Adam亚当

yàdāng

General Information一般资料

According to the Bible, Adam was the first man.据圣经记载,亚当是第一人。His name, which means "man" in Hebrew, is probably derived from the Hebrew word for "earth."他的名字,意思是“人”在希伯来文,可能是来自希伯来语意为“地球”。The first three chapters of Genesis relate that God created Adam from dust, breathed life into him, and placed him in the Garden of Eden, where he lived with his wife, Eve, until they ate the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil.前三个章节的成因涉及上帝创造亚当从尘土,呼吸到他的生命,并放置在伊甸园,在那里他与他的妻子,夏娃,生活,直到他们吃了从良好的知识之树的禁果花园里和邪恶。 The biblical account is similar to Egyptian and Mesopotamian accounts, in which the first man was made from clay, infused with life by a divine being, and placed in a paradise of delight.圣经中的帐户是美索不达米亚类似埃及和帐户,其中一人是由粘土制成,生活注入了一所神圣的,并在欢乐的天堂上。


Adam亚当

Advanced Information先进的信息

Adam, red, a Babylonian word, the generic name for man, having the same meaning in the Hebrew and the Assyrian languages.亚当,红,是巴比伦文字,对人的类的名称,具有在希伯来语和亚述人的语言相同的意思。It was the name given to the first man, whose creation, fall, and subsequent history and that of his descendants are detailed in the first book of Moses (Gen. 1:27-ch. 5).它给的第一人,其创作,秋天的名字,和随后的历史和他的子孙是在第一本书的摩西(创1点27分通道。5)详细说明。"God created man [Heb., Adam] in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them."“上帝造人[。以弗所书,亚当]在他自己的形象,创造了神的形象,他他,男性和女性创造了他的。”Adam was absolutely the first man whom God created.亚当是绝对的第一人,上帝创造了人。He was formed out of the dust of the earth (and hence his name), and God breathed into this nostrils the breath of life, and gave him dominion over all the lower creatures (Gen. 1:26; 2:7).他形成了地球的(因此他的名字)的尘土,神吹了这个鼻孔呼吸的生命,并给了他对所有的生物统治下(创1:26; 2:7)。

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He was placed after his creation in the Garden of Eden, to cultivate it, and to enjoy its fruits under this one prohibition: "Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die."他被安排后,他在创作中的伊甸园,培育它,并享受这一禁令下,它的果实:“对,善和恶,你不可吃的IT知识树在一天你eatest因此你一定死。“ The first recorded act of Adam was his giving names to the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, which God brought to him for this end.亚当的第一个记录的行为是他给的名字到田野的走兽和空中,为此带来了上帝对他的飞鸟。Thereafter the Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and while in an unconscious state took one of his ribs, and closed up his flesh again; and of this rib he made a woman, whom he presented to him when he awoke.此后,主造成一种深度睡眠状态,降临他,而在昏迷状态了他的一条肋骨,他的肉合起来又与此肋骨,他取得了一名女子,就是他送给他时,他醒了过来。 Adam received her as his wife, and said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man."亚当收到他的妻子她,说:“这是我骨中的骨,肉中的肉:她应被称为女人,因为她是从男人身上取出来。”He called her Eve, because she was the mother of all living.他叫她夏娃,因为她是众生之母。

Being induced by the tempter in the form of a serpent to eat the forbidden fruit, Eve persuaded Adam, and he also did eat.受到在一个蛇吃了禁果形诱惑诱导,说服亚当夏娃,他也没有吃。Thus man fell, and brought upon himself and his posterity all the sad consequences of his transgression.因此,人倒下了,并呼吁所有自己和他的后代,他的罪过带来可悲的后果。The narrative of the Fall comprehends in it the great promise of a Deliverer (Gen. 3:15), the "first gospel" message to man.那个秋季的叙事领悟在它的一个投递(创3:15),“第一福音”的信息,人的伟大承诺。They were expelled from Eden, and at the east of the garden God placed a flame, which turned every way, to prevent access to the tree of life (Gen. 3).他们被驱逐出伊甸园,并在花园的东神放置了一个火焰,这变成各种方式,以防止进入生命树(创3)。How long they were in Paradise is matter of mere conjecture.多久,他们在天堂的是单纯的猜想。

Shortly after their expulsion Eve brought forth her first-born, and called him Cain.不久后他们驱逐前夕带来了她的第一个出生的,叫他该隐。Although we have the names of only three of Adam's sons, viz., Cain, Abel, and Seth yet it is obvious that he had several sons and daughters (Gen. 5:4).虽然我们有名字的只有亚当的三个儿子,即。,该隐,亚伯,和Seth但很明显,他有几个儿子和女儿(创5:4)。He died aged 930 years.他死于岁九三〇年。Adams and Eve were the progenitors of the whole human race.亚当和夏娃是整个人类的祖先。Evidences of varied kinds are abundant in proving the unity of the human race.不同种类的证据是证明了人类团结的丰富。The investigations of science, altogether independent of historical evidence, lead to the conclusion that God "hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth" (Acts 17:26. Comp. Rom. 5:12-12; 1 Cor. 15:22-49).科学的调查,共独立的历史证据,导致上帝“所创造的同一血脉,所有国家的男子纠缠于所有面对地球”(徒17:26比赛罗结论5。。。: 12-12 1肺心病15:22-49)。。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Adam亚当

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Hebrew word transliterated "Adam" is found about 560 times in the OT.希伯来文音译“亚当”被发现在加时赛约560倍。In the overwhelming majority of cases it means "man" or "mankind."在绝大多数情况下是指“人”或“人类”。This is true of some of the references at the beginning of Genesis (in the creation and Eden stories), and many scholars hold that up to Gen. 4:25 all occurrences of "Adam" should be understood to refer to "man" or "the man."这是该引用中有些人是创世纪的开始(在建立和伊甸园故事)真实,许多学者认为,高达创4:25所有出现的“亚当”应理解为是指“人”或“那人。” But there is no doubt that the writer on occasion used the word as the proper name of the first man, and it is with this use that we are concerned.但毫无疑问,在当时作家作为第一人的正确名称的字,而且这个考虑,我们担心使用。It is found outside Genesis in 1 Chr.它是发现外面成因1染色体。1:1 and possibly in other passages such as Deut.1:1和可能在其他通道,如申。32:8 (where "the sons of men" may be understood as "the sons of Adam"), and in some important NT passages. 32:8(其中“人的儿子”可能被视为“亚当的子孙”的理解),并在一些重要新台币段落。

Adam in OT Teaching亚当在加时赛教学

We are told that God created man "in his own image" and that he created them "male and female" (Gen. 1:27), statements made about no other creature.有人告诉我们,上帝创造了人“在他自己的形象”,他创造了他们的“男性和女性”(创1:27),报表作出关于任何其他生物。 Man was commanded to "be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it" (Gen. 1:28).男子被吩咐要“生养众多,遍满地面,治理这地”(创1:28)。He was not to be idle but was given the task of tending the Garden of Eden.他并没有被闲置,但考虑到抚育任务的伊甸园。He was forbidden to eat "of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" (Gen. 2:15-17).他被禁止吃“的对善恶树”(创2:15-17)。The man was given the privilege of naming all the animals (Gen. 2:20), but no suitable help for him was found among them, so God made woman from a rib taken from the man's body (Gen. 2:21-23).该名男子被赋予了所有的动物命名的特权(创2:20),但没有对他适当的帮助,其中发现了,所以神就从该名男子的身体采取了肋骨(创2:21-23女人)。 The serpent beguiled the woman into breaking God's command not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and she then persuaded her husband to do likewise.那蛇引诱到违反了神的命令,不要吃了善恶知识树的女人,她再说服丈夫也这样做。They were punished by being expelled from the garden, and in addition the woman was to have pain in childbirth and be subject to her husband, while Adam would find the ground cursed so that it would bring forth thorns and thistles and he would have to toil hard all his days (Gen. 3).他们进行了处罚由正从花园开除,另外的女人,是在分娩时的痛苦,并受她的丈夫,而亚当会发现地面受诅咒,以便它会带给荆棘和蒺藜,他将不得不辛劳他的日子都在努力(创3)。 But curse is not all; there is the promise of a Deliverer who will crush the serpent (Gen. 3:15).但是,并不是所有的诅咒,存在着一个投递承诺谁将粉碎蛇(创3:15)。We are told of the birth of two sons of Adam, Cain and Abel; of Cain's murder of Abel (Gen. 4:1-16); and of the birth of Seth (Gen. 4:25).我们告诉了两个亚当的儿子该隐和亚伯出生;该隐的亚伯(创4:1-16)谋杀,以及赛斯出生的(创4:25)。

The meaning of these passages is disputed.这些经文的意思是有争议的。Some OT scholars regard them as primitive myth, giving early man the answers to such questions as "Why do snakes lack legs?"有些学者认为加时赛他们作为原始神话,让早期人类的答案是这样的问题:“为什么蛇没有腿?”or "Why do men die?"或“为什么男人死了?”Others see them as mythological, but as expressing truths of permanent validity concerned with man's origin and constitution or, as others hold, with "a fall upward."其他人则认为他们的神话,但作为表达与人的起源和宪法有关的永久有效的真理,或者像有人认为,以“一个秋天向上。” This latter view sees man as originally no more than one of the animals.这后一种观点认为,以不超过原来的动物之一的人。At this stage he could no more sin than any other animal could.在这个阶段,他可能没有更多的罪恶比任何其他动物可以。It was accordingly a significant step forward when man became aware of something he was doing as wrong.因此这是一个重大的进步的东西时,他就成了他被错做什么。But it is highly doubtful whether the writer had in mind any such ideas.但它是非常令人怀疑是否作家脑子里想的任何想法。Clearly he thought of Adam and Eve as the first parents of the human race, and he is telling us of God's purpose that those into whom he had breathed "the breath of life" should live in fellowship with him.显然,他认为,亚当和夏娃作为人类的始祖,他却告诉上帝的宗旨我们,那些人,他呼吸到“生命的气息”应该生活在与他相交。 But Adam and Eve fell from their original blissful state as a result of their first sin.但是亚当和夏娃也从原来的幸福国家作为他们的第一单的结果。And that sin has continuing consequences for the whole human race.这罪已持续了整个人类的后果。In later times the magnitude of the fall has sometimes been emphasized by affirming that Adam was originally endowed with wonderful supernatural gifts, lost when he sinned (in Sir. 49:16 Adam is honored "above every living being in the creation"; cf. the medieval stress on Adam's supernatural graces).在稍后的时间幅度的下降,有时被申明亚当原本与美妙超自然的礼物赋予强调,失去了当他犯了罪(爵士49:16亚当是被誉为“上述每一个生活在万物之灵”。比照。对亚当的超自然的青睐中世纪应力)。 But this is speculation.但是,这是投机。

The creation narratives tell us at least that man is related to the rest of creation (he is made "of dust from the ground," Gen. 2:7; for the beast and the birds cf. vs. 19), and that he is related also to God (he is "in the image of God," Gen. 1:27; cf. 2:7).创造叙述告诉我们,至少这名男子是关系到其他生物(他是一个“从地上的灰尘,”创世纪2:7;为野兽和鸟类比照主场迎战19。),他是也涉及到神(他是“在上帝的形象,”创世纪1:27比照二时07分。)。 He has "dominion" over the lower creation (Gen. 1:26, 28), and this is symbolized by his naming of the other creatures.他曾创造了较低的“统治”(创1:26,28),这是由他对其他生物的命名象征。The fall passage speaks of the seriousness of his sin and of its permanent effects.通过秋季谈到了他的罪过和其永久性的影响的严重性。This is not a topic to which there is frequent reference in the OT, but it underlies everything.这不是一个主题,其中有在城市旅游局经常提到,但它强调了一切。It is a fundamental presupposition that man is a sinner, and this marks off the literature of the Hebrews from other literatures of antiquity.这是一个基本的前提,人是一个罪人,和关闭的希伯来人从其他文献,古代文学,这标志着。 The solidarity of Adam with his descendants is in the background throughout the OT writings, as is the thought that there is a connection between sin and death.亚当和他的子孙团结是在整个城市旅游局著作的背景,因为是认为有罪恶和死亡之间的连接。Whatever problems this poses for modern expositors, there can be no doubt about the fact that the OT takes a serious view of sins or that sin is seen as part of man's nature.任何问题构成了现代解释者,就不可能有任何有关事实,即城市旅游局需要查看或严重的罪,罪是人的天性的一部分出现疑问。

Adam in Intertestamental and NT Thought亚当Intertestamental和NT思想

During the intertestamental period there are some striking expressions of solidarity with Adam, such as Ezra's impassioned exclamation: "O Adam, what have you done? For though it was you who sinned, the fall was not yours alone, but ours also who are your descendants" (II Esd. 7:48 [118]; cf. 3.21; 4:30; Wis. 2:23-24; the blame is assigned to Eve in Sir. 25:24).在intertestamental期间有团结的一些突出的表现形式与亚当,如以斯拉的慷慨激昂的感叹:“阿丹啊,你会怎么做,虽说是你谁犯了罪,秋天是不是你的孤独,但我们还谁是你的后裔“(二公共服务电子化19:48 [118]。比照3.21;。4:30;威斯康辛州2:23-24;归咎于被分配到除夕爵士25:24。)。Adam was seen not as a lone sinner, but as one who influenced all mankind.亚当被看作是一份孤独的罪人,但作为一个谁影响了整个人类。

In the NT Adam is mentioned in Luke's genealogy (Luke 3:38) and in a similar reference in Jude, where Enoch is "the seventh from Adam" (Jude 14).在新台币亚当提到,在路加的家谱(路3:38),并在裘德,在类似的参考伊诺克是“亚当的第七次”(犹大书14)。Little need be said about these passages.可以说几乎不需要对这些段落。They simply mention the name of Adam to locate him in his genealogical place.他们简单地提及亚当的名字在他的家谱的地方找到他。 There is perhaps an implied reference to Adam but without mention of his name (Matt. 19:4-6; Mark 10:6-8).也许有一个隐含的参考,以亚当,但没有提到他的名字(太19:4-6,马可福音10:6-8)。Then there are three important passages with theological import (1 Tim. 2:13-14; Rom. 5:12-21; 1 Cor. 15:22, 45).然后,有三个重要通道与神学进口(1添2:13-14。。罗5:12-21; 1肺心病15:22,45。)。

In 1 Tim.在一添。2:13-14 the subordinate place of woman is argued from two facts: (1) Adam was created first, and (2) Eve was deceived though Adam was not. 2:13-14从属地位的女人是辩称,从两个事实:(1)亚当是首先建立,(2)前夕被欺骗了,虽然亚当不是。This passage presumes that the Genesis stories tell us something of permanent significance about all men and women.这段话假定创世的故事告诉我们,所有的男性和女性有关永久意义的东西。

Romans 5 stresses the connection of mankind at large with Adam.罗马书5章强调了广大人类与亚当连接。 It was through that one man that sin came into the world, and the consequence of his sin was death.它是通过有一个人,罪进入世界来了,他的罪过的后果就是死亡。This happened long before the law was given, so death cannot be put down to law-breaking.这发生在法律面前长期给予,于是死不能放下来违法。And even though people did not sin in the same way as Adam, they were caught in the consequences of sin: "death reigned from Adam to Moses" (Rom. 5:12-14).而且即使人们并没有在亚当的罪一样,他们陷入了罪恶的后果:“死亡的亚当统治到摩西”(罗马书5:12-14)。 This brings Paul to the thought that Adam was a "type" of Christ, and he goes on to a sustained comparison of what Adam did with what Christ did.这使保罗向以为亚当是一个“类型”的基督,他到一个什么样的亚当与基督没有做什么去比较持续。There are resemblances, mainly in that both acted representatively so that what each did has incalculable consequences for those he heads.有相似之处,主要是在这两个行事代表性,使每一个没有什么对那些他所领导不可估量的后果。 But the differences are more significant.但差异更为显着。Adam's sin brought death and condemnation to all; it made people sinners.亚当的罪带来死亡和谴责一切,它使人们罪人。 When law came in, that only increased the trespass.当法律进来,这不仅增加了侵害。It showed up sin for what it was.这表明了什么是罪恶。The end result is disaster.最终的结果是灾难。By contrast Christ brought life and acquittal; such words as "free gift," "grace," and "justification" emphasize the significance of Christ's death.相比之下基督带来了生命和无罪;为“免费礼品”,“宽限期”和“正当理由”,强调基督的死亡意义的字眼。The end result is blessing.最终的结果是福。Paul concludes by contrasting the reign of sin in death with the reign of grace "through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord."保罗的结论“。借着义通过我们的主耶稣基督永恒的生命”通过对比罪恶与死亡的宽限期统治时期

