存在那不勒斯大教堂。The right arm, bestowed on the University of Paris, and originally kept in the St. Thomas's Chapel of the Dominican church, is now preserved in the Dominican Church of S. Maria Sopra Minerva in Rome, whither it was transferred during the French Revolution.右臂,在巴黎大学赋予,最初在圣托马斯的多米尼加教堂的礼拜堂保持,是现在保存在S.玛丽亚SOPRA密涅瓦多米尼加在罗马,教会向何处去,这是在法国大革命期间转移。 A description of the saint as he appeared in life is given by Calo (Prümmer, op. cit., p. 401), who says that his features corresponded with the greatness of his soul.一个圣人,因为他在生活中出现的描述是卡洛(Prümmer,同上,第401页),他说,他的特点与他的灵魂的伟大相符。 He was of lofty stature and of heavy build, but straight and well proportioned.他的崇高地位和重磅打造,但直而匀称。His complexion was "like the colour of new wheat": his head was large and well shaped, and he was slightly bald.他的肤色是“像小麦新品种的颜色”:他的头部被大井字形,和他略有秃顶。All portraits represent him as noble, meditative, gentle yet strong.所有的肖像,代表他身份高贵,冥想,温柔还强。St. Pius V proclaimed St. Thomas a Doctor of the Universal Church in the year 1567.圣皮乌斯V宣布圣托马斯在1567年度的普世教会博士。In the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris", of 4 August, 1879, on the restoration of Christian philosophy, Leo XIII declared him "the prince and master of all Scholastic doctors".在通谕“Aeterni Patris”,4,1879年8月,恢复基督教哲学,利奥十三世宣布他“王子和掌握的所有学业医生”。The same illustrious pontiff, by a Brief dated 4 August, 1880, designated him patron of all Catholic universities, academies, colleges, and schools throughout the world.指定相同的杰出教皇由一个简短的8月4日,1880年,他在世界各地所有的天主教大学,院校,学院,和学校的赞助人。


Although St. Thomas lived less than fifty years, he composed more than sixty works, some of them brief, some very lengthy.虽然圣托马斯居住不少于50年,他创作了超过60件作品,其中一些简短,一些非常漫长的。This does not necessarily mean that every word in the authentic works was written by his hand; he was assisted by secretaries, and biographers assure us that he could dictate to several scribes at the same time.这并不一定意味着,在地道工程的每一个字是写他的手;他秘书,协助和传记作家向我们保证,他可以规定在同一时间几个文士。 Other works, some of which were composed by his disciples, have been falsely attributed to him.其他作品,其中有些是由他的弟子组成,而被错误地归因于他。

In the "Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum" (Paris, 1719) Fr.在“Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum”(巴黎,1719)神父。Echard devotes eighty-six folio pages to St. Thomas's works, the different editions and translations (I, pp. 282-348).埃沙尔致力于圣托马斯的作品八十六对开页,不同的版本和翻译(我,第282-348页)。Touron (op. cit., pp. 69 sqq.) says that manuscript copies were found in nearly all the libraries of Europe, and that, after the invention of printing, copies were multiplied rapidly in Germany, Italy, and France, portions of the "Summa theologica" being one of the first important works printed.Touron(同上,第69 SQQ)说,在欧洲几乎所有的图书馆发现,手稿副本,以及,印刷术的发明后,副本分别乘以迅速在德国,意大利,法国,部分“神学大全”第一次印刷的重要作品之一。 Peter Schöffer, a printer of Mainz, published the "Secunda Secundae" in 1467.彼得Schöffer,美因茨的打印机,发表在1467“塞康达Secundae”。This is the first known printed copy of any work of St. Thomas.这是第一个已知的任何工作圣托马斯的印刷本。The first complete edition of the "Summa" was printed at Basle, in 1485.在巴塞尔,1485年“大全”的第一个完整版印刷。 Many other editions of this and of other works were published in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially at Venice and at Lyons.本及其他作品的许多其他版本发表在十六,十七世纪,特别是在威尼斯和在里昂。The principal editions of all the work (Opera Omnia) were published as follows: Rome, 1570; Venice, 1594, 1612, 1745; Antwerp, 1612; Paris, 1660, 1871-80 (Vives); Parma, 1852-73; Rome, 1882 (the Leonine).如下:罗马,1570;威尼斯的,1594,1612,1745;安特卫普,1612;巴黎,1660年,1871至1880年(比韦斯);帕尔马,1852年至1873年罗马出版的主要版本的所有工作(歌剧的Omnia) 1882年(Leonine)。The Roman edition of 1570, called "the Piana", because edited by order of St. Pius V, was the standard for many years.罗马的1570版,被称为“皮亚纳”,因为圣皮乌斯五世为了编辑,是多年的标准。 Besides a carefully revised text it contained the commentaries of Cardinal Cajetan and the valuable "Tabula Aurea" of Peter of Bergamo.除了精心修订的文本,它包含枢机主教Cajetan的评论和宝贵的“Tabula金叶”贝加莫彼得。The Venetian edition of 1612 was highly prized because the text was accompanied by the Cajetan-Porrecta commentaries .1612威尼斯版是如获至宝,因为文本是由Cajetan Porrecta评论陪同。...The Leonine edition, begun under the patronage of Leo XIII, now continued under the master general of the Dominicans, undoubtedly will be the most perfect of all. Leonine版,利奥十三世的支持下开始的,现在继续下掌握一般的多米尼加,无疑将成为最完美的。Critical dissertations on each work will be given, the text will be carefully revised, and all references will be verified.将每个工作的关键论文,文本将仔细修改,将核实所有引用。By direction of Leo XIII (Motu Proprio, 18 Jan., 1880) the "Summa contra gentiles" will be published with the commentaries of Sylvester Ferrariensis, whilst the commentaries of Cajetan go with the "Summa theologica".利奥十三世(索菲特摩Proprio,1880年1月18)的指示“禁忌大全外邦人”将出版西尔维斯特Ferrariensis的评论,而Cajetan的评论与“神学大全”。

The latter has been published, being volumes IV-XII of the edition (last in 1906).后者已经出版,被卷的版本IV - 12(在1906年最后一个)。St. Thomas's works may be classified as philosophical, theological, scriptural, and apologetic, or controversial.圣托马斯的作品可分为哲学,神学,圣经,和歉疚,或有争议的。The division, however, cannot always be rigidly maintained.师,然而,不能总是拘泥于维持。The "Summa theologica", eg, contains much that is philosophical, whilst the "Summa contra gentiles" is principally, but not exclusively, philosophical and apologetic. “神学大全”,例如,含有大量的是哲学,而“以最禁忌外邦人”是主要的,但不完全是,哲学和歉疚。His philosophical works are chiefly commentaries on Aristotle, and his first important theological writings were commentaries on Peter Lombard's four books of "Sentences"; but he does not slavishly follow either the Philosopher or the Master of the Sentences (on opinions of the Lombard rejected by theologians, see Migne, 1841, edition of the "Summa" I, p. 451).他的哲学作品,主要是对亚里士多德的评注,他的第一个重要的神学著作彼得隆巴德的四个“刑罚”的书籍评论,但他并没有亦步亦趋地跟随任的哲学家或的句子的主(伦巴第的意见拒绝神学家,看到米涅,1841年版“大全”的我,第451页)。


Amongst the works wherein St. Thomas's own mind and method are shown, the following deserve special mention:当中的作品其中圣托马斯自己的思想和方法都显示,以下特别值得一提:

(1) "Quaestiones disputatae" (Disputed Questions) -- These were more complete treatises on subjects that had not been fully elucidated in the lecture halls, or concerning which the professor's opinion had been sought.(1)“Quaestiones disputatae”(有争议的问题) - 这是更完整的论文尚未完全阐明,在演讲厅或有关教授的意见,已寻求科目。They are very valuable, because in them the author, free from limitations as to time or space, freely expresses his mind and gives all arguments for or against the opinions adopted.他们都是非常有价值的,因为在他们的作者,从时间或空间的限制自由,自由地表达他的头脑和通过的意见或反对给所有参数。 These treatises, containing the questions "De potentia", "De malo", "De spirit. creaturis", "De anima", "De unione Verbi Incarnati", "De virt. in communi", "De caritate", "De corr. fraterna", "De spe", "De virt. cardinal.", "De veritate", were often reprinted, eg recently by the Association of St. Paul (2 vols., Paris and Fribourg, Switzerland, 1883).这些论文,其中包含的问题,“德精神。creaturis”,“德灵魂”,“德unione Verbi Incarnati”,“德的virt通信。”,“德caritate”,“德”潜在的“,”马洛“更正。fraterna“,”德SPE“,”德的virt。红衣主教“。”veritate“,经常被转载,如最近由圣保罗(2卷,巴黎和弗里堡,瑞士,1883年)的协会。

(2) "Quodlibeta" (may be rendered "Various Subjects", or "Free Discussions") -- They present questions or arguments proposed and answers given in or outside the lecture halls, chiefly in the more formal Scholastic exercises, termed circuli, conclusiones, or determinationes, which were held once or twice a year. (2)“Quodlibeta”(可能会呈现“各学科”,或“自由讨论”) - 他们目前提出的问题或争论和境内或境外的演讲大厅给出的答案,主要是在较为正式的学术演习,被称为circuli CONCLUSIONES,或determinationes,其中每年举行一次或两次。

(3) "De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas" -- This opusculum refuted a very dangerous and widespread error, viz., that there was but one soul for all men, a theory which did away with individual liberty and responsibility.(3)“德unitate intellectus禁忌Averroistas” - 这小品驳斥了一个非常危险的,普遍的错误,即有,但所有的人,一个灵魂与个人自由和责任,没有一个理论。(See AVERROES) (参见AVERROES)

(4) "Commentaria in Libros Sententiarum" (mentioned above) -- This with the following work are the immediate forerunners of the "Summa theologica".(4)“Libros Sententiarum Commentaria”(上述) - 这与下面的工作是“神学大全”的直接先驱。

(5) "Summa de veritate catholicae fidei contra gentiles" (Treatise on the Truth of the Catholic Faith, against Unbelievers) -- This work, written at Rome, 1261-64, was composed at the request of St. Raymond of Pennafort, who desired to have a philosophical exposition and defence of the Christian Faith, to be used against the Jews and Moors in Spain.(5)“大全veritate catholicae fidei禁忌外邦人”(伤寒论信仰天主教的真相,对不信,) - 这项工作,在罗马,1261年至1264年写的,是由圣彭纳福特雷蒙德的要求,他们期望有一种哲学的论述和辩护的基督教信仰,对犹太人和摩尔人在西班牙使用。 It is a perfect model of patient and sound apologetics, showing that no demonstrated truth (science) is opposed to revealed truth (faith).这是一个完美的病人和声音护模式,呈现出反对,没有证明的真理(科学)是揭示真理(信仰)。 The best recent editions are those of Rome, 1878 (by Uccelli), of Paris and Fribourg, Switzerland, 1882, and of Rome, 1894.罗马,1878年(所Uccelli),巴黎和瑞士弗里堡,1882年,罗马,1894年最佳的最新版本。It has been translated into many languages.它已被翻译成多种文字。It is divided into four books: I. Of God as He is in Himself; II.它分为四本书:一神,因为他在自己;第二。Of God the Origin of Creatures; III.神的生物的起源;三。Of God the End of Creatures; IV.神最终的生物;四。Of God in His Revelation.上帝在他的启示。It is worthy of remark that the Fathers of the Vatican Council, treating the necessity of revelation (Constitution "Dei Filius", c. 2), employed almost the very words used by St. Thomas in treating that subject in this work (I, cc. iv, V), and in the "Summa theologica" (I:1:1).梵蒂冈理事会的父亲,治疗的启示的必要性(“宪法”的“业会Filius”,C. 2),雇用几乎在处理这项工作的主题,圣托马斯(我的话,它是值得的备注CC IV,V),在“神学大全”(我:1:1)。

