West Syrian Rite西叙利亚成年礼

Catholic Information天主教信息

The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language.詹姆士在叙利亚教派和天主教叙利亚人仪式是在其原产地只是旧成年礼安提在叙利亚文的语言。Into this framework the Jacobites have fitted a great number of other Anaphoras, so that now their Liturgy has more variant forms than any other.到这个框架中的Jacobites都装有大量的其他Anaphoras,所以现在他们的礼仪比任何其他的变异形式。The oldest form of the Antiochene Rite that we know is in Greek (see ANTIOCHENE LITURGY).安提阿学派成年礼,我们知道的最古老的形式(见安提阿学派礼仪)在希腊。It was apparently composed in that language.这显然​​是由该语言。The many Greek terms that remain in the Syriac form show that this is derived from Greek.希腊方面的许多留在叙利亚文的形式显示,这是从希腊语派生。The version must have been made very early, evidently before the Monophysite schism, before the influence of Constantinople and Byzantine infiltrations had begun.版本必须得很早,显然之前的基督一性分裂,君士坦丁堡和拜占庭式的渗透的影响已开始之前。No doubt as soon as Christian communities arose in the country parts of Syria the prayers which in the cities (Antioch, Jerusalem, etc.) were said in Greek, were, as a matter of course, translated into the peasants' language (Syriac) for their use.毫无疑问,尽快基督教社区叙利亚的祈祷,在城市(安提阿,耶路撒冷等)在希腊说,该国部分地区出现,是理所当然的,翻译成“农民的语言(叙利亚文)供其使用。 The "Peregrinatio Silviae" describes the services at Jerusalem as being Greek; but the lessons, first read in Greek, are then translated into Syriac propter populum.“Peregrinatio Silviae”描述的服务,在耶路撒冷作为希腊的教训,首先在希腊阅读,然后翻译成叙利亚文propter populum。As long as all Western Syria was one communion, the country dioceses followed the rite of the patriarch at Antioch, only changing the language.只要所有西方叙利亚是一个共融,国家教区遵循成年礼在安提阿的族长,只有改变语言。 Modifications adopted at Antioch in Greek were copied in Syriac by those who said their prayers in the national tongue.在希腊安提通过修改那些说他们的祈祷,在国家的舌头在叙利亚被复制。This point is important because the Syriac Liturgy (in its fundamental form) already contains all the changes brought to Antioch from Jerusalem.这一点很重要,因为叙利亚文礼仪中(在其基本形式)已经包含了所有的变化带来了从耶路撒冷下到安提阿。It is not the older pure Antiochene Rite, but the later Rite of Jerusalem-Antioch.这是不是旧的纯安提阿学派成年礼,但后来成年礼耶路撒冷,安提阿。"St. James", prays first not for the Church of Antioch, but "for the holy Sion, the mother of all churches" (Brightman, pp. 89-90). “圣雅各福群会”,先不要祈祷的安提阿教会,但“神圣的锡永,所有教堂之母”(布莱曼,第89-90页)。The fact that the Jacobites as well as the Orthodox have the Jerusalem-Antiochene Liturgy is the chief proof that this had supplanted the older Antiochene use before the schism of the fifth century.事实上,Jacobites以及东正教耶路撒冷,安提阿学派礼仪是行政证明,这已取代旧的安提阿学派使用前第五世纪的分裂。