In Paul's magnificent treatment of the resurrection we read: "As in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive" (1 Cor. 15:22).在保罗的复活,我们读到的宏伟治疗:“在亚当里众人都死了,所以也应在基督里众人也都要复活”(林前15:22)。。 The thought is not unlike that in Rom.思想是在ROM上没有什么不同。5.5。Adam was the head of the race and brought death to everyone in it; Christ is the head of the new humanity and brought life to all within it.亚当是在比赛的头和它带来的死亡在每个人,基督是头,带来了新的人类生活在其中的。Some have argued that the two uses of "all" must refer to the same totality, the entire human race.一些人认为,这两种用法的“都”必须是指同一整体,整个人类。There is no question but that this is the meaning in respect to Adam.毫无疑问,这是在尊重亚当意义。The argument runs that similarly Christ raises all from the grave, though some are raised only for condemnation.这种观点还表示,类似的基督从坟墓中提出的是,虽然有些是只上调谴责。However, "made alive" seems to mean more than "raised to face judgment."然而,“复活”,似乎意味着更多的比“上升到面的判断。” It is probably best to understand "made alive" to refer to life eternal, so that "all" will mean "all who are in Christ."这可能是最好的认识“复活”来指永恒的生命,使“所有”就意味着“所有在基督里谁。”All these will be made alive, just as all who are in Adam die.这一切都将复活,正如所有在亚当是谁死。

A little later Paul writes, "the first man Adam became a living being'; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit" (I Cor. 15:45).过了一会儿保罗写道:“第一个人亚当成为一个活的生命'的话,最后的亚当成了赐生命的灵”(林前15时45分。)。 Adam became "a living being" when God breathed life into him (Gen. 2:7).亚当成为了一个“生活”时,上帝吹了他的生命(创2:7)。 Physical life was all the life Adam had and all he could bequeath to his posterity.物质生活是所有生命亚当和所有他能留给他的后代。 But "the last Adam" gave life in the fullest sense, eternal life.但“最后的亚当”们在充分意义上的生命,永恒的生命。Again there is the thought that Christ cancels out the evil Adam did.再有就是认为基督取消了邪恶亚当没有。But the emphasis is not negative.但重点是不是消极的。It is on the life Christ gives.这是对生命的基督所赐的。

The scriptural use of Adam, then, stresses the solidarity of the human race, a solidarity in sin.亚当的圣经使用,那么,强调人类,一个在罪恶的团结声援。It reminds us that the human race had a beginning and that all its history from the very first is marked by sin.它提醒我们,人类有一个开端,而且所有从最初的历史是罪恶标记。But "the last Adam" has altered all that.但“最后的亚当”已经改变了这一切。He has replaced sin with righteousness and death with life.他代替了公义和生命的死亡罪。

L Morris L莫里斯

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
CK Barrett, From First Adam to Last; K. Barth, Christ and Adam; BS Childs, IDB, I, 42-44; WD Davies, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism; J. Jeremias, TDNT, I, 141-43; A. Richardson, An Introduction to the Theology of the NT; H. Seebass, NIDNTT, 1, 84-88; AJM Weddeburn, IBD, I, 14-16.对照Barrett表示,从第一位亚当到去年的K.巴特,基督和亚当;学士尔兹,美洲开发银行,我,42-44;的WD戴维斯,保罗和拉比犹太教的J. jeremias,TDNT,我,141-43;答理查森,是对神学的新台币介绍;阁下泽巴斯,NIDNTT,1,84-88; AJM Weddeburn,鸡传染性法氏囊病,我,14-16。


Adam亚当

Advanced Information先进的信息

Ad'am, a type.Ad'am,一个类型。

The apostle Paul speaks of Adam as "the figure of him who was to come."使徒保罗谈到为“谁是他的人物来。”亚当On this account our Lord is sometimes called the second Adam.在这个帐户我们的主有时也被称为第二个亚当。This typical relation is described in Rom.这种典型的关系是描述在ROM。5:14-19.5:14-19。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


The Last Adam最后亚当

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In I Cor.在我肺心病。15:45 Paul refers to Jesus Christ as "the last Adam" (ho eschatos Adam) in contrast to "the first man Adam" (ho protos anthropos Adam). 15时45分保,是指耶稣基督在对比的“第一人亚当”(anthropos浩【PROTOS亚当)为“最后的亚当”(何eschatos亚当)。 In this antithetic paralelism there is a continuity of humanity, but the second person who represents the new humanity so far excels the first that he is described as the one who became an active "life-giving spirit" (pneuma zoopoioun), where the original Adam (Gen. 2:7) became only "a natural living being" (psychen zosan).在此偶paralelism是人类有连续性,但第二人谁代表新人类迄今优于第一,他是一个谁成为活跃“赋予生命的精神”(牛马zoopoioun)中所述,如果原来亚当(创2:7)成为唯一的“自然生活”(psychen zosan)。The contrast is heightened by Paul's pointed antithetic style, setting Adam as over against Christ in I Cor.对比的是加深了保罗指出对立的风格,设置了对亚当基督在我肺心病。15:46-49:15:46-49:

First Adam 46: "natural" (psychikon) 47: "the first man" (ho protos anthropos) "from the earth, of dust" (ek ges, choikos) 48: "as was the man of dust, so are those who are of dust" (hoios ho choikos, toioutoi kai hoi choikoi) 49: "as we have borne the image of the man of dust" (kathos ephoresamen ten eikona tou choikou)第一亚当46:“自然”(psychikon)47:“第一人”(anthropos浩【PROTOS)“从地球的灰尘”(克朗水电站,choikos)48:“因为是灰尘的人,所以谁是那些是尘“(hoios浩choikos,toioutoi启海choikoi)49:”正如我们承受了的尘土造人“的形象(kathos ephoresamen十eikona头choikou)

Second Adam 46: "spiritual" (pneumatikon) 47: "the second man" (ho deuteros anthropos) "from heaven" (ex ouranou) 48: "as is the man of heaven, so are those who are of heaven" (hoios ho epouranios, toioutoi kai hoi epouranioi) 49: "we shall also bear the image of the man of heaven" (phoresomen kai ten eikona tou epouraniou)第二亚当46:“精神”(pneumatikon)47:“第二人”“从天而降”(anthropos浩deuteros)(当然ouranou)48:“因为是天上的人,所以是那些天是谁”(hoios何epouranios,toioutoi启海epouranioi)49:“我们也应承担天上的人的形象”(phoresomen启十eikona头epouraniou)

The same contrast was also made earlier in I Cor.同样的对比也取得了早些时候我肺心病。15:21-22 and linked with death and resurrection:15:21-22和死亡和复活的联系:

First Adam 21: "since by a man came death" (epeide gar di' antropou thanatos) 22: "For as in Adam all die" (hosper gar en to Adam pantes apothneskousin)第一亚当21:“既然来了一名男子死亡”(epeide噶尔迪'antropou thanatos)22:“在亚当里众人都死了”(hosper噶尔恩给亚当pantes apothneskousin)

Second Adam 21: "so also by a man has come the resurrection of the dead" (kai di' anthropou anastasis nekron) 22: "so also in Christ shall all be made alive" (houtos kai en to Christo pantes zoopoiethesontai)第二亚当21:“所以,通过一个人也来了,死人复活”(启二'anthropou anastasis nekron)22:“所以在基督里众人也都要复活”(houtos启恩给克里斯托pantes zoopoiethesontai)

The contrast is expressed again in Rom.对比的是再次表示在ROM。5:14-19, where Paul describes the first Adam as follows: disobedience, trespass, judgement, condemnation, death, many = all.5:14-19,保罗描述第一亚当如下:抗命,擅闯,判断,谴责,死亡,许多=所有。But Jesus Christ as the second Adam is described in the following antithetic terms: obedience, grace, free gift, justification, acquittal, righteousness, life, many/all.但耶稣作为第二个亚当,基督是描述在以下偶条件:服从,雍容,免费的礼物,理由,无罪释放,义,生活中,许多/所有。 The powerful effect of Christ as the second Adam is summed up in one of Paul's favorite expressions, "how much more" (pollo mallon, 5:15, 17, and 8, 10), which makes explicit the Christological implications of the "how much more" in Jesus' own proclamation (Matt. 6:30; 7:11).以基督为第二亚当强大的影响可以归结为保罗的喜爱表现形式之一,“更”(pollo马龙,5:15,17,8,10),这使得明确含义的基督“如何更在耶稣自己的公告“(太6:30,7:11)。 These ideas may also be found in John 5:21-29; Rom.这些想法也可能发现在约翰5:21-29;光盘。1:3-5; 6:5-11; II Cor.1:3-5; 6:5-11;二肺心病。5:1-4, 17; Phil.5:1-4,17人;菲尔。2:5-11.2:5-11。

RG Gruenler的RG Gruenler
Elwell Evangelical Dictionary Elwell宣布了福音字典

Bibliography 参考书目
CK Barrett, From Adam to Last; O. Cullmann, The Christology of the NT; R. Scroggs, The Last Adam; WD Davis, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism.对照Barrett表示,从亚当到最后;澳Cullmann,对新台币基督教;河斯克罗格斯,最后的亚当的WD戴维斯,保罗和拉比犹太教。


Adam亚当

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The first man and the father of the human race.第一个男人对人类的父亲。

ETYMOLOGY AND USE OF WORD词源和Word的使用

There is not a little divergence of opinion among Semitic scholars when they attempt to explain the etymological signification of the Hebrew adam (which in all probability was originally used as a common rather than a proper name), and so far no theory appears to be fully satisfactory.没有一个犹太人的学者之间的意见分歧时,他们几乎尝试解释词源意义的希伯来语亚当(这在所有的概率原本是作为一种常用的,而不是一个适当的名称),到目前为止,没有任何一种理论似乎得到充分令人满意。 One cause of uncertainty in the matter is the fact that the root adam as signifying "man" or "mankind" is not common to all the Semitic tongues, though of course the name is adopted by them in translations of the Old Testament.在这个问题上的一个不确定性的原因是一个事实,即作为标志着“人”或“人类”根亚当是不常见的所有犹太人的舌头虽然理所当然的名称是由他们采用的旧约译本。 As an indigenous term with the above signification, it occurs only in Phoenician and Sabean, and probably also in Assyrian.作为一个土著与上述意义来说,它仅发生在腓尼基和Sabean,并可能在亚述人也。In Genesis 2:7, the name seems to be connected with the word ha-adamah ("the ground"), in which case the value of the term would be to represent man (ratione materiæ) as earthborn, much the same as in Latin, where the word homo is supposed to be kindred with humus.在创世记2:7,这个名字似乎与这个词公顷adamah(“地”),在这种情况下的长期价值将是代表男子,earthborn,多为在同一(属物)连接拉丁语,这个字应该是同源亲情与腐殖质。 It is a generally recognized fact that the etymologies proposed in the narratives which make up the Book of Genesis are often divergent and not always philologically correct, and though the theory (founded on Genesis 2:7) that connects adam with adamah has been defended by some scholars, it is at present generally abandoned.这是一个普遍公认的事实,在叙述从而弥补了创世记提出的词源往往不同,而且并不总是philologically正确的,虽然理论(创世记2:7创办),连接与adamah亚当一直辩解一些学者,它是目前普遍放弃。 Others explain the term as signifying "to be red", a sense which the root bears in various passages of the Old Testament (eg Genesis 25:50), as also in Arabic and Ethiopic.其他解释为意味着“要红色”,从某种意义上说这根在旧约(如创世纪25:50)各代熊一词,这也是在阿拉伯语和埃塞俄比亚。 In this hypothesis the name would seem to have been originally applied to a distinctively red or ruddy race.在这个假设的名字似乎已成为一种独特的最初应用红色或红润比赛。In this connection Gesenius (Thesaurus, sv, p. 25) remarks that on the ancient monuments of Egypt the human figures representing Egyptians are constantly depicted in red, while those standing for other races are black or of some other colour.在这方面格泽纽斯(词库,希沃特,第25页),关于古埃及的纪念碑,代表埃及人描绘的人物都在不断为红色,而那些站在其他种族是黑人或其他颜色的言论。 Something analogous to this explanation is revealed in the Assyrian expression çalmât qaqqadi, ie "the black-headed", which is often used to denote men in general.类似这样的东西的解释是发现在亚述表达çalmât qaqqadi,即“黑头”,这是经常被用来指一般的男人。(Cf. Delitsch, Assyr. Handwörterbuch, Leipzig, 1896, p. 25.) Some writers combine this explanation with the preceding one, and assign to the word adam the twofold signification of "red earth", thus adding to the notion of man's material origin a connotation of the color of the ground from which he was formed. (参见Delitsch,Assyr。Handwörterbuch,莱比锡,1896年,第25页。)有些作家与前一结合这一解释,并分配到Word亚当的“红地球”的双重意义,从而增加了人的概念物质的起源是从他所形成的地面色彩的内涵。 A third theory, which seems to be the prevailing one at present (cf. Pinches, The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia, 1903, pp. 78, 79), explains the root adam as signifying "to make", "to produce", connecting it with the Assyrian adamu, the meaning of which is probably "to build", "to construct", whence adam would signify "man" either in the passive sense, as made, produced, created, or in the active sense, as a producer.第三个理论,这似乎是目前一个普遍存在的(参见捏,老的历史记录和亚述和巴比伦王国,1903年传奇轻,第78,79旧约),说明根亚当作为表扬“使”,“生产”,连接它与亚述人阿达姆,其中的含义可能是“建”,“建构”,从那里亚当将标志着“人”无论是在被动的意义上,作为制造,生产,创建,或在积极意义上说,作为一个制片人。

In the Old Testament the word is used both as a common and a proper noun, and in the former acceptation it has different meanings.在旧约一词是用来作为一种常见的一个专有名词都,并在验收前有不同的含义。Thus in Genesis 2:5, it is employed to signify a human being, man or woman; rarely, as in Genesis 2:22, it signifies man as opposed to woman, and, finally, it sometimes stands for mankind collectively, as in Genesis 1:26.因此,在创世纪2:5,它是用来表示一个人,男人还是女人,很少,如创世纪2时22分,它标志着人类,而不是女人,最后,它有时代表着人类的集体,如创世记1:26。 The use of the term, as a proper as well as a common noun, is common to both the sources designated in critical circles as P and J. Thus in the first narrative of the Creation (P) the word is used with reference to the production of mankind in both sexes, but in Genesis 5:14, which belongs to the same source, it is also taken as a proper name.一词的使用,作为一个适当的,以及一个普通名词,是常见的都在为P和J.因此在创作(P)的第一叙事批评界所指定的字是参考所使用的​​来源在男女人类生产,而是在创世纪5:14,其中属于同一来源,它也是作为一个适当的名称。 In like manner the second account of the creation (J) speaks of "the man" (ha-adam), but later on (Genesis 4:25) the same document employs the word as a proper name without the article.在这样的方式对创建(十)第二个帐户讲的“人”(公顷亚当),但后来就(创4:25)相同的文件采用了一个没有适当的名称,字的文章。

ADAM IN THE OLD TESTAMENT亚当在旧约

Practically all the Old Testament information concerning Adam and the beginnings of the human race is contained in the opening chapters of Genesis.几乎所有的有关信息旧约亚当和人类的起源是包含在创世纪的开头几章。To what extent these chapters should be considered as strictly historical is a much disputed question, the discussion of which does not come within the scope of the present article.到什么程度,这些章节应被视为严格的历史是一个非常有争议的问题,讨论的不属于本条款的范围来。Attention, however, must be called to the fact that the story of the Creation is told twice, viz.注意,但是,必须调用一个事实,即故事的创作是说了两次,即。in the first chapter and in the second, and that while there is a substantial agreement between the two accounts there is, nevertheless, a considerable divergence as regards the setting of the narrative and the details.在第一章,第二,这虽然是一个两个帐户之间有实质性的协议,不过,也有相当大的分歧是关于叙事和细节设置。It has been the custom of writers who were loath to recognize the presence of independent sources or documents in the Pentateuch to explain the fact of this twofold narrative by saying that the sacred writer, having set forth systematically in the first chapter the successive phases of the Creation, returns to the same topic in the second chapter in order to add some further special details with regard to the origin of man.它一直是作家谁是不愿意承认的独立来源或文件的存在,在pentateuch解释说,神圣的作家,有系统地阐述了第一章的连续阶段的这种双重叙述事实定制创作,为了返回到在同一主题的第二章增加关于人类起源的一些进一步的特殊细节。 It must be granted, however, that very few scholars of the present day, even among Catholics, are satisfied with this explanation, and that among critics of every school there is a strong preponderance of opinion to the effect that we are here in presence of a phenomenon common enough in Oriental historical compositions, viz.它必须是理所当然的,然而,极少数学者对目前的一天,甚至连天主教徒,是这个解释感到满意,而且每所学校之间的批评有一个意见,大意是强大优势,我们在这里存在这种现象很常见,在东方历史成分,即。 the combination or juxtaposition of two or more independent documents more or less closely welded together by the historiographer, who among the Semites is essentially a compiler.组合或两个或更多的独立文件较多或较少紧密并列焊接在一起,由史官,中谁的闪米特人基本上是一个编译器。(See Guidi, L'historiographie chez les Sémites in the Revue biblique, October, 1906.) The reasons on which this view is based, as well as the arguments of those who oppose it, may be found in Dr. Gigot's Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, Pt. (见圭迪,欧莱雅historiographie桑切斯莱斯在杂志biblique,十月,1906年闪米特人。)关于此观点是基于,以及那些谁反对它的参数的原因,可能会发现在博士羊腿的特别介绍了在旧约,铂的研究。 I. Suffice it to mention here that a similar repetition of the principal events narrated is plainly discernible throughout all the historic portions of the Pentateuch, and even of the later books, such as Samuel and Kings, and that the inference drawn from this constant phenomenon is confirmed not only by the difference of style and viewpoint characteristic of the duplicate narratives, but also by the divergences and antinomies which they generally exhibit.一,只需在这里指出,一个主要事件的叙述了类似的重复显然是在所有的五部分可辨的历史,以及后来的书籍,如塞缪尔和国王,甚至不断,而且从这个现象得出的推论也证实了不同的风格和特点的重复叙述的观点不仅是,而且还和二律背反的分歧,他们一般表现。 Be that as it may, it will be pertinent to the purpose of the present article to examine the main features of the twofold Creation narrative with special reference to the origin of man.即使如此,因为它可能,这将是相关的本文章的目的,研究的,并特别提及人类起源的双重叙事创作的主要特征。


