Anglican Communion英国圣公会 中文 - Zhong Wen

yīngguó shènggōnghuì

General Information一般资料

The Anglican Communion is a worldwide fellowship of independent churches derived from the Church of England.英国圣公会是从英国独立教会教会得到全世界奖学金。The communion has 70 provinces, located on every continent, with some 430 dioceses, and approximately 27 million members.共融的有70个省,430个教区一些位于各大洲,以及大约27万成员。Although independent, the member churches acknowledge a common heritage including the Book of Common Prayer, the Thirty Nine Articles, and the threefold ministry of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. The bishops meet every ten years, at the invitation of the archbishop of Canterbury, in the Lambeth Conference.虽然独立,承认一个教会的成员共同祈祷的共同遗产,包括书,39条,以及教育部和执事三倍的主教,司铎。主教们坎特伯雷大主教满足每十几年,在邀请,在兰贝斯会议。 Cooperation between the member churches is facilitated by the Anglican Consultative Council, with its secretary general and with the archbishop of Canterbury as president.教会成员之间的合作是促进了英国圣公会协商委员会,其秘书长和与坎特伯雷大主教为总统。Regional councils link provinces within specific geographical regions.区域市政局在特定地理区域的联系省份。

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The Anglican Communion is committed to the reunion of all Christian churches.英国圣公会致力于向所有的基督教教堂聚会。In 1888 the Lambeth Conference adopted as its basis for reunion a Quadrilateral, by which it defined those things essential to any church:在1888年的兰贝斯会议通过,其依据团聚一个四边形,其中定义的那些事物的本质任何教会:
  1. "The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as 'containing all things necessary to salvation,' and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith";他说:“新旧约圣经,作为'包含一切必要的救赎,'和,因为这是规则和信仰的终极标准”;
  2. "The Apostles' Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol; and the Nicene Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith"; “使徒们的信条,作为洗礼的象征;和尼西亚信条作为基督教信仰足够的声明”;
  3. "The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself - Baptism and the Supper of the Lord - ministered with unfailing use of Christ's words of Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him";“这两个圣礼由基督自己受戒 - 洗礼和主的晚餐 - 以永不褪色的院校基督的话使用侍奉,以及由他受戒的内容”;
  4. "The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the Unity of His Church."“主教的历史,当地在其管理的方法,对国家和上帝叫进了他的教会团结人民的不同需要调整。”

John E Booty约恩E藏宝

Bibliography 参考书目
M Marshall, The Anglican Church Today and Tomorrow (1984); S Neill, Anglicanism (1977). M马歇尔,英国圣公会教会的今天和明天(1984年)中,S奥尼尔,圣公会(1977年)。

Anglican Communion英国圣公会

General Information一般资料

The Anglican Communion is a worldwide fellowship of national and regional churches in communion with the Church of England and the archbishop of Canterbury.英国圣公会是在与英国教会和坎特伯雷大主教教会共融的国家和地区的全球奖学金。With about 385 dioceses throughout the world, the total membership of the churches, including the Episcopal church in the United States, is approximately 73 million.随着世界各地的约385教区的教会,包括在美国圣公会教堂的成员总数,大约是7300万。Intended to promote mutual understanding and cooperation in common tasks, the Communion unites churches that share a common heritage and subscribe to the Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1884.旨在促进相互理解和合作的共同任务,团结教会的共融共享一个共同的遗产,并订阅1884年兰贝斯四边形。The Quadrilateral, a statement of the doctrines considered essential from the Anglican standpoint, upholds the catholic and apostolic faith and order of the Christian church as found in Scripture, the sacraments of baptism and the Eucharist, the Apostles' Creed and Nicene Creed, and episcopal government (see Bishop).四边形,是英国圣公会的角度考虑,从基本的教义声明,坚持使徒信仰天主教和基督教教堂和秩序,发现圣经中,洗礼和圣体,使徒们的信条和尼西亚信经,和圣礼主教政府(见主教)。 All the churches use the Book of Common Prayer, reformed and adapted to the needs of the times and of particular locales.所有的教会使用的共同祈祷书,改革和适应时代和特定语言环境的需要。

Although the Anglican Communion has existed since the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Church of England established foreign missions, its effective function as a communion of independent churches began in 1867.虽然英国圣公会自从16世纪和17世纪,当英国教会建立外国使团存在,但其作为一个独立的教会共融的有效功能开始于1867年。 In that year, the first Lambeth Conference, an assembly of the bishops of the whole Anglican Communion under the presidency of the archbishop of Canterbury, was held at Lambeth Palace, London.在这一年,第一兰贝斯会议,对下的坎特伯雷大主教主持了整个英国圣公会主教大会,举行兰贝斯宫,伦敦。A conference has met there about every ten years since then to deal with doctrinal, disciplinary, and ecumenical matters, as well as missionary responsibilities.已召开一次会议,然后大约每隔十年以来,处理有教义,纪律,和基督教的事项,以及传教的责任。 Much of the agenda has concerned the unity of the church.议程很多人关心教会的团结。In 1948, the Lambeth Conference heralded the birth of the Church of South India, which united certain Anglican dioceses with non-Anglican churches in that area.中1948兰贝斯会宣告了南印度教会其中美国在这一领域的非圣公会教堂某些圣公会教区出生。The Lambeth Conference of 1968 established the Anglican Consultative Council under the presidency of the archbishop of Canterbury.1968年的兰贝斯会议下成立的英国圣公会坎特伯雷大主教主持协商会。The council, composed of 60 representatives from every part of the Anglican Communion who meet every two to three years, is intended to supply guidance on policy matters of importance to the Communion, to forward ecumenical relations, and to provide cooperation in missionary work.理事会由60名代表组成的每一个英国圣公会谁满足每两至三年的一部分,旨在提供有关的重要事项的共融政策指导下,提出合一的关系,并提供传教工作的合作。 Regional councils are also active in South America, East Asia, the South Pacific, and North America, with more to be established.区域市政局也在南美,东南亚,南太平洋,北美洲,活跃,更要建立。These councils were created to promote better communication among the churches of a given area and to advance cooperative planning efforts.这些委员会的建立是为了促进某一特定地区的教堂更好的沟通,推进合作规划的努力。

John Everitt Booty约翰埃弗里特藏宝

Anglican Communion英国圣公会

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Anglican Communion is a worldwide fellowship of churches in communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury (England) and whose bishops are invited each decade (except during wartime) to the Lambeth Conference held in London since 1867.英国圣公会是在与坎特伯雷(英格兰)大主教的共融的教会团契和其全球范围内邀请每一个十年(除非是在战时)主教的兰贝斯会议自1867年起在伦敦举行。 Anglicans hold that theirs is the church of NT times and the early church, reformed in the sixteenth century and waiting for the reunion of all Christians.圣公会认为是他们的新台币时代教会和早期教会,在十六世纪的改革和对所有基督徒团聚等待。

Bishops are the chief officers of Anglican churches, with arch - bishops or presiding bishops functioning as "first among equals" with national or provincial responsibilities and administrative authority.英国圣公会主教是教会的行政人员,与Arch - 主教或主教主持运作的“第一之间的平等”的国家或省级的责任和行政权力。Only bishops may ordain clergy and consecrate other bishops.只有主教可能阿拉维的神职人员和其他主教祝圣。Some dioceses have assistant bishops called coadjutor or suffragan bishops.教区助理主教有一些所谓的帮手或suffragan主教。 The latter does not automatically succeed the diocesan bishop, whereas the coadjutor does.后者不会自动接替教区主教,而帮手一样。

The basic unit in the church is the parish with its congregation and rector.在教会的基本单位是校长与众和教区。A mission may be a congregation dependent upon a parish (or diocese).一个任务可能是一个众后,一个教区(或教区)而定。 The diocese is that group of parishes and missions under a bishop whose representatives meet each year for a diocesan convention (or council).教区是,教区主教和任务下达到了其代表教区公约(或理事会)每年组。Each parish and mission is represented by laity as well as clergy, and laity are represented on all the significant governing committees.每个教区和使命的代表是俗人,以及神职人员,和俗人在所有重大管治委员会的代表。Bishops are elected at these conventions or councils in most Anglican churches, but some bishops are still appointed, as in the case of the Church of England and many mission dioceses.主教团选出,在这些公约或大多数英国圣公会教堂议会,但仍有一些主教任命为在英国教会和许多任务教区的情况下。

The Book of Common Prayer, in one of its many derived forms, is used by all Anglican churches.祈祷书的常见形式推导了它的一个多,是适用于所有英国圣公会教堂。It is regarded as the distinctive embodiment of Anglican doctrine following the principle of "the rule of prayer is the rule of belief" (lex orandi, lex credendi).这被视为体现鲜明的英国国教教义按照“规则的祷告是信仰的规则”(法orandi,法credendi)的原则。 The section of the Prayer Book called the Ordinal, by which clergy are ordained following their vows, is especially crucial for doctrinal standards.祈祷的书籍部分称为有序,其中神职人员受戒后他们的誓言,特别是对理论的标准是至关重要的。The Holy Scripture is declared to be the Word of God and to contain all that is necessary to salvation.神圣的圣经被宣布为神的话语和遏制一切必要的救助。The Nicene and Apostles' Creeds are accepted as confessing the faith of Scripture and classical Christianity.尼西亚和使徒们的信条被接受为承认的圣经和基督教信仰的经典。