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Our first Syriac documents come from about the end of the fifth century ("Testamentum Domini," ed. by Ignatius Rahmani II, Life of Severus of Antioch, sixth century).我们的第一个叙利亚文件来自大约年底第五世纪“Testamentum多米尼,”埃德。伊格内修拉赫马尼二,西弗勒斯的安提阿,公元六世纪的生活。 They give us valuable information about local forms of the Rite of Antioch-Jerusalem.他们给我们有关当地形式成年礼安提耶路撒冷的有价值的信息。The Jacobite sect kept a version of this rite which is obviously a local variant.詹姆士节保持了这一仪式的版本,这显然是一个地方的变种。Its scheme and most of its prayers correspond to those of the Greek St. James; but it has amplifications and omissions, such as we find in all local forms of early rites.对应于希腊的圣雅各福群计划和祈祷,但它已扩增和遗漏,比如我们在早期仪式的所有地方找到。It seems too that the Jacobites after the schism made some modifications.它似乎太Jaco​​bites分裂后,作了一些修改。 We know this for certain in one point (the Trisagion).我们知道这一点(诗歌)的某些。The first Jacobite writer on their rite is James of Edessa (d. 708), who wrote a letter to a priest Thomas comparing the Syrian Liturgy with that of Egypt.对他们的成年礼的詹姆士派作家詹姆斯埃德萨(卒于708),谁写了一个牧师托马斯的一封信,埃及与叙利亚礼仪。This letter is an exceedingly valuable and really critical discussion of the rite.这封信是一个极其宝贵的仪式,真正关键的讨论。 A number of later Jacobite writers followed James of Edessa.后来詹姆士派作家詹姆斯随后的埃德萨。On the whole this sect produced the first scientific students of liturgy.这个教派在整个生产的第一个科学的学生的礼仪。Benjamin of Edessa (period unknown), Lazarus bar Sabhetha of Bagdad (ninth century), Moses bar Kephas of Mosul (d. 903), Dionysuis bar Salibhi of Amida (d. 1171) wrote valuable commentaries on the Jacobite Rite.本杰明埃德萨(期不详),拉撒路酒吧Sabhetha巴格达(第九世纪),摩西酒吧Kephas摩苏尔(卒于903),阿弥陀Dionysuis酒吧Salibhi(卒于1171)上写道詹姆斯党成年礼宝贵的评论。 In the eighth and ninth centuries a controversy concerning the prayer at the Fraction produced much liturgical literature.在第八届和第九届世纪一个争议,有关分数的祈祷产生了许多礼仪文学。The chronicle of their Patriarch Michael the Great (d. 1199) discusses the question and supplies valuable contemporary documents.他们的祖师迈克尔纪事大(卒于1199)讨论的问题,并提供宝贵当代文件。

The oldest Jacobite Liturgy extant is the one ascribed (as in its Greek form) to St. James.现存最古老的詹姆士礼仪冲高(在希腊形式)圣雅各福群之一。It is in the dialect of Edessa.它是在埃德萨方言。The pro-anaphoral part of this is the Ordo communis to which the other later Anaphoras are joined.亲本anaphoral的部分是,其他后来Anaphoras加入奥communis。It is printed in Latin by Renaudot (II, 1-44) and in English by Brightman (pp. 69-110).这是印在拉丁语由勒诺(二1-44)和以英语布莱曼(第69-110页)。This follows the Greek St. James (see ANTIOCHENE LITURGY) with these differences.在此之前,希腊的圣雅各福群会(见安提阿学派礼仪),这些差异。All the vesting prayer and preparation of the offering (Proskomide) are considerably expanded, and the prayers differ.归属祈祷和发行准备工作(Proskomide)大大扩展,并祈祷不同。This part of the Liturgy is most subject to modification; it began as private prayer only.这部分的礼仪是最受到修改,它才开始作为私人祈祷。The Monogenes comes later; the litany before the lessons is missing; the incensing is expanded into a more elaborate rite.Monogenes来一长串之前的教训是丢失;激怒是扩展到一个更详细的仪式。The Trisagion comes after the lessons from the Old Testament; it contains the addition: "who wast crucified for us".的诗歌后,从旧约的教训,它包含除:“谁废为我们钉在十字架上”。This is the most famous characteristic of the Jacobite Rite.这是最有名的特点詹姆斯党成年礼。The clause was added by Peter the Dyer (Fullo), Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch (d. 488), was believed to imply Monophysism and caused much controversy during these times, eventually becoming a kind of watchword to the Jacobites (see Zacharias Rhetor, "Hist. eccl.", PG 85, 1165).彼得大帝代尔(Fullo),基督一性牧安提(卒于488),被认为意味着Monophysism,造成很大的争议,在这时代,最终成为一个口号Jacobites(见撒迦利亚修辞,该条款“组织胺。传道书“,PG 85,1165)。The litany between the lessons is represented by the word Kurillison said thrice.一长串之间的经验教训是代表字Kurillison说三次。There is no chant at the Great Entrance (a Byzantine addition in the Greek Rite).有没有在大门口的咏叹(拜占庭除了在希腊成年礼)。 The long Offertory prayers of the Greek Rite do not occur.希腊成年礼的长期offertory祈祷不会发生。The Epiklesis and Intercession are much the same as in Greek.远在希腊的相同Epiklesis和代祷。The Lord's Prayer follows the Fraction.主祷文如下的分数。At the Communion-litany the answer is Halleluiah instead of Kyrie eleison.在共融的长篇累牍的答案是Halleluiah代替垂怜。

