Waldenses瓦勒度

Catholic Information天主教信息

An heretical sect which appeared in the second half of the twelfth century and, in a considerably modified form, has survived to the present day.出现在第十二个世纪的第二个一半,在相当修改后的形式,一个异端教派,存活至今。

NAME AND ORIGINNAME和产地

The name was derived from Waldes their founder and occurs also in the variations of Valdesii, Vallenses.这个名字是来自Waldes他们的创始人和发生的变化,Vallenses Valdesii也。Numerous other designations were applied to them; to their profession of extreme poverty they owed the named of "the Poor"; from their place of origin, Lyons, they were called "Leonistae"; and frequently the two ideas were combined in the title "Poor Men of Lyons".许多其他的名称是适用于他们,他们的极端贫困的专业,他们欠下的“穷人”的命名,从他们的起源,里昂的地方,他们被称为“Leonistae”;和频繁的两种思路结合在标题“里昂贫穷男子“。 Their practice of wearing sandals or wooden shoes (sabots) caused them to be named "Sandaliati", "Insabbatati", "Sabbatati", Sabotiers". Anxious to surround their own history and doctrine with the halo of antiquity, some Waldenses claimed for their churches an Apostolic origin. The first Waldensian congregations, it was maintained, were established by St. Paul who, on his journey to Spain, visited the valleys of Piedmont. The history of these foundations was identified with that of primitive Christendom as long as the Church remained lowly and poor. But in the beginning of the fourth century Pope Sylvester was raised by Constantine, whom he had cured of leprosy, to a position of power and wealth, and the Papacy became unfaithful to its mission. Some Christians, however, remained true to the Faith and practice of the early days, and in the twelfth century a certain Peter appeared who, from the valleys of the Alps, was called "Waldes". He was not the founder of a new sect, but a missionary among these faithful observers of the genuine Christian law, and he gained numerous adherents. This account was, indeed, far from being universally accredited among the Waldenses; many of them, however, for a considerable period accepted as founded on fact the assertion that they originated in the time of Constantine. Others among them considered Claudius of Turin (died 840), Berengarius of Tours (died 1088), or other such men who had preceded Waldes, the first representatives of the sect. The claim of its Constantinian origin was for a long time credulously accepted as valid by Protestant historians. In the nineteenth century, however, it became evident to critics that the Waldensian documents had been tampered with. As a result the pretentious claims of the Waldenses to high antiquity were relegated to the realm of fable.他们穿着凉鞋或木制鞋(弹托)的做法导致他们被命名为“Sandaliati”,“Insabbatati”,“Sabbatati”,Sabotiers“。急于自己的历史和教义与古代的光环环绕,有些瓦勒度派声称他们教会使徒的起源。第一Waldensian众,也有人认为,,成立了由圣保罗,在他的旅程西班牙,参观了皮埃蒙特大区的山谷,这些基础的历史与原始基督教确定为长期教会和贫困仍然是弱旅,但在第四世纪初,教皇西尔维斯特是由君士坦丁,他已治愈的麻风病,提高到一个权力和财富的地位,和罗马教皇成为其使命的不忠。一些基督徒,然而,真正的信仰和实践的初期,一定彼得在十二世纪出现的人,从阿尔卑斯山的峡谷,被称为“Waldes”他不是一个新的教派的创始人,但一个传教士之间事实上,此帐户,远未普遍认可的瓦勒度派之间;这些真正的基督徒法律忠实的观察员,他获得了无数的信徒,其中许多,但一个相当长的时期内,接受事实成立,它们起源的说法其中,在君士坦丁的时间。其他人则认为克劳狄斯的都灵(死于840),旅游Berengarius(死于1088),或其他这样的男人之前Waldes,该教派的第一次代表声称其Constantinian原产地为credulously接受新教史学有效的很长一段时间。然而,它在19世纪,成为明显的批评,Waldensian文件被篡改,因此自命不凡索赔的瓦勒度派高古代被转移的境界寓言。