The Thirty nine Articles, dating from the Elizabethan settlement in the sixteenth century, are not required for explicit assent in most of the communion, but they are generally bound with the Prayer Book and regarded as an important historical statement and document. 第三十九条,从十六世纪以来伊丽莎白结算,是不是需要明确同意在共融的大部分,但他们一般都必然与祈祷书和文件视为一个重要的历史声明和。 These articles explicitly reject the doctrine of transubstantiation and affirm the doctrines of justification by faith, the Trinity, and the person of Christ as "very God and very Man."这些条款明确地拒绝了变体学说,肯定了信心,三位一体,和基督的教义的人的理由“很神,非常人”。

The worship in Anglican churches varies widely but is characterized by an attempt to follow the liturgical year; that is, to read the prescribed lessons designed to emphasize that portion of revelation from advent and the nativity (Christmas) through the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles (Epiphany), Lent, Easter, and Pentecost.在英国圣公会教堂礼拜差别很大,但由一个企图跟随礼仪年的特点,那就是读设计强调,从出现部分启示和通过基督耶稣诞生的外邦人表现(圣诞节)订明的经验教训(顿悟),封斋期,复活节,圣灵降临节。 Worship is decisively biblical in that readings from both testaments are required at all normal services.崇拜是果断的,因为阅读圣经都证明是在所有正常服务要求。The Prayer Book is saturated with Scripture in the phrases of the prayers, the versicles and responses, the canticles, and the Psalter (book of Psalms).饱和的祈祷书是与圣经中的祈祷词中,versicles及反应,颂歌,和的psalter(诗篇上)。

The Lord's Supper, or Holy Eucharist, is generally regarded as the central service, and gradually over the last century has come to be held with increasing frequency.主的晚餐,或圣体圣事,被普遍认为是中央服务,并逐步在上个世纪已经被越来越多的频率举行。 The norm for the public worship is to stand to sing, sit to listen, and kneel to pray.为市民崇拜规范是站在唱歌,坐下来听,并下跪祈祷。In recent revisions the Prayer Book has seen its most substantial changes from the sixteenth century work of Thomas Cranmer.在最近修订的祈祷书已经看到从十六世纪的托马斯克兰默工作最重大的变化。The chief characteristics of the new books are flexibility, with options ranging from forms virtually identical to the traditional books to others which are exceedingly informal, replacing "thou" with "you" in addressing God, and giving modern synonyms for more obscure terms.新图书的主要特征是灵活性,从形式几乎完全相同他人是非常正规的传统书籍不等的选项,取而代之的是“你”“你”在处理上帝,并给予了更加隐蔽的条件现代汉语同义词。 In addition, the new revisions attempt to include more lay and congregational participation than was possible in the sixteenth century, when a literate congregation could not be assumed.此外,新修订的尝试,以包括更多业外人士和公理的参与比在十六世纪,当一个有文化的聚集可能无法承担。The revisions have, however, met with considerable resistance on the part of many who feel the language to be inferior to Cranmer's and that some of the changes have unfortunate doctrinal implications.这些修订,不过,会见了相当大的阻力对许多谁的语言感觉不如克兰默的一部分,某些变化有不幸的理论意义。

The overall practical effect of this growing diversity among the Prayer Books will likely lead to more emphasis on Anglican identity being drawn from the pan Anglican communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury than on the use of a common Prayer Book as has been the case in the past.这种日益增长的总体多样性的实际效果之间的祈祷书可能会导致更多的圣公会identity重点正在从锅的英国圣公会坎特伯雷大主教的共融比一个共同祈祷,这已在过去的案例集使用得到。

The basic intention of Anglican worship is expressed in the Prayer Book: "to render thanks for the great benefits that we have received at his hands, to set forth his most worthy praise, to hear his most holy word, and to ask those things which are requisite and necessary, as well as for the body as the soul."圣公会崇拜的基本意图是体现在祈祷书:“来呈现的,我们已经在他的手中得到极大的好处的感谢,向他提出最值得赞扬,听到他最神圣的话语,并且要问这些东西是必要的和必要的,以及对身体的灵魂。“ This is sought to be done with all the majesty, solemnity, and aesthetic quality possible, while at the same time making the mystery and awe as accessible and relevant as can be done to any and all conditions.这是试图做所有的威严,严肃性,审美素质的可能,而在相同一样方便和相关的神秘与敬畏时间可以做任何和所有条件。

The wide diversity within Anglicanism is reflected by the astonishing growth and evangelical character of the church in East Africa, the highly sacramental and Anglo Catholic tradition of the Province of South Africa, the liberal spirit and discomfort with classical expressions of orthodoxy on the part of the authors of The Myth of God Incarnate, and the conservative evangelicals who retain an unyielding loyalty to Scripture and the Thirty nine Articles.英国国教内广泛的多样性,是反映了惊人的增长,并在东非,高圣事和盎格鲁天主教南非省,自由精神和正统古典的表达对部分不适福音教会的传统性格神的化身神话的作家,和谁保留了不屈不挠的忠诚经文和39条保守的福音派。

CF Allison CF卡阿利森
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
PC Hughes, The Anglican Reformers; S Neill, Anglicanism; More and Cross, Anglicanism; W Temple, Doctrine in the Church of England.电脑休斯,英国圣公会改革者中,S奥尼尔,英国国教,越来越交叉,英国国教; W寺,在英国教会论。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

A term used to denote the religious belief and position of members of the established Church of England, and of the communicating churches in the British possessions, the United States (see EPISCOPAL CHURCH), and elsewhere.用来表示宗教信仰及英国建立的教会成员的立场的一个术语,以及在英国的财产,在通信教会,美国(见圣公会),和其他地方。 It includes those who have accepted the work of the English Reformation as embodied in the Church of England or in the offshoot Churches which in other countries have adhered, at least substantially, to its doctrines, its organization, and its liturgy.它包括那些谁接受了在英国的分支教会或教会体现了英国的宗教改革这在其他国家加入,至少大幅度的工作,它的学说,它的组织,它的礼仪。 Apart from minor or missionary settlements, the area in which Anglicanism is to be found corresponds roughly with those portions of the globe which are, or were formally, under the British flag.除了轻微或传教士定居点的领域,英国国教是要找到大致相当于与地球是,或者被正式纳入英国国旗,那些部分。


To form a general idea of Anglicanism as a religious system, it will be convenient to sketch it in rough outline as it exists in the Established Church of England, bearing in mind that there are differences in detail, mainly in liturgy and church-government, to be found in other portions of the Anglican communion.形成以一个宗教系统的英国国教的总体思路,它可以方便的粗线条素描,因为它存在于英国成立教会,铭记中有详细的差异主要在礼拜仪式和教会政府,轴承,被发现在英国圣公会的其他部分。

The members of the Church of England are professed Christians, and claim to be baptized members of the Church of Christ.的英格兰教会的成员是自称基督徒,并声称自己是基督的教会受洗的成员。

They accept the Scriptures as contained in the Authorized Version, as the Word of God.他们接受在授权版本所包含的经文,作为神的话语。

They hold the Scriptures to be the sole and supreme rule of faith, in the sense that the Scriptures contain all things necessary to salvation and that nothing can be required of anyone as an article of faith which is not contained therein, and cannot be proved thereby.他们认为圣经是信仰唯一的和最高的规则,在某种意义上说,圣经包含一切必要的救助,并没有什么可以被看作是一种信仰文章,其中不包含其中任何人的要求,并不能证明,从而。

They accept the Book of Common Prayer as the practical rule of their belief and worship, and in it they use as standards of doctrine the three Creeds &151; the Apostles', the Nicene, and the Athanasian.他们接受了自己的信仰和崇拜的实际统治的共同祈祷书,并在它,他们的学说作为标准的三个信条&151;使徒,尼西亚,以及亚他那修使用。

They believe in two sacraments of the Gospel &151; Baptism and the Lord's Supper -as generally necessary to salvation.他们认为,在两个圣礼的福音&151;洗礼和主的晚餐作为一般都需要救恩。

They claim to have Apostolic succession and a validly ordained ministry, and only persons whom they believe to be thus ordained are allowed to minister in their churches.他们声称有使徒继承和受戒部具有法律效力,只有人的人,他们认为是这样受戒被允许在他们的教会牧师。

They believe that the Church of England is a true and reformed part, or branch, or pair of provinces of the Catholic Church of Christ.他们认为,英国教会是一个真正的和改革的一部分,或分公司,或基督的天主教省份对。

They maintain that the Church of England is free from all foreign jurisdiction.他们认为,英格兰教会是不受任何外国司法管辖区。

They recognize the King as Supreme Governor of the Church and acknowledge that to him "appertains the government of all estates whether civil or ecclesiastical, in all causes."他们认识到作为最高行长King的教会,并承认他为“appertains所有屋苑的政府,是否在所有民事或宗教原因。”

The clergy, before being appointed to a benefice or licensed to preach, subscribe and declare that they "assent to the Thirty-nine Articles, and to the Book of Common Prayer, and of Ordering of Bishops, priests, and deacons, and believe the doctrine of the Church of England as therein set forth to be agreeable to the Word of God".神职人员,然后被任命为采邑或持牌传教,认购,并宣布,他们“同意向三十九条,并以本书的共同祈祷和主教,司铎和执事订货,并相信英国教会的教义作为其中提出要认同神的话语“。

One of the Articles (XXV) thus subscribed approves the First and Second Book of Homilies as containing "a godly and wholesome doctrine necessary for these times", and adjudges them to be read in churches "diligently and distinctly".的文章(二十五)批准为一所以认购含有“的神圣和有益健康的学说在这些时候需要”的颂歌第一和第二本书,adjudges他们在教堂读“勤奋和鲜明的”。