In this Syriac Liturgy many Greek forms remain: Stomen kalos, Kurillison, Sophia, Proschomen, etc. Renaudot gives also a second form of the Ordo communis (II, 12-28) with many variants.在此叙利亚文礼仪中的许多希腊形式仍然是:Stomen kalos,Kurillison,索菲亚,Proschomen,等勒诺也给许多变种奥communis(二12-28)的第二种形式。To the Ordo communis the Jacobites have added a very great number of alternative Anaphoras, many of which have not been published.奥communis Jacobites有添加了一个很大的数字替代Anaphoras,其中有许多尚未公布。 These Anaphoras are ascribed to all manner of people; they were composed at very different periods.这些Anaphoras都归功于所有的人的方式,他们在非常不同时期组成的。One explanation of their attribution to various saints is that they were originally used on their feasts.其归属到各种圣人的一种解释是,他们最初对他们的节日。

Renaudot translated and published thirty-nine of these.勒诺翻译并出版了其中三十九个。 After that, the Liturgy of St. of St. James follows (in his work) a shortened form of the same.在此之后,圣雅各福群会圣礼仪如下(在他的工作)一个相同的缩写形式。This is the one commonly used today.这是今天普遍使用的一个。Then:然后:

Xystus, which is placed first in the Maronite books; of St. Peter; another of St. Peter; of St. John; of the Twelve Apostles; of St. Mark; of St. Clement of Rome; of St. Dionysius; of St. Ignatius; of St. Julius of Rome; of St. Eustathius; of St. John Chrysostom; of St. Chrysostom (from Chaldaean sources); of St. Maruta; of St. Cyril; of Dioscor; of Philoxenus of Hierapolis; a second Liturgy also ascribed to him; of Serverus of Antioch; of James Baradæus; of Mathew the Shepherd; of St. James of Botnan and Serug; of James of Edessa, the Interpreter; of Thomas of Heraclea; of Moses bar Kephas; of Philoxenus of Bagdad; of the Doctors, arranged by John the Great, Patriarch; of John of Basora; of Michael of Antioch; of Dionysius Bar-Salibhi; of Gregory Bar-Hebraeus; of St. John the Patriarch, called Acoemetus (Akoimetos); of St. Dioscor of Kardu; John, Patriarch of Antioch; of Ignatius of Antioch (Joseph Ibn Wahib); of St. Basil (another version, by Masius). Xystus,这是摆在龙族的书籍;圣彼得,圣彼得另一个圣约翰;十二使徒;圣马克圣克莱门特的罗马圣狄奥尼修斯;圣依纳爵;罗马的圣朱利叶斯;圣欧斯塔修斯;圣约翰金口圣金口(从迦勒底来源);圣丸太圣西里尔; Dioscor;希拉波利斯Philoxenus;也归功于他的第二个礼仪; Serverus安提阿;詹姆斯Baradæus;马修牧羊人; Botnan和Serug圣雅各福群詹姆斯埃德萨,解释;赫拉克利亚托马斯;摩西酒吧Kephas;巴格达Philoxenus;大,族长安排由约翰医生; Basora约翰迈克尔安提阿;狄奥尼酒吧Salibhi;格雷戈里酒吧Hebraeus;圣约翰祖师,称为Acoemetus(Akoimetos)圣Kardu Dioscor;约翰,安提阿宗主教依纳爵的安提阿(约瑟夫伊Wahib);圣罗勒(另一版本,由麦西斯)。

