Adoptionism嗣子

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Adoptionism, or adoptianism, was a theological doctrine propounded in the 8th century by a Spanish bishop, Elipandus of Toledo. Adoptionism,或adoptianism,是一个神学教义propounded在8世纪由西班牙的主教,托莱多Elipandus。Concerned to distinguish between the divine and human natures of Christ, Elipandus held that in his divinity Christ was the son of God by nature, but in his humanity by adoption only. The doctrine was opposed by the English scholar Alcuin and condemned as heresy by the Council of Frankfurt (794).有关区分神和基督的人性,Elipandus 认为,在他的神性基督是上帝的儿子性质,但在收养他的人性而已。反对该学说是由英国学者阿尔昆和异端的谴责法兰克福会(794)。 Similar views were held by Paul of Samosata and the followers of Monarchianism.举行了类似的看法保罗萨莫萨塔和神格的追随者。

Bibliography 参考书目
H Belloc, Great Heresies (1938).ħ贝洛克(1938)大异端。

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Adoptionism

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Put most simply, adoptionism is the theory that Jesus was in nature a man who became God by adoption.把最简单的,adoptionism是耶稣的理论,在自然界是一个男人谁成为收养神。

The earliest extant work which expresses this position is the Shepherd of Hermas, thought to be written by the brother of the bishop of Rome about AD 150.现存最早的工作,表示这一立场是牧人,被认为是由罗马主教约公元150兄弟写的。It taught that the Redeemer was a virtuous man chosen by God, and with him the Spirit of God was united.它告诉我们,救赎是一个良性的人所选择的上帝,和他一起上帝的精神是团结。He did the work to which God had called him; in fact, he did more than was commanded. Therefore he was by divine decree adopted as a son and exalted to great power and lordship.他做了工作,而上帝在召唤他,事实上,他并没有一味吩咐贵族身份。 因此他是由神的大国法令通过,成为一个儿子和崇高的。Adherents of this Christology who were declared heretics in the third century asserted it had at one time been the dominant view in Rome and that it had been handed down by the apostles.本基督谁被宣布在第三世纪异端遗民宣称它在被主流观点在罗马一次,它已转交由使徒下来。

This view was perpetuated in the second and third century church by the dynamistic monarchians, who taught that Christ was a mere man on whom the power of God came and who was then adopted or constituted the Son of God.这种观点是延续在第二和第三世纪的教堂由dynamistic monarchians,谁告诉我们,基督是一个单纯的人因有上帝的力量来了,谁当时采纳或构成了神的儿子。A leader in that general movement was Theodotus, who came to Rome from Byzantium about 190.这方面的一个普遍的运动领导人奥多托斯,谁来自拜占庭罗马约190。He taught that Jesus was a man who was born of a virgin through the operation of the Holy Spirit.他告诉我们,耶稣是谁是处女所生通过圣灵的工作的人。After the piety of his life had been tested, the Holy Spirit descended on him at the baptism.之后,他的生活已经过测试,虔诚,圣灵降临在他的洗礼。By this means he became Christ and received the power for his special ministry.通过这种方式,他成为基督和他的特别部获得的权力。But he was still not fully God; that was achieved through resurrection.但他仍然没有完全的神,是通过复活实现。Theodotus was excommunicated by the Roman Church, and the effort of his followers to found a separate church early in the third century had little success.奥多托斯被逐出教会的罗马教会,和他的追随者为了找到一个独立的教会在第三世纪初有成效甚微。

Adoptionism was an attempt to explain the divine and human natures in Christ and their relation to each other.Adoptionism是企图解释神性和人性在基督和他们的相互关系。And as the great Christological debates raged during the fourth and fifth centuries, there were always a few who could be accused of taking this position.正如在第四和第五世纪伟大的基督辩论激烈,总有一个谁可能是采取这一立场被告人数。It did not flare again extensively, however, until the latter part of the eighth century, when it produced a commotion in the Spanish and Frankish churches.它没有再次爆发广泛,但是,直到第八世纪,当它产于西班牙和法兰克教会骚动后半部。