To these general characteristics we may add by way of corrective that while the Bible is accepted much latitude is allowed as to the nature and extent of its inspiration; that the Eucharistic teaching of the Prayer Book is subject to various and opposed interpretations; that Apostolic succession is claimed by many to be beneficial, but not essential, to the nature of the Church; that the Apostles' Creed is the only one to which assent can be required from the laity, and that Articles of Religion are held to be binding only on the licensed and beneficed clergy.这些一般特征,我们可以添加纠正方式,虽然纬度圣经是接受了,也被允许作为的性质和程度的启示,这是祈祷书圣体受到各种教学,反对解释,这使徒继承据称,被许多人是有益的,但​​不是必需的,对教会的性质,使徒们的信条是唯一一个可以从哪些同意俗人的要求,与宗教所发表的文章都认为是只具有约束力许可和beneficed神职人员。


Inside these outlines, which are necessarily vague, the constitution of the Church of England has been largely determined by the events which attended its settlement under the Tudors.这些轮廓线内,这必然是模糊的,在英国教会的宪法已基本确定的事件,其中参加下都铎王朝的解决。

Original Loyalty to Rome原忠于罗马

Before the breach with Rome under Henry VIII there was absolutely no doctrinal difference between the faith of Englishmen and the rest of Catholic Christendom, and "Anglicanism", as connoting a separate or independent religious system, was unknown.前用亨利八世统治下的罗马,绝对没有违反之间的英国人信仰基督教和天主教休息,“圣公会”理论的差异,作为一个单独的connoting或独立的宗教体系,是未知之数。

The name Ecclesia Anglicana, or English Church, was of course employed, but always in the Catholic and Papal use of the term as signifying that part or region of the one Catholic Church under the jurisdiction of the Pope which was situated in England, and precisely in the same way as the Church in Scotland was called the Ecclesia Scotticana, the Church in France, the Ecclesia Gallicana, and the Church in Spain the Ecclesia Hispanica.这个名字Ecclesia的Anglicana,或英文教会,是就业过程中,但在天主教和教皇一词作为标志着该部分或在其管辖的教皇是坐落在英国的一个地区使用天主教会一如既往地,准确地以同样的方式作为苏格兰教会被称为神召Scotticana,教会在法​​国,神召Gallicana,并在西班牙的神召Hispanica教会。 That such national or regional appellations were a part of the style in the Roman Curia itself, and that they in no sense could have implied any indication of independence from Rome, is sufficiently well known to all who are familiar with pre-Reformation records.这种国家或地区的原产地名称是一个在罗马教廷本身,风格的一部分,在任何意义上,他们可以有暗示的指示,从罗马独立,有足够众所周知谁与学前教育改革的记录熟悉。

Pope Honorius III, in 1218, in his Bull to King Alexander speaks of the Scottish Church (Ecclesia Scotticana) as "being immediately subject to the Apostolic See" (Papal Letters I, 60).教宗何诺三世于1218年,在他的公牛国王亚历山大说,作为“被立即受到圣座”(教皇字母I,60),苏格兰教会(神召Scotticana)。

The abbots and priors of England in their letter to Innocent IV, in 1246, declared that the English Church (Ecclesia Anglicana) is "a special member of the Most Holy Church of Rome" [Matthew Paris (Rolls Series), IV, 531].该方丈都很先验和英国在信中对无辜四,在1246年宣布,英国教会(Ecclesia的Anglicana)是“一个最神圣罗马教会的特殊成员”,[马修巴黎(劳斯莱斯系列),四,531] 。

In 1413 Archbishop Arundel, with the assent of Convocation, affirmed against the Lollards the faith of the English Church in a number of test articles, including the Divine institution of the Papacy and the duty of all Christians to render obedience to it (Wilkins, Concilia, III, 355).在1413年大主教阿伦德尔,在评议会的同意,肯定对罗拉德派的测试中若干条款,包括教皇神圣的机构和所有基督徒的责任来呈现服从它(威尔金斯,Concilia的英文教会信仰,三,355)。

In 1521, only thirteen years before the breach, John Clerk, the English Ambassador at Rome, was able to assure the Pope in full consistory that England was second to no country in Christendom, "not even to Rome itself", in the "service of God: and of the Christian Faith, and in the obedience due to the Most Holy Roman Church" (Clerks' oration, ed. Jerome Emser). 1521年,只有13年前突破口,约翰秘书,英语大使在罗马,能够保证足额consistory教皇英格兰排在第二位并没有在基督教国家“,甚至不能为罗马本身”,在“服务神:和基督教信仰,并在服从由于大多数神圣罗马教会“(店员的祭文,教育署杰罗姆Emser。)。

After the Act of Royal Supremacy (1534)之后,皇家至尊(1534)法

The first point of severance was clearly one of Erastianism.第一点的遣散显然是Erastianism之一。When news of the papal decision against the divorce reached England, Henry VIII gave his assent to four anti-papal statutes passed in Parliament in the spring of 1534, and in November the statute of the Royal Supremacy declared the King to be Supreme Head of the English Church (without the limiting clause of 1532), and an oath was prescribed, affirming the Pope to have no jurisdiction in the realm of England.当对离婚的教皇的决定,消息传到英格兰,亨利八世给他赞同以四防papal议会通过的在1534年春天法规,并在11月,皇家Supremacy规约宣布国王至上的头英国教会(没有1532条款限制),以及宣誓规定,教皇肯定没有在英格兰王国的管辖范围。 The actual ministry of preaching and of the sacraments was left to the clergy, but all the powers of ecclesiastical jurisdiction were claimed by the sovereign.的说教和实际的圣礼部留给神职人员,但所有的教会管辖的权力是由主权要求。

The Act of Supremacy required that the King, as Supreme Head of the Church, "shall have full power and authority from time to time to visit, repress, redress, reform, order, correct, restrain, and amend all such errors, heresies, abuses, offences, contempt, enormities whatsoever they be which by any manner, spiritual authority or jurisdiction ought or may be lawfully reformed" (26 Henry VIII, i).至上的法令要求作为最高教会的头王,“应不时有充分的权力和权威,时间访问,抑制,纠正,改革,秩序,纠正,制止,并修改所有此类错误,异端邪说,滥用职权,罪行,蔑视,不论他是其中enormities以任何方式,精神权威或管辖权,也可以依法应当改革“(26亨利八世,我)。

The bishops were made to sue out their faculties from the King, and, that the meaning of this humiliation should be unmistakable, the very form of the license granted them affirmed the plain Erastian principle that the Crown was the source of their jurisdiction, "seeing that all authority of jurisdiction, and indeed jurisdiction of all kinds, both that which is called ecclesiastical and that which is secular, is originally derived from the royal power, as from the Supreme Head and foundation, and source of magistracy within our Kingdom" (Wilkins, Concilia, III, 799),主教们提出了起诉他们从国王学院,并认为这屈辱的含义应该是明确无误的,该牌照的形式给予他们肯定非常平原伊拉斯特派原则,皇冠是其管辖的来源,“看到所有管辖的权力,甚至管辖下的所有种,都认为这是所谓的教会和认为这是世俗的,原本是来自皇家权力从最高元首和基础,我们的英国裁判法院内源“(威尔金斯,Concilia,三,799)

The bishops and clergy in convocation were forbidden to make canons except when the King, by his "Letters of Business", gave them permission to do so, and even then the canons so made were to have effect only when approved by the King.在召开的主教和神职人员,使大炮被禁止,除非由他的“企业家书”,王准了他们这样做,而且即便如此,如此作出的大炮是有效果只有当由国王批准。

Another statute secured to the Crown the absolute control in the appointment of bishops.另一个规约担保,以官方在任命主教的绝对控制。The chapters were bound under penalties of Proemunire to elect the person named by the King and no other, and the Archbishop was bound under the same shameful penalties to consecrate the person so named within twenty days after receipt of the King's writ (Significavit) commanding him to do so.该章节被约束下Proemunire罚则,以选出由国王,没有其他命名的人,而大主教是在同一可耻的刑罚必将奉献后,国王的令状收据等二十日内指定的人(Significavit)指挥他这样做的。 This enactment, which an Anglican bishop in recent times has aptly described as "the Magna Charta of tyranny" remains in force to the present day.这项条例,这在近代英国圣公会主教恰当地称为“暴政的大宪章”来形容仍然生效至今。Within the last few years the Law Courts have ruled that no opposition to the episcopal confirmation of a person nominated by the Crown can be allowed.在过去的几年里,法院已经作出裁决,没有由官方确认提名的人反对主教可以被允许。

Thus the chief note of Henrician settlement is the fact that Anglicanism was founded in the acceptance of the Royal, and the rejection of the Papal Supremacy, and was placed upon a decidedly Erastian basis.因此,解决行政Henrician注意的是,圣公会始建于皇家验收,以及教皇至高无上的排斥反应,并在一个决定性的伊拉斯特派基础之上的事实。

When the Act of Royal Supremacy, which had been repealed by Queen Mary, was revived by Elizabeth, it suffered a modification in the sense that the Sovereign was styled "Supreme Governor" instead of "Supreme Head".当皇家至尊法案,已被废除,由玛丽,是由伊丽莎白恢复,它遭受了意义上的修改,主权被誉为“最高总督”而不是“最高元首”。 In a subsequent "Admonition", Elizabeth issued an interpretation of the Royal Supremacy, to the effect that she laid claim "to no power of ministry of divine offices in the Church".在随后的“训示”,伊丽莎白发出的皇家至高无上的解释,其大意是她奠定声称“并没有在教会的神圣办事处部的力量”。 At the same time she reasserted in the full the claim made by Henry VIII as to the Authority of the Crown in matters ecclesiastical, and the great religious changes made after her accession were carried out and enforced in a royal visitation commissioned by the royal authority.在同一时间,她重申在充分所作至于官方管理局亨利八世在教会索赔事宜,之后她加入时所作的伟大的宗教变化进行抢修,在由英国皇家王室探视机关委托执行。