Brightman (pp. lviii-lix) mentions sixty-four Liturgies as known, at least by name.布莱曼(第LVIII - 59)提到六十四个礼仪,号称至少名字。Notes of this bewildring number of Anaphoras will be found after each in Renaudot.每次在勒诺后,会发现这Anaphoras bewildring注意到。In most cases all he can say is that he knows nothing of the real author; often the names affixed are otherwise unknown.在大多数情况下,他可以说是,他知道真正的作者无关;,经常贴的名字,否则未知。Many Anaphoras are obviously quite late, inflated with long prayers and rhetorical, expressions, many contain Monophysite ideas, some are insufficient at the consecration so as to be invalid.许多Anaphoras显然已经很晚了,长的祈祷和修辞,表达膨胀,许多包含基督一性的想法,有些是在奉献的不足,以无效。 Baumstark (Die Messe im Morgenland, 44-46) thinks the Anaphora of St. Ignatius most important, as containing parts of the old pure Antiochene Rite.Baumstark(模具展览IM Morgenland 44-46)认为,最重要的圣依纳爵的照应,如含部分旧纯安提阿学派成年礼。He considers that many attributions to later Jacobite authors may be correct, that the Liturgy of Ignatius of Antioch (Joseph Ibn Wahib; d. 1304) is the latest.他认为,许多归因到后来的詹姆士作者可能是正确的,礼仪的依纳爵的安提阿(约瑟夫伊Wahib; D. 1304)是最新的。 Most of these Anaphoras have now fallen into disuse.大多数这些Anaphoras现在已经陷入了废用性。The Jacobite celebrant generally uses the shortened form of St. James.詹姆士证婚普遍使用的圣雅各福群会缩短。There is an Armenian version (shortened) of the Syriac St. James.叙利亚圣雅各福群会(简称)是亚美尼亚的版本。The Liturgy is said in Syriac with (since the fifteenth century) many Arabic substitutions in the lessons and proanaphoral prayers.据说是在叙利亚的礼仪(自十五世纪)许多阿拉伯语替换的教训和proanaphoral祈祷。 The Lectionary and Diaconicum have not been published and are badly known. Lectionary和Diaconicum尚未公布,并严重已知。The vestments correspond almost exactly to those of the Orthodox, except that the bishop wears a latinized mitre.几乎完全符合的法衣东正教的,除主教穿的是拉丁化的尖角。The Calendar has few feasts.日历有几个节日。It follows in its main lines the older of Antioch, observed also by the Nestorians, which is the basis of the Byzantine Calendar.在其主要线路如下旧的安提阿,也观察到,这是拜占庭式的日历的基础上由景教。Feasts are divided into three classes of dignity.节日分为三个班的尊严。Wednesday and Friday are fast-days.周三和周五是快天。The Divine Office consists of Vespers, Compline, Nocturns, Lauds, Terce, Sext, and None, or rather of hours that correspond to these among Latins.由晚祷,Compline,Nocturns,赞扬,Terce,SEXT,和“无”,或与它们之间的拉丁对应的小时而神圣的办公室。 Vespers always belongs to the following day.晚祷永远属于翌日。The great part of this consists of long poems composed for the purpose, like the Byzantine odes.这个伟大的部分包括为目的组成的,如拜占庭式的颂歌,长诗。Baptism is performed by immersion; the priest confirms at once with chrism blessed by the patriarch.洗礼是浸泡;牧师证实在一次与chrism祝福老人家。Confession is not much used; it has fallen into the same decay as in most Eastern Churches.自白是不是多用;它已经下降到相同的衰变,在大多数东方教会。Communion is administered under both kinds; the sick are anointed with oil blessed by a priest -- the ideal is to have seven priests to administer it.圣餐下两种管理;生病是一个牧师祝福油膏抹 - 最理想的是有七个祭司来管理它。The orders are bishop, priest, deacon, subdeacon, lector, and singer.订单主教,司铎,执事,subdeacon,讲师,和歌手。There are many chorepiscopi, not ordained bishop.有很多chorepiscopi,没有祝圣主教。It will be seen, then, that one little Jacobite Church has followed much the same line of development in its rites as its powerful Orthodox neighbour. ,然后,将一个小詹姆士教堂后面,多在其仪式的同一行的发展作为其强大的东正教邻居。