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The real founder of the sect was a wealthy merchant of Lyons who in the early documents is called Waldes (Waldo).该教派的真正创始人是里昂的富商,在早期文件被称为Waldes(金都)。To this name is added from 1368 the designation of Peter, assumed by him at his "conversion", or more likely, attributed to him by his followers.这个名字是从1368年指定彼得补充说,由他担任他的“转换”,或更可能的是,他归因于他的追随者。Few details concerning his personal history are known; there are extant, however, two important accounts of the complete change in his religious life; one written about 1220 by a Premonstratensian monk, usually designated as the "anonymous chronicler of Laon"; the other by a Dominican Friar and Inquisitor Stephen of Bourbon (died about 1262), and dates back to about the middle of the thirteenth century.关于他个人的历史一些细节是已知的;有,但是,现存的两个重要帐户的彻底改变他的宗教生活;书面约1220由一个Premonstratensian和尚,通常指定为“匿名拉昂编年史”;其他一个多米尼加弗莱尔和砂锅斯蒂芬的波旁(死于约1262),可以追溯到十三世纪中叶。 The former writer assigns a prominent place to the influence exercised on Waldes by the history of St. Alexius, while the latter makes no mention of it but speaks of his acquaintance with the contents of the Bible through translations.前者作家分配Waldes行使圣克修斯的历史影响的一个突出的地方,而后者则没有提到它,但谈到他的熟人,通过翻译的圣经内容。 The history of Waldes's conversion may perhaps be reconstructed in the following manner. Waldes的转换的历史也许可以通过以下方式重建。Desirous of acquiring a knowledge of biblical teaching, Waldes requested two priests to translate for him the four Gospels.希望获得圣经教导的知识,Waldes请两位神父为他翻译四福音。In a similar manner he subsequently obtained translations of other Biblical books and of some writings of the Fathers.随后,他以类似的方式获得其他圣经的书籍和的一些著作的父亲翻译。

Through the reading of these works he was attracted to the practice of Christian perfection; his fervour increased when one day he heard from an itinerant singer (ioculator) the history of St. Alexius.通过阅读这些作品,他被吸引到基督教完美的做法,他的热情增高,当有一天,他听到从一个流动的歌手(ioculator)圣克修斯的历史。 He now consulted a master of theology on the best and surest way to salvation.他现在咨询上最好和最可靠的方法,以救赎的神学大师。 In answer the words of Christ to the rich young man were cited to him: "If thou wilt be perfect, go sell what thou hast, and give to the poor."在回答被引用基督的话富有的年轻人对他说:“如果祢是完美的,就去卖什么祢,给穷人。”(Matthew 19:21). (马太福音19:21)。Waldes immediately put into effect the counsel of the Divine Master. Waldes立即付诸实施的神圣法师的律师。He made over part of his wealth to his wife, part to those from whom he had acquired it, left some to the nuns of Fontevrault in whose monastery he placed his two little daughters, and distributed the greatest part to the poor.他作出了他的财富的一部分,他的妻子,他已收购的一部分,留下了一些丰特夫罗修女在其寺院,他把他的两个小女儿,并分发给穷人的最大部分。 On the feast of the Assumption, 1176, he disposed of the last of his earthly possessions and shortly after took the vow of poverty.在盛宴的假设,1176,他去年地上的财产及处置后不久,贫困的誓言。His example created a great stir in Lyons and soon found imitators, particularly among the lower and uneducated classes.他的例子创建了极大的轰动,在里昂和模仿者很快就发现,尤其是在较低和没有受过教育的的阶层。A special confraternity was established for the practice of apostolic poverty.使徒贫困的做法,成立一个特殊的帮会。Its members almost immediately began to preach in the streets and public places and gained more adherents.其成员几乎立即开始在街道和公共场所宣讲,并获得了更多的的追随者。Their preaching, however, was not unmixed with doctrinal error and was consequently prohibited, according to Stephen of Bourbon, by the Archbishop of Lyons, according to Walter Map, present at the assembly, by the Third General Lateran Council (1179).然而,他们的说教,不是纯教义错误,并因此禁止,根据斯蒂芬的波旁王朝,由里昂大主教,根据沃尔特地图,出席大会的,由第三代拉特兰会议(1179)。 The Waldenses, instead of heeding the prohibition, continued to preach on the plea that obedience is due rather to God than to man.瓦勒度派,而不是听从禁令,继续鼓吹服从,而不是对人是由于上帝认罪。Pope Lucius III consequently included them among the heretics against whom he issued a Bull of excommunication at Verona in 1184.教皇卢修斯三世因此其中包括他们对他发出了在维罗纳牛市逐出教会在1184的异端。