In 1628, Charles I, in a Royal Declaration prefixed to the Articles, stated that it belonged to the kingly office "to conserve and maintain the Church committed to our charge, in unity of religion and the bond of peace", and decreed that differences arising as to the external policy of the Church were to be settled in Convocation, but its ordinances were to be submitted to the Crown for approval, which would be given to them if they were not contrary to the laws of the land.在1628年,查尔斯一世,在皇家宣言前缀的文章中说,它属于王道办公室“,以保护和维持致力于我们负责教会,宗教与和平统一的债券”,并下旨分歧而至于教会的外部政策是要在评议会解决,但它的条例将提交了批准,这将是给他们,如果他们不违反土地法律,以官方。

Archbishop Laud, in 1640, had a series of canons drawn up in Convocation and duly published, but this attempt at spiritual independence was speedily suppressed.大主教赞扬,在1640年,有一个制定了一系列的大炮在评议会,并正式公布,但在精神上的独立试图迅速抑制。 The indignation of Parliament was so great that he himself begged leave to withdraw them, and the House of Commons passed a resolution unanimously declaring that "the Clergy in Convocation assembled has no power to make any canons or constitutions whatsoever in matters of doctrine, discipline or otherwise to bind the Clergy and laity of the land without the common consent in Parliament" (Resolution, 16 December, 1640).国会的愤怒是如此巨大,他自己就恳求撤回他们,下议院一致通过一项决议,宣称“在评议会神职人员聚集在有任何的学说,纪律或事项没有权力作出任何大炮或宪法否则,约束神职人员和没有在议会一致同意的土地俗人“(第12月16 1640)。

The Effect of Royal Supremacy皇家至尊的影响

The effect of the legislation under Henry VIII, revived by Elizabeth, and confirmed in subsequent reigns, has been, as Lord Campbell pointed out in his famous Gorham judgment, in April, 1850, to locate in the Crown all that decisive jurisdiction which before the Reformation had been exercised by the Pope.作者伊丽莎白亨利八世下复活,法例的效力,并在随后的统治证实,一直以来,作为主坎贝尔指出,在他著名的戈勒姆判断,四月,1850年,在这之前,官方定位所有的决定性管辖权改革已行使教皇。 Until the year 1833, the Crown exercised this supreme jurisdiction through a special body called the Court of Delegates.直到1833年,这个最高官方行使管辖的一个专门机构,称为代表法院。Its members were appointed under the great Seal, and consisted of lay judges, with whom might be associated a number of bishops or clergymen.它的成员被任命为下大印,和非专业法官,他们可能会与相关的主教或牧师数组成。 In 1833 this Court was abolished, and its powers were transferred to the King in Council.在1833年这个法庭被撤销,其权力被移交给会同国王。Hence matters which come under its purview are now decided by the King upon the advice of that part of the Privy Council which is known as the Judicial Committee.因此,根据其职权范围内的事项现在来决定由国王后,认为这是枢密院司法委员会作为已知部分的意见。The statute (2 and 3 William IV, xcii) expressly states that its decisions are final, and are not subject to any commission of review.规约(2和3威廉四,xcii)明确指出,其决定为最终决定,并且不会受到任何审查委员会。

It must be observed that this tribunal does not profess theoretically to decide articles of faith, or to pronounce upon the abstract orthodoxy or heterodoxy of opinions.必须指出,这个法庭没有自称从理论上来决定信仰的文章,或阐明什么抽象的正统或异端的意见。"Its duty extends only to the consideration of that which is by law established to be the doctrine of the Church of England, upon the due and legal construction of there Articles and formularies" (Gorham decision, March 1850). “,其职责范围仅限于由该考虑的是建立在英国教会的学说是建立在法律条款和处方有因与法制建设”(戈勒姆决定,1850年3月)。But upon this ground the Crown decided that the views of Mr. Gorham, whose notorious rejection of the doctrine of baptismal regeneration had shocked his bishop and scandalized the Tractarians, were "not contrary or repugnant to the declared doctrine of the Church of England as by law established".但是,在这片土地的官方决定,戈勒姆先生,其臭名昭著的再生学说的洗礼拒绝了他的震惊和愤慨的Tractarians主教的意见,是“不违背或令人厌恶如对英国教会的教义声明法律规定“。 Numerous protests and appeals were made by high Churchmen, but all attempts to reverse the decision were unavailing, and Mr. Gorham duly received institution to the benefice which his bishop had refused him.多次抗议和申诉进行了高牧师,但所有试图推翻该项决定是徒劳的,先生和戈勒姆如期收到了该机构拒绝了他的主教,他采邑。In like manner in 1849, when vehement opposition was made to the appointment of Dr. Hampden to the See of Hereford, the Prime Minister of the day insisted on the right of the Crown, and the Vicar-General of the Archbishop ruled that no exception could be suffered against one whom the Crown had duly nominated, and the Court of Queen's Bench sustained his ruling.在1849年,当激烈反对有人向汉普顿博士获任命为赫里福德见喜欢的方式,一天总理对官方的权利,副主教秘书长,由大主教坚持裁定,也不例外可对一个人遭受官方已正式提名,并王座法院维持了裁决。

Thus, whatever views or aspirations have been held theoretically by Anglican divines on the spiritual authority of the Anglican Church, the Royal Supremacy remains an effective reality, and the Crown, supported by Parliament and the Law Courts, both as to the doctrines which may be taught, and the persons who shall be put in office to teach them, has possession of the practical and substantial control.因此,无论意见或愿望已举行了对英国国教圣公会神学理论的精神权威,皇家至尊仍然是一个有效的现实,和皇冠,议会和法院的支持下,都以可能的学说教,以及谁应教他们把办公室的人,具有实际的和实质性控制占有。 It is characteristic of the Anglican Reformation that the supreme and far reaching regulative jurisdiction which was exercised by the Holy See was, after the severance from Rome, taken over, to all intents and purposes, by the Crown, and was never effectively entrusted to the Anglican Spirituality, either to the Primate, or to the Episcopate, or even to Convocation.它是英国圣公会的改革特点,最高法院和深远的调控管辖权是由罗马教廷行使的是,从罗马遣散后接管,所有意图和目的,由皇冠,并从来没有有效委托圣公会的灵性,无论是灵长类动物,或主教,甚至召开。 As a result, there is to this day the lack of a living Church Spiritual Authority which has been to the Anglican Church a constant source of weakness, humiliation, and disorder.作为一个结果,就是这一天的生活教会精神管理局已经向英国圣公会教会的软弱,屈辱,以及缺乏症的不断源泉。

In 1904 a royal commission was appointed to investigate the complaints against ecclesiastical discipline, and in July 1906, it issued its report, in which it points out that at no time in the past have the laws of public worship been uniformly observed, and recommends the formation of a Court which while exercising the Royal Jurisdiction, would be bound to accept the episcopate on questions of doctrine or ritual.在1904年被任命为皇家委员会调查对教会的纪律的投诉,并在1906年7月,它发布的报告,其中指出,在过去的时间中没有对公共崇拜被一致遵守法律,并建议一个法院,在行使皇家管辖权,形成肯定会接受的教义或仪式主教的问题。 This, if granted, would be the first step towards the partial emancipation of the Spirituality from the thraldom of the civil power, in which it has been held for more than three centuries.这,如果获准,将是朝向灵性从公务员的权力,其中已超过三百年举行奴役部分解放的第一步。It will be observed that Anglicanism as a religious system is separable from the doctrine of Royal Supremacy, which is an outcome of its union with the State, and of the circumstances of the English Reformation.这将是观察到,作为一个英国国教宗教制度是从皇家至上,这是一个与国家分离主义联盟的成果,以及对英语改革的情况。 In countries outside of England the Wales Anglican Churches exist, and, it is said, all the more prosperously from being untrammelled by the State connection.在英国以外的国家在威尔士圣公会教会存在,而且,它是说,所有被更蓬勃的状态连接奔放。But even in those countries the decisive voice in the government of the Anglican Church is not entrusted to the Episcopate alone, and in some of them the lay power in the synods has made itself felt, and has shown that it can be as really a master as any Tudor sovereign invested with royal supremacy.但即使在这些国家中的圣公会政府果断的声音没有委托给单独的主教,并在其中一些业外人士在主教权力使自己感觉,并已表明,它可以作为一个真正的主人因为任何投资都铎与皇家至高无上的主权。 The supremacy of the Spirituality in the domain of doctrine, as the sole guarantee of true religious liberty, is still lacking in the Anglican system, and the problem of supplying it remains unsolved, if not insoluble.在域的学说作为至高无上的灵性,真正的宗教信仰自由的唯一保证,是在英国圣公会仍然缺乏系统和它的供应问题仍然没有解决,如果不溶性。