(6) Three works written by order of Urban IV --(6)为了城市四 - 三部作品的书面

The "Opusculum contra errores Graecorum" refuted the errors of the Greeks on doctrines in dispute between them and the Roman Church, viz., the procession of the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son, the primacy of the Roman pontiff, the Holy Eucharist, and purgatory.“小品禁忌ERRORES Graecorum”学说的反驳希腊人的错误,他们和罗马天主教会,即,圣灵从父和子的游行,罗马教皇的首要地位,圣体圣事之间的争议炼狱。It was used against the Greeks with telling effect in the Council of Lyons (1274) and in the Council of Florence (1493).它被用来对希腊人告诉安理会的里昂(1274)和佛罗伦萨(1493)理事会的影响。In the range of human reasonings on deep subjects there can be found nothing to surpass the sublimity and depth of the argument adduced by St. Thomas to prove that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son (cf. Summa I:36:2); but it must be borne in mind that our Faith is not based on that argument alone.可以在人类的推理深科目的范围有没有发现任何超越的崇高和深度圣托马斯援引的论据,以证明圣灵收益来自父亲和子(参见大全我:36:2 );但必须牢记,我们的信念是不会单就这一论点。

"Officium de festo Corporis Christi".“Officium费斯托股癣斯蒂”。Mandonnet (Ecrits, p. 127) declares that it is now established beyond doubt that St. Thomas is the author of the beautiful Office of Corpus Christi, in which solid doctrine, tender piety, and enlightening Scriptural citations are combined, and expressed in language remarkably accurate, beautiful, chaste, and poetic.芒多内(Ecrits第127页)宣布,它现在毫无疑问,圣托马斯科珀斯克里斯蒂,在坚实的学说,投标的虔诚,和启发性的圣经引文相结合,优美的办公作者成立,并在语言表达非常准确,美丽,纯洁,和诗意。 Here we find the well-known hymns, "Sacris Solemniis", "Pange Lingua" (concluding in the "Tantum Ergo"), "Verbum Supernum" (concluding with the "O Salutaris Hostia") and, in the Mass, the beautiful sequence "Lauda Sion".这里,我们找到了著名的赞美诗,“Sacris Solemniis”,“Pange语”(结束的“Tantum ERGO”),“Verbum Supernum”(结论性的“O Salutaris Hostia”)和在地下,美丽的序列“劳达锡安”。In the responses of the office, St. Thomas places side by side words of the New Testament affirming the real presence of Christ in the Blessed Sacrament and texts from the Old Testament referring to the types and figures of the Eucharist.在办公室的答复,圣托马斯方方字新约肯定真实存在的基督圣体和圣体的类型和数字的旧指约文本。Santeuil, a poet of the seventeenth century, said he would give all the verses he had written for the one stanza of the "Verbum Supernum": "Se nascens dedit socium, convescens in edulium: Se moriens in pretium, Se regnans dat in praemium" -- "In birth, man's fellow-man was He, His meat, while sitting at the Board: He died his Ransomer to be, He reigns to be his Great Reward" (tr. by Marquis of Bute). Santeuil,十七世纪的诗人,说他会给他为“Verbum Supernum”节写的诗句:“SE nascens dedit socium edulium convescens:SE moriens pretium,硒regnans DAT praemium “ - ”出生,男子的老乡人是他,他的肉,而坐在董事会:他死了,他Ransomer了,他统治是他的大赏“(编辑部布特侯爵)。Perhaps the gem of the whole office is the antiphon "O Sacrum Convivium" (cf. Conway, "St. Thomas Aquinas", London and New York, 1911, p. 61).整个办公室的宝石,也许是安提的“O骶骨Convivium”(参见康威,“多瑪斯”,伦敦和纽约,1911年,第61页)。

The "Catena Aurea", though not as original as his other writings, furnishes a striking proof of St. Thomas's prodigious memory and manifests an intimate acquaintance with the Fathers of the Church. “卡泰纳忽地笑”,虽然不如他的其他著作的原始,furnishes圣托马斯的巨大内存的一个引人注目的证明和体现教会的教父们的亲密熟人。The work contains a series of passages selected from the writings of the various Fathers, arranged in such order that the texts cited form a running commentary on the Gospels.工作包含了一系列各种教父的著作,在上述命令文本引用,形成了对福音的运行注释安排选定的段落。The commentary on St. Matthew was dedicated to Urban IV.圣马太的评论是专门到市第四。An English translation of the "Catena Aurea" was edited by John Henry Newman (4 vols., Oxford, 1841-1845; see Vaughan, op. cit., vol. II,) pp. 529 sqq. “卡泰纳忽地笑”的英文翻译是由纽曼(4卷,牛津大学,1841年至1845年编辑;沃恩,同上,第二卷。)第529 SQQ

(7) The "Summa theologica"-- This work immortalized St. Thomas.(7)的“神学大全” - 这工作永生圣托马斯。The author himself modestly considered it simply a manual of Christian doctrine for the use of students.作者本人谦虚地认为它只是一个供学生使用手册基督教教义。In reality it is a complete scientifically arranged exposition of theology and at the same time a summary of Christian philosophy (see SUMMÆ).在现实中,它是一个科学的神学和基督教哲学的摘要(见SUMMÆ)在同一时间安排完整地阐述。In the brief prologue St. Thomas first calls attention to the difficulties experienced by students of sacred doctrine in his day, the causes assigned being: the multiplication of useless questions, articles, and arguments; the lack of scientific order; frequent repetitions, "which beget disgust and confusion in the minds of learners".圣托马斯在简短的开场白中首先调用注意学生在他的天神圣教义中所遇到的困难,导致分配是:乘法;无用的问题,文章和参数,缺乏科学的秩序;频繁重复“在学习者的头脑中生出厌恶和困惑“。 Then he adds: "Wishing to avoid these and similar drawbacks, we shall endeavour, confiding in the Divine assistance, to treat of these things that pertain to sacred doctrine with brevity and clearness, in so far as the subject to he treated will permit."然后他补充说:“希望避免这些和其他类似的弊端,我们将努力在神的援助倾诉,来对待这些事情,涉及到与简洁和清晰的神圣教义,在迄今为主题将允许他对待。 “

In the introductoryquestion, "On Sacred Doctrine", he proves that, besides the knowledge which reason affords, Revelation also is necessary for salvation first, because without it men could not know the supenatural end to which they must tend by their voluntary acts; secondly, because, without Revelation, even the truths concerning God which could be proved by reason would be known "only by a few, after a long time, and with the admixture of many errors".在介绍性的问题,“在神圣的教义”,他证明,除了原因给予的知识,也启示是必要的救赎第一,因为没有人可能不知道supenatural结束,他们必须通过他们的自愿行为往往;其次,由于没有启示,甚至可以通过理性证明的真理关于上帝会被称为“只有少数,很长一段时间后,与掺加许多错误”。 When revealed truths have been accepted, the mind of man proceeds to explain them and to draw conclusions from them.当已被接受,揭示真理的人所得的头脑解释,并从中得出结论。Hence results theology, which is a science, because it proceeds from principles that are certain (Answer 2).因此,结果神学,这是一门科学,因为它是从一定的原则,(答案2)收益。The object, or subject, of this science is God; other things are treated in it only in so far as they relate to God (Answer 7).这门科学的对象,或受,是上帝;对待其他的东西只有在它到目前为止,因为它们与神(答7)。Reason is used in theology not to prove the truths of faith, which are accepted on the authority of God, but to defend, explain, and develop the doctrines revealed (Answer 8).原因是在神学,不是为了证明真理的信仰,接受神的权威,但辩护,解释,并制定透露(8答案)的教义。He thus announces the division of the "Summa": "Since the chief aim of this sacred science is to give the knowledge of God, not only as He is in Himself, but also as He is the Beginning of all things, and the End of all, especially of rational creatures, we shall treat first of God; secondly, of the rational creature's advance towards God (de motu creaturae rationalis in Deum); thirdly, of Christ, Who, as Man, is the way by which we tend to God."因此,他宣布“大全”的分工:“由于这个神圣的科学的主要目的是给神的知识,不仅因为他是在自己身上,而且还因为他是一切事物的开始和结束所有的,尤其是理性的生物,我们将治疗首先神第二的理性生物的对上帝提前,(DE MOTU creaturae在Deum rationalis);第三,基督是谁,作为人,是通过我们往往上帝。“God in Himself, and as He is the Creator; God as the End of all things, especially of man; God as the Redeemer -- these are the leading ideas, the great headings, under which all that pertains to theology is contained.神在自己身上,因为他是造物主,上帝为万物的结局,尤其是人的神的救赎 - 这些都是领先的思想,伟大的标题,其下包含所有涉及神学。

(a) Sub-divisions(一)告子

The First Part is divided into three tracts:第一部分是分为三个大片:

On those things which pertain to the Essence of God;在这些事情涉及到上帝的本质;

On the distinction of Persons in God (the mystery of the Trinity);在神(三位一体的奥秘)的区别;

On the production of creatures by God and on the creatures produced.神所生产的生物和生物生产。

The Second Part, On God as He is in the End of man, is sometimes called the Moral Theology of St. Thomas, ie, his treatise on the end of man and on human acts.第二部分,对神,因为他在结束的男子,有时也被称为圣托马斯的道德神学,即他的人,对人类行为的论文。It is subdivided into two parts, known as the First Section of the Second (I-II, or 1a 2ae) and the Second of the Second (II-II, or 2a 2ae).它分为两个部分,第一部分(I - II或2AE 1A)第二二二(II - II或2A 2AE)。

The First of the Second.第一第二。The first five questions are devoted to proving that man's last end, his beatitude, consists in the possession of God.前五个问题,专门用于证明该男子去年年底,他的至福,包括在藏神。Man attains to that end or deviates from it by human acts, ie by free, deliberate acts.曼满,年底或从人类的行为,即自由,蓄意行为偏离。Of human acts he treats, first, in general (in all but the first five questions of the I-II), secondly, in particular (in the whole of the II-II).其次,在人类的行为,他将首先在一般,但在所有的I - II的前五个问题,特别是(在整个的II - II)。The treatise on human acts in general is divided into two parts: the first, on human acts in themselves; the other, on the principles or causes, extrinsic or intrinsic, of those acts.分为两部分:第一,对人的行为本身;其他外在或内在的原则或原因,这些行为,在一般人的行为的论文。In these tracts and in the Second of the Second, St. Thomas, following Aristotle, gives a perfect description and a wonderfully keen analysis of the movements of man's mind and heart.在这些大片,在第二个二,圣托马斯,继亚里士多德,给出了一个完美的描述和一个人的头脑和心脏的运动极其敏锐的分析。

The Second of the Second considers human acts, ie, the virtues and vices, in particular.二二认为人类的行为,即在特定的美德和恶习,。In it St. Thomas treats, first, of those things that pertain to all men, no matter what may be their station in life, and, secondly, of those things that pertain to some men only.在圣托马斯黄柏,第一,涉及到所有的人,无论什么可能是生活中的站,和,其次是那些东西,这些东西,涉及到一些只有男性。 Things that pertain to all men are reduced to seven headings: Faith, Hope, and Charity; Prudence, Justice, Fortitude, and Temperance.事情涉及到所有的人都减少了七个标题:信仰,希望和慈善机构;谨慎,正义,刚毅,节制。Under each title, in order to avoid repetitions, St. Thomas treats not only of the virtue itself, but also of the vices opposed to it, of the commandment to practise it, and of the gift of the Holy Ghost which corresponds to it.每个标题下,为了避免重复,圣托马斯将不仅凭借本身,但反对它的恶习,戒律,实践,和对应的圣灵的恩赐。Things pertaining to some men only are reduced to three headings: the graces freely given (gratia gratis datae) to certain individuals for the good of the Church, such as the gifts of tongues, of prophecy, of miracles; the active and the contemplative life; the particular states of life, and duties of those who are in different states, especially bishops and religious.一些男性有关的事情只能是减少三个标题:自由的青睐(特惠无偿datae)良好的教会,如方言的恩赐,预言的奇迹,某些个人;积极和沉思的生活生活中的国家,特别是那些在不同国家,特别是主教和宗教的职责。