In the first account (Ch.i, ii, 4a) Elohim is represented as creating different categories of beings on successive days.在第一帐户(章一,二,4A条)莹表示为建立在连续几天的人不同的类别。Thus the vegetable kingdom is produced on the third day, and, having set the sun and moon in the firmament of heaven on the fourth, God on the fifth day creates the living things of the water and the fowls of the air which receive a special blessing, with the command to increase and multiply.因此,植物王国产生第三天,并因设置太阳在天上的月亮在第四苍穹,上帝创造的第五天的水生物和空中的飞鸟是一个特殊的接收祝福,与命令,以增加和繁殖。 On the sixth day Elohim creates, first, all the living creatures and beasts of the earth; then, in the words of the sacred narrative,到了第六天耶洛因创造,首先,所有的生物和野兽的地球,然后在神圣叙事的话来说,

he said: Let us make man to our image and likeness: and let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and the beasts, and the whole earth, and every creeping creature that moveth upon the earth.他说:让我们的人对我们形象和肖像:让他有过海中的鱼权柄,和天上的飞鸟和野兽,整个地球上,每一个蠕动的动物,在地上moveth 。And God created man to his own image: to the image of God he created him: male and female he created them.和上帝创造了人,他自己的形象:以神的形象,他创造了他:男性和女性,他创造了他们。

Then follows the blessing accompanied by the command to increase and fill the earth, and finally the vegetable kingdom is assigned to them for food.然后如下的命令的陪同下,以增加和填补地球,并最终植物界粮食分配给他们的祝福。Considered independently, this account of the Creation would leave room for doubt as to whether the word adam, "man", here employed was understood by the writer as designating an individual or the species.认为是独立的,这个创作的帐户将离开怀疑,是否这个词亚当,“人”,这里被聘用为指定一个作家个人或物种间的理解。 Certain indications would seem to favour the latter, eg the context, since the creations previously recorded refer doubtless to the production not of an individual or of a pair, but of vast numbers of individuals pertaining to the various species, and the same in case of man might further be inferred from the expression, "male and female he created them."某些迹象似乎赞成后者,如背景,因为以往有记录的作品无疑是指在生产某个人或一对,而是涉及到对不同种类的广大个人,以及在同一案件男子可能进一步推断,从表情,“男性和女性,他创造了他们。” However, another passage (Genesis 5:15), which belongs to the same source as this first narrative and in part repeats it, supplements the information contained in the latter and affords a key to its interpretation.然而,另一条通道(创5:15),属于与此相同的源和第一叙事中部分重复它,补充了后者,并提供了一​​个其解释密钥中包含的信息。 In this passage which contains the last reference of the so-called priestly document to Adam, we read that God在这个通道,其中包含了所谓的祭司最后一个引用文件,亚当,我们读到神

created them male and female .创造了他们的男性和女性。..and called their name adam, in the day when they were created.并要求在当天亚当他们的名字,当他们创建的。

And the writer continues:与作家继续说道:

And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son to his own image and likeness, and called his name Seth.亚当活到一百三十岁,生了一个以他自己的形象和相似的儿子,叫他的名字塞思。And the days of Adam, after he begot Seth, were eight hundred years and he begot sons and daughters.亚当的日子后,他生了塞特,八百年,他生了儿子和女儿。And all the time that Adam lived came to nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.和所有的时间,亚当活来九三〇年,就死了。

Here evidently the adam or man of the Creation narrative is identified with a particular individual, and consequently the plural forms which might otherwise cause doubt are to be understood with reference to the first pair of human beings.在这里,显然,亚当或叙事人的创造是确定与某一个人,并因此复数形式,否则可能会导致怀疑要参照第一对人类理解。

In Genesis, ii, 4b-25 we have what is apparently a new and independent narrative of the Creation, not a mere amplification of the account already given.在创世记,二,四号乙- 25,我们有什么似乎是一个创造,不是一个单纯的帐户已经作出新的,独立的叙事放大。The writer indeed, without seeming to presuppose anything previously recorded, goes back to the time when there was yet no rain, no plant or beast of the field; and, while the earth is still a barren, lifeless waste, man is formed from the dust by Yahweh, who animates him by breathing into his nostrils the breath of life.笔者事实上,如果没有似乎已预先假定任何先前录制的,又回到了当时尚未有没有下雨,没有植物或兽的领域;及,而地球仍然是一个光秃秃的,没有生命的浪费,形成了从人粉尘雅威,以动画谁到他的鼻孔呼吸着他的生命的气息。 How far these terms are to be interpreted literally or figuratively, and whether the Creation of the first man was direct or indirect, see GENESIS, CREATION, MAN.这些条款多远来解释字面或形象,以及是否创作的第一人是直接还是间接的,参创,创作,城域网。Thus the creation of man, instead of occupying the last place, as it does in the ascending scale of the first account, is placed before the creation of the plants and animals, and these are represented as having been produced subsequently in order to satisfy man's needs.因此,创造男子,而不是占领最近的地方,因为它在第一个帐户规模递增呢,是摆在了植物和动物的创作,这些都是代表为已产生其后,以满足人的需要。 Man is not commissioned to dominate the whole earth, as in the first narrative, but is set to take care of the Garden of Eden with permission to eat of its fruit, except that of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and the formation of woman as a helpmeet for man is represented as an afterthought on the part of Yahweh in recognition of man's inability to find suitable companionship in the brute creation.男子不委托主宰在第一叙事整个地球,但它的许可采取的伊甸园照顾吃它的果实,除了对树的知识,善,恶,作为一个女人对男人合作者表示为形成对雅威在人的事后无法识别部分找到合适的伴侣的野蛮创作。 In the preceding account, after each progressive step "God saw that it was good", but here Yahweh perceives, as it were, that it is not good for man to be alone, and he proceeds to supply the deficiency by fashioning the woman Eve from the rib of the man while he is in a deep sleep.在前面的帐户,在每次的进步“神看着是好的”,但在这里雅威看待,因为它被认为是不好的人独居,和他的收益,供应塑造女人夏娃的不足之处从肋骨的人,而他是在深度睡眠。 According to the same narrative, they live in childlike innocence until Eve is tempted by the serpent, and they both partake of the forbidden fruit.根据同样的叙述,他们生活在童真直到除夕是诱惑毒蛇,他们都参加了禁果。 They thereby become conscious of sin, incur the displeasure of Yahweh, and lest they should eat of the tree of life and become immortal, they are expelled from the Garden of Eden.他们从而成为自觉的罪过,招致不悦雅威,免得他们应该吃的生命树,并成为不朽的,他们是被驱逐出伊甸园。Henceforth their lot is to be one of pain and hardship, and man is condemned to the toilsome task of winning his sustenance from a soil which on his account has been cursed with barrenness.从此他们的命运是成为痛苦和困难之一,而人是谴责,向打赢从于他的帐户已经被他的寄托与土壤贫瘠诅咒辛苦的任务。 The same document gives us a few details connected with our first parents after the Fall, viz.: the birth of Cain and Abel the fratricide, and the birth of Seth.同一份文件给了我们一些细节秋季后,即我们首先家长连接:。该隐和亚伯的同室操戈出生的,和赛斯的诞生。The other narrative, which seems to know nothing of Cain or Abel, mentions Seth (Chap. v, 3) as if he were the first born, and adds that during the eight hundred years following the birth of Seth Adam begat sons and daughters.其他叙事,这似乎知道该隐和亚伯没什么,提到赛斯(第五章,3)如果他是第一个出生的,并补充说,在八百年继亚当生塞特的儿子和女儿的诞生。

Notwithstanding the differences and discrepancies noticeable in the two accounts of the origin of mankind, the narratives are nevertheless in substantial agreement, and in the esteem of the majority of scholars they are easiest explained and reconciled if considered as representing two varying traditions among the Hebrews -- traditions which in different form and setting embodied the selfsame central historic facts, together with a presentation more or less symbolical of certain moral and religious truths.尽管有分歧和差异在人类起源的两个帐户引人注目的叙述,但在实质性的协议,并在大多数学者推崇,他们是最容易的解释和协调,如果是代表两个不同的希伯来传统中认为 - - 传统的不同形式和完全相同的设置体现了中央历史事实,再加上介绍或多或少的某些道德和宗教的真理象征。Thus in both accounts man is clearly distinguished from, and made dependent upon, God the Creator; yet he is directly connected with Him through the creative act, to the exclusion of all intermediary beings or demigods such as are found in the various heathen mythologies.因此,在这两个帐户的人是明确区分,并作出了依赖,上帝的创造者,但他是直接与他通过创造性的行为,给所有中介的人,或如在各种异教徒神话发现半神人排除在外。 That man beyond all the other creatures partakes of the perfection of God is made manifest in the first narrative, in that he is created in the image of God, to which corresponds in the other account the equally significant figure of man receiving his life from the breath of Yahweh.超越其他所有的动物神的完美参与大男人是体现在第一叙事,因为他是在上帝的形象创建,相当于在其他帐户的人同样重要的数字接收来自他的生命雅威气息。 That man on the other hand has something in common with the animals is implied in the one case in his creation on the same day, and in the other by his attempt, though ineffectual, to find among them a suitable companion.这在另一方面,人类却兼有共同之处的是在他于同日暗示动物创造一个案件,并在其他由他的企图,但徒劳无益的,它们之间找到一个合适的伴侣。 He is the lord and the crown of creation, as is clearly expressed in the first account, where the creation of man is the climax of God's successive works, and where his supremacy is explicitly stated, but the same is implied no less clearly in the second narrative.他是上帝和创造冠冕的,因为,显然是在第一个帐户,在那里,人类的创造是上帝的连续工作的高潮,并在他的优势是明确规定表达,但相同的是隐含在同样清楚第二叙事。 Such indeed may be the significance of placing man's creation before that of the animals and plants, but, however that may be, the animals and plants are plainly created for his utility and benefit.这些的确可能是摆放在动物和植物,人的创作中的意义,但是,无论怎样,动物和植物都是赤裸裸地创造了他的效用和利益。 Woman is introduced as secondary and subordinate to man, though identical with him in nature, and the formation of a single woman for a single man implies the doctrine of monogamy.女子介绍,作为次要和服从于人,虽然与他相同的性质,以及为单身女子单人形成意味着一夫一妻制原则。Moreover, man was created innocent and good; sin came to him from without, and it was quickly followed by a severe punishment affecting not only the guilty pair, but their descendants and other beings as well.此外,人类是无辜的,良好的,罪恶来找他从没有,它是紧接着是严重影响的不只是对惩罚犯罪,但他们的后代和其他人也。(Cf. Bennett in Hastings, Dict. of the Bible, sv) The two accounts, therefore, are practically at one with regard to didactic purpose and illustration, and it is doubtless to this feature that we should attach their chief significance. (参见班尼特在黑斯廷斯,快译通。圣经,SV)的两个帐户,因此,实际上是在教学方面的目的和插图之一,它无疑是这一特点,我们应该重视他们的主要意义。 It is hardly necessary to remark in passing that the loftiness of the doctrinal and ethical truths here set forth place the biblical narrative immeasurably above the extravagant Creation stories current among the pagan nations of antiquity, though some of these, particularly the Babylonian, bear a more or less striking resemblance to it in form.这句话几乎没有必要顺便指出的教义和伦理的真理在这里提出了崇高的地方的圣经叙事不可估量以上奢侈创作故事,在古代的异教国家的电流,但其中一些,尤其是巴比伦,承担更以下惊人的相似之处它的形式。 In the light of this doctrinal and moral excellence, the question of the strict historical character of the narrative, as regards the framework and details, becomes of relatively slight importance, especially when we recall that in history as conceived by the other biblical authors, as well as by Semitic writers generally, the presentation and arrangement of facts -- and indeed their entire role -- is habitually made subordinate to the exigencies of a didactic preoccupation.在这个理论和美德的光,严格的叙述历史人物的问题,关于框架和细节,成为相对轻微的重要性,特别是当我们回顾历史,在由其他圣经的作者构思,因为以及由一般犹太人作家,介绍和安排的事实 - 而事实上他们的整个角色 - 惯常从属于一个说教的当务之急的迫切需要。

As regards extra-biblical sources which throw light upon the Old Testament narrative, it is well known that the Hebrew account of the Creation finds a parallel in the Babylonian tradition as revealed by the cuneiform writings.至于课外圣经来源,扑到旧约叙事光,这是人所共知的是,创作中发现了一个希伯来帐户由巴比伦楔形文字著作揭示了传统平行。 It is beyond the scope of the present article to discuss the relations of historical dependence generally admitted to exist between the two cosmogonies.人们普遍承认之间存在两个cosmogonies超出了本文章,讨论历史依赖关系的范畴。Suffice it to say with regard to the origin of man, that though the fragment of the "Creation Epic", which is supposed to contain it, has not been found, there are nevertheless good independent grounds for assuming that it belonged originally to the tradition embodied in the poem, and that it must have occupied a place in the latter just after the account given of the production of the plants and the animals, as in the first chapter of Genesis.我只想说对于人类起源说,虽然对“创世史诗”,这是应该加以遏制,碎片还没有被发现,是有假设它原本属于传统还是好的独立的理由体现在诗,它必须有刚刚结束占领的植物和动物的生产提供的帐户,在后者的地方,如创世纪第一章。 Among the reasons for this assumption are:在这个假设的理由是:

the Divine admonitions addressed to men after their creation, towards the end of the poem;神给他们的创作后,男人对诗的最后,告诫;

the account of Berosus, who mentions the creation of man by one of the gods, who mixed with clay the blood which flowed from the severed head of Tiamat; a non-Semitic (or pre-Semitic) account translated by Pinches from a bilingual text, and in which Marduk is said to have made mankind, with the cooperation of the goddess Aruru.对Berosus,谁提到由神,谁用粘土的血,从提亚马特首级混合流的创建人之一的帐户,一个非犹太人(或预闪)帐户翻译捏从双语文本,并在其中马杜克,据说已与人类的女神Aruru合作。

(Cf. Encyclopedia Biblica, art. "Creation", also Davis, Genesis and Semitic Tradition, pp. 36-47.) As regards the creation of Eve, no parallel has so far been discovered among the fragmentary records of the Babylonian creation story. (参见百科全书biblica,艺术。“创作”,也戴维斯,成因和反犹传统,页36-47。)至于创作的除夕夜,没有平行迄今发现的巴比伦之间的零碎的记录创作故事。 That the account, as it stands in Genesis, is not to be taken literally as descriptive of historic fact was the opinion of Origen, of Cajetan, and it is now maintained by such scholars as Hoberg (Die Genesis, Freiburg, 1899, p. 36) and von Hummelauer (Comm. in Genesim, pp. 149 sqq.).该帐户,因为它是在创世纪站,是不能从字面上理解为历史事实的描述是奥​​利的接cajetan,意见,现在是等学者认为作为霍贝格(模具成因,弗赖堡,1899年,第36岁)和冯Hummelauer(Comm.在Genesim,第149 sqq。)。These and other writers see in this narrative the record of a vision symbolical of the future and analogous to the one vouchsafed to Abraham (Genesis 15:12 sqq.), and to St. Peter in Joppe (Acts 10:10 sqq.).这些和其他作家看到这样的叙述了一个象征性的视觉记录和对未来的类似赐予亚伯拉罕的人(创15:12 sqq。),并在若佩圣彼得(使徒10:10 sqq。)。(See Gigot, Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, pt. I, p. 165, sqq.) (见羊腿,特别介绍了这一研究的旧约,铂。我,第165 sqq。)