DOCTRINE教义

The organization of the Waldenses was a reaction against the great splendour and outward display existing in the medieval Church; it was a practical protest against the worldly lives of some contemporary churchmen.瓦勒度派的组织,是对伟大的辉煌,并向外显示,在现有的中世纪教堂的反应,这是一个对一些当代的教会的世俗生活的实际抗议。 Amid such ecclesiastical conditions the Waldenses made the profession of extreme poverty a prominent feature in their own lives, and emphasized by their practice the need for the much neglected task of preaching.大环境等教会的瓦勒度派的极端贫困的一个突出的特点,在自己的生活专业,并通过自己的实践中备受忽视的说教的任务需要强调。 As they were mainly recruited among circles not only devoid of theological training, but also lacking generally in education, it was inevitable that error should mar their teaching, and just as inevitable that, in consequence, ecclesiastical authorities should put a stop to their evangelistic work.由于他们主要是招募界不仅缺乏神学训练中,但还缺乏在教育,这是不可避免的误差应三月他们的教学,并仅仅是不可避免的,因此,教会当局应制止他们的传福音工作。 Among the doctrinal errors which they propagated was the denial of purgatory, and of indulgences and prayers for the dead.他们传播的教义错误否定炼狱,放纵和为死者祈祷。They denounced all lying as a grievous sin, refused to take oaths and considered the shedding of human blood unlawful.他们谴责所有躺在作为一个严重的罪,拒绝宣誓,被视为非法的人体血液中的脱落。They consequently condemned war and the infliction of the death penalty.因此,他们谴责战争和施加死刑。Some points in this teaching so strikingly resemble the Cathari that the borrowing of the Waldenses from them may be looked upon as a certainty.在这种教学的几点如此惊人地相似卡塔利,从他们的瓦勒度派的借款可能被看作是板上钉钉的后。Both sects also had a similar organization, being divided into two classes, the Perfect (perfecti) and the Friends or Believers (amici or credentes).两个教派也有一个类似的组织,被划分成两个班,完美(perfecti)和朋友或信徒(法庭之credentes)。 (See CATHARI and ALBIGENSES.) (见卡塔利和ALBIGENSES)。