The Third Part treats of Christ and of the benefits which He has conferred upon man, hence three tracts: On the Incarnation, and on what the Saviour did and suffered; On the Sacraments, which were instituted by Christ, and have their efficacy from His merits and sufferings; On Eternal Life, ie, on the end of the world, the resurrection of bodies, judgment, the punishment of the wicked, the happiness of the just who, through Christ, attain to eternal life in heaven.第三部分将基督和他身上的人,因此,三个大片赋予的利益的化身,和救主而蒙受;在圣礼,这是由基督提起,并从他自己的疗效优点和痛苦;在永恒的生命,即,对世界的末日,复活的尸体,判断,惩罚恶人,刚刚通过基督,幸福,达到永恒的生命在天堂。

Eight years were given to the composition of this work, which was begun at Rome, where the First Part and the First of the Second were written (1265-69).这项工作的组成,这是在罗马,第一部分和第二首写(1265年至1269年)开始8年。The Second of the Second, begun in Rome, was completed in Paris (1271).二二,在罗马开始,完成了在巴黎(1271)。In 1272 St. Thomas went to Naples, where the Third Part was written, down to the ninetieth question of the tract On Penance (see Leonine edition, I, p. xlii).在1272年,圣托马斯去那不勒斯,第三部分是写上忏悔道90问题(见Leonine版,我第XLII)。The work has been completed by the addition of a supplement, drawn from other writings of St. Thomas, attributed by some to Peter of Auvergne, by others to Henry of Gorkum.这项工作已经完成,另外的一种补充,来自圣托马斯的其他著作,彼得的奥弗涅,归因于一些被别人Gorkum亨利。These attributions are rejected by the editors of the Leonine edition (XI, pp. viii, xiv, xviii).这些归因都拒绝Leonine版(第十一页八,第十四条,第十八)的编辑。Mandonnet (op. cit., 153) inclines to the very probable opinion that it was compiled by Father Reginald de Piperno, the saint's faithful companion and secretary.芒多内(同上,153)倾向很可能认为,它是由父亲雷金纳德 - Piperno,圣人的忠实伴侣和秘书编制。

The entire "Summa" contains 38 Treatises, 612 Questions, subdivided into 3120 articles, in which about 10,000 objections are proposed and answered.整个“大全”包含38论文,612个问题,到3120篇,其中约10,000反对建议,并回答了细分。So admirably is the promised order preserved that, by reference to the beginning of the Tracts and Questions, one can see at a glance what place it occupies in the general plan, which embraces all that can be known through theology of God, of man, and of their mutual relations .所以令人钦佩的是,山区和问题开始,可以一看便知什么地方,它在总体规划,其中包含了所有可以通过称为神的神学人,占有的承诺为了保存,和它们的相互关系。 .."The whole Summa is arranged on a uniform plan. Every subject is introduced as a question, and divided into articles. . . . Each article has also a uniform disposition of parts. The topic is introduced as an inquiry for discussion, under the term Utrum, whether -- eg Utrum Deus sit? The objections against the proposed thesis are then stated. These are generally three or four in number, but sometimes extend to seven or more. The conclusion adopted is then introduced by the words, Respondeo dicendum. At the end of the thesis expounded the objections are answered, under the forms, ad primum, ad secundum, etc." “整个大全是一个统一的计划安排,每个主题是介绍一个问题,并分为文章。。每篇文章都有一个统一的部分处置的主题是根据长期调查讨论, Utrum,是否 - 例如Utrum杀出坐对建议的论断反对,然后说,这些通常是三个或四个数,但有时会延长到7个或更多的采用的结论,然后由引进的话,Respondeo dicendum?。在阐述了论文的反对下的形式,广告primum,广告孔型等回答,“....The "Summa" is Christian doctrine in scientific form; it is human reason rendering its highest service in defence and explanation of the truths of the Christian religion. “大全”是基督教的学说在科学的形式,它是人类理性呈现其最高国防和基督教的真理解释服务。It is the answer of the matured and saintly doctor to the question of his youth: What is God?它是成熟和圣洁医生回答他的青年问题:什么是上帝?Revelation, made known in the Scriptures and by tradition; reason and its best results; soundness and fulness of doctrine, order, conciseness and clearness of expression, effacement of self, the love of truth alone, hence a remarkable fairness towards adversaries and calmness in combating their errors; soberness and soundness of judgment, together with a charmingly tender and enlightened piety -- these are all found in this "Summa" more than in his other writings, more than in the writings of his contemporaries, for "among the Scholastic doctors, the chief and master of all, towers Thomas Aquinas, who, as Cajetan observes (In 2am 2ae, Q. 148, a. 4) 'because he most venerated the ancient doctors of the Church in a certain way seems to have inherited the intellect of all'" (Encyclical, "Aeterni Patris", of Leo XIII).的启示,在圣经和传统的原因和其最佳结果;的健全性和丰满的学说,秩序,简洁和清晰的表达,自我避嫌,单独对真理的热爱,因此对对手和冷静显着的公平一起打击他们的错误;清醒和稳健的判断,一个迷人的招标和​​开明的虔诚 - 这些都是在这个“大全”更多的发现,比他的其他著作,比他同时代的著作,为“之间的学术医生,所有行政和掌握,塔托马斯阿奎那,Cajetan观察(在上午02时2AE,问148,A. 4)“,因为他最崇敬的古代医生以某种方式教会似乎有继承所有的“智力”(“通谕”,Aeterni Patris“,利奥十三世)。

(b) Editions and Translations(二)版本和翻译

It is impossible to mention the various editions of the "Summa", which has been in constant use for more than seven hundred years.这是不可能提及的“大全”,其中经常使用超过七百多年的各种版本。 Very few books have been so often republished.很少有书已再版。The first complete edition, printed at Basle in 1485, was soon followed by others, eg, at Venice in 1505, 1509, 1588, 1594; at Lyons in 1520, 1541, 1547, 1548, 1581, 1588, 1624,1655; at Antwerp in 1575.第一个完整版,1485年在巴塞尔印刷,很快跟随他人,例如,在1505年在威尼斯,1509,1588,1594;在里昂在1520年,1541,1547,1548,1581,1588,1624,1655;安特卫普1575。 These are enumerated by Touron (op. cit., p. 692), who says that about the same time other editions were published at Rome, Antwerp, Rouen, Paris, Douai, Cologne, Amsterdam, Bologna, etc. The editors of the Leonine edition deem worthy of mention those published at Paris in 1617, 1638, and 1648, at Lyons in 1663, 1677, and 1686, and a Roman edition of 1773 (IV, pp. xi, xii).这些列举Touron(同上,第692页),他说,大约在同一时间公布了在罗马,安特卫普,鲁昂,巴黎,杜埃,科隆,阿姆斯特丹,博洛尼亚等其他版本编辑Leonine版认为值得一提的的那些1617年在巴黎出版,1638年,和1648年,于1663年在里昂,1677年和1686年和1773年罗马版(四,第第十一,十二)。 Of all old editions they consider the most accurate two published at Padua, one in 1698, the other in 1712, and the Venice edition of 1755.所有旧版本,他们认为最准确的两个公布在帕多瓦,1698年,于1712年,和1755年威尼斯版。Of recent editions the best are the following: the Leonine; the Migne editions (Paris, 1841, 1877); the first volume of the 1841 edition containing the "Libri quatuor sententiarum" of Peter Lombard; the very practical Faucher edition (5 vols. small quarto, Paris, 1887), dedicated to Cardinal Pecci, enriched with valuable notes; a Roman edition of 1894.最新版本的最好的有以下几种:Leonine;米涅版本(巴黎,1841年,1877年); 1841版“Libri quatuor sententiarum”彼得隆巴德的首卷,非常实用Faucher版(5卷。小四开,巴黎,1887年),专用枢机Pecci,丰富了宝贵的票据; 1894年罗马版。The "Summa" has been translated into many modern languages as well. “大全”已被翻译成许多现代语言以及。


It is not possible to characterize the method of St. Thomas by one word, unless it can be called eclectic.这是不可能描述一个字的圣托马斯的方法,除非它可以被称为不拘一格。It is Aristotelean, Platonic, and Socratic; it is inductive and deductive; it is analytic and synthetic.这是亚里士多德,柏拉图,苏格拉底,它是归纳和演绎,它是分析和合成。He chose the best that could he found in those who preceded him, carefully sifting the chaff from the wheat, approving what was true, rejecting the false.他选择了最好的,可能在他之前那些他发现,仔细筛选,从小麦的糠,审批什么是真实的,拒绝虚假。His powers of synthesis were extraordinary.合成他的权力非常大。No writer surpassed him in the faculty of expressing in a few well-chosen words the truth gathered from a multitude of varying and conflicting opinions; and in almost every instance the student sees the truth and is perfectly satisfied with St. Thomas's summary and statement.没有作家超过了他在几个精心挑选的话表达多种不同的和相互冲突的意见的,从收集到的真理的教师和学生几乎在每一个实例看到的真相,是完全满意圣托马斯的总结和陈述。 Not that he would have students swear by the words of a master.这并不是说,他将学生发誓的话,由一个主。In philosophy, he says, arguments from authority are of secondary importance; philosophy does not consist in knowing what men have said, but in knowing the truth (In I lib. de Coelo, lect. xxii; II Sent., D. xiv, a. 2, ad 1um).他说,在哲学上,从权威的论点都是次要的;哲学不知道说什么男子有组成,但在知道真相(在我的lib DE Coelo,lect XXII;。二,发送,四十四。 A. 2,公元1微米)。He assigns its proper place to reason used in theology (see below: Influence of St. Thomas), but he keeps it within its own sphere.他分配其适当的位置,原因在神学(见下文:圣托马斯的影响),但他自己的领域内保持。Against the Traditionalists the Holy See has declared that the method used by St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure does not lead to Rationalism (Denzinger-Bannwart, n. 1652).对传统主义的罗马教廷宣布,圣托马斯和圣文德所采用的方法不会导致理性(登青格Bannwart,1652)。Not so bold or original in investigating nature as were Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon, he was, nevertheless, abreast of his time in science, and many of his opinions are of scientific value in the twentieth century.并非如此大胆或原始调查性质的阿尔伯图斯Magnus和罗杰培根,他是,然而,他在科学的了解,和他的许多意见在二十世纪的科学价值。 Take, for instance, the following: "In the same plant there is the two-fold virtue, active and passive, though sometimes the active is found in one and the passive in another, so that one plant is said to be masculine and the other feminine" (3 Sent., D. III, Q. ii, a 1). ,例如:“在同一个工厂,有2倍的美德,主动和被动,虽然有时活动之一,另一个被动发现,使一个工厂被认为是阳刚和其他的女人味“(3发送。D.三,问:二,1)。