References to Adam as an individual in the later Old Testament books are very few, and they add nothing to the information contained in Genesis.作为一个在后来的旧约书籍个人参考,以亚当很少,他们没有增加任何新创世记所载的资料。Thus the name stands without comment at the head of the genealogies at the beginning of I Paralipomenon; it is mentioned likewise in Tobias, viii, 8; Osee, vi, 7; Ecclus., xxxv, 24, etc. The Hebrew adam occurs in various other passages, but in the sense of man or mankind.因此,名称代表没有在家谱在我开始Paralipomenon头评论,这是提到托比亚斯,第八,第8同样,Osee,六,七;。Ecclus,三十五,24,等发生在希伯来亚当各种其他段落,但在人或人类的感觉。 The mention of Adam in Zacharias, xiii, 5, according to the Douay version and the Vulgate, is due to a mistranslation of the original.在撒迦利亚,十三,五亚当提到,根据Douay版本和武加大,是由于原来的误译。

ADAM IN THE NEW TESTAMENT亚当在新约

In the New Testament references to Adam as an historical personage occur only in a few passages.在新约引用作为一个历史人物,以亚当只出现在少数几个通道。Thus in the third chapter of St. Luke's Gospel the genealogy of the Saviour is traced back to "Adam who was of God".因此,在第三章的圣路加的福音的救世主家谱追溯到“亚当谁是上帝”。This prolongation of the earthly lineage of Jesus beyond Abraham, who forms the starting point in St. Matthew, is doubtless due to the more universal spirit and sympathy characteristic of our third Evangelist, who writes not so much from the viewpoint of Jewish prophecy and expectation as for the instruction of the Gentile recruits to Christianity.这种超越亚伯拉罕的耶稣,谁形成的起点在圣马太尘世血统的延长,无疑是由于更普遍的精神和我们的第三个福音,谁写的不是从犹太人的预言和期待的观点这么多的同情特点至于教学的gentile新兵基督教。 Another mention of the historic father of the race is found in the Epistle of Jude (verse 14), where a quotation is inserted from the apocryphal Book of Enoch, which, rather strange to say, is attributed to the antediluvian patriarch of that name, "the seventh from Adam."另一个历史性的比赛父亲提的是发现在裘德(诗14),书信凡报价是从伊诺克,其中,很奇怪地说,是因为该名称的老古董猜测书中插入族长, “亚当的第七位。”But the most important references to Adam are found in the Epistles of St. Paul.但最重要的参考资料,以亚当被发现在圣保禄书信。Thus in 1 Timothy 2:11-14, the Apostle, after laying down certain practical rules referring to the conduct of women, particularly as regards public worship, and inculcating the duty of subordination to the other sex, makes use of an argument the weight of which rests more upon the logical methods current at the time than upon its intrinsic value as appreciated by the modern mind:因此,在提摩太前书2:11-14,使徒,放下后一定指的是妇女进行实用规则,特别是在公共崇拜,并灌输从属于另一性别的责任,使一个参数的使用权其中在休息后比后,其内在价值的现代精神表示赞赏当前逻辑时间多个方法:

For Adam was first formed; then Eve.对于亚当最初形成的,然后除夕。And Adam was not seduced; but the woman being seduced, was in the transgression.且不是亚当被引诱,乃是女人被引诱,是在海侵。

A similar line of argument is pursued in I Cor., xi, 8, 9.类似的说法一致追求我肺心病。,十一,8,9。 More important is the theological doctrine formulated by St. Paul in the Epistle to the Romans, v, 12-21, and in I Cor., xv, 22-45.更重要的是神学教义制定的圣保禄的书信向罗马人,五,12-21,并在我肺心病。,十五,22-45。 In the latter passage Jesus Christ is called by analogy and contrast the new or "last Adam."在后者通过耶稣基督是所谓的比喻和对比的新的或“最后的亚当”。This is understood in the sense that as the original Adam was the head of all mankind, the father of all according to the flesh, so also Jesus Christ was constituted chief and head of the spiritual family of the elect, and potentially of all mankind, since all are invited to partake of His salvation.这是在这个意义上理解,由于原来的亚当是全人类的头,全部按照父亲的肉,所以也耶稣基督是构成行政和精神的选举一家之主,和全人类潜在的,因为所有被邀请来分享他的救恩。 Thus the first Adam is a type of the second, but while the former transmits to his progeny a legacy of death, the latter, on the contrary, becomes the vivifying principle of restored righteousness.因此,首先的亚当是第二类,但是当他的后代的死亡,后者则相反,传统的前传输,成为正义的恢复生机的原则。 Christ is the "last Adam" inasmuch as "there is no other name under heaven given to men, whereby we must be saved" (Acts 4:12); no other chief or father of the race is to be expected.基督是“最后的亚当”,因为“根本没有赐下的人,即我们必须拯救天堂又名”(徒4:12),没有任何其他行政或父亲的比赛是可以预料的。 Both the first and the second Adam occupy the position of head with regard to humanity, but whereas the first through his disobedience vitiated, as it were, in himself the stirps of the entire race, and left to his posterity an inheritance of death, sin, and misery, the other through his obedience merits for all those who become his members a new life of holiness and an everlasting reward.第一个和第二个亚当占据头方面对人类的立场,但而首先是通过他的抗命而无效,因为它是,在自己的整个种族的stirps,并留给他的后代继承的死亡,罪,和苦难,通过所有这些谁成为他的会员圣洁的新生活是永远值得其他奖励他服从。 It may be said that the contrast thus formulated expresses a fundamental tenet of the Christian religion and embodies in a nutshell the entire doctrine of the economy of salvation.这可以说,为此制订的对比表达了基督教的根本宗旨,概括地说体现了整个经济的救赎学说。It is principally on these and passages of similar import (eg Matthew 18:11) that is based the fundamental doctrine that our first parents were raised by the Creator to a state of supernatural righteousness, the restoration of which was the object of the Incarnation.它主要对这些和类似的进口(如马太18时11),这是基于基本教义,我们首先家长是由造物主提高到一个超自然的正义国家的通道,这是恢复的化身对象。 It need hardly be said that the fact of this elevation could not be so clearly inferred from the Old Testament account taken independently.这不用说,这一海拔事实不可能如此清楚地从旧约采取独立帐户推断。

ADAM IN JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN TRADITION亚当在犹太教和基督教传统

It is a well-known fact that, partly from a desire to satisfy pious curiosity by adding details to the too meagre biblical accounts, and partly with ethical intent, there grew up in later Jewish as well as in early Christian and Mohammedan tradition a luxuriant crop of legendary lore around the names of all the important personages of the Old Testament.这是一个众所周知的事实是,部分原因是希望通过增加细节,以满足向太微薄圣经的帐户虔诚的好奇心,部分道德意图,有长大,以及在以后的犹太教和伊斯兰教的传统早期基督教繁茂作物周围所有的旧约重要人物的名字传奇传说。 It was therefore only natural that the story of Adam and Eve should receive special attention and be largely developed by this process of embellishment.因此,它理所当然的亚当与夏娃的故事应受到特别关注,在很大程度上由这一发展过程中的点缀。These additions, some of which are extravagant and puerile, are chiefly imaginary, or at best based on a fanciful understanding of some slight detail of the sacred narrative.这些增加,其中一些奢侈和幼稚的,主要是虚数,或充其量基于对一些轻微的神圣叙事幻想详细的了解。Needless to say that they do not embody any real historic information, and their chief utility is to afford an example of the pious popular credulity of the times as well as of the slight value to be attached to the so-called Jewish traditions when they are invoked as an argument in critical discussion.不用说,他们不包含任何实际的历史资料,其主要效用是负担的虔诚的时代流行轻信的例子,以及轻微的价值附加到所谓的犹太传统,当他们援引作为一个关键的讨论争论。 Many rabbinical legends concerning our first parents are found in the Talmud, and many others were contained in the apocryphal Book of Adam now lost, but of which extracts have come down to us in other works of a similar character (see MAN).很多父母对我们的第一个犹太教传说被发现在塔木德,许多人被包含在猜测书中的亚当现在失去了,但其中摘录已回落在一个类似的字符(见文)等作品给我们。 The most important of these legends, which it is not the scope of the present article to reproduce, may be found in the Jewish Encyclopedia, I, art.其中最传说,它不是本文章的范围,以复制,重要的可能是发现在犹太百科全书,我的艺术。"Adam", and as regards the Christian legends, in Smith and Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography, sv “亚当”,至于在史密斯和wace,基督教传记,希沃特词典基督教传说,

Publication information Written by James F. Driscoll.出版信息撰稿:詹姆斯F德里斯科尔。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

PALIS in VIG., Dict.帕利斯在维格。,快译通。de la Bible, sv; BENNETT and ADENEY in HAST., Dict.德拉圣经sv; Bennett和张炳良说阿德尼中,快译通。。of the Bible, sv For New Testament references, see commentaries; for Old Testament, GIGOT, Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, I, iv; VON HUMMELAUER, Comm.圣经,对于新约引用希沃特,见评论;为旧约,特别介绍了这一研究旧约,我,四研究羊腿,冯Hummelauer,通讯。 in Genesis.在成因。


Adam亚当

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

The Hebrew and Biblical name for man, and also for the progenitor of the human race.对于男人和圣经希伯来文的名字,也为人类的祖先。In the account of the Creation given in Gen. i.在给定的,在将军的创作帐户岛man was brought into being at the close of the sixth creative day, "made in the image of God," and invested with dominion over the rest of the animate world.男子被带进在第六届创意日结束,是“在上帝的画像”,并与主权投资超过了动画世界各地。Man was thus created, male and female, charged to replenish the earth with his own kind and to subdue it to his own uses.男子因此而产生了,男性和女性,被控以他自己的一种补充与地球和制服它自己的用途。In Gen.ii.在Gen.ii.a more particular account of man's creation is given.一个人的创造更是给予特别考虑。The scene is in Babylonia, near the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, in the country of Eden.场景是在巴比伦王国,靠近幼发拉底河和底格里斯河,在伊甸园国家汇合。After the soil had been prepared by moisture "God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul" (Gen. ii. 7).后土壤水分已被编写的“上帝形成地面尘土造人,将他的鼻孔呼吸着生命的气息;他就成了有灵的活人”(创二7)。。He was then placed in a garden planted for him in Eden, to "till and tend it."然后,他被安置在他的花园种植了伊甸园,以“免​​耕和倾向吧。”Of all that grew in the garden he was permitted to eat freely, except "the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil."在所有在花园里长大的他被允许自由地吃,除了“的对善恶知识树上的果子。”Man next made the acquaintance of all the lower animals, learning their qualities, and giving them names.曼未来作出的所有低等动物熟人,学习他们的素质,使他们的名字。But among these he found no fit companion.但其中他发现没有合适的伴侣。Hence God, by express creative act, made for him a mate, by taking a rib from his side and constructing it into a woman.因此上帝,表达的创意行为,为他制造一个伴侣,采取从他身边了一根肋骨,它建设成为一个女人。

Curse of Disobedience.诅咒的不服从。

In Gen. iii.在将军三。the first chapter in the moral history of mankind is given.在人类的道德历史的第一章给出。The woman was tempted by the serpent, who told her that if she and her husband would partake of the forbidden fruit their eyes would be opened, and they "would be as gods, knowing good and evil" (Gen. iii. 5).该名女子被引诱毒蛇,谁告诉她,如果她和她的丈夫会参与的禁果,他们的眼睛将被打开,他们“将被视为神能知道善恶”(创三。5)。 She ate of the fruit, and gave to her husband, who also ate of it.她吃的水果,并给她的丈夫,谁也吃它的。This act of disobedience was followed by a divine judgment.这种不服从的行为,随后又神圣的判断。The serpent was cursed because he had tempted the woman, and between his and her descendants there was to be perpetual enmity.蛇被诅咒,因为他动心的女人之间,以及他和她的后代有被永久的敌意。The woman was condemned to the pangs of child-bearing and to subjection to her husband.该名女子被谴责对生育的痛苦,并服从她的丈夫。As a punishment for the man the ground was cursed: thorns and thistles were to spring up; hard labor would be needed to insure the production of human food; and toil would be the lot of man from childhood to the grave.作为地面被处罚人的诅咒:荆棘和蒺藜是涌现;辛勤劳动,将需要以确保人类粮食生产;和辛劳将是很多人从童年到坟墓。Finally, the man and his wife were expelled from the garden "to till the ground from which he was taken."最后,该名男子和他的妻子被驱逐出园“,直到从他所采取的理由。”Of Adam and his wife, now called "Eve" () because she was the mother of all living () it is only known that after their exile from the garden they had children born to them (see Gen. v. 3, 4).亚当和他的妻子,现在所谓的“除夕夜”(),因为她是众生之母(),这是唯一已知的,经过他们的流放,从花园,他们所生的子女,给他们(见将军诉3,4) 。JF McC.怡富的MCC。

-In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Literature:在猜测和犹太教文学:

While the generic character that the name of Adam has in the older parts of Scripture, where it appears with the article ("the man"), was gradually lost sight of, his typical character as the representative of the unity of mankind was constantly emphasized (compare Sanh. iv. 5; the correct reading in Tosef., Sanh. viii. 4-9):而一般性质的,亚当名称的经文,在此与文章(“男人”)出现时,较旧的部分已经逐渐失去了作为人类团结的代表,他的典型特征是不断强调视线(比较葬身四5;在Tosef正确的阅读,葬身八4-9。。。。。):

"Why was only a single specimen of man created first? To teach us that he who destroys a single soul destroys a whole world and that he who saves a single soul saves a whole world; furthermore, in order that no race or class may claim a nobler ancestry, saying, 'Our father was born first'; and, finally, to give testimony to the greatness of the Lord, who caused the wonderful diversity of mankind to emanate from one type. And why was Adam created last of all beings? To teach him humility; for if he be overbearing, let him remember that the little fly preceded him in the order of creation." “为什么只有一个人创建的第一个单试样教导我们说,他一个单一的灵魂,谁破坏谁破坏整个世界,他谁拯救一个灵魂拯救整个世界;?此外,为了使没有任何种族或阶级可能声称是一种高贵的血统,他说,'我们的父亲出生第一',以及最后,去证明他们的主,谁造成了人类美好的多样性产生于一种类型的强大,为什么亚当创造了所有的人最后一次。 ?教他谦卑,因为如果他被咄咄逼人,让他记得小苍蝇之前,在创造令他“。

In a dispute, therefore, as to which Biblical verse expresses the fundamental principle of the Law, Simon ben 'Azkai maintained against R. Akiba-who, following Hillel, had singled out the Golden Rule (Lev. xix. 18)-that the principle of love must have as its basis Gen. v. 1, which teaches that all men are the offspring of him who was made in the image of God (Sifra, Ḳedoshim, iv.; Yer. Ned. ix. 41c; Gen. R. 24).在争议,因此,至于哪个圣经诗句,表达了法律的执行,西蒙本'Azkai的基本原则保持对河秋叶,谁,下面的希勒尔,曾单挑黄金规则(利未记十九。18),即在爱的原则必须有作为其基础上将诉1,它教导我们,所有的人是他的后代是谁在上帝的形象(Sifra,Ḳedoshim,四作出。。也门里亚尔奈德九41C条。。将军河24)。 This idea, expressed also by Paul in his speech at Athens, "[God] hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth" (Acts, xvii. 26), found expression in many characteristic forms.这个想法,也表达了保罗在他在雅典奥运会上讲话“,[神]祂所作出的同一血脉,所有国家的男子纠缠于所有在地球表面”(使徒,十七。26),发现在许多特征表达形式。 According to Targ.据塔尔格。 Yer.也门里亚尔。to Gen. ii.以创二。7, God took dust from the holy place (as "the center of the earth"; compare Pirḳe R. Eliezer xi., xx.) and the four parts of the world, mingling it with the water of all the seas, and made him red, black, and white (probably more correctly Pirḳe R. El. xi. and Chronicle of Jerahmeel, vi. 7: "White, black, red, and green-bones and sinews white; intestines black; blood red; skin of body or liver green"); compare Philo, "Creation of the World," xlvii.; Abulfeda, "Historia Ante-Islámica." 7,神了灰尘从神圣的地方(如“地球的中心”。比较pirḳe传译埃利泽十一,二十。)和世界的四个部分,混杂在所有的海洋水,然后做了他的红色,黑色和白色(可能更正确pirḳe传译下午第十一和大事记耶拉,六,七:。。。“白,黑,红,绿,白色的骨头和筋,肠黑色,血红色,皮肤的机构或肝脏绿色“);比较斐洛,”创造世界。“四十七。Abulfeda,”历史前厅Islámica“ The Sibylline Oracles (iii. 24-26) and, following the same, the Slavonian Book of Enoch find the cosmopolitan nature of Adam, his origin from the four regions of the earth, expressed in the four letters of his name: Anatole (East), Dysis (West), Arktos (North), and Mesembria (South).The知未来的签(iii. 24-26),按照相同的,以诺斯拉沃尼亚书中发现了亚当的具有国际性,从大地的四个在他名下的四个字母表示地区,他的出身:阿纳托利(东),Dysis(西),Arktos(北),和Mesembria(南)。 R. Johanan interprets as being an acrostic of (ashes), (blood), and (gall; see Soṭah, 5a).河Johanan解释为一个离合(骨灰),(血),和(胆,见Soṭah,5a)的。But this interpretation seems to have originated in other circles; for we find Isidor of Seville ("De Natura Rerum," ix.) declare that Adam was made of blood (sanguis), gall (cholē), black gall (melancholia), and phlegm: the four parts constituting the temperaments, which correspond to the four elements of nature, as does the microcosm to the macrocosm (see Piper, "Symbolik der Christlichen Kirche," 90, 469).但这种解释似乎都起源于其它各界人士,因为我们找到伊西塞维利亚(“时点的Natura Rerum,”九。)宣布,亚当是血,成就了(血),胆(胆囊),黑胆(忧郁症),以及痰:四个部分构成的气质,这相当于自然界的四大元素,一样的缩影,在宏观(见派,“Symbolik明镜Christlichen教堂,”90,469)。 R. Meir (second century) has the tradition that God made Adam of the dust gathered from the whole world; and Rab (third century) says: "His head was made of earth from the Holy Land; his main body, from Babylonia; and the various members from different lands" (Sanh. 38a et seq.; compare Gen. R. viii.; Midr. Teh. cxxxix. 5; and Tan., Peḳude, 3, end).河梅尔(二世纪)的传统,神由来自全世界聚集的灰尘亚当和饶(三世纪)说:“他的头部被从地球上取得的圣地,他从巴比伦王国的主体;并从不同的土地“的各种成员(Sanh. 38A条起。比较将军传译八。Midr的cxxxix 5。。。和火炭,Peḳude,3,结束。)。