The doctrinal position of the Anglican Church, in like manner, can only be adequately studied in its history, which divides itself into a number of stages or periods.在英国圣公会教堂的理论立场,在喜欢的方式,只能在其历史上得到充分,划分成若干阶段或时期本身的影响。The first, or Henrician, period (1534-47) includes the breach with Rome, the setting up of an independent national church, and the transfer of the supreme Church authority from the Papacy to the Crown.第一,或Henrician,周期(1534至1547年)包括成立一个独立的国家违反了与罗马教会,和教会的最高权威,从教皇转移到官方。 The Edwardian (1547-53) and the Elizabethan (1558-1603) periods carried the work of separation much further.爱德华(1547年至1553年)和伊丽莎白(1558年至1603年)期间进行的分离许多进一步的工作。Both accepted the Henrician basis of rejection of the Papacy and erection of the Royal Supremacy, but built upon it the admission of the doctrinal and liturgical changes which make up mainly the Anglican Reformation, and brought the nation within the great Protestant movement of the sixteenth century.双方拒绝接受教皇和至高无上的皇家勃起Henrician的基础,但是在它建成的教义和礼仪的变化而作出的改革,主要是英国圣公会入场,并带来在十六世纪伟大的新教运动的国家。

First Period: Henry VIII (1534-1547)第一期:亨利八世(1534年至1547年)

Although the policy of Henry VIII, after the breach with Rome, was ostensibly conservative, and his ideal seemed to be the maintenance of a Catholic Church in England, minus the Pope, it is incontestable that in other ways his action was in fatal contradiction to his professions.虽然亨利八世的政策,违反与罗马后,表面上是保守的,他的理想似乎是一个天主教会在英格兰维修,减去教皇,这是无可争议的,在其他方面他的行动是致命的矛盾他的专业。

Influence of English Protestant Sympathizers.影响英国新教的同情者。- By raising to power, and by maintaining in positions of unique influence, his three great agents, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer, and Edward Seymour, all of whom were always, and as openly as they dared, in sympathy with the Reformation, Henry VIII, whether by intention or the by the indifference of his latter days, undoubtedly prepared the way and opened the gates to the Protestantism which came in under Edward and Elizabeth.- 通过提高电源,并经独特影响力的位置,他的三个伟大的代理商,托马斯克伦威尔,托马斯克兰默,爱德华西摩,所有这些人都始终,并作为他们不敢公开地同情,随着改革,维护亨利八,无论是有意还是由他的后期冷漠无疑编写的方式,打开了闸门的新教而遭到爱德华和伊丽莎白的。

Influence of German Protestants.德国新教徒的影响。- In 1535 Henry sent agents to negotiate an agreement with the Reformers in Germany, and in 1537 he was led by Cromwell, in connivance with Cranmer, into further negotiations with the Protestant princes assembled at Smalkald.- 在1535年亨利派法务人员与谈判达成一项协议,在德国改革者,并在1537年,他领导的克伦威尔,在纵容克兰默与smalkald在1531到组装的新教诸侯进一步谈判。 He wrote to Melanchthon to congratulate him on the work which he had done for religion, and invited him to England.他写信给梅兰希祝贺他所完成的工作他的宗教,并邀请他到英国。Melanchthon was unable to come, but in 1538 three German divines, Burkhardt, Boyneburg, and Myconius, were sent to London, where they remained some months, and held conferences with the Anglican bishops and clergy.梅兰希不能来,但在1538年三个德国神学家,伯克哈迪特,Boyneburg和Myconius,被送往伦敦,在那里他们仍然几个月,并与英国圣公会主教和神职人员举行的会议。 The Germans presented as a basis of agreement a number of Articles based on the Lutheran Confession of Augsburg.德国提供的一系列协议一对路德的奥格斯堡自白基础之上的文章数目计算。On the doctrinal part of these Articles, the first thirteen, both parties came to an agreement (Letter of Myconius to Cromwell, 8 September, 1538).在这些文章,理论部分第一十三,双方达成了一致(信Myconius克伦威尔,1538年9月8日)。On the second part, the "Abuses" (viz., private Masses, celibacy of the Clergy, invocation of Saints) the King would not give way, and finally dissolved the conference.在第二部分中,“滥用”(即,私人弥撒,神职人员独身,援引圣人),国王是不会让步,最后解散了会议。Although the negotiations thus formally came to an end, the Thirteen Articles on which agreement with the Germans had been made were kept by Archbishop Cranmer, and afterwards by Archbishop Parker, and were used as test articles to which the preachers whom they licensed were required to subscribe.因此,虽然谈判正式宣告结束,十三条上与德国人的协议已经取得了由大主教克兰麦保存,事后由大主教帕克,被用来作为测试的文章该传道人,他们被要求授权订阅。 Eventually they became the nucleus of the Articles of Religion which were authorized under Edward VI and Elizabeth.最终,他们成为了宗教文章,并根据授权爱德华六世和伊丽莎白的核心。Hence the almost verbal correspondence between these Articles and the Lutheran Confession of Augsburg, from which they were originally taken.因此,这些对应关系几乎口头文章和信义的奥格斯堡供认,从他们最初采取的。

Second Period: Edward VI (1547-1553)第二个时期:(1547年至1553年)爱德华六世

By the death of Henry VIII (27 January, 1547) the main obstacle to the reforming influence was removed.由亨利八世(1547年1月27日)的主要障碍,影响改革的死亡被删除。With the accession of Edward VI, who had been brought up in the reformed faith, with Seymour, also a Protestant, omnipotent in the Council, and Cranmer, now able to show his hand and work his will, the party of the Reformation became possessed of all the resources of national power, and during the five years of the reign (1547-53) remained triumphantly in the ascendant.随着爱德华六世,已提请谁在改革的信念,与西摩,也是一个新教,在安理会无所不能,克兰默,现在能够加入他的手和工作显示他的意愿,改革党成为拥有所有资源的国家权力,统治期间的五年(1547年至1553年)仍然胜利方兴未艾。 This period witnessed the introduction of the great doctrinal and liturgical changes.这一时期见证了伟大的教义和礼仪的变化的介绍。

Denial of the Sacrifice of the Mass. - One of the cardinal principles of the Reformation which the German delegates had brought over in 1538 was that "the Mass is nothing but a Communion or synaxis" (Tunstall's Summary, MS Cleop. EV, 209).拒绝了美国马萨诸塞州牺牲 - 这对德国的代表在1538年带来了超过改革的基本原则之一是“群众只不过是一个共融或synaxis”(Tunstall的摘要,硕士Cleop电动车,209。) 。Cranmer vehemently upheld this conception of the Eucharist.克兰默强烈坚持的圣体的概念。 One of the first Acts under Edward VI was the introduction of a new English Communion Service, which was to be inserted at the end of the Mass, and which required Communion to be given under both kinds.根据爱德华六世的第一反应是一个新的英文共融服务,引进是要在弥撒结束插入,并要求将根据共融两种考虑。This was soon after followed by a Book of Common Prayer, with a Communion Service entirely taking the place of the Latin Mass. Cranmer was the chief author of this book.这是不久后一书的共同祈祷与共融服务完全走的是马萨诸塞州的拉美克兰默的地方,随之而来的是这本书的主要作者。Whether it ever received the assent of Convocation has been questioned, but it was approved by Parliament in 1549.无论是以往任何时候都得到了评议会的同意一直受到质疑,但它是在1549年由议会批准。Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, in opposing Cranmer's denial of the Real Presence and of the Sacrifice of the mass, argued that even certain passages in the new Prayer Book implied the acceptance of these doctrines; whereupon Cranmer and his fellow-reformers drew up a new Prayer Book, still more Protestant in tone and character.加德纳,温彻斯特主教反对克兰默的真实存在否定和牺牲群众,认为在新的祈祷书,甚至某些段落中隐含的这些学说的接受程度;于是克兰默和他的同胞改革者制定了一个新的祈祷书,更在语气和性格新教徒。 In it the order of the parts of the Communion Service was considerably altered, and the passages used by Gardiner as apparently favouring the Catholic doctrine were studiously eliminated, or so changed as to preclude in future any such interpretation, and all allusion to Altar or Sacrifice was carefully omitted (Gasquet and Bishop, Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer, 289).在它的的共融服务的命令是相当部分修改,并作为由加德纳显然偏袒天主教教义的经文是故意消除或改变,竟排除将来任何这样的解释,和所有的祭坛或牺牲的典故进行了仔细的省略(赛和主教,爱德华六世和共同祈祷,289书)。 In 1552, this, the second Prayer Book of Edward VI, was authorized by Parliament.在1552年,这个,爱德华六世第二次的祈祷书,是由议会批准。A new Ordinal or Order for making bishops, priests, and deacons was compiled, from which in like manner all mention of the sacrificial office of the priesthood was rigorously excluded.一个新序或订购制作主教,司铎和执事编译,从在喜欢的方式所有的祭祀的神职人员办公室提到严格排除在外。It was approved by Parliament in 1552.这是在1552年由议会批准。In 1551, quite in harmony with this liturgical reform, an Order in Council issued to Bishop Ridley required the altars to be torn down, and movable tables substituted, while a statement of reasons was to be made to the people explanatory of the change, namely, "that the form of a table may more move and turn the simple from the old superstition of the Mass and to the right use of the Lord's Supper".在1551年,相当与和谐这礼仪改革,在国务院令颁发给主教里德利所需的祭坛要拆了,和可移动表取代,而一个理由的陈述,是人民作出解释的变化,即“,即以表格的形式可能会更多移动和转身的群众旧迷信的简单和对主的晚餐使用权。”