The style of St. Thomas is a medium between the rough expressiveness of some Scholastics and the fastidious elegance of John of Salisbury; it is remarkable for accuracy, brevity, and completeness.圣托马斯的风格之间的一些经院哲学家的粗糙的表现力和索尔兹伯里的约翰讲究优雅的媒介,它是显着的准确性,简洁,性和完整性。 Pope Innocent VI (quoted in the Encyclical, "Aeterni Patris", of Leo XIII) declared that, with the exception of the canonical writings, the works of St. Thomas surpass all others in "accuracy of expression and truth of statement" (habet proprietatem verborum, modum dicendorum, veritatem sententiarum).诺森六世(转引自通谕“,Aeterni Patris”利奥十三世)宣布,与规范的著作外,圣托马斯的作品超越“的表达和陈述的真实性准确性”所有其他(habet proprietatem verborum,modum dicendorum,veritatem sententiarum)。Great orators, such as Bossuet, Lacordaire, Monsabré, have studied his style, and have been influenced by it, but they could not reproduce it.伟大演说家,如波舒哀,拉科代尔,Monsabré,研究他的风格,并已被它影响,但他们无法重现。The same is true of theological writers.同样是真正的神学作家。Cajetan knew St. Thomas's style better than any of his disciples, but Cajetan is beneath his great master in clearness and accuracy of expression, in soberness and solidity of judgment. Cajetan知道圣托马斯的风格比他的弟子更好,但Cajetan是清晰和表达的准确性,在清醒和稳固的判断,他的伟大的主人之下。St. Thomas did not attain to this perfection without an effort.圣托马斯没有达到这个完美的,没有努力。He was a singularly blessed genius, but he was also an indefatigable worker, and by continued application he reached that stage of perfection in the art of writing where the art disappears.他是一个天才的奇异祝福,但他也是一个不知疲倦的工人,并继续适用,他在写作的艺术消失的艺术达到完美的阶段。 "The author's manuscript of the Summa Contra Gentiles is still in great part extant. It is now in the Vatican Library. The manuscript consists of strips of parchment, of various shades of colour, contained in an old parchment cover to which they were originally stitched. The writing is in double column, and difficult to decipher, abounding in abbreviations, often passing into a kind of shorthand. Throughout many passages a line is drawn in sign of erasure" (Rickaby, Op. cit., preface: see Ucelli ed., "Sum. cont. gent.", Rome, 1878). “作者的的大全魂斗罗外邦人的稿件仍然很大一部分现存正在梵蒂冈图书馆。手稿羊皮纸条,各种色调的颜色在一个旧羊皮纸覆盖到其中,他们是原来缝合中, 。写作是在双列,难以破译,很多缩写,往往变成一种速记,纵观许多段落绘制一条线是擦除的符号“(Rickaby,作品前,前言:。见Ucelli版,“萨姆。CONT。绅士”,罗马,1878年)。


How was this great genius formed?这个伟大的天才是如何形成的呢?The causes that exerted an influence on St. Thomas were of two kinds, natural and supernatural.圣托马斯的影响,产生​​的原因有两种,自然和超自然的。

A. Natural CausesA.自然原因

(1) As a foundation, he "was a witty child, and had received a good soul" (Wisdom 8:19).(1)为基础,他“是一个机智的孩子,并收到了良好的灵魂”(智慧8:19)。From the beginning he manifested precocious and extraordinary talent and thoughtfulness beyond his years.从一开始,他表现超出了他多年的早熟和过人的天赋和体贴。

(2) His education was such that great things might have been expected of him. (2)他的教育是伟大的事情可能已经对他的预期。His training at Monte Cassino, at Naples, Paris, and Cologne was the best that the thirteenth century could give, and that century was the golden age of education.他在蒙特卡西诺,在那不勒斯,巴黎和科隆的训练是最好的,可以给十三世纪,这个世纪是教育的黄金时代。That it afforded excellent opportunities for forming great philosophers and theologians is evident from the character of St. Thomas's contemporaries. ,它给予了极好的机会,形成伟大的哲学家和神学家圣托马斯的同时代人的性格是显而易见的。Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, St. Bonaventure, St. Raymond of Pennafort, Roger Bacon, Hugo a S. Charo, Vincent of Beauvais, not to mention scores of others, prove beyond all doubt that those were days of really great scholars.亚历山大黑尔斯,阿尔伯图斯马格努斯,圣文德,圣彭纳福特雷蒙德,罗杰培根,雨果一个S.沙罗,博韦文森特,更何况别人的分数,证明毫无疑问,那些真正伟大的学者天。 (See Walsh, "The Thirteenth, Greatest of Centuries", New York, 1907.) The men who trained St. Thomas were his teachers at Monte Cassino and Naples, but above all Albertus Magnus, under whom he studied at Paris and Cologne. (见沃尔什“第十三世纪最伟大的”,纽约,1907年。)谁训练圣托马斯男子在蒙特卡西诺和那不勒斯他的老师,但以上所有阿尔伯图斯马格努斯的,根据他在巴黎和科隆的研究。

(3) The books that exercised the greatest influence on his mind were the Bible, the Decrees of the councils and of the popes, the works of the Fathers, Greek and Latin, especially of St. Augustine, the "Sentences" of Peter Lombard, the writings of the philosophers, especially of Plato, Aristotle, and Boethius. (3)行使的影响最大,在他的脑海的书籍是“圣经”,议会和教皇,神父的作品,希腊文和拉丁文,尤其是圣奥古斯丁,“刑罚”彼得隆巴德的法令哲学家的著作,尤其是柏拉图,亚里士多德,和波爱修斯。 If from these authors any were to be selected for special mention, undoubtedly they would be Aristotle, St. Augustine, and Peter Lombard.如果从这些作者的任何特别提到选择,无疑他们将圣奥古斯丁,亚里士多德,伦巴第和彼得。In another sense the writings of St. Thomas were influenced by Averroes, the chief opponent whom he had to combat in order to defend and make known the true Aristotle.在另一种意义上的圣托马斯的著作阿威罗伊,他有打击,以维护和使真正的亚里士多德的主要对手的影响。

(4) It must be borne in mind that St. Thomas was blessed with a retentive memory and great powers of penetration.(4)必须牢记,圣托马斯是一个记忆存储器和列强的渗透与祝福。Father Daniel d'Agusta once pressed him to say what he considered the greatest grace he had ever received, sanctifying grace of course excepted.父亲丹尼尔德阿古斯塔一旦按下他说,他认为他曾经收到的最大的恩典,圣洁优雅当然除外。 "I think that of having understood whatever I have read", was the reply.“我认为,无论我已阅读理解”,他回答。St. Antoninus declared that "he remembered everything be had read, so that his mind was like a huge library" (cf. Drane, op. cit., p. 427; Vaughan, op. cit., II, p. 567).圣安东尼宣布,“他想起了一切可以了,使他的头脑就像一个巨大的图书馆”(参Drane,同上,第427页。沃恩,同上,第二,第567) 。The bare enumeration of the texts of Scripture cited in the "Summa theologica" fills eighty small-print columns in the Migne edition, and by many it is not unreasonably supposed that he learned the Sacred Books by heart while he was imprisoned in the Castle of San Giovanni.裸枚举圣经的文本在“神学大全”引填充八十小打印列在米涅版,许多是不合理不应该,他学会了由心脏的圣书,而他被囚禁在城堡圣乔万尼。 Like St. Dominic he had a special love for the Epistles of St. Paul, on which he wrote commentaries (recent edition in 2 vols., Turin, 1891).圣星一样,他有一个特别的爱圣保禄书信,他写的评论(2卷的最新版本。都灵,1891年)。

(5) Deep reverence for the Faith, as made known by tradition, characterizes all his writings.(5)深崇敬为信仰,传统称为,他的著作的特征。The consuetudo ecclesiae -- the practice of the Church -- should prevail over the authority of any doctor (Summa II-II:10:12).- 教会的做法 - consuetudo该书应该战胜任何医生的权威(大全II - II:10:12)。 In the "Summa" he quotes from 19 councils, 41 popes, and 52 Fathers of the Church.在“大全”,他引用了来自19个议会,41个教皇,和52教父。A slight acquaintance with his writings will show that among the Fathers his favourite was St. Augustine (on the Greek Fathers see Vaughan, op. cit., II, cc. iii sqq.).一个轻微的熟人将他的著作的父亲,在他最喜欢的是圣奥古斯丁(希腊教父看到沃恩,同上,第二,第三CC。SQQ)。

(6) With St. Augustine (II De doctr. Christ., c. xl), St. Thomas held that whatever there was of truth in the writings of pagan philosophers should be taken from them, as from "unjust possessors", and adapted to the teaching of the true religion (Summa I:84:5).(6)与圣奥古斯丁(二德doctr基督,C. XL),圣托马斯认为,无论有真理在异教徒的哲学家的著作,应该从他们采取的,因为从“不公正拥有”,并适应真正的宗教教学(大全我:84:5)。 In the "Summa" alone he quotes from the writings of 46 philosophers and poets, his favourite authors being Aristotle, Plato, and, among Christian writers, Boethius.在“大全”孤军奋战,他引用了从46哲学家和诗人,他最喜欢的作家,亚里士多德,柏拉图的著作,其中基督教作家,波爱修斯。 From Aristotle he learned that love of order and accuracy of expression which are characteristic of his own works.从亚里士多德,他学会了爱,这是自己的作品的特点,为了表达的准确性。From Boethius he learned that Aristotle's works could be used without detriment to Christianity.从波爱修斯,他了解到,亚里士多德的作品,可以不损害基督教。He did not follow Boethius in his vain attempt to reconcile Plato and Aristotle.他没有按照波爱修斯在他妄图调和柏拉图和亚里士多德。 In general the Stagirite was his master, but the elevation and grandeur of St. Thomas's conceptions and the majestic dignity of his methods of treatment speak strongly of the sublime Plato.在一般Stagirite他的主人,但强烈的壮美柏拉图的标高和宏伟的圣托马斯的观念和雄伟的尊严,他的治疗方法的发言。

B. Supernatural CausesB.超自然的原因

Even if we do not accept as literally true the declaration of John XXII, that St. Thomas wrought as many miracles as there are articles in the "Summa", we must, nevertheless, go beyond causes merely natural in attempting to explain his extraordinary career and wonderful writings.即使我们不接受从字面上真实申报约翰二十二,圣托马斯造成许多奇迹,也有在“大全”的文章,但我们必须超越的原因只是在试图解释他的非凡的职业生涯的自然精彩的著作。

(1) Purity of mind and body contributes in no small degree to clearness of vision (see St. Thomas, "Commentaries on I Cor., c. vii", Lesson v). (1)在不小程度的视力清晰的头脑和身体的纯洁性作出贡献(见圣托马斯,“评我肺心病。C.七”,课v)。By the gift of purity, miraculously granted at the time of the mystic girdling, God made Thomas's life angelic; the perspicacity and depth of his intellect, Divine grace aiding, made him the "Angelic Doctor".纯度,奇迹般的神秘环剥时间授予的礼物,上帝创造了托马斯的生命天使;他的智力的敏锐和深度,神的恩典帮助,使他的“天使医生”。

(2) The spirit of prayer, his great piety and devotion, drew down blessings on his studies. (2)祷告的精神,他的伟大的虔诚和献身精神,提请对他的研究的祝福。Explaining why he read, every day, portions of the "Conferences" of Cassian, he said: "In such reading I find devotion, whence I readily ascend to contemplation" (Prümmer, op. cit., p. 32).解释为什么他读,每天,“会议”的卡西安的部分,他说:“我觉得在这样的阅读奉献,何处,我欣然登上来观照”(Prümmer,同上,第32页。)。 In the lessons of the Breviary read on his feast day it is explicitly stated that he never began to study without first invoking the assistance of God in prayer; and when he wrestled with obscure passages of the Scriptures, to prayer he added fasting.在祈祷书的教训阅读,他的节日,它是明确表示,他从来就开始研究没有首先调用的上帝祈祷的援助;​​,当他按倒与“圣经”中的晦涩的段落,祈祷他补充说:空腹。

(3) Facts narrated by persons who either knew St. Thomas in life or wrote at about the time of his canonization prove that he received assistance from heaven. (3)叙述事实的人谁知道圣托马斯在生活中,或证明他封圣的时间,他收到从天上援助写道。To Father Reginald he declared that he had learned more in prayer and contemplation than he had acquired from men or books (Prümmer, op. cit., p. 36).向父亲雷金纳德他宣布,他学会了祈祷和沉思超过他从男人或书籍收购(Prümmer,同上,第36页)。