Two Natures in Adam.在亚当的两个性质。

There are, however, two points of view regarding man's nature presented in the two Biblical stories of man's creation; and they are brought out more forcibly in the Haggadah, and still more so in the older Hellenistic literature.有,但是,两种观点关于人的本质在两个人的圣经故事创作介绍,他们是带出更强行在haggadah,并在希腊文学老年人更如此。 "Both worlds, heaven and earth, were to have a share in man's creation; hence the host of angels were consulted by the Lord when He said, 'Let us make man'" (Gen. i. 26, Gen. R. viii.). “两个世界,天地,中有一个在人的创造占有率,因此天使,进行了协商主时,他说,'让我们的人'”(创一26,将军河八。)。But the old haggadists loved especially to dwell on the glory of God's first-created before his fall.但旧haggadists喜爱,尤其是纠缠于神的荣耀的秋季之前,他第一次创建的。He was "like one of the angels" (Slavonic Book of Enoch, xxx. 11; compare Christian Book of Adam, i. 10; also Papias in Gen. R. xxi.; Pirḳe R. El. xii.; Ex. R. xxxii.; Targ. Yer. Gen. iii. 22).他是“像一个天使”(斯拉夫书伊诺克了XXX,11;。比较基督教书籍的亚当,一,10岁;在将军传译二十一也帕皮亚。pirḳe传译下午十二;。。。前ř 。三十二。。。塔尔格也门里亚尔创三22)。。"His body reached from earth to heaven [or from one end of the world to the other] before sin caused him to sink" (Ḥag. 12a, Sanh. 38b; compare also Philo, "Creation of the World," ed. Mangey, i. 33, 47). “他的身体达到了从地球到天堂[或从一个到另一个世界的尽头]前罪,使他沉沦”(Ḥag.12A条,葬身38B条。比较,也斐洛,主编“世界,创造”Mangey。岛33,47)。 "He was of extreme beauty and sunlike brightness" (BB 58a).“他是极端美丽和sunlike亮度”(BB心跳58A条)。"His skin was a bright garment, shining like his nails; when he sinned this brightness vanished, and he appeared naked" (Targ. Yer. Gen. iii. 7; Gen. R. xi.; Adam and Eve, xxxvii.). “他的皮肤是一个明亮的服装,像他的指甲闪闪发光,当他犯了罪这个亮度消失了,他似乎裸露”(targ.层创三7。。创传译十一。亚当和夏娃,三十七。) 。When God said: "Let us make man in our image," the angels in heaven, filled with jealousy, said: "What is man that Thou thinkest of him? A creature full of falsehood, hatred, and strife!"当上帝说:“让我们使男子在自己的形象,”天上的天使,充满妒忌,说:“?!人算什么,你先向他一个人如何虚伪,仇恨和纷争充满” But Love pleaded in his favor; and the Lord spoke: "Let truth spring forth from the earth!"但爱承认对他有利,耶和华说话了:“让我们从地球上涌现出真相!”(Gen. R. viii.; Midr. Teh. viii.).(创传译八。Midr八世。。。)。Far older, and blended with Babylonian mythology (Isa. xiv. 12), is the story preserved in Adam and Eve, the Slavonic Book of Enoch, xxxi.远东年龄大了,与巴比伦神话混合(以赛亚十四。12),是在亚​​当和夏娃,斯拉夫书伊诺克,三十一保留了故事。3-6 (compare Bereshit Rabbati, ed. Epstein, p. 17; Pirḳe R. El. xiii.; Chronicle of Jerahmeel, xxii.; and Koran, sura ii. 34; xv. 30), according to which all the angels were commanded by Michael the archangel to pay homage to the image of God; whereupon all bowed before Adam except Satan, who, in punishment for his rebelliousness, was hurled from his heavenly heights to the depth of the abyss, while his vacant throne was reserved for Adam, to be given to him at the time of the future resurrection.3-6(比较Bereshit Rabbati,主编爱泼斯坦,第17页;。pirḳe传译下午十三。。,二十二的耶拉纪事。与可兰经,苏拉二34;。。十五30),根据所有的天使由天使长迈克尔吩咐要顶礼膜拜的神的形象,于是,除了在亚当之前所有鞠躬撒旦,谁在惩罚他的叛逆,是从他在天上的高度投掷到深渊的深度,而他的空缺王位被保留为亚当,必须考虑到他在未来的复活时间。 Henceforth, Satan became the enemy of man, appearing to him in the guise of an angel of light to seduce him (compare II Cor. xi. 14).从此,撒旦成了敌人的男子,出现在一个光明的天使的幌子他勾引他(指比较二肺心病。十一。14)。 A somewhat modified midrashic legend (Gen. R. viii.) relates that the angels were so filled with wonder and awe at the sight of Adam, the image of God, that they wanted to pay homage to him and cry "Holy!"一个有点修订midrashic传说(创传译八。)涉及的天使是如此充满了惊奇和敬畏在亚当,上帝的形象,他们想要去祭奠他,看到哭“神圣!” But the Lord caused sleep to fall upon him so that he lay like a corpse, and the Lord said: "Cease ye from man, whose breath is in his nostrils: for wherein is he to be accounted of?"但主造成的睡眠将他杀死,使他像一具尸体躺在主说:“停止从人,在他的鼻孔有气息,是你们:他为其中的被占”(Isa. ii. 22). (以赛亚书二。22)。Another version (Pirḳe R. El. xi.; Tan., Peḳude, 3) is that all other creatures, marveling at Adam's greatness, prostrated themselves before him, taking him to be their creator; whereon he pointed upward to God, exclaiming: "The Lord reigneth, He is clothed with majesty!"另一个版本(。。。pirḳe传译下午曦谈,Peḳude,3),所有其他的生物,在亚当的伟大惊叹,拜倒在他面前,以他为他们的创造者;向上拖着他指出神,嚷着: “耶和华作王,他是丰衣足食,与陛下!”(Ps. xciii. 1). (诗篇xciii。1)。Still, the Book of Wisdom (ii. 23, 24) seems to allude to the older legend when saying, "God created man for immortality, but through the envy of Satan death entered the world" (compare Josephus, "Ant." i. 1, § 4; Ab. RN i.; Gen. R. xviii., where the serpent is represented as moved by jealousy).不过,智慧的(白介素23,24)图书似乎暗示老的传说时说:“上帝创造了不朽的人,而是通过羡慕撒旦死亡进入了世界”(比较约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”我。1,§ 4。抗体氡一;。将军传译十八,这里的蛇是代表作为由嫉妒移动)。

The Fall.秋天。

Adam in paradise had angels (agathodæmons or serpents) to wait upon and dance before him (Sanh. 59b, BB 75a, Pirḳe R. El. xii.).亚当天堂的天使(agathodæmons或蛇)来伺候他之前和舞蹈(Sanh. 59B条,BB心跳75A条,pirḳe传译下午。十二。)。He ate "angel's bread" (compare Ps. lxxiii. 26; Yoma, 75b; Vita Adæ et Evæ, § 4).他吃了“天使的面包”(比较诗lxxiii 26;。。山脉,劳资审裁;维塔Adæ等Evæ,§ 4)。All creation bowed before him in awe.所有创作在他面前敬畏鞠躬。He was the light of the world (Yer. Shab. ii. 5b); but sin deprived him of all glory.他是世界的光(yer.沙巴二5b所示。。),但罪剥夺了一切荣耀。The earth and the heavenly bodies lost their brightness, which will come back only in the Messianic time (Gen. R. xii.; Vita Adæ et Evæ, § 21; Philo, "Creation of the World," p. 60; Zohar, iii. 83b).地球和天体失去了光明,这将在弥赛亚回来时只(创传译十二;。维塔Adæ等Evæ,§ 21;斐洛,“创造世界”,第60页;佐哈尔,三。83B条)。Death came upon Adam and all creation.死亡来到亚当和所有的创造。God's day being a thousand years (Ps. xc. 4), Adam was permitted to live 930 years-threescore and ten less than one thousand (Book of Jubilees, iv. 28, and Gen. R. xix.), so that the statement "in the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die" might be fulfilled.上帝的一天是一个千年(诗篇越野。4),亚当被允许活930年-七十个不到一千(书jubilees,四。28,创传译19。),从而使声明“的日子,你eatest因此,你一定死”可能实现。 The brutes no longer stood in awe of man as their ruler; instead, they attacked him.该畜生不再站在敬畏的人作为他们的统治者,相反,他们袭击了他。But while sin was of fatal consequence, and the effect of the poison of the serpent is still felt by all following generations, unless they should be released from it by the covenant of Sinai ('Ab. Zarah, 22b; IV Book of Esdras; Apoc. Mosis, xx.; see articles Sin and Fall), the Jewish haggadists emphasize one point not mentioned in the Bible, but of great doctrinal importance in comparison with the teachings of Paul and his followers.但同时罪恶的致命后果,蛇的毒作用的仍然是所有后世认为,除非他们应该从中所公布的西奈('抗体Zarah,22B条公约。四埃斯德拉斯书; 。载脂蛋白C Mosis,二十。见第Sin和秋季),犹太haggadists强调,在与保罗和他的追随者的教导一点比较圣经中没有提到,但具有重大的理论的重要性。 The deadly effect of sin can be removed by repentance.罪恶的致命的影响可去除悔改。Hence, Adam is represented as a type of a penitent sinner.因此,亚当被表示为一个忏悔的罪人类型。Thus, he is described in Vita Adæ et Evæ, as well as by the rabbis of the second century ('Er. 18b; 'Ab. Zarah, 8a; Ab. RN i.; Pirḳe R. El.), as undergoing a terrible ordeal while fasting, praying, and bathing in the river for seven and forty days (seven weeks, Pirḳe R. El.), or twice seven weeks-the shortening of the days after Tishri being taken by Adam as a sign of God's wrath, until after the winter solstice the days again grew longer, when he brought a sacrifice of thanksgiving.因此,他被描述在维塔Adæ等Evæ,以及由二世纪('呃18B条。'。抗体Zarah,8A型。抗体氡一;。pirḳe传译下午)的拉比,作为经历可怕的磨难而禁食,祈祷,沐浴在七和四十天河(七星期,pirḳe传译下午。),或两次七周,在几天后,提斯利正在采取缩短亚当是上帝的愤怒迹象直到冬至后的日子也变得更长,当他带着一颗感恩的牺牲。 Another view is that when the sun rose the following morning he offered his thanksgiving, in which the angels joined him, singing the Sabbath Psalm (Ps. xcii.).另一种观点是,当太阳升起的时候,第二天早上他提供他的感恩节,在其中加入了他的天使,唱安息日诗篇(诗篇xcii。)。 About Adam and the one-horned ox (the Persian gaiomarth), see Kohut, in "ZDMG" xxv.关于亚当和一个角牛(波斯gaiomarth),见胡特在“ZDMG”二十五。78, n.78,注6.6。

On account of the Sabbath the sun retained its brightness for the day; but as darkness set in Adam was seized with fear, thinking of his sin.在帐户的安息日太阳保留其亮度为天,但在亚当被扣押集黑暗与恐惧,他的罪过的想法。Then the Lord taught him how to make fire by striking stones together.然后主教他如何通过打击石块一起火灾。Thenceforth the fire is greeted with a blessing at the close of each Sabbath day (Pesiḳ. R. xxiii.; Pirḳe R. El. xx.; similarly, Pes. 54a).此后,火是迎接一个祝福在每个安息日结束(pesiḳ.二传译二十三。。pirḳe传译下午二十。同样,瘟54A条。)。

When Adam heard the curse, "Thou shalt eat of the herbs of the earth," he staggered, saying: "O Lord, must I and my ass eat out of the same manger?"当亚当听到诅咒,“你必吃地上的草药,”他摇摇晃晃,他说:“主啊,要我和我的屁股吃同样的经理吗?”Then the voice of God came reassuringly: "With the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread!"于是神的声音传来放心:“在你的额头的汗水,你必吃面包!”There is comfort in work.有舒适的工作。The angels taught Adam the work of agriculture, all the trades, and also how to work in iron (Book of Jubilees, iii. 12; Gen. R. xxiv.; Pes. 54a).天使们告诉亚当的农业工作,所有的行业,以及如何在铁工作(书jubilees,三12;。将军河四条。瘟54A条。)。 The invention of writing was ascribed to Adam.书写的发明是归因于亚当。

Adam in the Future World.亚当在未来的世界。

On the day Adam covered his naked body for the first time, he beheld in clothing a mark of human dignity, and offered God a thanksgiving of incense (Book of Jubilees, iii. 22).在当天亚当盖他的第​​一次赤裸的身体,他看到在服装的人的尊严的标志,并提供上帝感恩的香(书jubilees,三。22)。 The garments made by God were not of skin, but of light (Gen. R. xx.), and robes of glory were made of the serpent's skin (Targ. Yer. Gen. iii. 21).由上帝创造了衣服不属于皮肤,但光(创传译二十。)长袍的荣耀都是蛇的皮做成的(targ.层。将军三。21)。Adam, "the first to enter Hades" (Sibylline Oracles, i. 81), was also the first to receive the promise ofresurrection (Gen. R. xxi. 7, after Ps. xvii. 15).亚当“,第一个进入地狱”(知未来的签,一81),也是第一家获得承诺ofresurrection(创传译二十一。七,经诗。十七。15)。 According to the Testament of Abraham, Adam sits at the gates, watching with tears the multitude of souls passing through the wide gate to meet their punishment, and with joy the few entering the narrow gate to receive their reward.根据遗嘱的亚伯拉罕,亚当坐在门口,注视着泪水,通过广泛进门,以满足他们的处罚灵魂群众,并与喜悦少数进入狭窄的大门,接受他们的赏赐。 The Jewish view concerning Adam's sin is best expressed by Ammi (Shab. 55a, based upon Ezek. xviii. 20): "No man dies without a sin of his own. Accordingly, all the pious, being permitted to behold the Shekinah (glory of God) before their death, reproach Adam (as they pass him by at the gate) for having brought death upon them; to which he replies: 'I died with but one sin, but you have committed many: on account of these you have died; not on my account'" (Tan., Ḥuḳḳat, 16).犹太查看有关亚当的罪是最好的表达茴香(Shab.以西结书后,根据第55,十八20。。):“没有人没有一个属于自己的罪死因此,所有虔诚的,被允许见舍吉拿(荣耀。神),然后他们的死,非议亚当(因为他们在大门口路过他)因后,他们带来了死亡,给他回答说:'我只有一个罪恶与死亡,但你却犯下了许多:对这些帐户死亡;不在我的账户'“(Tan.,Ḥuḳḳat,16)。