Among the Waldenses the perfect, bound by the vow of poverty, wandered about from place to place preaching.其中瓦勒度派的完善,贫困的誓言的约束,从地方到地方的说教,游荡。Such an itinerant life was ill-suited for the married state, and to the profession of poverty they added the vow of chastity.这种流动的生活是不适合已婚状态,和贫困的专业,他们增加了贞洁的誓言。Married persons who desired to join them were permitted to dissolve their union without the consent of their consort.想要加入他们的已婚人士,没有他们驸的同意,允许解散工会。Orderly government was secured by the additional vow of obedience to superiors.服从上级的额外的誓言,有序的政府担保。The perfect were not allowed to perform manual labour, but were to depend for their subsistence on the members of the sect known as the friends.完美的人不得从事体力劳动,但要取决于他们的朋友称为教派成员的生活。These continued to live in the world, married, owned property, and engaged in secular pursuits.这些继续活在世界上,已婚,拥有的财产,和从事世俗的追求。Their generosity and alms were to provide for the material needs of the perfect.他们的慷慨和施舍,提供完美的物质需求。 The friends remained in union with the Catholic Church and continued to receive its sacraments with the exception of penance, for which they sought out, whenever possible, one of their own ministers.与天主教会的朋友们留在联盟,并继续接受其圣礼的忏悔例外,他们找到了,只要有可能,自己的部长之一。The name Waldenses was at first exclusively reserved to the perfect; but in the course of the thirteenth century the friends were also included in the designation.起初的名称瓦勒度派专门保留的完美,但在十三世纪的过程中,朋友们也包含在指定。The perfect were divided into the three classes of bishops, priests, and deacons.完美分为三个班的主教,神父,和执事。The bishop, called "major" or "majoralis", preached and administered the sacraments of penance, Eucharist, and order.主教,所谓“​​重大”或“majoralis”,鼓吹和管理圣礼的忏悔,圣体圣事,为了。The celebration of the Eucharist, frequent perhaps in the early period, soon took place only on Holy Thursday.庆祝圣体,也许在初期频繁,很快就只有在圣周四举行。The priest preached and enjoyed limited faculties for the hearing of confessions.牧师讲道,并享有有限院系听证会的供词。The deacon, named "junior" or "minor", acted as assistant to the higher orders and by the collection of alms relieved them of all material care.执事,命名为“初中”或“未成年人”,担任助理上级的命令,并收集施舍解除他们的所有材料的关怀。The bishop was elected by a joint meeting of priests and deacons.联席会议的司铎和执事,主教当选。In his consecration, as well as in the ordination of the other members of the clergy, the laying-on of hands was the principal element; but the recitation of the Our Father, so important in the Waldensian liturgy, was also a prominent feature.在他的奉献,以及神职人员的其他成员的协调,铺设在手的主要元素,但背诵我们的父亲,所以在Waldensian礼仪的重要,也是一个突出的特点。 The power of jurisdiction seems to have been exercised exclusively by one bishop, known as the "rector", who was the highest executive officer.似乎已经专门由一位主教,称为“校长”,谁是最高行政人员行使管辖权的权力。 Supreme legislative power was vested in the general convention or general chapter, which met once or twice a year, and was originally composed of the perfect but at a later date only of the senior members among them.最高的立法权归属于一般公约或一般章,会见了一年一次或两次,最初是在日后只,其中高级成员组成的完美,但。It considered the general situation of the sect, examined the religious condition of the individual districts, admitted to the episcopate, priesthood, or diaconate, and pronounced upon the admission of new members and the expulsion of unworthy ones.它认为,该教派的总体形势,研究个别地区的宗教条件,承认的主教,神职人员,或diaconate,并根据接纳新成员,并驱逐愧对的发音。

The Lombard communities were in several respects more radical than the French.伦巴第社区比法国更为激进的几个方面。Holding that the validity of the sacraments depends on the worthiness of the minister and viewing the Catholic Church as the community of Satan, they rejected its entire organization in so far as it was not based on the Scriptures.持有的圣礼的有效性取决于老有所为的部长和观看天主教教会作为社会的撒旦,他们拒绝在到目前为止的整个组织,因为它不是基于“圣经”上。 In regard to the reception of the sacraments, their practice was less radical than their theory.关于接待的圣礼,他们的做法是小于他们的理论的激进。Although they looked upon the Catholic priests as unworthy ministers, they not infrequently received communion at their hands and justified this course on the grounds that God nullifies the defect of the minister and directly grants his grace to the worthy recipient.虽然他们看着愧对部长后的天主教神父,他们不经常收到他们的手的共融和合理的理由是上帝勾销部长的缺陷,并直接授予他的恩典值得收件人这门课程。 The present Waldensian Church may be regarded as a Protestant sect of the Calvinistic type.本Waldensian教会可能会被视为一个新教教派的calvinistic类型。It recognizes as its doctrinal standard the confession of faith published in 1655 and based on the Reformed confession of 1559.它认识到其理论的标准在1655年出版的基础上,1559改革供认的信仰表白。It admits only two sacraments, baptism and the Lord's Supper.它承认只有两个圣礼,洗礼和主的晚餐。Supreme authority in the body is exercised by an annual synod, and the affairs of the individual congregations are administered by a consistory under the presidency of the pastor.每年主教最高法院在体内行使权力,和个别教区的事务是由一个牧师的主持下consistory管理。