These same authors tell of mysterious visitors who came to encourage and enlighten him.这些相同的作者告诉神秘的游客前来,以鼓励和开导他。The Blessed Virgin appeared, to assure him that his life and his writings were acceptable to God, and that he would persevere in his holy vocation.圣母出现了,向他保证,他的生活和他的著作是可以接受的的上帝,他会坚持在他的神圣使命。Sts.STS。Peter and Paul came to aid him in interpreting an obscure passage in Isaias.彼得和保罗来到他解释伊萨亚斯晦涩通过援助。 When humility caused him to consider himself unworthy of the doctorate, a venerable religious of his order (supposed to be St. Dominic) appeared to encourage him and suggested the text for his opening discourse (Prümmer, op. cit., 29, 37; Tocco in "Acta SS.", VII Mar.; Vaughan, op. cit., II, 91).当谦卑,使他觉得自己愧对博士学位,他的命令古老的宗教(应该是圣星)出现,鼓励他,并建议他开放的话语文本(Prümmer,同上,29,37。托科在“文献党卫军。”三月七;。沃恩,同上,二,91)。 His ecstasies have been mentioned.已经提到了他的狂喜。His abstractions in presence of King Louis IX (St. Louis) and of distinguished visitors are related by all biographers.国王路易九世(圣路易)和在场的贵宾,他的抽象与所有的传记作者。Hence, even if allowance be made for great enthusiasm on the part of his admirers, we must conclude that his extraordinary learning cannot be attributed to merely natural causes.因此,即使免税额,作出了极大的热情为他的崇拜者,我们必须得出结论,他的非凡的学习不能仅仅归因于自然原因。Of him it may truly be said that he laboured as if all depended on his own efforts and prayed as if all depended on God.他可能是真正的说,他吃力仿佛都靠自己的努力和祈祷,如果所有依赖于神。


The great Scholastics were holy as well as learned men.伟大的经院哲​​学家是神圣的,以及有学问的人。Alexander of Hales, St. Albertus Magnus, St. Thomas, and St. Bonaventure prove that learning does not necessarily dry up devotion.亚历山大黑尔斯,圣阿尔伯图斯马格努斯,圣托马斯,圣文德证明,学习不一定干起来奉献。The angelic Thomas and the seraphic Bonaventure represent the highest types of Christian scholarship, combining eminent learning with heroic sanctity.天使般的托马斯和seraphic文德代表基督教奖学金最高的类型,英勇的神圣结合杰出的学习。Cardinal Bessarion called St. Thomas "the most saintly of learned men and the most learned of saints".枢机Bessarion圣托马斯“最圣洁的有学问的人,了解到最圣人”。His works breathe the spirit of God, a tender and enlightened piety, built on a solid foundation, viz.他的作品呼吸,内置了坚实的基础,即上帝的精神,招标和开明的虔诚。the knowledge of God, of Christ, of man.认识神,基督的人。The "Summa theologica" may he made a manual of piety as well as a text-book for the study of theology (Cf. Drane, op. cit., p. 446).“神学大全”可能他做了一个虔诚的手册,以及一个神学研究的文字书(参Drane,同上,第446页)。 St. Francis de Sales, St. Philip Neri, St. Charles Borromeo, St. Vincent Ferrer, St. Pius V, St. Antoninus constantly studied St. Thomas.圣弗朗西斯德销售,圣菲内里,圣查尔斯鲍罗麦欧,圣文森特费雷尔,圣皮乌斯V,圣安东尼不断研究圣托马斯。Nothing could be more inspiring than his treatises on Christ, in His sacred Person, in His life and sufferings.没有比这更鼓舞人心的,比他的论文在基督,在他的神圣的人,在他的生命和痛苦。His treatise on the sacraments, especially on penance and the Eucharist, would melt even hardened hearts.他的圣礼,尤其是在苦修和圣体的论文,甚至硬化的心融化。He takes pains to explain the various ceremonies of the Mass ("De ritu Eucharistiae" in Summa III:83), and no writer has explained more clearly than St. Thomas the effects produced in the souls of men by this heavenly Bread (Summa III:79).他煞费苦心解释地下(“德日图Eucharistiae”大全三:83)的各种仪式,并没有作家比圣托马斯在这天上的面包的人的灵魂产生的影​​响(大全III更清楚地解释:79)。 The principles recently urged, in regard to frequent Communion, by Pius X ("Sacra Trid. Synodus", 1905) are found in St. Thomas (Summa III:79:8, III:80:10), although he is not so explicit on this point as he is on the Communion of children.最近呼吁的原则,在频繁的共融方面,碧岳X(1905年)“萨克拉TRID Synodus。”圣托马斯(三大全:79:8,三:80:10)发现,虽然他也不是那么在这一点上,他对儿童的共融是明确的。In the Decree "Quam Singulari" (1910) the pope cites St. Thomas, who teaches that, when children begin to have some use of reason, so that they can conceive some devotion to the Blessed Sacrament, they may be allowed to communicate (Summa III:80:9).在法令“华富财经Singulari”(1910年),谁教教宗援引圣托马斯,当孩子开始有一些使用的原因,使他们可以设想一些奉献的圣体,他们可能会被允许通信(大全三:80:9)。 The spiritual and devotional aspects of St. Thomas's theology have been pointed out by Father Contenson, OP, in his "Theologia mentis et cordis".圣托马斯的神学的精神和献身方面已指出,父亲Contenson,OP,在他的“Theologia mentis等科迪斯”。They are more fully explained by Father Vallgornera, OP, in his "Theologia Mystica D. Thomae", wherein the author leads the soul to God through the purgative, illuminative, and unitive ways.能够更充分地解释父亲Vallgornera,OP,在他的“Theologia Mystica D. Thomae”,其中,作家的灵魂向上帝通过泻下,启蒙,和unitive方法。The Encyclical Letter of Leo XIII on the Holy Spirit is drawn largely from St. Thomas, and those who have studied the "Prima Secundae" and the "Secunda Secundae" know how admirably the saint explains the gifts and fruits of the Holy Ghost, as well as the Beatitudes, and their relations to the different virtues Nearly all good spiritual writers seek in St. Thomas definitions of the virtues which they recommend.利奥十三世通谕信圣灵是制定主要从圣托马斯,和那些有研究的“表面Secundae”和“塞康达Secundae”知道,多么令人敬佩的圣人解释的圣灵的恩赐和水果,讲到,和他们的关系,不同的美德以及几乎所有的良好的精神作家追求的美德,他们建议在圣托马斯定义。


Since the days of Aristotle, probably no one man has exercised such a powerful influence on the thinking world as did St. Thomas.亚里士多德的日子以来,可能没有一个人曾经行使该项上的思考世界的强大的影响力一样圣托马斯。His authority was very great during his lifetime.在他的一生,他的权力是非常大的。The popes, the universities, the studia of his order were anxious to profit by his learning and prudence.教皇,大学,他为了studia急于获利,他的学习和谨慎。Several of his important works were written at the request of others, and his opinion was sought by all classes.他的一些重要作品是写在他人的要求,他认为,要求所有类别。On several occasions the doctors of Paris referred their disputes to him and gratefully abided by his decision (Vaughan, op. cit., II, 1 p. 544).巴黎的医生在多次提到他们的纠纷,他感激地遵守他的决定(沃恩,同上,第544页)二,1。His principles, made known by his writings, have continued to influence men even to this day. ,继续影响着人甚至这一天,他的原则,他的著作。This subject cannot be considered in all its aspects, nor is that necessary.不能被认为是这个主题的所有方面,也不是必要的。 His influence on matters purely philosophical is fully explained in histories of philosophy.他纯粹的哲学问题上的影响是完全解释在哲学史。(Theologians who followed St. Thomas will be mentioned in THOMISM. See also ORDER OF PREACHERS -- II, A, 2, d) His paramount importance and influence may be explained by considering him as the Christian Aristotle, combining in his person the best that the world has known in philosophy and theology.(其次圣托马斯的神学家托马斯主义在提到见还需要订购传道 - 二,一,二,四)他至高无上的重要性和影响力的原因可能是考虑他作为基督教亚里士多德,在他的人相结合的最好的世界著名的哲学和神学。It is in this light that he is proposed as a model by Leo XIII in the famous Encyclical "Aeterni Patris".这是,他是作为一个著名的通谕“Aeterni Patris”利奥十三世在模型的提出,从这个角度。The work of his life may be summed up in two propositions: he established the true relations between faith and reason; he systematized theology.他一生的工作可概括为两个命题:他建立了真正的信仰与理性之间的关系,他系统化神学。

(1) Faith and Reason(1)信仰与理性

The principles of St. Thomas on the relations between faith and reason were solemnly proclaimed in the Vatican Council.信仰与理性之间的关系的圣托马斯的原则被庄严地宣布在梵蒂冈理事会。The second, third, and fourth chapters of the Constitution "Dei Filius" read like pages taken from the works of the Angelic Doctor.第二,第三和第四章“宪法”之Filius“读像天使医生的作品采取的页面。First, reason alone is not sufficient to guide men: they need Revelation; we must carefully distinguish the truths known by reason from higher truths (mysteries) known by Revelation.第一,唯一的原因是没有足够的引导男人:他们需要的启示,我们必须仔细区分原因,从已知更高的真理的启示(奥秘)已知的真理。 Secondly, reason and Revelation, though distinct, are not opposed to each other.其次,原因和启示,虽然不同的,不是互相对立。 Thirdly, faith preserves reason from error; reason should do service in the cause of faith.第三,信仰保留从错误的原因,原因应该做在信仰的事业服务。Fourthly, this service is rendered in three ways:第四,这项服务是呈现在三个方面:

reason should prepare the minds of men to receive the Faith by proving the truths which faith presupposes (praeambula fidei);原因应该准备人的头脑中得到证明的真理,信仰的先决条件(praeambula fidei)的信念;

reason should explain and develop the truths of Faith and should propose them in scientific form;应解释原因和发展真理的信仰,并应在科学的形式提出;

reason should defend the truths revealed by Almighty God.原因应该捍卫全能的上帝所揭示的真理。

This is a development of St. Augustine's famous saying (De Trin., XIV, c. i), that the right use of reason is "that by which the most wholesome faith is begotten . . . is nourished, defended, and made strong."这是一个发展的圣奥古斯丁的名言(德TRIN,第十四条,C. I),使用权的原因是“其中最有益健康的信念是独生子。滋养,辩护,并提出了强烈“。These principles are proposed by St. Thomas in many places, especially in the following: "In Boethium, da Trin. Proem.", Q. ii, a.圣托马斯提出的这些原则在许多地方,特别是在以下:“在Boethium,DA TRIN诸言。。”问二,A.1; "Sum. cont. gent.", I, cc.1“。萨姆CONT绅士”,我,CC。iii-ix; Summa I:1:1, I:1:5, I:1:8, I:32:1, I:84:5.III - IX;大全:1:1,我:1:5,我:1:8,我:32:1,我:84:5。St. Thomas's services to the Faith are thus summed up by Leo XIII in the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris": "He won this title of distinction for himself: that singlehanded he victoriously combated the errors of former times, and supplied invincible arms to put to rout those which might in after times spring up. Again, clearly distinguishing, as is fitting, reason and faith, he both preserved and had regard for the rights of each; so much so, indeed, that reason, borne on the wings of Thomas, can scarcely rise higher, while faith could scarcely expect more or stronger aids from reason than those which she has already obtained through Thomas."圣托马斯的信仰,因此总结了利奥十三世在通谕“Aeterni Patris”:“他赢得了这个标题:为自己的区别,他胜利地打击前时代的错误,并提供无敌的武器,把单手击溃那些可能在次春季再次,明确区分,作为是恰当的,理性与信仰后,他既保留,并已顾及各自的权利;正因如此,事实上,由于这个原因,托马斯的翅膀承担,几乎可以上升更高,而信仰几乎无法指望比那些她已经通过托马斯获得更多的理由或强有力的艾滋病。“