To Adam are ascribed Ps.亚当是认定的PS。v., xix., xxiv., and xcii.五,十九。,二十四。,和xcii。(Midr. Teh. v. 3; Gen. R. xxii., end; Pesiḳ. R. xlvi.; see Bacher, "Ag. Pal. Amor." ii. 337 et seq.). (midr.了诉3;。将军河二十二,结束;。Pesiḳ河四十六。。见巴切尔,“银帕尔奥马尔。。。”二337起。。)。His body, made an object of worship by some semi-pagan Melchisedician sect, according to the Christian Book of Adam, was shown in Talmudic times at Hebron, in the cave of Machpelah (BB 58a, Gen. R. lviii.), while Christian tradition placed it in Golgotha near Jerusalem (Origen, tract 35 in Matt., and article Golgotha).他的身体,由一些半异教Melchisedician教派的崇拜对象,根据基督教书籍的亚当,在塔木德时间显示在希伯伦,在麦比拉洞(BB心跳58A条,创传译lviii。),而基督教传统,把它在各各他在耶路撒冷附近(渊源,道35马特。项和第墓地)。 It is a beautiful and certainly an original idea of the rabbis that "Adam was created from the dust of the place where the sanctuary was to rise for the atonement of all human sin," so that sin should never be a permanent or inherent part of man's nature (Gen. R. xiv., Yer. Naz. vii. 56b).这是一个美丽,当然一个拉比认为原来的想法:“亚当从地方圣殿上升为所有人类赎罪灰尘创造”,让罪恶从来不应该是永久性的或固有的一部分人的本质(创传译十四。,也门里亚尔。纳兹。七。56B条)。 The corresponding Christian legend of Golgotha was formed after the Jewish one.在基督教传说中相应的各各后形成的犹太人之一。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Ginzberg, Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvätern, in Monatsschrift, 1899; Kohut, in ZDMG xxv.金兹伯格,模具Haggada北巢穴Kirchenvätern,在月刊,1899年;科胡特在ZDMG二十五。59-94; Grünbaum, Neue Beiträge zur Semitischen Sagenkunde, pp. 54,79; Dillman, Das Christliche Adambuch; Malan, Book of Adam and Eve, 1882; Bezold, Die Schatzhöhle, 1883, 1888; Siegfried, Philo von Alexandrien.59-94; Grünbaum,Neue Beiträge楚Semitischen Sagenkunde,第54,79;迪尔曼,达斯Christliche Adambuch,马兰,亚当和夏娃,1882年的书; Bezold,模具Schat zhöhle,1883年,1888年;齐格弗里德,斐洛冯Alexandrien。For further bibliographical references see Schürer, Geschichte, 3d ed.如需进一步参考书目见Schürer,历史馆,三维版。iii.三。288-289.K.288 - 289.K。

-In Mohammedan Literature:在伊斯兰教文学:

No mention is made of Adam in the early suras of the Koran.没有提到的是亚当在可兰经的早期章节。 Though Mohammed speaks of the creation of man in general from a "clot of blood" or a "drop of water" (suras lxxv. 34, lxxvii. 20, xcvi. 1), it is only in the later Meccan suras that the original creation of man is connected with a particular individual.虽然穆罕默德谈到了一般人的创造是来自一个“血块”或“一滴水”(章节lxxv。34,lxxvii。20 xcvi。1),它只是在后来的麦加章节,原来人的创造是与特定个人。But in these suras the theory is already developed that Satan's designs against man are consequent upon the expulsion of the former from paradise at the time of man's creation.但在这些章节的理论是对人类已经开发了撒旦的设计后,前者是从天堂驱逐于人的创造时间随之而来。Geiger has incorrectly remarked ("Was Hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume Aufgenommen?" p. 100) that this is not a Jewish idea (see Vita Adæ et Evæ, § 16).盖格说了不正确的(“帽子穆罕默德是澳大利亚DEM Judenthume Aufgenommen?”第100页),这是不是一个犹太人的思想(见履历表Adæ等Evæ,§ 16)。It belongs also to the cycle of the Christian-Syriac Midrash (see Budge, "The Book of the Bee," p. 21, trans.; Bezold, "Die Schatzhöhle," pp. 5, 6, trans.).它也属于到基督教叙利亚米德拉士周期(见让步,他说:“养蜂手册”,第21,跨。Bezold,“模具Schatzhöhle,”第5,6,跨。)。 In the earliest account the name Adam does not occur; nor does Iblis vow vengeance upon a single individual, but rather upon the whole race of mankind:在最早的帐户名称亚当不会发生,也没有一个人单独Iblis后发誓复仇,而是对整个人类的种族:

Iblis, the Devil, Respited.Iblis,魔鬼,Respited。

"When thy Lord said to the angels, 'Verily, I am about to create a mortal out of clay; and when I have fashioned him, and breathed into him of My spirit, then fall ye down before him adoring.' “当你的主说,以天使,'能众志成城,我即将创造出的粘土凡人,而当我已经过时了他,我的精神注入了他,然后在他面前跌倒崇拜你们了。'And the angels adored, all of them save Iblis, who was too big with pride, and was of the misbelievers. Said He, 'O Iblis! what prevents thee from adoring what I have created with My two hands? Art thou too big with pride? or art thou amongst the exalted?'与天使崇拜,他们都保存Iblis,谁是太骄傲大,是的misbelievers。他说,'Ø Iblis!什么阻止从崇拜我和我的两只手创造了你?你太大的艺术骄傲?或艺术,你跻身崇高?'Said he, 'I am better than he; Thou hast created me from fire, and him Thou hast created from clay.'他说,'我比他更好,你所创造的解雇我,和他你从粘土创建。'Said He, 'Then go forth therefrom; for verily thou art pelted, and verily upon thee is My curse unto the day of judgment.'他说,'然后带着由此,为众志成城祢投掷,并能众志成城,在你身上是我的诅咒你们审判的日子。'Said he, 'My Lord! then respite me until the day when they are raised.'他说,'我的上帝!然后喘息,直到有一天我,当他们被提出。' Said He, 'Then thou art amongst the respited until the day of the stated time.'他说,'那你跻身直到指定时间一天respited艺术。'Said he, 'Then, by Thy might, I will surely seduce them all together, except Thy servants amongst them who are sincere!'他说,'然后,用你的实力,我一定会勾引他们都在一起,除非你的公务员在他们中间谁是真诚的,!Said He, 'It is the truth, and the truth I speak; I will surely fill hell with thee and with those who follow thee amongst them all together'" (sura xxxviii. 70-85).他说,'这是真理,真理我发言,我一定会充满你和那些在他们中间谁跟你一起地狱'“(苏拉三十八70-85。)。

At a later period Mohammed develops the personal character of the first man and his direct relationship to God, whose vicegerent (khalifah, calif) he is to be on earth.在后一时期穆罕默德发展了第一个男人和他的直接关系,个人性格与神,其vicegerent(哈利法,加利福尼亚州),他是要在地球上。 At the same time Satan is represented as being the one who drove Adam from paradise: Adam as Vicegerent of God.同时,撒旦是代表,因为这是一个谁开车从天堂亚当:为上帝Vicegerent亚当。

"And when thy Lord said unto the angels, 'I am about to place a vicegerent in the earth,' they said, 'Wilt Thou place therein one who will do evil therein and shed blood? We celebrate Thy praise and hallow Thee.' “当你的主说,祂的天使,'我将其放置在地球一vicegerent,'他们说:'祢地方,有一个谁做邪恶的,并流血?我们庆祝你的赞美与神化你。' Said [the Lord], 'I know what ye know not.'说[主],'我知道你们不知道。'And He taught Adam the names, all of them; then He propounded them to the angels and said, 'Declare to Me the names of these, if ye are truthful.'他教了亚当的名字,他们都是,然后他提出,他们以天使说,'声明我谈这些名字,如果你们是诚实的。'They said, 'Glory be to Thee! no knowledge is ours but what Thou Thyself hast taught us; verily, Thou art the knowing, the wise.'他们说,'荣耀归给祢不知道什么是我们的,但你将自己竟告诉我们;!。众志成城,祢知,智者' Said the Lord, 'O Adam, declare to them their names'; and when he had declared to them their names He said, 'Did I not say to you, I know the secrets of the heavens and of the earth, and I know what ye show and what ye are hiding?'上帝说,澳亚当,宣布他们自己的名字',而当他宣布他们的名字,他说,'我不是告诉你,我知道天堂和地球的秘密,我知道你们有什么节目,什么你们是在隐瞒什么?' And when He said to the angels, 'Adore Adam,' they adored him save only Iblis, who refused and was too proud, and became one of the misbelievers.当他说,以天使,'崇拜亚当,他们崇拜他,仅保存Iblis,谁拒绝和太骄傲,并成为的misbelievers之一。

"And He said, 'O Adam, dwell, thou and thy wife, in paradise, and eat therefrom amply as you wish; but do not draw near this tree or ye will be of the transgressors.' “他说,澳亚当纠缠,你和你的妻子,在天堂,并因此而吃足可作为你想。但都没有对附近这树或叶,将本求'And Satan made them backslide therefrom, and drove them out from what they were in, and He said, 'Go down, one of you the enemy of the other; and in the earth there are an abode and a provision for a time.'而撒但,使他们由此倒退,并迫使他们从什么人出来,他说,'去吧,你们中的一个,其他的敌人。以及在地球上有一居留权,并在一段时间内条款' And Adam caught certain words from his Lord, and He turned toward him; for He is the Compassionate One easily turned. He said, 'Go down therefrom altogether, and haply there may come from Me a guidance, and whoso follows My guidance no fear is theirs, nor shall they grieve'" (sura ii. 29-36).而从他的主亚当陷入某些话,他转身向他,因为他是一个富有同情心很容易转向他说:'走由此加起来,并或许有可能来自于我一个指导,无论谁遵守我的引导没有恐惧。是他们的,也不得伤心'“(苏拉二。29-36)。

In sura vii.在苏拉七。10 et seq.10起。the same story is repeated, though with several additions.重复同样的故事,虽然有一些补充。In particular, Mohammed has now learned the manner in which Satan tempted Adam:特别是,穆罕默德已经学会了在其中撒旦诱惑亚当方式:

Satan Beguiles Adam.亚当撒旦俘虏。

"But Satan whispered to them to display to them what was kept back from them of their shame, and he said, 'Your Lord has only forbidden you this tree lest ye should be twain angels or should become of the immortals'; and he swore to them both, 'Verily, I am unto you a sincere adviser'; and he beguiled them by deceit, and when they twain tasted of the tree their shame was shown them, and they began to stitch upon themselves the leaves of the garden. And their Lord called unto them, 'Did I not forbid you from that tree there, and say to you, Verily, Satan is to you an open foe?' “嗣后,向他们展示给他们什么是不断从他们的耻辱他们回来,他说,'你的主只禁止你这棵树以免你们将要分离,天使还是应该成为神仙,他就发誓他们都'能众志成城,我对你们的真诚顾问';和他骗他们所欺骗,当他们吐温的结果表明他们自己的耻辱树尝,他们开始给自己缝花园的叶子。而他们的主呼唤他们,'我不是禁止从树上你,对你说,能众志成城,撒旦是给你一个公开的敌人?' They said, 'O our Lord, we have wronged ourselves-and if Thou dost not forgive us and have mercy on us, we shall surely be of those who are lost!'他们说,'我们的主啊,我们有委屈自己,你若多斯特不会原谅我们,怜悯我们,我们将肯定会为那些谁丢失!He said, 'Go ye down, one of you to the other a foe; but for you in the earth there are an abode and a provision for a season.'他说,'你们去,你们中的另外一个敌人。但你在地球上有一个居留权,并提供了一​​个赛季'He said, 'Therein shall ye live and therein shall ye die; from it shall ye be brought forth'" (sura vii. 19-24).In suras xvii.他说,'你们的生活和虽经内,你们就死了,你们是从它带来了'。“(。苏拉七19-24)在章节十七。63, xviii.63,十八。48, references are also made to the refusal of Iblis to worship Adam.48,还提及到Iblis拒绝崇拜亚当。The latter was created from earth (iii. 51) or from clay (xxxii. 5).后者是创建的地球(iii. 51)或粘土(xxxii. 5)。That Adam is the first of the prophets is only hinted at in the Koran.,亚当是第一个先知,只是暗示,在可兰经。In the passage (ii. 35) cited above, "And Adam caught certain words [kalimat] from his Lord," the reference may be to a supposed revelation to Adam.在过道里(白介素35)上文提到,“与亚当陷入某些词从他的主[kalimat],”引用可能是一个假设的启示亚当。For this reason, in iii.出于这个原因,在三。30, Mohammed says, "Verily, God has chosen Adam, and Noah, and Abraham's people, and Imram's people [the Christians]"; making Adam the representative of the antediluvian period. 30日,穆罕默德说,“诚然,上帝选择了亚当,诺亚,亚伯拉罕的人,Imram的人[基督徒]”,使亚当的古风时期的代表。

Adam's Creation.亚当的创造。

To these somewhat meager accounts later Arabic writers and commentators have added various details which find their parallel in the Jewish and Christian Midrash.为了这些有点微薄的帐户后阿拉伯语作家,评论家已经加入其中找到自己在犹太教和基督教米德拉士平行各种细节。Ḥamzah al-Ispahani expressly says that a Jewish rabbi in Bagdad, Zedekiah by name, told him, among other things, that Adam was created in the third hour of the sixth day, and Eve in the sixth hour; that they were made to dwell in Gan-Eden (), from which they were expelled after the ninth hour; that God sent an angel to them, who taught Adam how to sow and to perform all the other work connected with agriculture.哈姆扎铝Ispahani明确指出,在巴格达,西底家犹太拉比的名字,告诉他,除其他事项外,亚当是在第六天创造了第三个小时,并在第六小时夏娃,他们向住在赣伊甸园(),从他们被开除后,第九届小时;上帝派一个天使对他们来说,谁教亚当如何播种,并执行所有其他工作与农业有关。 The same angel instructed Eve how to perform all manner of household duties.同样的天使指示除夕如何执行方式的所有家务。The historians Tabari, Masudi, Al-Athir, etc., have evidently culled from similar sources.历史学家塔巴里,Masudi,基地Athir等等,都从类似的来源显然扑杀。They tell us that when God wished to form Adam He sent first Gabriel, then Michael, to fetch soil for that purpose.他们告诉我们,当上帝希望形成亚当首先发送加布里埃尔,那么迈克尔,取土壤用于这一目的。The earth, however, refused to give the soil, and yielded only to the Angel of Death, who brought three kinds of soil, black, white, and red.地球,但拒绝给土壤,并取得了只向死亡天使,谁带来了三种土壤,各种黑色,白色和红色。 Adam's descendants, therefore, belong either to the white, the black, or the red race.亚当的后裔,因此,无论是属于白色,黑色或红色的比赛。

The soul of Adam had been created thousands of years previously, and at first refused to enter the body of clay.亚当的灵魂已经创造了数千年以前,并在第一次拒绝进入人体的粘土。God forced it violently through Adam's nose, which caused him to sneeze.神迫使它粗暴地通过亚当的鼻子,这使他打喷嚏。As it descended into his mouth, he commenced to utter the praises of God.当它放进嘴里的后裔,他开始说出了神的赞誉。He tried to rise; but the soul had not yet descended into his feet.他试图上升,但灵魂还没有进入他的脚还后裔。When he did stand upright, he reached from earth up to the throne of God, and had to shade his eyes with his hand because of the brilliancy of God's throne.当他挺立,他伸手从地球到上帝的宝座,不得不与他的阴影,因为神的宝座辉煌的手他的眼睛。His height was gradually diminished, partly as a punishment for his sin, and partly through grieving at the death of Abel.他的身高是逐渐减少,部分原因是由于他的罪的惩罚,并部分通过在亚伯死亡悲伤。

The Future Unveiled to Him.未来展现在他。

Adam wished to see the generations which were to come from him.亚当希望看到几代其中来自他。 God drew them all from out of his back; they stood in two rows-one of the righteous, the other of the sinners.神画都来自他的后背出他们,他们站在两排,一义,对其他的罪人。When God told Adam the span of life given to each, he was surprised to find that only a small number of years had been allotted to David, and made him a present of forty years; of which present, says the Mohammedan Midrash, a formal document was drawn up and signed.当上帝告诉亚当跨度的生活给予每个,他惊讶地发现,只有少数的年已拨出大卫,使他40岁的存在;其中本说,穆罕默德米德拉士,正式文件,是制定和签署。

When Adam was driven from paradise, he first alighted on the island of Sarandib (Ceylon).当亚当是从天堂驱动的,他首先落在离Sarandib(锡兰)岛。Here his footprint (seventy ells long) is still to be seen, as is that of Abraham in Mecca.在这里,他的足迹(七十尺进长)仍然有待观察,因为是亚伯拉罕在麦加。From Ceylon Adam journeyed to the holy city in Arabia, where he built the Kaaba, having through fasting and silence gained the partial forgiveness of God.从锡兰亚当在阿拉伯旅行至,他在那里修建了天房神圣的城市,通过禁食和沉默有部分获得了神的宽恕。