Elipandus, bishop of Toledo from c.Elipandus,托莱多主教从C780, in his writings on the Trinity expressed the view that Christ was an adopted son; Felix, bishop of Urgel in the Pyrenees, taught a similar position soon thereafter. 780在他的著作对三位一体,表示认为基督是领养的儿子费利克斯,在比利牛斯山Urgel主教,教了类似的立场此后不久。Numerous local churchmen opposed them; and their teachings were condemned by three synods under Charlemagne, who assumed the position of ruler of the church in his realm and who was concerned with its unity.许多地方教士反对他们,他们的教导下,由三主教查理曼,谁承担了在他的境界教会统治者的地位,谁是它的统一与有关的谴责。 Pope Adrian I also became involved, and the recantation of both men was obtained.教皇阿德里安我自己也成了参与,而男女双方取消前言获得。They had a numerous following, however, and extensive efforts were required to bring these people back into the fold.他们有一个无数以下,然而,需要广泛的努力,使这些人的折回来。The effects of the controversy lasted for decades in Toledo.影响的争论持续了几十年来在托莱多。Possibly remnants of the old Arian heresy contributed to the popularity of adoptionism at this time.可能老亚略异端的残余促成了adoptionism此时受欢迎。

A sound refutation of adoptionism was never made, and leanings in that direction appeared in some scholastic writings during the late Middle Ages.一个健全的adoptionism从未提出反驳,并在这方向的倾向在一些学术著作中出现是在中世纪晚期。

HF Vos高频沃斯

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
A Harnack, History of Dogma; A Hauck, SHERK, I.阿哈纳克,历史的教条,一个克,谢尔克,一


AdoptionismAdoptionism

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Adoptionism, in a broad sense, a christological theory according to which Christ, as man, is the adoptive Son of God; the precise import of the word varies with the successive stages and exponents of the theory. Adoptionism,在广泛的意义上说,基督理论根据,以基督,作为人,是神的养子,这个词的确切导入的各个阶段和不同的理论倡导者。Roughly, we have (1) the adoptionism of Elipandus and Felix in the eighth century; (2) the Neo-Adoptionism of Abelard in the twelfth century; (3) the qualified Adoptionism of some theologians from the fourteenth century on.粗略地说,我们有(1)Elipandus和Felix在第八世纪adoptionism;(2)理学Adoptionism在12世纪阿贝拉尔;(3)从14世纪的一些神学家合格Adoptionism。