Suppression of Catholic practices.抑制天主教的做法。- By Royal Proclamations and episcopal visitations, a multitude of Catholic practices and sacramentals, such as lights, incense, holy water, and palms, were suppressed.- 皇家宣言和主教访视,对天主教的做法和sacramentals如灯,香,圣水,和棕榈树,群众,受到打压。These reforms, proceeding tentatively but rapidly, were initiated and carried out mainly by Cranmer and his set, and the reflected his beliefs and that of this fellow-reformers.这些改革,但迅速进行初步,分别启动和实施主要由克兰默和他列出,并反映了他的信念,而这个家伙,改革者。 The 42 Articles.在42条。 - In 1553, a royal decree was issued requiring the bishops and clergy to subscribe forty-two Articles of Religion which embodied in great part what had been contained in the Thirteen Articles agreed upon with the Germans.- 1553年,一个皇家法令颁布的主教和神职人员,要求认购四十二章程的宗教,在很大程度上体现了哪些细则所载的十三同意后,与德国人。The article on the Eucharist had been significantly changed to agree, as Hooper attests, with the teachings of the Swiss reformer, Bullinger.圣体圣事上的物品已大大改变同意,作为胡珀证明,与瑞士的改革者,布林格的教诲。

Third Period: Elizabeth I (1558-1603)第三个时期:伊丽莎白一世(1558-1603)

In November, 1558, Queen Elizabeth succeeded Queen Mary, and immediately proceeded to restore the work of Henry VIII and Edward VI.十一月,1558年,玛丽女王伊丽莎白接替,并立即着手恢复亨利八世和爱德华六世的工作。

Based on Prayer Book of 1552.根据1552年祈祷书。- The new settlement of religion was based, not on the First Prayer Book of 1549, but on the more Protestant one of 1552.- 宗教是根据新的定居点,而不是在1549年第一祈祷书,但在1552年更新教之一。The latter was adopted with a few slight modifications, and it remains for the most part substantially unchanged to the present day.后者是通过了一些小的修改,并在大多数情况下大大改变至今仍然存在。The statement that Pius IV offered to approve the Prayer Book is devoid of all historical foundation.声明说,比约四提供批准祈祷书是所有历史的基础也没有。It has not a vestige of contemporary evidence to support it.它不是一个当代证据来支持它的遗迹。Camden, the earliest Anglican historian who mentions it, says: "I never could find it in any writing, and I do not believe any writing of it to exist. To gossip with the mop is unworthy of any historian" (History, 59).卡姆登,最早的英国圣公会历史学家谁提到它,说:“我从来没有在任何书面能找到它,我不相信任何书面向存在的拖把八卦是任何历史学家不值得。”(历史,59) 。Fuller, another Anglican historian, describes it as the mere conjecture "of those who love to feign what they cannot find".富勒,另一圣公会历史学家,仅仅是猜想描述为“那些谁爱假装他们找不到”它。

The 39 Articles.这位39条。- In 1563 the Edwardian Articles were revised in Convocation under Archbishop Parker.- 在1563年爱德华条进行了修订评议会在大主教帕克。Some were added, others altered or dropped, and the number was reduced to Thirty-eight.有些人说,其他人更改或删除,这个数字减少到三十八个。In 1571, the XXIXth Article, despite the opposition of Bishop Guest, was inserted, to the effect that the wicked do not eat the Body of Christ. 1571年,尽管在XXIXth条主教客人反对,插入,其大意是恶人不要吃基督的身体。The Articles, thus increased to Thirty-nine, were ratified by the Queen, and the bishops and clergy were required to assent and subscribe thereto.细则,从而增加至三十九个,是由女王批准,主教和神职人员都必须同意和订阅注。

Calvinistic Influence.加尔文的影响。- During the whole of Elizabeth's long reign, the prevailing tone of Anglican teaching and literature was decidedly Genevan and Calvinistic (Dr. Prothero, English Hist. Rev., October, 1886).- 在伊丽莎白的长期统治整体而言,当时的英国圣公会教学和文学基调是断然Genevan和加尔文(普罗瑟罗博士,英国组织胺致,十月,1886年。)。 In 1662 a reaction set in against Puritanism, and the Prayer Book, which had been suppressed during the Commonwealth, was brought back and subjected to revision in Convocation and Parliament.在1662年成立的反应在对清教,并祈祷书,其中已在英联邦镇压,被带回并受到国会的召开和修订。The amendments made were numerous, but those of doctrinal significance were comparatively few, and of a kind to emphasize the Episcopal character of Anglicanism as against Presbyterianism.该修正案提出了很多,但这些都是理论意义相对较少,一类以强调对长老会的圣公会主教性格。The most notable were the reinsertion, with altered wording, of the Black Rubric (omitted by Elizabeth) and the introduction in the form of the words, "for the office of a Bishop" and "for the office of a Priest", in the Service of Ordination.最值得注意的是安插,与改变措辞,黑专栏(由伊丽莎白略)和在该单词的形式介绍,“为一个主教办公室”和“一个牧师的办公室”,在服务的排序。

Anglican Formularies.圣公会处方。--

The historic meaning and doctrinal significance of the Anglican formularies can only be determined by the candid and competent examination of the evidence as a whole,历史悠久的意义和理论意义圣公会处方才能确定由作为一个整体的证据坦率和主管审查,

first, by the study of the plain meaning of the text;首先,由纯文本意义的研究;

secondly, by the study of the historical setting and the circumstances in which they were framed and authorized;其次,由历史背景,并在他们被诬陷和授权情况的研究;

thirdly, by the known beliefs of their chief authors and of those by whom they were accepted;第三,他们主要的作家和那些人,他们所知道的信仰被接受;

fourthly, by comparison with the Catholic pre-Reformation formularies which they supplanted;第四,与天主教学前教育改革处方,他们取代的比较;

fifthly, by the study of their sources and the exact value of their doctrinal terminology as found in the controversies of the time;第五,以他们的确切来源的研究和理论价值的术语,在当时的争论找到;

sixthly-if the examination is not to be hopelessly narrow-by the study of general Reformation in Europe, of which the English Reformation, albeit with local and national characteristics, was both a part and a result.第六,如果审查不被绝望窄由欧洲研究一般改革,其中英语改革,尽管有地方和民族特色,既是一个部分和一个结果。

Here it is only possible to state the conclusions arising from such an inquiry in briefest outline.在这里,它是唯一可能的结论说明,从这样一个简短的大纲调查产生。


There can be no doubt that the English Reformation is substantially a part of the great Protestant Reformation upheaval of the sixteenth century, and that its doctrine, liturgy, and chief promoters were to a very considerable extent derived from, and influenced by, the Lutheran and Calvinistic movements on the Continent.不可能有任何疑问,英语改革实质上是伟大的十六世纪宗教改革动荡的一部分,它的教义,礼仪,和主要推动者,是一次相当大程度上源自并影响,路德和加尔文主义运动在欧洲大陆。

First Bond: Personal第一部邦德:个人

There was first of all the living or personal connection.有所有的生活或个人联系第一。The great English Reformers who took the leading part in the work of Reformation in England &151; Cranmer, Barlow, Hooper, Parker, Grindal, Scory, May, Cox, Coverdale, and many others-were men who lived and laboured amongst the Protestants of the Continent, and remained in constant and cordial touch and communication with them.伟大的英语改革者谁参加了在英格兰&151;克兰默改革,巴洛,胡珀,帕克,格林达尔,Scory,五月,考克斯,代尔工作的主导作用,许多人,其中男性谁生活和新教徒之间的辛劳在大陆,仍然在不断的和亲切的接触,并与他们沟通。 (See Original Letters of the Reformation.) Reciprocally, continental reformers, like Peter Martyr and Martin Bucer, were welcomed to England and made professors of Divinity at the universities.(见原书的改革。)相对地,大陆的改革者烈士像彼得和马丁布策尔,英国表示欢迎,并提出在大学的神学教授。 Others, like John a Lasco, and Paul Fagius, become the friends and guests of Cranmer.其他,如约翰一拉斯科,保罗Fagius,成为朋友和克兰默客人。

Second Bond: Doctrinal二债券:教义

A second bond was the adoption of the same essential doctrines.第二个键是采用相同的基本教义。The great principles and tenets set forth in the works of Luther, Melanchthon, and Calvin, or Zwingli, are reproduced with or without modifications, but substantially, and often almost verbatim in the literature of the English Reformation.伟大的原则和在路德,梅兰希顿,和Calvin,或茨温利的作品提出原则,与不加修改或转载,但实质上,而且往往在英语改革文学几乎一字不差。 The chief doctrines which are essentially and specifically characteristic of the Protestant Reformation as a whole are the following nine:哪些是本质上和具体的改革作为一个整体新教教义的特点主要有以下九个:

rejection of the Papacy,拒绝教皇,

denial of the Church Infallibility;否认犯错误的教会;