St. Thomas did not combat imaginary foes; he attacked living adversaries.圣托马斯没有打击假想的敌人,他,攻击生活的对手。The works of Aristotle had been introduced into France in faulty translations and with the misleading commentaries of Jewish and Moorish philosophers.亚里士多德的作品已被引进到法国,在出现故障的翻译,与犹太人和摩尔人的哲学家误导性的评论。This gave rise to a flood of errors which so alarmed the authorities that the reading of Aristotle's Physics and Metaphysics was forbidden by Robert de Courçon in 1210, the decree being moderated by Gregory IX in 1231.这引起了如此震惊,亚里士多德的物理学和形而上学的阅读罗伯特de Courçon被禁止在1210当局的错误的洪流,该法令在1231年由格雷戈里九主持。There crept into the University of Paris an insidious spirit of irreverence and Rationalism, represented especially by Abelard and Raymond Lullus, which claimed that reason could know and prove all things, even the mysteries of Faith.有蹑手蹑脚地进入巴黎大学的一个阴险的不敬和理性的精神,尤其是阿贝拉尔和雷蒙德Lullus,声称原因可能知道并证明所有的事情,甚至是信仰的奥秘代表。 Under the authority of Averroes dangerous doctrines were propagated, especially two very pernicious errors: first, that philosophy and religion being in different regions, what is true in religion might be false in philosophy; secondly, that all men have but one soul.阿威罗伊危险的教义的权威,传播,特别是两个非常有害的错误:第一,哲学和宗教在不同地区,什么是真正的宗教可能是虚假哲学的;其次,所有的人都只是一个灵魂。 Averroes was commonly styled "The Commentator", but St. Thomas says he was "not so much a Peripatetic as a corruptor of Peripatetic philosophy" (Opusc. de unit. intell.).阿威罗伊通常自称是“评论员”,但圣托马斯说他是“与其说是作为一个巡回哲学再战巡回”(Opusc.的单位。INTELL)。 Applying a principle of St. Augustine (see I:84:5), following in the footsteps of Alexander of Hales and Albertus Magnus, St. Thomas resolved to take what was true from the "unjust possessors", in order to press it into the service of revealed religion.圣托马斯应用圣奥古斯丁(见我:84:5)的原则,在亚历山大的黑尔斯和阿尔伯图斯马格努斯的脚步,决心采取“不公正拥有”什么是真实的,以按到启示宗教服务。 Objections to Aristotle would cease if the true Aristotle were made known; hence his first care was to obtain a new translation of the works of the great philosopher.停止,如果真正的亚里士多德作了亚里士多德的反对意见,因此,他先照顾是伟大的哲学家的作品获得了新的翻译。 Aristotle was to be purified; false commentators were to be refuted; the most influential of these was Averroes, hence St. Thomas is continually rejecting his false interpretations.亚里士多德得到净化;虚假评论员予以批驳,其中最有影响力的是阿威罗伊,因此圣托马斯不断拒绝他的虚假解释。

(2) Theology Systematized(2)神学系统化

The next step was to press reason into the service of the Faith, by putting Christian doctrine into scientific form.下一步是通过科学的形式把基督教的教义,按入诚信服务的原因。Scholasticism does not consist, as some persons imagine, in useless discussions and subtleties, but in this, that it expresses sound doctrine in language which is accurate, clear, and concise.不包括士林,像有些人想象的,无用的讨论和微妙,但在此,它表示这是准确,清晰,简洁的语言声音的学说。In the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris" Leo XIII, citing the words of Sixtus V (Bull "Triumphantis", 1588), declares that to the right use of philosophy we are indebted for "those noble endowments which make Scholastic theology so formidable to the enemies of truth", because "that ready coherence of cause and effect, that order and array of a disciplined army in battle, those clear definitions and distinctions, that strength of argument and those keen discussions by which light is distinguished from darkness, the true from the false, expose and lay bare, as it were, the falsehoods of heretics wrapped around by a cloud of subterfuges and fallacies".在通谕“Aeterni Patris”利奥十三世中,援引Sixtus V(牛“Triumphantis”,1588)的话,宣称哲学的使用权,我​​们是“那些士林神学如此强大的敌人的高贵禀赋债真理“,因为”准备的连贯性,原因和影响,在战斗中,这些明确的定义和区别,为了和一个纪律严明的军队阵列,强度参数和那些热衷于讨论的光线从黑暗中分辨,真实假,揭露和道破,因为它是异端的谎言包裹托辞和歪理邪说的云“。 When the great Scholastics had written, there was light where there had been darkness, there was order where confusion had prevailed.当伟大的经院哲​​学家写了,就有了光曾有过黑暗的,有秩序普遍混乱。The work of St. Anselm and of Peter Lombard was perfected by the Scholastic theologians. anselm和圣彼得隆巴德工作,完善了经院神学家。Since their days no substantial improvements have been made in the plan and system of theology, although the field of apologetics has been widened, and positive theology has become more important.的日子以来一直没有实质性的改善作出的计划和系统神学,护领域虽然已经拉开,并积极神学变得更加重要。


Within a short time after his death the writings of St. Thomas were universally esteemed.他去世后很短的时间内圣托马斯的著作被普遍尊敬。The Dominicans naturally took the lead in following St. Thomas.多米尼加自然率先在圣托马斯。The general chapter held in Paris in 1279 pronounced severe penalties against all who dared to speak irreverently of him or of his writings.总章在巴黎举行的1279年明显对那些敢于发言,他或他的著作不逊的严厉处罚。The chapters held in Paris in 1286, at Bordeaux in 1287, and at Lucca in 1288 expressly required the brethren to follow the doctrine of Thomas, who at that time had not been canonized (Const. Ord. Praed., n. 1130).的章节在巴黎举行的1286年,在波尔多在1287和1288年在卢卡明文规定的弟兄跟随托马斯的学说,当时还没有被册封(“组织法”条例。Praed,N. 1130)。The University of Paris, on the occasion of Thomas's death, sent an official letter of condolence to the general chapter of the Dominicans, declaring that, equally with his brethren, the university experienced sorrow at the loss of one who was their own by many titles (see text of letter in Vaughan, op. cit., II, p. 82).托马斯的死之际,在巴黎大学,发送的多米尼加一般章节的一个吊唁官方信宣布,同样与他的弟兄们,该大学的一个损失谁是很多头衔自己的经验丰富的悲哀(看到信件的文本在沃恩,同上,第二,第82页)。 In the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris" Leo XIII mentions the Universities of Paris, Salamanca, Alcalá, Douai, Toulouse, Louvain, Padua, Bologna, Naples, Coimbra as "the homes of human wisdom where Thomas reigned supreme, and the minds of all, of teachers as well as of taught, rested in wonderful harmony under the shield and authority of the Angelic Doctor".在通谕“Aeterni Patris”利奥十三世提到巴黎,萨拉曼卡,阿尔卡拉,杜埃,图卢兹,鲁汶大学,帕多瓦,博洛尼亚,那不勒斯,科英布拉大学,作为“人类智慧的托马斯在位最高法院的家园,所有的头脑教师授课,休息下,盾牌和天使的医生的权威“,在美妙和谐。 To the list may be added Lima and Manila, Fribourg and Washington.到列表中,可能会增加利马和马尼拉,弗里堡州和华盛顿。

Seminaries and colleges followed the lead of the universities.神学院和大学,导致大学。The "Summa" gradually supplanted the "Sentences" as the textbook of theology.“大全”逐渐取代神学教科书的“刑罚”。Minds were formed in accordance with the principles of St. Thomas; he became the great master, exercising a world-wide influence on the opinions of men and on their writings; for even those who did not adopt all of his conclusions were obliged to give due consideration to his opinions.头脑中形成按照圣托马斯的原则;他成为一代宗师,行使人的意见,并在他们的著作中的一个全球性的影响,即使是那些没有采纳他的结论是必须给由于考虑他的意见。 It has been estimated that 6000 commentaries on St. Thomas's works have been written.据估计,6000圣托马斯的作品的评论已被写入。Manuals of theology and of philosophy, composed with the intention of imparting his teaching, translations, and studies, or digests (études), of portions of his works have been published in profusion during the last six hundred years and today his name is in honour all over the world (see THOMISM).在过去的六个一百多年丛生的神学和哲学的手册,传授他的教学,翻译和研究的意图组成,或摘要(练习曲)的他的作品的部分,已出版,今天他的名字在荣誉(见托马斯主义)在世界各地。

In every one of the general councils held since his death St. Thomas has been singularly honoured.在每一位,因为他的死亡圣托马斯举行的议会已经奇异的荣幸。At the Council of Lyons his book "Contra errores Graecorum" was used with telling effect against the Greeks.在安理会的里昂,他的著作“魂斗罗ERRORES Graecorum”被用来告诉对希腊人的影响。In later disputes, before and during the Council of Florence, John of Montenegro, the champion of Latin orthodoxy, found St. Thomas's works a source of irrefragable arguments.在以后的争端,佛罗伦萨的理事会,约翰黑山,拉丁美洲正统冠军,之前和期间发现圣托马斯的作品irrefragable论据的来源。 The "Decretum pro Armenis" (Instruction for the Armenians), issued by the authority of that council, is taken almost verbatim from his treatise, "De fidei articulis et septem sacramentis" (see Denzinger-Bannwart, n. 695). “Decretum亲Armenis”(对亚美尼亚人的指令),由该理事会的权威发出,是从他的论文“德fidei articulis等septem sacramentis”(见登青格Bannwart,N. 695)几乎逐字。"In the Councils of Lyons, Vienne, Florence, and the Vatican", writes Leo XIII (Encyclical "Aeterni Patris"), "one might almost say that Thomas took part in and presided over the deliberations and decrees of the Fathers contending against the errors of the Greeks, of heretics, and Rationalists, with invincible force and with the happiest results."“在里昂,维埃纳省,佛罗伦萨,梵蒂冈的议会”,写利奥十三世(“通谕”Aeterni Patris“),”一个几乎可以说,托马斯参加和主持的审议和对争夺父亲的法令希腊人,异端,理性与不可战胜的力量和最幸福的结果,错误。“

But the chief and special glory of Thomas, one which he has shared with none of the Catholic doctors, is that the Fathers of Trent made it part of the order of the conclave to lay upon the altar, together with the code of Sacred Scripture and the decrees of the Supreme Pontiffs, the Summa of Thomas Aquinas, whence to seek counsel, reason, and inspiration.但托马斯,他已与天主教医生没有共享,行政和特殊的荣耀,是父亲的遄达秘密会议秩序的一部分,奠定在坛上,与圣经中的代码和最高法院教宗法令,托马斯阿奎那,何处大全寻求律师,究其原因,和灵感。 Greater influence than this no man could have.可以大于这个没有人的影响。

Before this section is closed mention should be made of two books widely known and highly esteemed, which were inspired by and drawn from the writings of St. Thomas.本节结束之前,值得一提的是两书广为人知,倍受尊敬,这是启发和来自圣托马斯的著作。The Catechism of the Council of Trent, composed by disciples of the Angelic Doctor, is in reality a compendium of his theology, in convenient form for the use of parish priests.安理会的遄达理,由弟子天使医生组成,是在现实中他的神学汇编,方便的形式使用本堂司​​铎。Dante's "Divina Commedia" has been called "the Summa of St. Thomas in verse", and commentators trace the great Florentine poet's divisions and descriptions of the virtues and vices to the "Secunda Secundae".但丁的“神曲”被称为“在诗的圣托马斯大全”,并评论员跟踪的美德和罪恶的“塞康达Secundae”伟大的佛罗伦萨诗人的部门和描述。


(1) In the Church(1)在教会

The esteem in which he was held during his life has not been diminished, but rather increased, in the course of the six centuries that have elapsed since his death.中,他是在他生命中的自尊没有减少,而是增加,当然,自他去世后的6世纪。The position which he occupies in the Church is well explained by that great scholar Leo XIII, in the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris", recommending the study of Scholastic philosophy: "It is known that nearly all the founders and framers of laws of religious orders commanded their societies to study and religiously adhere to the teachings of St. Thomas. . . To say nothing of the family of St. Dominic, which rightly claims this great teacher for its own glory, the statutes of the Benedictines, the Carmelites, the Augustinians, the Society of Jesus, and many others, all testify that they are bound by this law."很好的解释,他在教会中占有的位置是由这个伟大的学者利奥十三世在通谕“Aeterni Patris”,,建议经院哲学的研究:“据了解,几乎所有的创始人和宗教命令的法律制定者指挥他们的社会研究和宗教坚持圣托马斯的教诲。圣道的家庭,正确声称为自己的荣耀的这个伟大的老师说了,本笃会的章程,加尔默罗,奥古斯丁,耶稣会,和许多人一样,都作证说,他们通过这部法律的约束。“ Amongst the "many others" the Servites, the Passionists, the Barnabites, and the Sulpicians have been devoted in an especial manner to the study of St. Thomas. “许多其他”Servites当中,Passionists,Barnabites,和Sulpicians一直致力于在一个特殊的方式圣托马斯的研究。 The principal ancient universities where St. Thomas ruled as the great master have been enumerated above.上面列举的主要古老的大学,圣托马斯大师裁定。The Paris doctors called him the morning star, the luminous sun, the light of the whole Church.巴黎的医生叫他的早晨之星,发光的太阳,整个教会。Stephen, Bishop of Paris, repressing those who dared to attack the doctrine of "that most excellent Doctor, the blessed Thomas", calls him "the great luminary of the Catholic Church, the precious stone of the priesthood, the flower of doctors, and the bright mirror of the University of Paris" (Drane, op. cit., p. 431).泉,巴黎主教,镇压那些敢于攻击“,最优秀的的医生,祝福托马斯”的学说,称他为“伟大的杰出人物的天主教教会,宝石的神职人员,医生花,和明亮的镜子,在巴黎大学“(Drane,同上,第431页)。 In the old Louvain University the doctors were required to uncover and bow their heads when they pronounced the name of Thomas (Goudin, op. cit., p. 21).在老鲁汶大学的医生们需要发掘,低头时,他们明显托马斯(Goudin,同上,第21页)的名称。