HISTORY历史

The Waldenses in France and Spain在法国和西班牙的瓦勒度派

The preaching of Waldes and his disciples obtained immediate success not only in France, but also in Italy and Spain.说教Waldes和他的弟子立即不仅在法国取得的成功,但也在意大利和西班牙。The Italian adherents at a very early date constituted themselves independently.意大利信徒在一个非常早日构成自己独立。 In France the movement gained ground particularly in the South, whence it spread to Northern Spain.在法国,特别是在南,从那里蔓延到西班牙北部的地面运动获得。The Church sought to avert by persuasion the danger of numerous defections.教会试图说服避免众多倒戈的危险。 As early as 1191 a religious conference was held between Catholics and Waldenses at a place which has not been recorded; it was followed by a second held at Pamiers in 1207.早为1191举行的宗教会议天主教徒和瓦勒度派之间,在没有记录的地方,它是由在1207 Pamiers举行第二。The latter meeting brought about a return to the Church of Duran of Huesca and several other Waldenses.后者会议带来的回归韦斯卡杜兰教会和其他几个瓦勒度派。With the authorization of Innocent III they organized themselves into the special religious order of the Poor Catholics for the conversion of Waldenses.诺森三世的授权,他们组织成自己的瓦勒度派的转换的特殊贫困人口的天主教徒的宗教秩序。This purpose was attained only in a very small degree; but force soon checked the heretical movement.达到这个目的,只有在一个非常小的程度,但力量尽快检查邪教运动。In 1192 Bishop Otto of Toul ordered all Waldenses to be put in chains and delivered up to the episcopal tribunal.在1192 TOUL奥托主教下令所有瓦勒度派在连锁付诸表决,并交付主教法庭。Two years later King Alphonso II of Aragon banished them from his dominions and forbade anyone to furnish them with shelter or food.两年后,阿拉贡国王阿方索二世放逐他们从他的领地,并禁止任何人提供住房或食物。These provisions were renewed by Pedro II at the Council of Gerona (1197), and death by burning was decreed against the heretics.德拉罗萨在赫罗纳理事会(1197)二,这些规定重新颁布对异端的死亡是由燃烧。

The French authorities seem to have proceeded with less severity for a time.法国当局似乎已经进行一段时间的严重性。The Albigensian wars, however, also reacted on the policy towards the Waldenses, and in 1214 seven of these suffered the death penalty at Maurillac. Albigensian战争,但是,也对瓦勒度派的政策反应,并在1214这七个在Maurillac遭遇死刑。But it was only toward the middle of the thirteenth century that the heresy lost ground in Provence and Languedoc.但它是只朝十三世纪中叶的异端邪说,失去了在普罗旺斯和朗格多克地面。It did not disappear in these provinces until it was merged in the Protestant Reformation movement, while Spain and Lorraine were freed from it in the course of the thirteenth century.它并没有消失,在这些省份,直到它被合并,在新教的宗教改革运动,而西班牙和洛林在十三世纪的过程中释放。The most conspicuous centre of Waldensian activity in France during the later middle ages was Dauphiné and the western slope of the Cottian Alps.在中世纪晚期的中心在法国的Waldensian活动最引人注目的是第九和西部的Cottian阿尔卑斯山的斜坡。The sect seems to have been introduced in to this territory from Lombardy.该教派似乎已经介绍了从伦巴第大区境内。From Dauphiné and the valleys of the Alps it carried on missionary work in all Southern France to the Atlantic seaboard.从第九和阿尔卑斯山的山谷中进行宣教工作,在所有法国南部大西洋海岸。In 1403 a determined effort was made to win back the Waldenses of the valleys of Louise, Argentière, and Freissinièeres; but the apostolic labours of even a St. Vincent Ferrer were powerless. 1403下决心赢回路易丝,Argentière,并Freissinièeres山谷的瓦勒度派,但即使是圣文森特费雷尔使徒劳动力无能为力。 The Inquisition was equally unsuccessful, as were also the stern measures of the local civil authorities.宗教裁判所同样是不成功的,为当地民间当局的严厉措施。The policy of repression was temporarily abandoned under King Louis XI, who, believing them to be orthodox, extended to the Waldenses of the above-mentioned valleys his royal protection in an ordinance of 1478.镇压政策下暂时放弃了国王路易十一,世卫组织,认为他们是正统的,延长上述的山谷他的皇家保护条例1478瓦勒度派。