Another legend connects the building of the Kaaba with Abraham.另一种传说相连,与亚伯拉罕天房建设。 When the time came for Adam to die, he had forgotten the gift of forty years to David, and had to be reminded of it by the Angel of Death.当时间来到,为亚当死了,他已经忘记了四十年的礼物给大卫,并已成为它的提醒对死亡天使。 He is said to have been buried in the "Cave of Treasures"-a Christian, rather than a Jewish, idea.据说他已被埋葬在“宝洞”,而不是一个基督徒犹太人,想法。Several of these peculiar features are found again in the Pirḳe de-Rabbi Eliezer, a work that was compiled under Arabic influence (Zunz, "GV" 2d ed., pp. 289 et seq.).这些特有的功能,发现几个又在Pirḳe去拉比埃利泽,一个是阿拉伯语的影响下编制工作(Zunz,“颗粒”2版。,第289页起。)。

J. Frederic McCurdy, Kaufmann Kohler, Richard Gottheilj的弗雷德里克麦柯迪,考夫曼科勒,理查德高泽尔
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Koran, suras xxxviii.古兰经章节三十八。71-86.71-86。ii.二。28-32, vii.28-32,七。 10-18, xv.10-18,十五。 28-44, xvii.28-44,十七。 63-68, xviii.63-68,十八。 48, xx.48,二十。115, and the commentaries on these passages; Gottwaldt, HamzœIspahanensis Annalium Libri x.115,和评注对这些通道; Gottwaldt,HamzœIspahanensis Annalium利布里十pp. 84 et seq.; Tabari, Annales, ii.第84页起。塔巴里,年鉴,二。115 et seq.; Ibn al-Athir, Chronicon, ed.115起。伊本Athir,Chronicon,编辑。Tornberg, i.Tornberg岛 19 et seq.; Al-Nawawi, Biographical Dict.19起。瑙威,传记字典。of Illustrious Men, ed.显赫男子,主编。Wüstenfeld, pp. 123 et seq.; Yakut, Geographisches Wörterbuch, ed.Wüstenfeld,第123页起。雅库特,Geographisches Wörterbuch,编辑。Wüstenfeld, vi.Wüstenfeld,六。255 (index).255(指数)。 Compare Geiger, Was Hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume Aufgenommen ?比较盖格,是穆罕默德澳大利亚DEM Judenthume帽子Aufgenommen?pp. 100 et seq.; Weil, Biblische Legenden der Muselmänner, pp. 12 et seq.; Grünbaum, Neue Beiträge zur Semitischen Sagenkunde, pp. 54 et seq., where a large number of rabbinical parallels will be found.G.第100页起。韦伊,Biblische Legenden明镜Muselmänner,第12起。。Grünbaum,Neue Beiträge楚Semitischen Sagenkunde,第54页起,凡大量犹太教相似之处将found.G。

-Critical View:临界查看:

According to modern critics, the story of the creation of man is presented in two sources.根据现代的批评,对人的创造故事的呈现在两个来源。One of these forms the beginning of the document known as the Priestly Code (P), and the other is written by the so-called Jahvist (J).这些形式之一,作为祭司码(P)的已知的文档的开头,另一种是写的所谓Jahvist(十)。 The former makes the Creation to be the first of a series of stages in the development of the history of Israel and the theocracy, which is the great end of the divine government.前者使创作成为一个阶段,在以色列和神权政治,这是政府的神圣历史发展的伟大目标系列的第一部。Each event is to man a gradation leading up to a final act of Providence.每个事件之于人,一个领导到一个层次的普罗维登斯的最后一幕。This first stage fitly ends with the making of man in the image of God, which follows upon the creation of light, the sky, the earth, and the sea; of plants, and of animals of the water, the air, and the land.这恰好结束第一阶段的人在神的形象,这是后光,天空,大地,海洋和创造如下决策;的植物和水,空气动物,土地。 This narrative as found in the final form of the Hexateuch is interrupted in Gen. ii.这说明作为中发现的Hexateuch最终形式是创二中断。4 by the second narrator, and is not resumed till Gen. v. 1, where the second stage begins with the "generations [toledot] of Adam."4第二叙述者,而不是到将军诉1,在第二阶段的开始恢复“世代[toledot]亚当”。

The second narrative (Gen. ii. 4-iv.) is the beginning of a history written much earlier than the priestly document.第二叙事(创二。四四。)是更早的书面文件比祭司的历史的开始。Its interest centers in Adam not as the first link in the chain of the history of Israel, but as the founder of the human race.在亚当其利益不作为中心在以色列历史上的第一个环节链,但由于人类的创始人。The descriptions are naive and anthropomorphic, telling of man's home in Eden, his divinely given mate, his progress in knowledge, his sin, his banishment from paradise, and the fate of his children.的描述是幼稚和拟人化,人的家在伊甸园,他的神给予伴侣,他在知识的进步,他的罪过,他从天堂驱逐,并告诉他的孩子的命运。

Etymology of "Adam."词源“亚当”。

The etymology of the word "Adam" is of importance.这个词的词源“亚当”是非常重要的。The writer of Gen. ii.在创二作家。7 gives his own explanation when he says: "God formed man of dust of the ground." 7给他自己的解释时,他说:“上帝形成了地面的尘土造人。”That is to say, the man was called "Man" or "Adam" because he was formed from the ground (adamah).这就是说,该名男子被称为“人”或“亚当”,因为他是从地面(adamah)组成。Compare Gen. iii.比较将军三。 19.19。This association of ideas is more than an explanation of the word: it is also suggestive of the primitive conception of human life.这种想法协会是不是一个字的解释:它也是人类生命的原始观念暗示。According to the oldest Semitic notions, all nature was instinct with life; so that men not only came from and returned to the earth, but actually partook of its substance.据最古老的闪族的观念,所有的性质是与生命的本能,所以,男人不仅来自和返回地球,但实际上其实质内容分享了。 The same notion declares itself in the Latin homo and humanus, as compared with humus and the Greek χαμαί, in the German gam (in Bräutigam), and the English groom; also in the Greek έπιχθόνιος and similar expressions.同样的概念,宣布在拉丁美洲HOMO与humanus本身,腐殖质和希腊χαμαί在德国自由亚齐运动(在Bräutigam),和英国新郎,比较;也是在希腊έπιχθόνιος及类似表述。 Modern critics are the less inclined to ridicule this as a mere barbaric fancy now that the doctrine of evolution has made them familiar with the unity of nature.现代的批评就越倾向于嘲笑这一野蛮仅仅是一个幻想,现在的进化学说,使他们与自然的统一熟悉。This view of the word implies that it was originally not a proper name; for names of persons (for which fanciful etymologies are often given by the sacred writers) are not made up after such a fashion.这意味着这个词的看法,这本来不是一个适当的名称,人名(其词源幻想往往是由神圣的作家提供)后不进行这样的潮流。

A closer examination of the narrative will show that the word is primarily used in a generic sense, and not as the name of an individual.阿的叙述仔细观察就会发现这个词主要是用在一般意义上,作为一个人的名字没有。In Gen. i.在将军岛its use is wholly generic.它的使用是完全通用的。In Gen. ii.在将军二。and iii.及iii。the writer weaves together the generic and the personal senses of the word.作家编织在一起的通用和字的个人感觉。In all that pertains to the first man as the passive subject of creative and providential action the reference is exclusively generic.在所有涉及到与创造性和天赐被动主体行动的第一个男人是完全通用的参考。Indeed, it is doubtful whether "Adam" as a proper name is used at all before Gen. iv.事实上,无论是“亚当”呆滞作为一个适当的名称用于在所有前将军四。25 (J) and v. 3 (P). 25(J)和诉3(P)的。Here the same usage is manifest: for in the two opening verses of chap.在这里,相同的使用,是体现:在两个开放的第一章的诗句。v. the word is used generically.诉词是用来统称。It may also be observed that the writer in Gen. ii., iii.它也可以观察到,在将军二。,三作家。always says "the man" instead of "Adam," even when the personal reference is intended, except after a preposition, where, however, a vowel has probably been dropped from the text.总是说“男人”,而不是“亚当”,甚至还当个人参考的目的,除了一个介词后,在那里,不过,韵母可能已被从文本下​​降。 The explanation of the variation of usage apparently is that, as in the case of most of the early stories of Genesis, the material of popular tradition, which started with the forming of man out of the earth, was taken up and worked over for higher religious uses by thinkers of the prophetic school.该变化的用法解释显然是,由于在对的起源,流行的传统材料,它的形成与人类对地球进行启动,早期小说大多数情​​况下是采取行动和工作过更高over由学校思想家的预言宗教用途。 Adam is not referred to in the later Old Testament books, except in the genealogy of I Chron.亚当没有提到在后来的旧约书籍,除了在我专栏的家谱。JF McC.怡富的MCC。


Book of Adam亚当书

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

The Talmud says nothing about the existence of a Book of Adam, and Zunz's widely accepted assertion to the contrary ("GV" 2d ed., p. 136) is erroneous, as appears upon an inspection of the passage in 'Ab.犹太法典没有提到的是亚当书的存在,并聪茨的被广泛接受的说法与此相反的(“颗粒”2版。,第136页)是错误的,因为在一个在'通过抗体检查会出现。 Zarah, 5a, and Gen. R. xxiv. Zarah,5A和将军河二十四。2.2。There can be no doubt, however, that there existed at an early date, perhaps even before the destruction of the Second Temple, a collection of legends of Adam and Eve which have been partially preserved, not in their original language, but somewhat changed.不可能有任何疑问,然而,存在着早日也许甚至在第二圣殿,是亚当和夏娃已部分保存下来,而不是在原来的语言,但有所改变的传说收集破坏。 It is possible to prove that the apocryphas, Apocalypsis Mosis- as Tischendorf, following a copyist's erroneous inscription, called the book-and Vita Adæ et Evæ, and to a certain degree even their Slavonic, Syriac, Ethiopic, and Arabic offshoots, are of identical Jewish origin.它可以证明apocryphas,Apocalypsis Mosis作​​为提申多夫,后抄写的错误题词,称图书和Vita Adæ等Evæ,并在一定程度甚至他们的斯拉夫语,叙利亚,埃塞俄比亚,阿拉伯语分支,是相同的犹太血统。According to these apocryphal works and to the Eastern and Western forms of the Apocalypsis, the Jewish portion of the Book of Adam must have read somewhat as follows (the parallels in apocryphal and rabbinical literature are placed in parentheses):根据这些未经证实的工程,以及东部和西部的Apocalypsis形式,对图书的亚当犹太部分必须具有读取有点如下(在猜测和犹太教文学的相似之处是放在括号内):

Adam in the Garden of Eden.亚当在伊甸园。

Adam, the handiwork of the Lord (Ab. RN i., end), lived with Eve in the Garden of Eden, which was situated in the East (Book of Enoch, xxxii.; BB 84a).亚当,主(Ab.氡一,结束)与夏娃住在伊甸园,这是坐落在东,工艺品(书伊诺克,三十二;。BB心跳84A条)。Their food, which they also distributed to the lower animals (Gen. R. xix. 5), consisted of the fruit of the trees in the garden, the only nourishment then allowed to living beings (Sanh. 59b).他们的食物,他们还分发到较低的动物(创传译十九。5),在园中树上的果子组成,唯一的养料,然后让(Sanh. 59B条)众生。For their protection two angels were set apart (Ḥag. 16a), known (Ber. 60b) as or the partakers of the majesty () (kabod), called in Latin virtutes, from virtus, corresponding to kabod.保护他们的两个天使被选派(Ḥag.16A条),已知的(Ber. 60B章)作为或的威严()(kabod)有分,称为拉丁美洲virtutes从virtus,对应kabod。But one day when the guarding angels had ascended to heaven to sing their hymn () to the Lord (Ḥul. 91b), Satan thought the time opportune to carry out his evil designs against Adam.但是有一天,当护卫天使已升天,唱自己的赞歌()的主(Ḥul.91b),撒旦认为时机时间进行反对亚当他的罪恶。Satan hated Adam, for he regarded him as the cause of his fall.撒旦痛恨亚当,因为他认为他属于他的事业。After God had created man, He ordered all the angels to prostrate themselves before Adam, but Satan rebelled against God's command, despite the direct bidding of Michael "to worship the image of YHW" (), and answered proudly: "If God be angry against me, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God" (compare Isa. xiv. 13).之后,上帝创造了人,他下令所有天使们拜倒在亚当本身,而是撒旦违背上帝的命令,尽管迈克尔直接投标“,以拜YHW形象”(),并回答了骄傲地说:“如果上帝会生气反对我,我会高举我的神的众星之上宝座“(比较伊萨。十四。13)。 Whereupon God "cast him out from heaven with all his host of rebellious angels" (Slavonic Book of Enoch, xxxi. 18, and Mek., Shirah, § 2).于是上帝“把他赶出去,从天上与他的所有主机的堕落天使”(斯拉夫书伊诺克,三十一。18,和MEK。,希雷,§ 2)。And Satan the Adversary (Suk. 52a) selected the serpent for his tool, as it was not only the most subtle of all animals, but also very similar to man, for it had been endowed with hands and legs like him (Gen. R. xix. 1).和撒旦的对手(淑52A条)选定为他的工具蛇,因为它不仅是最微妙的所有动物,但也很相似的人,因为它已经被双手和双腿像他(创ř赋予。十九。1)。 And Satan spoke to the serpent: "Be my instrument, and through thy mouth will I utter a word which shall enable thee to seduce man" (Pirḳe R. El. xiii.).和撒旦说话的蛇:“我的仪器,并通过你的嘴将我说出一个字,其中应使你勾引男人”(pirḳe传译下午十三。。)。 After some pleading the serpent succeeded in persuading Eve to eat of the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge-a fig-tree (Gen. R. xv. 7)-which the serpent had shaken for her (Ab. RN i. 4, ed. Schechter).经过一番恳求说服夏娃吃了知识无花果树树的禁果成功的蛇(创传译十五。七),而蛇为她(Ab.氡一,四动摇,教育署。Schechter已)。 But the serpent had infused lust into the fruit, and when Eve had eaten of it the sexual desire awoke in her (Slavonic Book of Baruch, xcvii.; Apoc. Abraham, xxiii., and Pirḳe R. El. xxi.), and at the same moment she became aware that she had been undone and "had lost the garment of righteousness in which she had been clothed" (Gen. R. xix. 6, Pirḳe R. El. xiv.).但毒蛇已注入到水果欲望,当夏娃吃了它的性欲在她醒来(斯拉夫书,xcvii巴鲁克。。。载脂蛋白C亚伯拉罕,二十三,二十一和pirḳe传译下午。。),以及在同一时刻,她意识到她已被撤消和“已失去了正义的服装,她在其中已丰衣足食”(创传译十九。六,pirḳe传译下午。十四。)。 Adam, too, after he had eaten of the forbidden fruit, experienced a sense of loss and cried out: "What hast thou done? Thou hast removed me from the glory of the Lord" (Ab. RN i. 6, ed. Schechter).亚当也后,他已经吃了禁果,经历了失落感,并高喊:“你有什么做你使从主的荣耀吗?”(Ab.氡一6,海关谢克特。 )。

The Divine Verdict.神圣的判决。

Soon after they had sinned they heard the trumpet-blast (shofar) of Michael ("BH" ed. Jellinek, ii. 61) calling the angels: "Thus saith the Lord, 'Come with me into the Garden of Eden and hear the sentence which I will pass on Adam'" (Gen. R. xix. 8).不久后,他们犯了罪,他们听到了小号爆(羊角号),迈克尔(“波黑”版耐克,二61。。)致电天使:“耶和华如此说,跟我走进伊甸园,并听取一句话,我将通过对亚当'“(创传译十九。8)。 And the Lord then spoke to Adam, saying: "Where art thou hidden? Dost thou think I can not find thee? Can a house hide itself from its builder? [Targ. Yer. to Gen. iii. 9]. Because thou hast broken my commandment I will inflict seventy-two ailments upon thy body" (Mishnah Neg. i. 4).而主,然后以亚当说:???[。。。塔尔格也门里亚尔到创三9]。“隐藏的艺术你在哪里难道你以为我找不到你的房子能不能隐藏其建造者​​本身,因为祢打破我的诫命,我会造成七十二后,你的身体疾病“(米示拿否定词。岛4)。 And to the woman He said: "Because thou didst not hearken to my commandment I shall multiply thy labor-pains, and vainly [ἐν ματαιοīς of the Greek, by a mistake in reading (habalim) for (ḥabalim) in the Hebrew] thou wilt then confess and cry: 'Lord, save me, and I will not turn any more to carnal sin.'而他又对女人说:“因为不听我的诫命,我会乘你的劳动的痛苦祢,而妄想[ἐν希腊ματαιοīς由阅读错误,(habalim)为(ḥabalim)在希伯来文]你枯萎然后再坦白和呼喊:'上帝,救救我,我不会把任何更多的肉欲罪。' But thy desire shall be again to thy husband" (a midrashic explanation of Gen. iii. 16, based on the hermeneutic rule of semikot-explanation by context-and to be found word for word in Gen. R. xx. 7).但你的愿望,应再次向你的丈夫“(创三midrashic的解释。16日,根据semikot,解释学的规则解释文字的上下文和被发现的话在将军传译二十。7)。 Nor did the serpent escape punishment, for it lost its hands and legs (Gen. R. xx. 5), and a spirit of enmity was established between it and man unto the day of judgment; according to Targ.蛇也没有逃脱惩罚,因为它失去了它的手和腿,精神的敌意,建立了它与人到了审判的日子(创传译二十5。);根据塔尔格。 Yer.也门里亚尔。Gen. iii.将军三。15, "until the time of Messiah" (see Soṭah, 49b).15日,“直到弥赛亚时间”(见Soṭah,第49B)。