The Syrian Catholics use the same rite as the Jacobites.叙利亚天主教徒为Jacobites使用同样的仪式。But (as is the case with most Eastern Rite Catholic Churches) it is better organized with them.但是,(是最东部成年礼天主教教会的情况下),它是与他们更好地组织。There is not much that can be called Romanizing in their books; but they have the advantage of well-arranged, well-edited, and well-printed books.没有多少可以被称为Romanizing在他们的书籍,但他们有优势,周密安排,精心编辑,印制书籍。All the great students of the West-Syrian Rite (the Assemani, Renaudot, etc.) have been Catholic.西叙利亚成年礼(Assemani,勒诺多等)的所有学生都被天主教。Their knowledge and the higher Western standard of scholarship in general are advantages of which the Syrian Catholics rather than the Jacobites profit.他们的知识和较高的奖学金,一般的西方标准叙利亚天主教徒,而不是Jacobites利润的优势。Of the manifold Syrian Anaphoras the Catholics use seven only -- those of St. James, St.John, St. Peter, St. Chrysostom, St. Xystus, St. Mathew, and St. Basil.多方面叙利亚Anaphoras天主教徒使用7只 - 圣雅各福群会,圣约翰,圣彼得大教堂,圣金口,圣Xystus,圣马修,和圣罗勒。That of St. Xystus is attached to the Ordo communis in their official book; that of St. John is said on the chief feasts.圣Xystus是连接到他们的官书奥communis;圣约翰是行政节日说。The lessons only are in Arabic.只在阿拉伯文的教训。It was inevitable that the Syrian Liturgies, coming from Monophysite sources, should be examined at Rome before they are allowed to Syrian Catholics.这是不可避免的,叙利亚礼仪,从基督一性来源的,应当审查后,方可向叙利亚天主教徒在罗马。But the revisers made very few changes.但审校很少变化。Out of the mass of Anaphoras they chose the oldest and purest, leaving out the long series of later ones that were unorthodox, or even invalid. Anaphoras他们选择了最古老和最纯洁的的,非正统的,甚至无效的后来者留出一长串的质量。In the seven kept for Syrian Catholic use what alterations have been made chiefly the omission of redundant prayers, simplication of confused parts in which the Diaconicum and the Euchologion had become mixed together.在七个保存叙利亚天主教使用什么样的变化主要是已遗漏多余的祈祷,Diaconicum的Euchologion已成为混合在一起混淆部分simplication。 The only important correction is the omission of the fatal clause: "Who was crucified for us" in the Trisagion.唯一重要的修正是致命的条款遗漏:“谁被钉在十字架上为我们”中的诗歌。There is no suspicion of modifying in the direction of the Roman Rite.有没有涉嫌在罗马成年礼的方向修改。The other books of the Catholics -- the Diaconicum, officebook, and ritual -- are edited at Rome, Beirut, and the Patriarchal press Sharfé; they are considerably the most accessible, the best-arranged books in which to study this rite.天主教徒的其他书籍Diaconicum,officebook和仪式 - - 编辑在罗马,贝鲁特和宗法按Sharfé;相当,他们是最方便,最好安排的书籍中,研究这个仪式。

The West-Syrian Rite has also been used at intervals by sections of the (schismatical) Malabar Church.西叙利亚成年礼也被使用的时间间隔(分裂的)马拉巴尔教会的部分。Namely, as the Malabar Christians at various times made approaches to the Jacobite Patriarch or received bishops from him, so did they at such times use his Liturgy.即作为马拉巴尔基督徒在不同时期制定办法詹姆士祖师或收到他的主教,也是如此,他们在这种时候用他的礼仪。Most of Malabar has now returned to the Nestorian communion; but there are still Jacobite communities using this rite among them.大部分马拉巴尔现在已返回到景教共融;但仍有詹姆士使用这个仪式,其中的社区。

The Maronite Rite is merely a Romanized adaptation of that of the West Syrians.龙族成年礼仅仅是一个罗马适应西方叙利亚人。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.阿德里安Fortescue的书面公开信息。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。In memory of Father Mathew Alakulam The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.在记忆的父亲马修Alakulam天主教百科全书,体积十四。 Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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