This period of peace was followed in 1488 by a crusade summoned by Innocent VIII against the Waldenses.这是和平时期之后,1488年,对无辜的瓦勒度派第八召见征讨。The war did not succeed in stamping them out.冲压出来的战争并没有成功。But, soon after, the Reformation profoundly modified the sect's history and doctrinal development.但是,不久之后,宗教改革深刻修改该教派的历史和理论的发展。A deputation composed of G. Morel and P. Masson was sent in 1530 to Switzerland for information concerning the new religious ideas.G.莫雷尔和体育美晨组成的一个代表团于1530年被派往瑞士关于新的宗教观念的信息。On their return journey Masson was arrested at Dijon and executed; Morel alone safely accomplished his mission.在第戎马森是在回程的逮捕和执行;莫雷尔独自安全地完成他的使命。The report of this journey led to the assembling of a general convention to which Farel and other Swiss Reformers were invited.这次旅程的报告LED组装的一般惯例法惹勒和瑞士其他改革者被邀请。The meeting was held at Chanforans in the valley of Angrogne and the Reformed teaching substantially adopted (1532).举行这次会议是在Chanforans Angrogne谷和改革教学大大通过(1532年)。A minority opposed this course and vainly sought to stem the tied of radicalism by an appeal for assistance to the Bohemian Brethren.少数人反对这门课程,并徒劳地试图阻止激进主义并列呼吁援助波希米亚弟兄。A new convention held in the valley of St. Martin in 1533 confirmed the decisions of Chanforans.在圣马丁谷在1533年举行的一项新的公约确认Chanforans的决定。The open adoption of Protestantism soon led to the persecution in which Waldensianism disappeared from Provence (1545).打开通过新教很快导致的迫害,其中Waldensianism来自普罗旺斯(1545)消失。The history of the communities in other districts became henceforth identified with that of Protestantism in France.在其他地区的社区的历史,成为今后确定在法国的新教。

The Waldenses in Italy and Other Countries在意大利和其他国家的瓦勒度派

Italy became a more permanent home of Waldensianism and more active in missionary work than France.意大利成为一个永久的家Waldensianism和宣教工作更积极比法国。During the very first years of Waldes's preaching, converts to his views are mentioned in Lombardy.在第一年Waldes的说教,转换到他在伦巴第大区中提到的意见。They increased rapidly in number and were joined by some members of the Order of Humiliati.他们在数量上迅速增加,Humiliati订购的一些成员加入。But dissensions soon arose between the Waldensians in France and in Lombardy.但纠纷很快就出现在法国和在伦巴第大区之间的韦尔。 The latter organized guilds of craftsmen, desired leaders of their own, and refused admission among the perfect to married persons without the consent of their consort.后者有组织工匠的行会,希望自己的领袖,没有他们驸的同意,并拒绝接纳之间的已婚人士的完美。On Waldes's refusal to sanction these points, his followers in Italy seceded during the first decade of the thirteenth century.Waldes拒绝制裁这些点,他的追随者在意大利脱离在十三世纪第一个十年。After his death a vain attempt at reunion was made at Bergamo in 1218.他去世后,妄图在留尼汪是在贝加莫在1218。The Italian branch after some time not only prospered in the valleys of western Piedmont, but also established important colonies in Calabria and Apulia.意大利皮埃蒙特西部河谷不仅在繁荣了一段时间后的分支,而且还建立了重要的殖民地在卡拉布里亚和普利亚。In the fifteenth century communities hardly less important are mentioned in the Papal States and other parts of Central Italy.几乎同样重要的是在15世纪社区中提到的教皇国和意大利中部其他地区。