(1) Adoptionism of Elipandus and Felix in the Eighth Century This, the original form of Adoptionism, asserts a double sonship in Christ: one by generation and nature, and the other by adoption and grace. (1)Elipandus和费利克斯Adoptionism在第八世纪如此,Adoptionism原始形式,声称在基督双重的sonship:由产生和性质之一,通过采用和其他宽限期。 Christ as God is indeed the Son of God by generation and nature, but Christ as man is Son of God only by adoption and grace.基督作为上帝确实是自然之子的产生和神,但基督为人类是神的儿子,只有通过和恩典。Hence "The Man Christ" is the adoptive and not the natural Son of God.因此,“为人的基督”是收养,而不是上帝的亲生儿子。Such is the theory held towards the end of the eighth century by Elipandus, Archbishop of Toledo, then under the Mohammedan rule, and by Felix, Bishop of Urgel, then under the Frankish dominion.这就是朝着由Elipandus,托莱多大主教,第八世纪结束时举行然后根据伊斯兰教统治的理论,由Felix,对Urgel主教,然后根据法兰克统治。 The origin of this Hispanicus error, as it was called, is obscure.这个Hispanicus误差来源,因为它是所谓的,是含糊不清的。Nestorianism had been a decidedly Eastern heresy and we are surprised to find an offshoot of it in the most western part of the Western Church, and this so long after the parent heresy had found a grave in its native land.景教曾是断然东区异端,我们惊奇地发现在西方教会最西部它的一个分支,这这么久后父异端发现在其故土的坟墓。It is, however, noteworthy that Adoptionism began in that part of Spain where Islamism dominated, and where a Nestorian colony had for years found refuge.它是,但是,值得注意的是,在这Adoptionism开始在伊斯兰教占主导地位的西班牙的一部分,并在一景教殖民地了很多年找到了避难所。 The combined influence of Islamism and Nestorianism had, no doubt, blunted the aged Elipandus's Catholic sense.伊斯兰教,景教的综合影响了,毫无疑问,迟钝的老人Elipandus的天主教意义。Then came a certain Migetius, preaching a loose doctrine, and holding, among other errors, that the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity did not exist before the Incarnation.然后来到某Migetius,说教一个松散的学说,并持有等错误,是三位一体的第二人有福之前并不存在的化身。 The better to confute this error, Elipandus drew a hard and fast line between Jesus as God and Jesus as Man, the former being the natural, and the latter merely the adoptive Son of God.为了更好地驳斥这个错误,Elipandus提请由于人作为上帝和基督耶稣之间的努力,快线,前者是自然的,而后者仅仅是神的养子。 The reassertion of Nestorianism raised a storm of protest from Catholics, headed by Beatus, Abbot of Libana, and Etherius, Bishop of Osma.景教提出的重新抬头,从天主教徒的抗议风暴,由精艺轩,对Libana住持,并Etherius,主教为首的奥萨马。It was to maintain his position that Elipandus deftly enlisted the co-operation of Felix of Urgel, known for his learning and versatile mind.这是保持他的立场,Elipandus巧妙地邀请了共同的Urgel菲利克斯为自己的学习和思想认识多样化,经营。Felix entered the contest thoughtlessly.费利克斯进入比赛草率。Once in the heat of it, he proved a strong ally for Elipandus, and even became the leader of the new movement called by contemporaries the Haeresis Feliciana.一旦它的热量,他证明了Elipandus强有力的盟友,甚至成为了同时代人的Haeresis费利西亚娜称为新的运动的领导者。 While Elipandus put an indomitable will at the service of Adoptionism, Felix gave it the support of his science and also Punic faith.虽然Elipandus置于Adoptionism服务不屈不挠的意志,菲利克斯了,它的他的科学支持,并背信弃义。 From Scripture he quoted innumerable texts.他引用了无数从圣经文本。In the patristic literature and Mozarabic Liturgy he found such expressions as adoptio, homo adoptivus, ouios thetos, supposedly applied to the Incarnation and Jesus Christ.在莫扎拉布素歌教父文学和礼仪,他发现这些词句的adoptio,同质adoptivus,ouios thetos,据说应用和耶稣基督的化身。Nor did he neglect the aid of dialectics, remarking with subtilty that the epithet "Natural Son of God" could not be predicated of "The Man Jesus", who was begotten by temporal generation; who was inferior to the Father; who was related not to the Father especially, but to the whole Trinity, the relation in questions remaining unaltered if the Father or the Holy Ghost had been incarnate instead of the Son.他也没有忽略了辩证法援助,用诡计的绰号“自然神的儿子”不能成为“人耶稣”,谁是造物主为前提的议论时空一代,谁不如父,谁是不相关特别是对父亲,但对整个三位一体,在余下的问题,关系不变,如果父亲或圣灵已经代替儿子的化身。 Elipandus's obstinacy and Felix's versatility were but the partial cause of the temporary success of Adoptionism.Elipandus的固执和Felix的多功能性人,但该部分的Adoptionism一时的成功的原因。 If that offspring of Nestorianism held sway in Spain for wellnigh two decades and even made an inroad into southern France, the true cause is to be found in Islamitic rule, which practically brought to naught the control of Rome over the greater part of Spain; and in the over-conciliatory attitude of Charlemagne, who, in spite of his whole-souled loyalty to the Roman Faith, could ill afford to alienate politically provinces so dearly bought.如果这样的景教在西班牙举行的后代wellnigh摇晃几十年甚至二制成法国南部一侵入,真正的原因是要在Islamitic规则,这实际上带来化为乌有在西班牙的大部分发现的罗马控制;及在查理曼,过和解的态度谁,在他的全魂忠诚于罗马的信仰,但负担不起如此高昂的代价疏远政治上买的省份。 Of the two heresiarchs, Elipandus died in his error.在这两个heresiarchs,Elipandus死在了自己的错误。Felix, after many insincere recantations, was placed under the surveillance of Leidrad of Lyons and gave all the signs of a genuine conversion.费利克斯,许多言不由衷recantations后,被划归里昂Leidrad监视,给了所有的真正转换的迹象。 His death would even have passed for a repentant's death if Agobar, Leidrad's successor, had not found among his papers a definite retraction of all former retractions.他的死会甚至已经过了一个忏悔的死亡如果Agobar,Leidrad的继任者,并没有发现他的论文中的所有前撤消一定回缩。 Adoptionism did not long outlive its authors.Adoptionism没有长期活得比它的作者。What Charlemagne could not do by diplomacy and synods (Narbonne, 788; Ratisbon, 792; Frankfort, 794; Aix-la-Chapelle, 799) he accomplished by enlisting the services of missionaries like St. Benedict of Aniane, who reported as early as 800 the conversion of 20,000 clerics and laymen; and savants like Alcuin, whose treatises "Adv. Elipandum Toletanum" and "Contra Felicem Urgellensem" will ever be a credit to Christian learning.查理曼什么不能做外交和主教会议(纳博讷,788;拉蒂斯邦,792,法兰克福,794;埃克斯腊Chapelle的,799)他的争取,如圣本笃的阿尼亚讷,谁报告早在传教士的服务完成800 20000神职人员和普通人的转换;像阿尔昆,其论文“。高级Elipandum Toletanum”和“魂斗罗Felicem Urgellensem”将永远是一个学习的信贷,以基督教学者。