Adam Exiled from the Garden of Eden.亚当流放从伊甸园。

However, the heaviest punishment for Adam was his expulsion from the Garden of Eden.然而,最重处罚为亚当是他从伊甸园驱逐出境。All his supplications, as well as those of the angels, to mitigate the sentence only induced God to promise him, saying: "If after having left the Garden of Eden thou wilt guard against evil until thou diest" ["be prepared to die" is not correct, being based on the confusion of the Hebrew (wilt die) with the Aramaic (prepared)], "I will raise thee at the time of resurrection" (an old haggadic Targum to Gen. iii. 17, 22, which is also found in Targ. Yer. i. and Gen. R. xx. 10; compare the benediction meḥayye ha-metim (He raises the dead), in Apost. Const. vii. chap. xxxiv).他所有的恳求,以及那些为天使,以减轻刑期只有诱导上帝答应他,说:“如果离开后,直到你迪斯特反对邪恶的伊甸园祢防范”[“愿意死”是不正确的,即对与阿拉姆语(准备)]希伯来语(枯萎死亡)混乱的基础上,“我会提出的时间在你的复活”(旧阿haggadic根的将军三。17,22,也见于塔尔格也门里亚尔岛和将军传译二十10;。。。。。比较Apost的祝福meḥayye公顷metim(他引起死亡),常量第七章三十四)。。。 In the future world God will be among men (Tan., Num. 145, ed. Buber), and the Evil Spirit will be no more (Gen. R. xlviii. 11).在未来的世界上​​帝会男子(Tan.,序号。145版。布伯),与邪恶的精神将没有更多的(创传译48。11)。

The sentence of God was carried into effect.神的句子进行正式生效。Banished from the garden, which was henceforward surrounded by a sea of ice (Book of Enoch, Hebrew version; "BH" iv. 132), Adam and Eve settled in the neighborhood of Eden in the East (Gen. R. xxi. 9).从花园,这是从今以后由一个三面环海的冰放逐(伊诺克,希伯来文版的书;。“波黑”四132),亚当与夏娃在伊甸园定居在东(创传译二十一邻9。 )。They were no sooner out of their blissful abode than a paralyzing terror befell them.他们刚一离开自己幸福的居留权比瘫痪恐怖降临他们。Unaccustomed to the earthly life and unfamiliar with the changes of the day and of the weather-in paradise an eternal light had surrounded them (Gen. R. xi. 2)-they were terrified when the darkness of night began to fall upon the earth ('Ab. Zarah, 8a), and the intercession of God's word () was necessary to explainto them the new order of things.不习惯俗世的生活和白天和不熟悉的变化的天气在天堂一个永恒的光包围了他们(创传译十一。2)-们吓坏了,当夜色开始降临地球('抗体。Zarah,8A)条,和上帝的话语代祷()是必要的explainto他们对事物的新秩序。 From this moment the sufferings of life began; for Adam and Eve were afraid to partake of earthly food, and fasted for the first seven days after their expulsion from paradise, as is prescribed in Talmudic law before an imminent famine (Mishnah Ta'anit, i. 6).从这个时刻开始的苦难生活;为亚当和夏娃不敢分享人间的食物,并首次禁食七天后从天堂驱逐,这在法律规定之前,塔木德即将饥荒(米示拿Ta'anit,一6)。

Repentance of Adam.悔改亚当。

Humiliated and weakened by hunger and suffering, Adam became conscious of the gravity of his sin, for which he was now prepared to atone ('Er. 18b, Gen. R. xxii. 13).屈辱和苦难和饥饿削弱,亚当成为了他的罪过的严重性,为此,他现在准备赎罪('呃。18B条,将军传译二十二13。)意识。 He, therefore, like Moses, Elijah, and Abraham (Apoc. Abraham, 12), fasted for forty days, during which he stood up to his neck in the waters of the river Gihon (), the name of which is etymologically connected by the writer with the roots "to stoop" and "to pray aloud" (Pirḳe R. El. xx.).因此,他像摩西,以利亚,亚伯拉罕(Apoc.亚伯拉罕,12)禁食四十天,在此期间,他站起来的河流基红(海域,他的脖子),其连接的名称是词源同根作家“屈尊”和“大声祈祷”(pirḳe传译下午。二十。)。 According to the Vita Adæ et Evæ, Adam stood in the Jordan-a version which may be ascribed to the Christian copyists, who, for obvious reasons, wished to represent Adam as having had his baptism in the Jordan, forgetting that since Eve, as they themselves stated, bathed in the Tigris, Adam would have selected another of the rivers of paradise for that purpose.根据简历Adæ等Evæ,亚当站在约旦一,可能归因于基督教抄写员,谁,显而易见的原因,希望为代表有过他的洗礼,在约旦亚当版本,忘了自前夕,他们自己说,沐浴在底格里斯河,亚当会选择对用于这一目的的河流另一个天堂。

The days of repentance having passed, the twins Cain and Abel were born to Adam and Eve (Gen. R. xxii. 2).有悔改的日子过去了,该隐和亚伯出生的亚当和夏娃(创传译二十二。2)双胞胎。And soon Cain rose, ran away, and brought a reed to his mother (; compare Gen. R. xxii. 8): "Cain killed his brother with a reed ()"; for, according to the unanimous opinion of the Haggadah, the children of Adam and Eve were born fully developed (Gen. R. xxii. 2).很快该隐玫瑰,逃跑了,并带来了芦苇给他的母亲(;比较将军传译二十二8)。:“该隐杀害他的兄弟与芦苇()”,因为,根据该haggadah一致意见,亚当和夏娃的孩子出生充分发展(创传译二十二。2)。 Eve saw in a dream that Cain had assassinated his brother, and Abel was found slain with a stone (Gen. R. xxii. 8; Book of Jubilees, iv. 31); but the earth refused to receive his blood (Giṭ. 57b).除夕夜在梦中看到该隐暗杀他的弟弟,和阿贝尔被发现与一石被杀(创传译二十二8;。书jubilees,四31。),但地球拒绝接受他的血液(Giṭ.57B条)。 As a compensation for the murdered Abel, God promised Adam a son who should "make known everything that thou doest."作为补偿谋杀亚伯,神应许亚当的儿子谁应“知道你所做的一切。”

Illness and Death of Adam.亚当的疾病和死亡。

Adam, at the age of nine hundred and thirty years, became very ill; for God had cursed him with seventy-two ailments.亚当,在九三○年年龄,开始变得很糟糕,因为神诅咒七十二疾病他。He sent his son Seth, with Eve, to the Garden of Eden for the oil of healing, to restore him to health (Pirḳe R. El. xxxv).他派他的儿子塞思与夏娃,在伊甸园对石油的愈合,恢复他的健康(pirḳe传译下午。三十五)。On his way to paradise Seth was attacked by a wild animal.途中曾遭到了天堂塞思野生动物。Upon Eve's demanding how an animal could dare to attack an image of God, the animal replied that she herself, through her sin, had forfeited the right to rule over the animal kingdom (Pesiḳ. v. 44b, ed. Buber, and Sanh. 106b).当除夕的要求如何将动物可不敢攻击一个形象的神,动物回答说,她自己,通过她的罪恶,已没收权统治的动物王国(pesiḳ.二诉44B条,编辑。布伯,并葬身。 106B章)。Not until Seth exclaimed: "Wait until the day of judgment !"直到赛斯惊呼:“!等待审判的日子” or, "Stop! If not, thou wilt be brought to judgment before God" (both readings based on ) did the animal let him go.或者,“住手!如果不是,那你将被提交审判上帝”(两个读数的基础上)没有动物,让他去。However, the mission of Seth was in vain, for the angel Michael, to whom God had given the control over the human body-for he it was who had gathered the dust for Adam's creation (Midr. Konen, in "BH" ii. 27), told him that his father's life was at an end, and his soul would depart from him within the course of a week.然而,赛斯的任务是徒劳的,为天使迈克尔,向谁上帝给了对控制人体,因为他是谁,聚集为亚当的创造粉尘(midr.了Konen在“波黑”二。 27),告诉他,他父亲的生命也走到尽头,他的灵魂会从他在离开一个星期。

Funeral of Adam.葬礼的亚当。

Three days after the death of Adam (Gen. R. vii), which took place, as in the case of Moses and Aaron, in the presence of many angels and even in the presence of the Lord, his soul was handed over by God to Michael, who assigned it an abode in the third heaven (Ḥag. 12b) until the day of resurrection.三天后死亡的亚当(创传译七),这一事件发生后,如在摩西和亚伦的情况下,在许多天使的存在,即使在主的面前,以及他的灵魂交给了上帝迈克尔,谁赋予它在第三天堂,直到复活的日子(Ḥag.12B条)居留权。 The body was interred with exceptional honors; the four archangels, Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael (in the exact order of enumeration given by the Haggadah; see Kohut, "Angelologie," p. 25), buried it in the neighborhood of paradise, the precise spot being (Pirḳe R. El. xii. and xx.) Hebron near Jerusalem; for the site of the altar in the Temple, whence the dust of Adam was taken, is the gate to paradise.尸体被埋葬的特殊荣誉;四个天使,迈克尔,加布里埃尔,乌利尔,拉斐尔(确切的统计整理哈加达给予见胡特,“Angelologie”,第25页),埋在它的附近天堂,精确的现货正(pirḳe传译下午十二和二十。。。)耶路撒冷附近的希伯伦,对于在何处的亚当的灰尘所采取的庙,坛,网站是通往天堂的大门。 A few days after the interment of Adam by the virtutes, Eve felt that her end was approaching.几天后,由virtutes安葬亚当,夏娃认为,她即将结束。She called her children together and ordered them to write down the names of the first two human beings on two slabs of clay and stone, for she had learned from Michael that God had decided to bring a flood and a destructive fire over the earth and that only these slabs would escape destruction (Josephus, "Ant." i. 2, § 3).她叫她的孩子在一起,并命令他们写下的两个粘土和石板的第一个两个人的名字,因为她学会了从迈克尔,上帝已决定把洪水及以上火和地球的破坏性只有这些砖将难逃毁灭(约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”一,二,§ 3)。Eve passed away after a lapse of six days-that is, after the mourning week of Adam-as the (shib'ah) may consist, according to Talmudic law, of six days only and a few moments of the seventh day (M. Ḳ. 19b).除夕去世后,失效六天,也就是哀悼一周后,亚当,作为(shib'ah)可能包括,根据塔木德法六天只,第七日(米几分钟K表。19B条)。 Eve was buried by the angels at the side of Adam, and the angels instructed Seth not to mourn more than six days, and to rest and rejoice on the seventh day, for on that same day God and the angels would receive in gladness the soul which is lifted above all earthly matter (Sanh. 65b), and, moreover, rest upon the seventh day was to be the symbol of the resurrection in future ages (Sanh. 97a).夏娃被安葬由天使在一边的亚当,与天使指示塞思不超过6天哀悼,并以休息和欢呼,第七日就在同一天上帝与天使将获得在欢喜的灵魂,这是解除上述世间的一切物质(sanh. 65 B条),此外,在第七天休息是必须的,在(Sanh. 97A条)未来的时代复活的象征。

The reconstruction of the Jewish Book of Adam here attempted may be hypothetical in some points, for neither the Apoc.在亚当的犹太人在这里预订试图重建可能会在某些方面的假设,无论是载脂蛋白C。Mosis nor the Vita can be considered to represent a true copy of the original.Mosis也不是维塔可以被认为代表了原始的真实副本。 But it makes clear that these two apocryphas are based on the Hebrew or Aramaic Book of Adam and that the latter belongs to the midrashic literature, as many of its allusions can only be explained by the Midrash.但它清楚地表明这两个apocryphas是根据希伯来文或阿拉姆亚当书,而后者属于Midrashic文学,作为其典故很多只能由米德拉士解释。 The legends of Adam with which rabbinical literature abounds seem to point to the same source.传说中的亚当与犹太教文学比比皆是,似乎是指向同一来源。Thus the statement in Abot de-Rabbi Nathan (i. 6, ed. Shechter) that Eve always addressed Adam as "lord" is apparently not intelligible, until compared with the Vita and the Slavonic Book of Adam, both of which contain similar statements, which, therefore, must have existed in the original, from which they both drew independently of each other.因此,声明abot德拉-拉比弥敦道(一6,编辑。Shechter)表示,除夕夜总是称呼“上帝”亚当显然不是理解,直到与Vita和斯拉夫语书籍的亚当,都包含类似的声明相比, ,其中,因此,必须在原来,他们从两个相互独立提请存在。With regard to the alleged Christian elements and reminiscences of the New Testament in the Apoc.至于所谓的基督教元素和新约中的载脂蛋白C回忆。Mosis and Vita they will be sufficiently characterized by the following examples: Apoc. Mosis和Vita他们将得到充分的特点是下面的例子:载脂蛋白C。Mosis, iii., "Child of Wrath," is based on a haggadic etymology of the name Cain, and has nothing to do with Eph. Mosis,三。“愤怒的孩子”,是基于对阿haggadic词源的名字该隐,并已无关弗。ii.二。3; and Apoc.3;和载脂蛋白C。 Mosis, xix., "Lust is the beginning of all sin," is thoroughly Jewish (see above), and need not therefore have been taken from such a source as James, i. Mosis,十九。“欲望是一切罪恶的开始”,是彻底的犹太人(见上文),而不必因此,从这样一个詹姆斯,采取一源15.15。This, moreover, is the case with all the other alleged Christian passages in the Apoc.这一点,而且,是与所有其他被指控在载脂蛋白C基督教通道的情况。Mosis, which would prove nothing, even if they were of Christian origin; for it can not be surprising to find Christian allusions in the language of a book so widely read among Christians as the Apocrypha. Mosis,这将证明什么,即使他们对基督教的起源是,因为它不能找到令人惊讶的如此广泛的伪基督徒之间看书语言基督教典故。Even passages where one would expect that a Christian editor or compiler would interject Christological notions are quite free from them; all of which tends to show that neither the Apoc.即使通道的地方人会期望一个基督教编辑器或编译器将插嘴基督的观点是完全不同于他们的自由,所有这些倾向显示,无论是载脂蛋白C。 Mosis nor the Vita was in any way tampered with by Christian writers.Mosis也不是篡改简历的基督教作家任何方式。

Louis Ginzberg路易斯金兹伯格
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Schürer, Gesch. Schürer,Gesch。3d ed., iii., 288 et seq.; Fuchs, in Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments (trans. and ed. by E. Kautzsch), ii. 。三维版,三,288起。。福克斯,在模具Apokryphen有限公司Pseudepigraphen万老圣经(译及对外债务由E.的Kautzsch。),二。 506-529; Ginzberg, Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvätern, in Monatsschrift, 1899, pp. 63 et seq. 506-529;金兹伯格,模具Haggada北巢穴Kirchenvätern,在月刊,1899年,第63起。The most important editions of the Books of Adam are: Apoc.亚当的书的最重要的版本是:载脂蛋白C。Mosis, in Apocalypses Apocryphœ, ed.Mosis,在启示Apocryphœ,编辑。Tischendorf, 1866; Vita Adœ et Evœ, ed.提申多夫,1866年;维塔Adœ等Evœ,编辑。H. Meyer, in Abhandlungen der Bayrischen Akademie der Wissenschaften; Philosophisch-Philologische Klasse, xiv.阁下迈耶,在Abhandlungen明镜Bayrischen Akademie明镜学问; Philosophisch - Philologische Klasse,14。(1878); the Old Slavonic Book of Adam; Jagic, in Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse (1893), i.(1878年),旧斯拉夫书亚当; Jagic,在Denkschriften明镜维纳Akademie明镜学问,Philosophisch - Historische Klasse(1893年),岛et seq., xlii.; Malan, Book of Adam and Eve, translated from the Ethiopic, London, 1882.LG起,四十二。。马兰,亚当和夏娃,图书翻译从埃塞俄比亚,伦敦,1882.LG

Also, see:此外,见:
Original Sin原罪
Eden, Eve伊甸,夏娃

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