Justification by Faith only;因信称义只;

supremacy and sufficiency of Scripture as Rule of Faith;霸权和作为法治的信仰圣经充足;

the triple Eucharistic tenet [viz.三重圣体的宗旨[即。(a) that the Eucharist is a Communion or Sacrament, and not a Mass or Sacrifice, save in the sense of praise or commemoration; (b) the denial of Transubstantiation and worship of the Host; (c) the denial of the sacrificial office of the priesthood and the propitiatory character of the Mass]; (一)表示,圣体是共融或圣餐,而不是质量或牺牲,保存在表扬或纪念意义的;(二)拒绝陷于变体和宗教主机;(三)拒绝牺牲办公室的神职人员和群众]和解的性质;

the non-necessity of auricular Confession;非必要性的耳廓自白;

the rejection of the invocation of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints;对圣母和圣人调用排斥;

the rejection of Purgatory and omission of prayers for the dead;的炼狱排斥和为死者祈祷遗漏;

the rejection of the doctrine of Indulgences.该学说的宽容拒绝。

To these may be added three disciplinary characteristics which are founded on doctrine:为了这些可能会增加三个原则基础上的纪律特点:

the giving of Communion in both kinds;共融给予的两种;

the substitution of tables for altars; and为表坛的替代;及

the abolition of monastic vows and the celibacy of the clergy.废除了寺院的誓言和神职人员独身。

These twelve doctrines and practices of the continental Reformation have undoubtedly, though not always in the same measure, entered into the fibre of the English Reformation, and have all found expression, more or less emphatic, in the Anglican formularies.这十二学说与大陆的改革做法无疑,虽然并不总是在同一措施,把纤维的英语改革进入,并已全部被表达出来,或多或少有力的,在英国圣公会处方。 Hence, while the name "Protestant" is not found in the Prayer Book, it is used in the Coronation Service when the King promises to maintain "the Protestant religion as by law established".因此,虽然名称为“新教”是不是在祈祷书发现,它是用在当国王加冕服务承诺,维持“所设立的法律新教的宗教”。 It was from the beginning popularly applied to the Anglican beliefs and services.这是从普遍适用于英国圣公会的信仰和服务的开始。In the Act of Union the Churches of England and Ireland are styled "the Protestant Episcopal Church", a name still retained by the Anglican Church in America.在教会法联盟的英格兰和爱尔兰都自称是“新教圣公会教会”,这个名字仍然保留了由美国圣公会。

Third Bond: Liturgical第三债券:礼仪

A third bond between the Reformation on the continent and that which took place in England is to be found in the actual composition of the formularies.一个在非洲大陆之间的改革和债券的三分之一发生在英格兰地要在处方组成符合实际。The Anglican Articles owe much, through the Thirteen Articles, to the Confession of Augsburg, and also to the Confession of Wurtemberg.英国圣公会文章归功于通过十三条,到奥格斯堡供述,并还以Wurtemberg自首。Notable portions of the baptismal, marriage, and confirmation services are derived from the "Simplex et Pia Deliberatio" which was compiled by the Lutheran Hermann von Wied, with the aid of Bucer and Melanchthon.显着部分的洗礼,婚姻,和确认服务是源自于“单纯等皮娅Deliberatio”,这是编制信义赫尔曼冯Wied同布策尔和梅兰希援助。 That a considerable part of the Anglican ordinal (without the distinctive form for each Order) is found in Bucer's "Scripta Anglica", has been pointed out by the late Canon Travers Smith.这是英国圣公会序相当一部分(不每笔订单的特殊形式)被发现在布策尔的“Scripta大米草”,已经指出,由已故佳能Travers的史密斯了。


In this triple bond-personal, doctrinal, and liturgical &151; the continental and Anglican Reformations are, amid many and notable differences, substantially and inseparably interwoven as parts of one and the same great religious movement.在这三键,个人,教义,礼仪&151;大陆和英国圣公会教育改革中有许多和显着的差异,实质上和不可分割为同一个伟大的宗教运动部件交织在一起。


The comparison of the Anglican Prayer Book and Ordinal with the Pre-Reformation formularies which they replaced leads to a second conclusion which in harmony with the above.圣公会的祈祷书和顺序与学前教育改革处方,他们取代导致了第二个结论比较,这与上述的和谐。On making an analysis of what has been removed, and what has been retained, and what has been altered, it becomes unmistakably apparent that the main motive which determined and guided the construction of the new liturgy was the same as that which inspired the whole Reformation movement, namely: the determination to have the Lord's Supper regarded only as a Sacrament or Communion, and not as a Sacrifice, and to remove whatever indicated the sacrificial character of the Eucharist, or the Real, Objective Presence, in the Catholic sense, in which Christ is worshipped in the Host.在制定一个什么样的分析已被删除,并保留了什么,什么已经改变,它变得明白无误地明显,主要的动机决定和指导了新的礼仪建设是同它作为整个改革的启发运动,即:决心,有主的晚餐视为圣事,还是共融只,而不是一种牺牲,并消除一切表明,在天主教意义上圣餐,还是真实,客观存在,祭祀性格,基督是崇拜的主机。

The Catholic liturgical forms, missal, breviary, pontifical, were in possession and had been in actual use for centuries.天主教礼仪形式,missal,祈祷,宗座,在拥有并已在实际使用了数百年。 In making a liturgical reform, it was by the necessity of the case impossible that the changes made should not have reference to them, standing as they did, in the relation of terminus a quo to a terminus ad quem of reformation.在作出礼仪的改革,它是由必要性的情况不可能发生的变化作出不应该提到它们,因为他们站着的总站到总站的广告quem改革现状的关系。 If the Sarum Missal, Breviary, and Pontifical are placed side by side with the Anglican Prayer Book and Ordinal, and a comparison made of the corresponding parts, the motive, drift, and intention of the framers are clearly revealed.如果塞勒姆Missal,祈祷,以及圣座并排放置与英国国教祈祷书和顺序,并提出了相应的部分比较方面,动机,漂移,以及制定者的意图很明显显现出来。

In the Catholic Pontifical, in the Ordination services there are twenty-four passages which express with clearness the Catholic Sacerdotium, or sacrificial character of the office and work of the priesthood.在天主教罗马教皇,在协调服务有二四通道这与天主教Sacerdotium清晰,或祭祀性质的办公和工作的神职人员表示。 Of these not one was allowed to remain in the Anglican Ordinal.其中没有一个被允许留在英国圣公会的序数。

In the Ordinary of the Mass alone there are some twenty-five points in which the sacrificial nature of the Eucharist and the Real Presence of Christ as a Victim are expressed or implied.在普通大众就有一些二五,其中的圣体与基督的真实存在为牺牲品祭祀性质的明示或暗示的问题。 All these have been suppressed and eliminated in the Anglican Communion Service, and passages of a Reformational or non-committal character substituted.所有这些,都被压制,在英国圣公会服务取消,一个宗教改革或不表态字符的段落取代。

Thus, with regard to no less than forty-nine places, the new formularies bear the mark of deliberate exclusion and of anti-sacrificial and anti-sacerdotal significance.因此,关于不低于四十九个地方,新的处方承担蓄意排斥和反祭祀和反sacerdotal意义的标志。(See The Tablet, London, 12 June, 1897.)(见片剂,伦敦,1897年6月12日。)


Although the Anglican Articles and liturgy have been practically unchanged since 1662, it was inevitable that the life and thought of a religious body like the Church of England should present the note of development, and that such development should eventually out grow, or at least strain, the historic interpretation of the formularies, and the more so because there has been no living authority to adapt or readjust them to the newer needs or aspirations.虽然英国圣公会礼仪用品及自1662年已几乎不变,这是不可避免的生命和一个像英国教会的宗教机构,应该注意到目前发展的思想,而且这种发展应该最终出增长,或者至少应变,对处方的历史解释,而更是因为一直没有生活的权力,以适应他们或者调整到新的需求或愿望。

The development may be said to have been guided by three main influences.的发展可以说是由三个主要影响为指导。

There has been the deep-seated attachment to the principles of the Reformation in which the Anglican settlement was founded, and the determination to preserve the standards of belief and worship then established.出现了对改革在其中圣公会始建原则解决深层次的附件,并决心维护信仰和崇拜的标准,然后确定。This loyalty to the Protestant character of the Anglican Church has produced the Low Church, or Evangelical, school of Anglicanism.这导致了新教圣公会教堂性格忠诚产生了低教会或福音派,圣公会的学校。

A second influence is that of rationalism, which, both in England and in Germany, has acted as a solvent of Protestantism, especially in the form of destructive biblical criticism, and which, often in the effort to sublimate religion, has induced an aversion to all that is dogmatic, supernatural, or miraculous.第二个影响是,理性主义,其​​中,无论是在英国和德国,已经担任了新教溶剂,特别是在破坏性的圣经批评的形式,且往往在努力升华宗教,已经引起了反感所有这些都是教条化,超自然的,或神奇。 Its exponents, who are numerous, learned, and influential, are generally classed as the Broad Church, or the Latitudinarian, school of Anglican religious thought.它的指数,谁是多不胜数,教训和影响力,一般都为广大教会,或Latitudinarian,圣公会宗教学派归类。

A third influence which made itself felt upon Anglicanism, and one more vital and more penetrating and progressive than the other two, has been that of Catholicism, whether as reflected in Catholic antiquity or as beheld in the actual Catholic and Roman Church.第三个影响力,使自己觉得在英国国教,一个更生动,更深入和进步比其他两个,一直是天主教,天主教是否反映在古代还是在实际天主教和罗马教会看到。 The effect of this influence may be traced in what has been called the historic High Church party.这种影响的效果可追溯到在被称为历史性的高教会党。A number of Anglican bishops and divines in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, while bitterly opposed to Rome, and loyally Protestant, stood above the prevailing low level of churchmanship, and put forward higher and philocatholic views, in the matters of Church authority, belief, and worship.一个在十七和十八世纪英国圣公会主教的数量和神学家,而强烈反对罗马,并忠实地新教,站在当时的churchmanship以上水平低,并把教会的权威,信仰的事项提出了更高和philocatholic意见,和崇拜。 Although comparatively few in number, and vehemently assailed by their fellow churchmen, they were destined to serve as a point d'appui for a subsequent development.虽然在数量上相对较少,并强烈抨击了他们的同胞牧师,他们注定要作为一个点德为后来的发展AppUi的。 Such writers as Bishop Andrews (d. 1626), Bishop Overall (d. 1644), Bishop Montague (d. 1641), Archbishop Laud (d. 1644), Archbishop Bramhall (d. 1663), Dr. Thorndike (d. 1672), Bishop Ken (d. 1711), Dr Waterland (d. 1740), may be regarded as representative of this section.作为主教安德鲁斯(四1626年),总主教(草1644),主教蒙塔古(草1641),大主教劳德(草1644),大主教布拉姆霍尔(草1663),博士桑代克(草1672这样的作家),主教肯(草1711),国票博士(草1740),可被视为本节的代表。