The official condemnation of Adoptionism is to be found (1) in Pope Hadrian's two letters, one to the bishops of Spain, 785, and the other to Charlemagne, 794; (2) in the decrees of the Council of Frankfort (794), summoned by Charlemagne, it is true, but "in full apostolic power" and presided over by the legate of Rome, therefore a synodus universalis, according to an expression of contemporary chroniclers.对Adoptionism官方谴责是要找到在教皇哈德良的两封信,一到西班牙,785主教(1),以及对查理曼,794等;(二)在对法兰克福会(794)的法令,由查理曼召,这是事实,但“全面使徒力量”,主持由罗马教皇特使的,因此synodus普遍主义结束,据一位当代编年史的表达。 In these documents the natural divine filiation of Jesus even as man is strongly asserted, and His adoptive filiation, at least in so far as it excludes the natural, is rejected as heretical.在这些文件中耶稣的自然神父子关系,即使是强烈主张的人,和他收养的亲子关系,至少在目前为止,因为它排除了自然,是拒绝为异端邪说。 Some writers, mainly Protestant, have tried to erase from Adoptionism all stain of the Nestorian heresy.一些作家,主要是新教,试图抹去Adoptionism所有的景教异端污点。These writers do not seem to have caught the meaning of the Church's definition.这些作家似乎没有已经引起了教会的定义的含义。Since sonship is an attribute of the person and not of the nature, to posit two sons is to posit two persons in Christ, the very error of Nestorianism.由于的sonship是该人的属性,不是本质,假定两个儿子,是假定在基督里,景教非常错误的两个人。 Alcuin exactly renders the mind of the Church when he says, "As the Nestorian impiety divided Christ into two persons because of the two natures, so your unlearned temerity divided Him into two sons, one natural and one adoptive" (Contra Felicem, I, PL CI, Col. 136).阿尔昆正是呈现心中的教会时,他说,“由于景教不虔诚分为两个性质,因为基督的人,所以你胸无点墨冒然分为两个儿子,一个自然人和一个收养了他”(魂斗罗Felicem,我,特等区间,中校136)。 With regard to the arguments adduced by Felix in support of his theory, it may be briefly remarked that (1) such scriptural texts as John, xiv, 28, had already been explained at the time of the Arian controversy, and such others as Rom., viii, 29, refer to our adoption, not to that of Jesus, Christ is nowhere in the Bible called the adopted Son of God; nay more, Holy Scripture attributes to "The Man Christ" all the predicates which belong to the Eternal Son (cf. John 1:18; 3:16; Romans 8:32).关于由菲利克斯在引用他的理论支持的论点,它可能是简单地表示,(1),如约翰,十四,28,圣经的文本已经在阿里安争议时解释说,作为ROM等人。,八,29岁,是指领养,而不是耶稣说,基督是无处在圣经中称为神的养子,不仅如此,圣经属性为“为人的基督”的所有谓词属于永恒儿子(参见约翰1:18; 3:16;罗马书8:32)。(2) The expression adoptare, adoptio, used by some Fathers, has for its object the sacred Humanity, not the person of Christ; the human nature, not Christ, is said to be adopted or assumed by the Word. (2)的表达adoptare,adoptio,一些父亲使用,其对象的神圣人性,不是基督的人有;人性,不是基督,被认为是通过或由Word承担。 The concrete expression of the Mozarabic Missal, Homo adoptatus, or of some Greek Fathers, ouios thetos, either does not apply to Christ or is an instance of the not infrequent use in early days of the concrete for the abstract.该莫扎拉布素歌missal,智人adoptatus的具体表现,或某些希腊教父,ouios thetos,或者并不适用于基督或者是对不符合实际的抽象初期很少使用的实例。(3) The dialectical arguments of Felix cease to have a meaning the moment it is clearly understood that, as St. Thomas says, "Filiation properly belongs to the person". (3)菲利克斯辩证的论点不再拥有它的含义是清楚明白的那一刻,正如圣托马斯说,“父子关系属于正常的人”。Christ, Son of God, by His eternal generation, remains Son of God, even after the Word has assumed and substantially united to Himself the sacred Humanity; Incarnation detracts no more from the eternal sonship than it does from the eternal personality of the Word.基督,上帝的儿子,他的永恒的一代,仍然是神的儿子,甚至在Word已承担并大幅团结,以自己的神圣人性;化身削弱永恒的sonship没有比它从永恒的Word个性收效更大。 (See NESTORIANISM.) (见景教。)