"The ecumenical councils, where blossoms the flower of all earthly wisdom, have always been careful to hold Thomas Aquinas in singular honour" (Leo XIII in "Aeterni Patris").“合一议会,在这里盛开的花,所有尘世的智慧一直小心举行托马斯阿奎那殊荣”(狮子座“Aeterni Patris”第十三条)。This subject has been sufficiently treated above.这一主题得到了充分的治疗。The "Bullarium Ordinis Praedicatorum", published in 1729-39, gives thirty-eight Bulls in which eighteen sovereign pontiffs praised and recommended the doctrine of St. Thomas (see also Vaughan, op. cit., II, c. ii; Berthier, op. cit., pp. 7 sqq.).“Bullarium Ordinis Praedicatorum”,在1729年至1739年出版,为三十八个公牛,其中18个主权教宗赞扬,并建议圣托马斯的教义(见沃恩,同上,二,三二;。贝蒂埃,同前,第7 SQQ)。These approbations are recalled and renewed by Leo XIII, who lays special stress on "the crowning testimony of Innocent VI: `His teaching above that of others, the canons alone excepted, enjoys such an elegance of phraseology, a method of statement, a truth of proposition, that those who hold it are never found swerving from the path of truth, and he who dare assail it will always be suspected of error (ibid.).'" Leo XIII surpassed his predecessors in admiration of St. Thomas, in whose works he declared a remedy can be found for many evils that afflict society (see Berthier, op. cit., introd.).这些approbations是回顾和重新利奥十三世,特别强调注重“诺森六世的加冕证词:`他的高于他人的教学,大炮单独除外,拥有这样一个优雅的用语,声明的方法,一个道理命题,那些持有从来没有发现它是从真理的道路突然转向,谁也不敢攻击它总是会怀疑的错误(同上)。“利奥十三世圣托马斯钦佩超过他的前辈,在他的作品他宣​​布补救措施,可以发现困扰社会的许多罪恶(见贝蒂埃,同上,introd)。 The notable Encyclical Letters with which the name of that illustrious pontiff will always be associated show how he had studied the works of the Angelic Doctor.显着,显赫的教皇的名字将永远是相关的通谕英皇显示了他如何研究天使医生的作品。This is very noticeable in the letters on Christian marriage, the Christian constitution of states, the condition of the working classes, and the study of Holy Scripture.在基督教婚姻上的字母,这是很明显的,基督教国家的宪法,工人阶级的状况,和圣经研究。Pope Pius X, in several letters, eg in the "Pascendi Dominici Gregis" (September, 1907), has insisted on the observance of the recommendations of Leo XIII concerning the study of St. Thomas.教皇Pius X,在几个字母,如在“Pascendi Dominici Gregis”(,1907年9月),一直坚持遵守利奥十三世的圣托马斯研究有关的建议。An attempt to give names of Catholic writers who have expressed their appreciation of St. Thomas and of his influence would be an impossible undertaking; for the list would include nearly all who have written on philosophy or theology since the thirteenth century, as well as hundreds of writers on other subjects.试图给都表示赞赏圣托马斯天主教作家的名字和他的影响力将是一个不可能的任务列表中,将包括几乎所有的哲学或神学的书面自十三世纪以来,以及数百其他科目的作家。 Commendations and eulogies are found in the introductory chapters of all good commentaries.表彰和颂词被发现在所有好的评论介绍章节。An incomplete list of authors who have collected these testimonies is given by Father Berthier (op. cit., p. 22).作者所收集的这些证词不完整的名单是由父亲贝蒂埃(同上,第22页)。...

(2) Outside the Church(2)外教会

(a) Anti-Scholastics -- Some persons have been and are still opposed to everything that comes under the name of Scholasticism, which they hold to be synonymous with subtleties and useless discussions.(一)反经院哲学家 - 有些人已经并仍然反对一切下,士林,他们认为微妙之处和无用的讨论的代名词的名字。From the prologue to the "Summa" it is clear that St. Thomas was opposed to all that was superfluous and confusing in Scholastic studies.从序幕“大全”,它是明确的圣托马斯是在学术研究中多余的和混乱的反对。When people understand what true Scholasticism means, their objections will cease.当人们明白什么是真正的经院哲学的手段,他们的反对将停止。

(b) Heretics and Schismatics -- "A last triumph was reserved for this incomparable man -- namely, to compel the homage, praise, and admiration of even the very enemies of the Catholic name" (Leo XIII, ibid.).(B)异端和Schismatics - “最后的胜利是保留给这无与伦比的人 - 也就是,迫使天主教的名字,即使是非常敌人的敬意,赞誉,并表示钦佩”(利奥十三世,同上)。St. Thomas's orthodoxy drew upon him the hatred of all Greeks who were opposed to union with Rome.圣托马斯的正统,他借鉴了谁是反对工会希腊人与罗马的仇恨。The united Greeks, however, admire St. Thomas and study his works (see above Translations of the "Summa").然而,美国的希腊人,佩服圣托马斯和研究他的作品(见上面的“大全”的翻译)。The leaders of the sixteenth-century revolt honoured St. Thomas by attacking him, Luther being particularly violent in his coarse invectives against the great doctor.十六世纪起义领导人荣幸攻击他圣托马斯,路德被谩骂,特别是对伟大的医生,他的粗暴力。Citing Bucer's wild boast, "Take away Thomas and I will destroy the Church", Leo XIII (ibid.) remarks, "The hope was vain, but the testimony has its value".布策尔的野生夸为例,“拿走托马斯和我会破坏教会”,利奥十三世(同上)的言论,“希望是徒劳的,但证词有它的价值”。

Calo, Tocco, and other biographers relate that St. Thomas, travelling from Rome to Naples, converted two celebrated Jewish rabbis, whom he met at the country house of Cardinal Richard (Prümmer, op. cit., p. 33; Vaughan, op. cit., I, p. 795).卡洛,托科,和其他的传记作者与圣托马斯,从罗马到那不勒斯的旅途中,两个著名的犹太拉比,他在枢机主教理查德(Prümmer,同上,第33页的乡间别墅会见。沃恩,OP转换前,我,第795页)。 Rabbi Paul of Burgos, in the fifteenth century, was converted by reading the works of St. Thomas.拉比保罗的布尔戈斯,在15世纪,后改读圣托马斯的作品。Theobald Thamer, a disciple of Melancthon, abjured his heresy after he had read the "Summa", which he intended to refute.醒觉Thamer,Melancthon弟子,发誓放弃他的异端邪说,此前他曾读过的“大全”,他打算反驳。 The Calvinist Duperron was converted in the same way, subsequently becoming Archbishop of Sens and a cardinal (see Conway, OP, op. cit., p. 96).加尔文Duperron转换以同样的方式,后来成为大主教桑斯和基数(见康威,OP,同上,第96页)。

After the bitterness of the first period of Protestantism had passed away, Protestants saw the necessity of retaining many parts of Catholic philosophy and theology, and those who came to know St. Thomas were compelled to admire him.新教的第一期的辛酸已过世后,新教徒看到天主教哲学和神学的许多地方保留的必要性,和那些知道圣托马斯的人不得不佩服他。 Überweg says "He brought the Scholastic philosophy to its highest stage of development, by effecting the most perfect accommodation that was possible of the Aristotelian philosophy to ecclesiastical orthodoxy" (op. cit., p. 440). Überweg说:“他带来了经院哲学来的最高发展阶段,亚里士多德的哲学教会正统的可能影响,最完美的住宿,”(同上,第440页)。R. Seeberg in the "New Schaff-Herzog Religious Encyclopedia" (New York, 1911) devotes ten columns to St. Thomas, and says that "at all points he succeeded in upholding the church doctrine as credible and reasonable" (XI, p. 427).“新沙夫 - 赫尔佐格宗教百科全书”(纽约,1911年)R. Seeberg致力于圣托马斯十列,并说,“在所有的点,他成功地维护教会的教义是可信和合理的”(十一,P 427)。

For many years, especially since the days of Pusey and Newman, St. Thomas has been in high repute at Oxford.多年来,特别是自皮塞和纽曼天,圣托马斯一直很高声誉,在牛津大学。Recently the "Summa contra gentiles" was placed on the list of subjects which a candidate may offer in the final honour schools of Litterae Humaniores at that university (cf. Walsh, op. cit., c. xvii).最近的“禁忌大全外邦人”是放在科目候选人可提供大学(参见沃尔什,同上,三十七)在最后的荣誉学校Litterae Humaniores。For several years Father De Groot, OP, has been the professor of Scholastic philosophy in the University of Amsterdam, and courses in Scholastic philosophy have been established in some of the leading non-Catholic universities of the United States.父亲德格鲁特,OP几年已在阿姆斯特丹大学教授经院哲学,士林哲学课程已在一些主要的非美国天主教大学成立。Anglicans have a deep admiration for St. Thomas.圣公会已深深折服了圣托马斯。Alfred Mortimer, in the chapter "The Study of Theology" of his work entitled "Catholic Faith and Practice" (2 vols., New York, 1909), regretting that "the English priest has ordinarily no scientific acquaintance with the Queen of Sciences", and proposing a remedy, says, "The simplest and most perfect sketch of universal theology is to be found in the Summa of St. Thomas" (vol. II, pp. 454, 465).阿尔弗雷德莫蒂默他的工作,在第一章“的神学研究”题为“天主教信仰和实践”(2卷,纽约,1909年),遗憾地说:“英国牧师通常没有科学的熟人,用科学的皇后” ,并提出补救措施,说:“普及神学的最简单和最完美的的素描是在圣托马斯大全”(第二卷,第454页,465)。


In the Syllabus of 1864 Pius IX condemned a proposition in which it was stated that the method and principles of the ancient Scholastic doctors were not suited to the needs of our times and the progress of science (Denzinger-Bannwart, n. 1713).在1864年的教学大纲,庇护九世谴责在其中有人说,古代学术医生的方法和原则,不适合我们这个时代的需要和科学的进步(登青格Bannwart,1713)的主张。