The appearance of the Waldenses in the Diocese of Strasburg is recorded in 1211 and the years 1231-1233 were marked in Germany by resolute efforts to stamp out their errors.在斯特拉斯堡教区的瓦勒度派的出现是在1211年1231年至1233年在德国的坚决努力,以杜绝他们的错误标记记录。 But soon, adherents of the sect were found in Bavaria, Austria, and other sections.但很快,该教派的信徒被发现在巴伐利亚,奥地利和其他部分。They spread in the north to the shores of the Baltic Sea, and in the east to Bohemia, Poland and Hungary.他们分布在北部的波罗的海海岸,并在东波希米亚,波兰和匈牙利。With the appearance of new heresies they at times partly lost their distinctive character.随着新的异端邪说的外观,他们有时部分失去了其鲜明的时代特色。In Bohemia they amalgamated with the Hussites and the Bohemian Brethren without losing all their peculiarities.在波希米亚他们与胡斯派和波希米亚弟兄合并,而不会失去其特殊性。

Protestantism was still more readily accepted.新教仍然更容易被接受。Not only were its teachings universally adopted, but numerous Waldensian communities were merged in the Protestant churches, the Italian congregations alone retaining an independent existence and the original name.其教义不仅普遍采用,但众多的Waldensian社区合并的新教教堂,仅保留一个独立的存在和原来的名字,意大利众。 Those in the Piedmont valleys enjoyed religious peace from 1536-1559, owing to the political dependence of the districts upon France.在皮埃蒙特大峡谷享有宗教和平从1536年至1559年,由于政治的依赖后,法国地区。 A contrary policy was pursued by the Dukes of Savoy; but the Waldenses at the very outset successfully resisted, and in 1561 were granted in certain districts the free exercise of their religion.是一个相反的政策所追求的萨沃伊公爵,但在一开始就的瓦勒度派成功地抵制,和1561年在某些地区获得自由地行使他们的宗教。 In 1655 violence was again fruitlessly resorted to.是1655年的暴力再次徒劳地使出。Later in the same century (1686, 1699) some of them, under stress of renewed persecution, emigrated to Switzerland and Germany.其中一些重新迫害的压力下,后来在同一个世纪(1686,1699)移居到瑞士和德国。In Piedmont, civil equality was granted them in 1799 when the French occupied the country.在皮埃蒙特,公民平等权在1799年被授予,当法国占领该国。They enjoyed this peace until the downfall of Napoleon I, but again lost it at the return of the house of Savoy.他们享有和平,直到拿破仑一世垮台,但再次失去了它的房子的萨沃伊回报。From 1816 onward, however, gradual concessions were made to the Waldenses, and in 1848 Charles Albert granted them complete and permanent liberty.然而,从1816起,逐步优惠的瓦勒度派,并在1848年查尔斯伟业给予他们完整的和永久的自由。Renewed activity has since marked their history.再次活动以来标志着他们的历史。They founded in 1855 a school of theology at Torre Pellice and transferred it to Florence in 1860.他们成立于1855年在Torre Pellice神学的一所学校,并在1860年转移到佛罗伦萨。Through emigration they have spread to several cities of Southern France, and also to North and South America.通过移民,他们已经蔓延到法国南部的几个城市,也是北美洲和南美洲。There are five congregations in Uruguay and two in Argentina.有五个众在乌拉圭和阿根廷两个。Three colonies have settled in the United States: at Wolfe Ridge, Texas; Valdese, North Carolina; and Monett, Missouri.三个殖民地定居在美国:在得克萨斯州的沃尔夫岭,Valdese,北卡罗莱纳州; Monett,密苏里。The communities which in the seventeenth century settled in Germany have since severed their connection with the church and abandoned their original language.在17世纪在德国定居的社区以来切断他们与教会的联系,并放弃其原有的语言。In Hesse-Darmstadt they were prohibited the use of French in 1820-21; in Würtemberg they joined the Lutheran State Church in 1823.在黑森州达姆施塔特他们被禁止法国在1820年至1821年使用;,在符腾堡,他们在1823年加入路德国家教会。Later on, they began receiving financial support from the "American Waldensian Aid Society" founded in 1906, and from a similar organization in Great Britain.后来,他们开始接受“美国Waldensian援助协会”成立于1906年,从一个类似的组织在英国的金融支持。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.NA韦伯编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.转录由安东尼基林。Aeterna non caduca The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.Aeterna非caduca天主教百科全书,卷十五。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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