(2) New-Adoptionism of Abelard in the Twelfth Century (2)新型Adoptionism的阿贝拉尔在12世纪

The Spanish heresy left few traces in the Middle Ages.西班牙异端留在中世纪的痕迹。It is doubtful whether the christological errors of Abelard can be traced to it.这是令人怀疑是否阿贝拉尔的基督错误可以追溯到它。They rather seem to be the logical consequence of a wrong construction put upon the hypostatical union.而他们似乎是联盟后,本hypostatical放错建设的必然结果。Abelard began to question the truth of such expressions as "Christ is God"; "Christ is man".阿贝拉尔开始质疑这种表达真理“基督是上帝”,“基督是人”。Back of what might seem a mere logomachy there is really, in Abelard's mind, a fundamental error.恢复这个似乎只有logomachy有真的,在阿贝拉尔的心目中,一个根本性的错误。He understood the hypostatical union as a fusion of two natures, the divine and the human.他理解为两个性质,在神和人的融合hypostatical联盟。And lest that fusion become a confusion, he made the sacred Humanity the external habit and adventitious instrument of the Word only, and thus denied the substantial reality of "The Man Christ" -- "Christus ut homo non est aliquid sed dici potest alicuius modi."免得,融合成为一种混乱,他的神圣人性的外部习惯和Word只不定的工具,从而否定了“为人的基督”重大的现实 - “基督UT斯达康非同源的EST aliquid桑达dici potest alicuius作案“。It is self-evident that in such a theory the Man Christ could not be called the true Son of God.这是不言自明的,在这种理论的人基督不能被称为真正的上帝的儿子。Was He the adoptive Son of God?是他收养的神的儿子吗?Personally, Abelard repudiated all kinship with the Adoptionists, just as they deprecated the very idea of their affiliation to the Nestorian heresy.就个人而言,阿贝拉尔推翻所有与Adoptionists亲属关系,就像他们不赞成他们的从属关系非常主意景教异端。 But after Abelard's theory spread beyond France, into Italy, Germany and even the Orient, the disciples were less cautious than the master.但在阿贝拉尔的法国以外理论的传播,到意大利,德国,甚至东方,门徒小于主持谨慎态度。 Luitolph defended at Rome the following proposition -- "Christ, as man, is the natural son of man and the adoptive Son of God"; and Folmar, in Germany, carried this erroneous tenet to its extreme consequences, denying to Christ as man the right to adoration. Luitolph辩护在罗马下面的命题 - “基督,作为人,是人的亲生儿子和神的义子”,以及福尔马,在德国进行的这种错误的宗旨,其极端后果,否认作为人的基督权利的崇拜。Abelard's new-Adoptionism was condemned, at least in its fundamental principles, by Alexander III, in a rescript dated 1177: "We forbid under pain of anathema that anyone in the future dare assert that Christ as man is not a substantial reality (non esse aliquid) because as He is truly God, so He is verily man."阿贝拉尔的新Adoptionism谴责,至少在其基本原则,由亚历山大三世,在诏书日期为1177:“我们下的痛苦诅咒禁止在将来有人敢于断言基督人是不是一个重大的现实(非Esse品牌aliquid因为当他)是真正的上帝,所以他是实实在在的人。“ The refutation of this new form of Adoptionism, as it rests altogether on the interpretation of the hypostatical union, will be found in the treatment of that word.这种新形式的Adoptionism驳斥,因为这完全取决于对hypostatical工会的解释,会发现在这个词的待遇。 (See HYPOSTATIC UNION.) (见本质的联盟。)