In the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris" Leo XIII points out the benefits to be derived from "a practical reform of philosophy by restoring the renowned teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas".在通谕“Aeterni Patris”利奥十三世中指出要“恢复著名的教学多瑪斯哲学中的实际改革”所带来的好处。 He exhorts the bishops to "restore the golden wisdom of Thomas and to spread it far and wide for the defence and beauty of the Catholic Faith, for the good of society, and for the advantage of all the sciences".他告诫主教“恢复托马斯的黄金智慧和远距离和大范围传播信仰天主教的国防和美容,良好的社会,一切科学的优势”。 In the pages of the Encyclical immediately preceding these words he explains why the teaching of St. Thomas would produce such most desirable results: St. Thomas is the great master to explain and defend the Faith, for his is "the solid doctrine of the Fathers and the Scholastics, who so clearly and forcibly demonstrate the firm foundations of the Faith, its Divine origin, its certain truth, the arguments that sustain it, the benefits it has conferred on the human race, and its perfect accord with reason, in a manner to satisfy completely minds open to persuasion, however unwilling and repugnant".在页面的“通谕紧接他解释说这些话,为什么圣托马斯教学会产生这样的最理想的的结果:圣托马斯他才是了不起的高手来解释和捍卫信仰,是”坚实的学说的父亲的scholastics,谁这么清楚,强行展示信仰的坚实的基础,其神圣的起源,其一定的道理,维持它的参数,它赋予人类的好处,以及它与理性的完美协议,在方式,以完全满足头脑开放的劝说,但是不愿意和令人反感的“。 The career of St. Thomas would in itself have justified Leo XIII in assuring men of the nineteenth century that the Catholic Church was not opposed to the right use of reason.圣托马斯的职业生涯将在本身有合理的利奥十三世在确保男子在十九世纪,天主教会并不反对使用权的原因。The sociological aspects of St. Thomas are also pointed out: "The teachings of Thomas on the true meaning of liberty, which at this time is running into license, on the Divine origin of all authority, on laws and their force, on the paternal and just rule of princes, on obedience to the highest powers, on mutual charity one towards another -- on all of these and kindred subjects, have very great and invincible force to overturn those principles of the new order which are well known to be dangerous to the peaceful order of things and to public safety" (ibid.).圣托马斯社会学方面的问题也指出:“自由的真正含义,在这个时候进入许可运行托马斯的教诲,对所有权威的神圣的起源,法律和他们的力量,而父亲的诸侯和公正的规则,服从最高权力,相互慈善机构走向另一个之一 - 所有这些和类似的科目上,有非常大的和不可战胜的力量来推翻这些原则的新秩序,这是众所周知的的危险对事物的和平秩序和公众安全“(同上)。

The evils affecting modern society had been pointed out by the pope in the Letter "Inscrutabili" of 21 April, 1878, and in the one on Socialism, Communism, and Nihilism ("The Great Encyclicals of Leo XIII", pp. 9 sqq.; 22 sqq.).影响现代社会的罪恶已经指出由教皇在字母“Inscrutabili”,1878年4月21日,在对社会主义,共产主义和虚无主义(“大利奥十三世通谕”,第9页SQQ之一。 22 SQQ)。How the principles of the Angelic Doctor will furnish a remedy for these evils is explained here in a general way, more particularly in the Letters on the Christian constitution of states, human liberty, the chief duties of Christians as citizens, and on the conditions of the working classes (ibid., pp. 107, 135, 180, 208).如何天使医生的原则,将提供一个补救方法是一种通用的方式在这里所说的,特别在英皇基督教国家宪法的这些罪恶,人类的自由,公民基督徒的主要职责,并在条件工人阶级(同上,第107,135,180,208)。

It is in relation to the sciences that some persons doubt the reliability of St. Thomas's writings; and the doubters are thinking of the physical and experimental sciences, for in metaphysics the Scholastics are admitted to be masters.它是在科学,有些人怀疑圣托马斯的著作的可靠性;和怀疑的物理和实验科学的思维,在形而上学的scholastics承认是主人。 Leo XIII calls attention to the following truths: (a) The Scholastics were not opposed to investigation.利奥十三世呼吁注意以下的真理:(一)不反对的scholastics调查。Holding as a principle in anthropology "that the human intelligence is only led to the knowledge of things without body and matter by things sensible, they well understood that nothing was of greater use to the philosopher than diligently to search into the mysteries of nature, and to be earnest and constant in the study of physical things" (ibid., p. 55).控股在人类学作为一个原则“,人类的智慧,不仅导致知识和明智的事情没有身体问题的东西,他们很好地理解,更多地使用哲学家没有比努力寻找到大自然的奥秘,并要认真,并不断在学习物理的东西“(同上,第55页)。 This principle was reduced to practice: St. Thomas, St. Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon, and others "gave large attention to the knowledge of natural things" (ibid., p. 56).这一原则被减少到实践:圣托马斯,圣阿尔伯图斯马格努斯,罗杰培根,等“大注意了自然事物的知识”(同上,第56页)。(b) Investigation alone is not sufficient for true science.(二)调查仅是没有足够的真正的科学。"When facts have been established, it is necessary to rise and apply ourselves to the study of the nature of corporeal things, to inquire into the laws which govern them and the principles whence their order and varied unity and mutual attraction in diversity arise" (p. 55). “当事实已经成立,它是必要的上升,并适用于自己的有形的事物的性质的研究,调查的法律管辖和他们的订单和多样化的统一和多样性的相互吸引产生的原则何处”(第55页)。

Will the scientists of today pretend to be better reasoners than St. Thomas, or more powerful in synthesis?今天的科学家假装要更好的推理比圣托马斯,或在合成更强大吗?It is the method and the principles of St. Thomas that Leo XIII recommends: "If anything is taken up with too great subtlety by the Scholastic doctors, or too carelessly stated; if there be anything that ill agrees with the discoveries of a later age or, in a word, is improbable in any way, it does not enter into our mind to propose that for imitation to our age" (p. 56).这是圣托马斯的方法和原则,利奥十三世建议:“如果有任何太大的精妙之处经院医生,或太不小心说,如果有任何生病同意以后年龄的发现的的,或在一个字,是不可能在任何方式,它并没有进入到我们的头脑,提出模仿我们的时代“(第56页)。 Just as St. Thomas, in his day, saw a movement towards Aristotle and philosophical studies which could not be checked, but could be guided in the right direction and made to serve the cause of truth, so also, Leo XIII, seeing in the world of his time a spirit of study and investigation which might be productive of evil or of good, had no desire to check it, but resolved to propose a moderator and master who could guide it in the paths of truth.正如圣托马斯,在他的天,看到了对亚里士多德哲学研究,无法检查的运动,但可以在正确的方向指导和对真相的事业服务的,所以也,利奥十三世,在看到他的时间的研究和调查,这可能是邪恶或良好生产的精神的世界,没有检查它的愿望,但提出一个主持人和掌握,可以在真理的道路,它引导解决。 No better guide could have been chosen than the clear-minded, analytic, synthetic, and sympathetic Thomas Aquinas.没有更好的指导可能已经选择了比清醒的头脑,分析,合成,和同情的托马斯阿奎那。His extraordinary patience and fairness in dealing with erring philosophers, his approbation of all that was true in their writings, his gentleness in condemning what was false, his clear-sightedness in pointing out the direction to true knowledge in all its branches, his aptness and accuracy in expressing the truth -- these qualities mark him as a great master not only for the thirteenth century, but for all times.他过人的耐心和公正处理犯错误的哲学家,他的赞许,这是在他们的著作中的真实,他在谴责什么是虚假的温柔,他的敏锐眼光,指出在其所有分支机构的方向,真正的知识,他的适合性和在表达真理的准确性 - 这些特质标志作为他不仅为13世纪的一代宗师,而是针对所有的时代。If any persons are inclined to consider him too subtle, it is because they do not know how clear, concise, and simple are his definitions and divisions.如果任何人都倾向于认为他太含蓄,这是因为他们不知道如何清晰,简洁,简单是他的定义和部门。His two summae are masterpieces of pedagogy, and mark him as the greatest of human teachers.他的两个summae教育学的杰作,以及他作为人类教师的最大标志。Moreover, he dealt with errors similar to many which go under the name of philosophy or science in our days.此外,他与很多下,在我们这个时代的哲学或科学的名义类似的错误处理。The Rationalism of Abelard and others called forth St. Thomas's luminous and everlasting principles on the true relations of faith and reason.阿贝拉尔和他人的理性主义称为了真正的信仰与理性的关系,圣托马斯的发光和永恒的原则。Ontologism was solidly refuted by St. Thomas nearly six centuries before the days of Malebranche, Gioberti, and Ubaghs (see Summa I:84:5). Ontologism是扎扎实实地驳斥圣托马斯近六百年前马勒伯朗士,Gioberti,并Ubaghs天(见大全我:84:5)。The true doctrine on first principles and on universals, given by him and by the other great Scholastics, is the best refutation of Kant's criticism of metaphysical ideas (see, eg, "Post. Analyt.", I, lect. xix; "De ente et essentia", c. iv; Summa I:17:3 corp. and ad 2um; I:79:3; I:84:5; I:84:6 corp and ad 1um; I:85:2 ad 2um; I:85:3 ad 1um, ad 4um; Cf. index to "Summa": "Veritas", "Principium", "Universale").的上第一的原则和对共性的真正教义,由他和的其他伟大的经院哲​​学家的,是的康德的形而上学思想的批评最好的反驳(见,例如,我,lect XIX“邮政Analyt。。”;。“缓和等essentia“,C.四大全我:17:3公司和广告2um;我:79:3;我:84:5;我:84:6公司和广告1um的;我:85:2广告2um我:85:3 1um的广告,广告4um; CF指数“大全”:“VERITAS”,“原理”,“Universale”)。Modern psychological Pantheism does not differ substantially from the theory of one soul for all men asserted by Averroes (see "De unit. intell." and Summa I:76:2; I:79:5).现代心理学泛神论没有区别,一个为所有的人的灵魂的理论实质上阿威罗伊断言(见“德单位INTELL。”大全我:76:2;我:79:5)。 The Modernistic error, which distinguishes the Christ of faith from the Christ of history, had as its forerunner the Averroistic principle that a thing might be true in philosophy and false in religion.现代主义的错误,区分从历史的基督信仰基督,作为其前身Averroistic原则的事情可能是真实的,在哲学和宗教虚假的。

In the Encyclical "Providentissimus Deus" (18 November, 1893) Leo XIII draws from St. Thomas's writings the principles and wise rules which should govern scientific criticism of the Sacred Books.利奥十三世在通谕“Providentissimus杀出”(11月18日,1893年)绘制圣托马斯的著作应执政的圣书的科学批评的原则和明智的规则。 From the same source recent writers have drawn principles which are most helpful in the solution of questions pertaining to Spiritism and Hypnotism.最近从同一来源的作家们得出的原则,在通灵和催眠有关的问题的解决方案最有帮助。Are we to conclude, then, that St. Thomas's works, as he left them, furnish sufficient instruction for scientists, philosophers, and theologians of our times?我们是否结束,然后,圣托马斯的作品,因为他离开了他们,为我们这个时代的科学家,哲学家和神学家提供足够的指令呢? By no means.决不。Vetera novis augere et perficere -- "To strengthen and complete the old by aid of the new" -- is the motto of the restoration proposed by Leo XIII.Vetera novis augere等perficere - “加强和新的援助,完成老” - 利奥十三世提出恢复的座右铭。Were St. Thomas living today he would gladly adopt and use all the facts made known by recent scientific and historical investigations, but he would carefully weigh all evidence offered in favour of the facts.圣托马斯生活在今天,他会很乐意采纳和使用,最近的科学和历史调查所知道的全部事实,但他会仔细权衡赞成的事实所提供的所有证据。 Positive theology is more necessary in our days than it was in the thirteenth century.积极的神学是比它在13世纪,在我们的天更需要。Leo XIII calls attention to its necessity in his Encyclical, and his admonition is renewed by Pius X in his Letter on Modernism.利奥十三世呼吁人们关注在他的通谕的必要性,和他对现代主义的信中他告诫皮乌斯X再次。 But both pontiffs declare that positive theology must not be extolled to the detriment of Scholastic theology.但是这两个教宗宣布积极的神学不得阐扬院神学的损害。In the Encyclical "Pascendi", prescribing remedies against Modernism, Pius X, following in this his illustrious predecessor, gives the first place to "Scholastic philosophy, especially as it was taught by Thomas Aquinas", St. Thomas is still "The Angel of the Schools".在通谕“Pascendi”,订明对现代主义,碧岳X的补救措施,这是他的杰出的前任,给人的第一个地方“经院哲学,特别是因为它是由托马斯阿奎那教”,圣托马斯仍然是“天使学校“。

Publication information出版信息
Written by DJ Kennedy.写由DJ肯尼迪。Transcribed by Kevin Cawley.转录由凯文考利。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,第十四卷。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

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