(3) Qualified Adoptionism of Later Theologians(3)合格的后来神学家Adoptionism

The formulas "natural Son of God", "adopted Son of God" were again subjected to a close analysis by such theologians as Duns Scotus (1300); Durandus a S. Portiano (1320); Vasquez (1604); Francisco Suárez (1617).该公式“上帝的亲生儿子”,“通过上帝的儿子”,再次遭受这样的神学家邓司各脱(1300)结束的分析; Durandus一学Portiano(1320); Vásquez案(1604),弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯(1617 )。They all admitted the doctrine of Frankfort, and confessed that Jesus as man was the natural and not merely the adoptive Son of God.他们都承认,法兰克福学说,又承认耶稣是由于人的自然,而不是仅仅是神的养子。But besides that natural sonship resting upon the hypostatical union, they thought there was room for a second filiation, resting on grace, the grace of union (gratia unionis).但是,除了自然的休息后,hypostatical联盟的sonship,他们认为有亲子关系的第二个房间,优雅的休息,对工会的恩典(特惠unionis)。 They did not agree, however, in qualifying that second filiation.他们不同意,但是,在排位赛中第二次亲子关系。Some called it adoptive, because of its analogy with our supernatural adoption.有些人称之为收养,因为它与我们的超自然采用类比。 Others, fearing lest the implication of the word adoption might make Jesus a stranger to, and alien from God, preferred to call it natural.其他人,免得他们担心这个词的含义可能通过耶稣使一个陌生人,和外来的神,宁愿把它叫做自然。 None of these theories runs counter to a defined dogma; yet, since sonship is an attribute of the person, there is danger of multiplying the persons by multiplying the filiations in Christ.这些理论中没有任何违背一个定义的教条,然而,由于的sonship是该人的属性,有乘以乘以filiations在基督的人的危险。 A second natural filiation is not intelligible.第二个天然的亲​​子关系是不理解。A second adoptive filiation does not sufficiently eschew the connotation of adoption as defined by the Council of Frankfort.第二个收养子女与父母关系不充分避开采纳内涵,由法兰克福理事会确定。"We call adoptive him who is stranger to the adopter."“我们叫他是谁收养的陌生人收养。”The common mistake of these novel theories, a mistake already made by the old Adoptionists and by Abelard, lies in the supposition that the grace of union in Christ, not being less fruitful than habitual grace in man, should have a similar effect, viz., filiation.这些新颖的理论,已经由老Adoptionists和阿贝拉尔犯了一个错误,常见的错误在于,工会在基督的恩典,但不得少于人习惯在宽限期富有成效,应该有一个类似的效果,即在这样的假设。 ,亲子关系。Less fruitful it is not, and yet it cannot have the same effect in Him as in us, because to Him it was said: "Thou art my Son, today have I begotten Thee" (Hebrews 1:5); and to us, "You were afar off" (Ephesians 2:13).减卓有成效它不是,但它不能作为对我们在他的同样效果,因为这是对他说:“你是我的儿子,今天的我今日生你”(希伯来书1:5);和我们, “你们远处的人”(以弗所书2:13)。

Publication information Written by JF Sollier.出版信息的书面由JF Sollier。Transcribed by Bob Knippenberg.转录由Bob Knippenberg。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


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