(See also OXFORD MOVEMENT.)(参见牛津运动。)

In 1833 a strong current of popular opinion directed against the Anglican Church aroused in its defense the zeal of a small band of Oxford students and writers, who gradually gathered under the informal leadership of John Henry Newman.在1833年强烈反对在其辩护引起了牛津大学学生和作家,谁逐步下纽曼领导人非正式小乐队的热情聚集圣公会定向民意电流。 Among these were John Keble, C. Marriott, Hurrell Froude, Isaac Williams, Dr. Pusey, and WG Ward.在这些人约翰基布尔,角万豪,赫雷尔弗劳德,以撒威廉姆斯博士蒲赛,病房工作组。Their object was to make good for the Anglican Church its claim to the note of Catholicity.其目的是使英国圣公会教会其索赔注意良好的共通性。Their task led them to look both behind and outside the sphere of the Reformation.他们的任务使他们看起来既背后,境外的改革领域。

By forming a catena of Anglican High Church divines of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries on one side, and a catena of certain Fathers on the other, it was hoped that a quasi-continuous chain of Catholic tradition could be made to connect the Anglican Church of their day with Catholic antiquity.通过形成一个圣公会高教会神学的一方十七和十八世纪,以及还有其他一些父亲连锁连锁,这是希望的天主教传统准连续链可以作出连接圣公会他们每天与天主教文物。 Translations of the Fathers, works on liturgy, the festivals of the "Christian Year", and above all a memorable series of "Tracts for the Times", conveyed with telling force the newer and broader conceptions of churchmanship which entered into the spirit of the defenders.翻译的父亲,在礼仪工程,“基督教年”的节日,首先是“为时代大港”难忘系列,运送与告诉力churchmanship较新的和更广泛的概念是将输入的精神维护者。

In "Tract 90" an attempt was made, somewhat on the lines of Sancta Clara, to show that the Anglican Articles might in certain aspects be reconciled to the teaching of the Council of Trent.在“道90”试图在一定程度上的Sancta克拉拉的线条,显示英国圣公会文章可能在某些方面是不甘心的教学安理会的遄达。 The result was a doctrinal and devotional crisis such as England had not witnessed since the Reformation, and the Oxford or Tractarian movement, during the twelve years from Keble's sermon on "National Apostasy", in 1833, to Newman's conversion in 1845, formed a historic epoch in the annals of Anglicanism.其结果是理论和信仰的危机,如英格兰没有自改革见证,以及牛津或Tractarian运动,在从基布尔的“国家叛教”说教的十二年,于1833年,纽曼在1845年转换,形成了一个历史性的时代在英国国教的史册。 The fact that the work of the movement was informally a study de Ecclesiâ brought both the writers and their readers more directly face to face with the claims of the Church of Rome.事实上,该运动的工作是非正式的研究去教会,这既带来了更多的作家与读者直接面对面与罗马教会的主张。

A large number of those who took part in the movement, and notably its great leader, became Catholics, while others, in remaining Anglicans, gave a new and pro-Catholic direction and impulse to Anglican thought and worship.阿谁参加了这些运动的一部分,尤其是它的伟大领袖,成为大批天主教徒,而其他国家,在余下的英国圣公会,作出了新的和亲天主教的方向和冲动圣公会思想和崇拜。 It may be said that in the case of Newman, Oakley, Wilberforce, Ward, and a host of others, the research of the nature of Catholicity and the rule of faith brought them to realize the need of the living voice of a Divine magisterium (the regula proxima fidei), and failing to find it in the Anglican episcopate, they sought it where alone it could be found.可以说,在纽曼,奥克利,威尔伯福斯,病房,病例与其他主机,该宽容的本质和规律研究的信念使他们认识到了一个神圣的训导需要生活的声音(在调控玛信),并没有找到它在英国圣公会主教,他们寻求它放在单独看它也没有找到。

Others, like Pusey, Marriott, Keble, sought what they called the voice of the "Church" in the inanimate formularies (or regula remota) which, after all, was merely adding the Fathers, the liturgies, and conciliar definitions to the Scripture as the area over which they still used, after the manner of true Protestants, their private judgement.其他,像蒲赛要求,万豪,基布尔,他们所谓的“教会”的声音在无生命的处方(或调控remota),其中,毕竟,只是加入父亲,礼仪,和conciliar定义,以圣经为过之后,他们仍然使用了真正的新教徒,他们的私人判断的方式,面积。 The same principle is always more or less at work and goes as far now as then to sift those who come from those who stay.同样的原则总是比较少,或在工作中竟把那现在谁去筛选那些从那些谁留下来吧。[If we bear in mind that by "Church" was thus meant the silent self-interpreted formularies (or regula remota), and by "Bishops" the living magisterium (or regula proxima) sought in Anglicanism, we shall feel that there is a great truth contained in Pusey's well-known saying, three years after the secession of Newman: "I am not disturbed, because I never attached any weight to bishops. It was perhaps the difference between Newman and me. He threw himself upon the bishops and they failed him. I threw myself on the English Church and the Fathers, as under God, her support" (Letter to C. Marriott, 2 January, 1848)]. [如果我们铭记,由“教会”指的是这样自我解释沉默处方(或调控remota),以及由“主教”的生活训导(或调控玛)在圣公宗要求,我们会觉得有一伟大的真理在皮塞的一句名言所载三年后,纽曼分裂:。。“我不是感到不安,因为我从来没有附加任何重量的主教这也许与纽曼和我差他扔在主教自己和他们失败了。我扔在英国教会和自己的父亲,因为根据上帝,她的支持“(信到C万豪,1848年1月2日)]。


Although the Oxford movement is regarded as having come to a close at the conversion of Dr. Newman in 1845, a large section of the Anglican public had been much too profoundly stirred by its ideals ever to return to the narrowness of the religious horizons which were bounded by the Reformation.虽然牛津运动被视为有曲终人散纽曼博士在1845年,是英国圣公会市民大断面转换太深刻了用它的理想曾经激起返回到其中宗教的狭隘视野北临改造。 Its influence has survived in the unceasing flow of converts to the Catholic Faith, and is shown in the Anglican Church itself by the notable change of belief, temperament, and practice which is known as the Anglican Revival.它的影响力已经生存在不断流的转换,以天主教信仰,并在英国圣公会教会本身所表现出的信仰,气质显着的变化,和实践是英国圣公会的复兴而闻名。 The last fifty years (1860-1910) have witnessed the development of an influential and growing school of religious thought which, amid the inconsistencies of its position, has steadily laboured to Catholicize the Church of England.最后一个(1860年至一零年)第五十多年见证了一个宗教思想,正当人们对自己的立场不一致,稳步向Catholicize辛劳的英国教会学校发展的影响力和成长。 It has set up the claim, hopelessly untenable in the face of historical evidence, that the Anglican Church is one and continuous with the Ancient Catholic Church of the country, and is an integral portion of the Catholic Church of today.它已成立了索赔,绝望地在历史的证据面前站不住脚的,是英国圣公会教会是一个整体,与古代天主教国家连续的,是对今天的天主教教会的组成部分。 It professes to be able to give to Anglicans all that the Catholic Church gives to her members, save communion with the Holy See.它自称是能够给所有教徒,天主教教会给予她的成员,保存与圣座共融。Through possessing neither the learning nor the logic of the Tractarians, it exercises a wider and more practical influence, and has won the favour of a large body of the Anglican public by importing into the Anglican services something of the beauty and power which it has borrowed from Catholic teaching and ritual.通过学习,也不具备,无论是对Tractarians逻辑,它行使一个更广泛和更实际影响,并赢得了进入英国圣公会服务的美丽和力量的东西,它借用进口英国圣公会的一个大机构的青睐市民从天主教教学和仪式。 At the same time it has in many centers earned the respect and attachment of the masses by the example of zeal and self-sacrifice given by its clergy.在同一时间,它已在许多中心所赚取的热情和自我的牺牲,例如神职人员给予的尊重和群众的附件。

It was natural that this advance section of the Anglican Church should seek to ratify its position, and to escape from its fatal isolation, by desiring some scheme of corporate reunion and especially by endeavouring to obtain some recognition of the validity of its orders.这是自然的,这部分应提前圣公会寻求批准其地位,摆脱其致命隔离渴望团聚的计划,一些企业,特别是通过努力获得一些订单,其有效性的认可。 With the truest charity, which consists in the candour of truth, Pope Leo XIII in his Encyclical on Unity, pointed out that there can be no reunion expect on the solid basis of dogmatic unity and submission to the divinely instituted authority of the Apostolic See.有了最真实的慈善机构,它在真理坦率组成,教皇利奥十三,对团结,他的通谕中指出,不能团聚的教条式的团结和提交的使徒见神提起管理局坚实基础的期望。 In September, 1896, after a full and exhaustive inquiry, he issued a Bull declaring Anglican Orders to be "utterly null and void", and in a subsequent Brief addressed to the Archbishop of Paris, he required all Catholics to accept this judgment as "fixed, settled, and irrevocable" (firmum, ratum et irrevocabile).九月,1896年,经过充分和详尽的调查,他发出训令,宣布英国圣公会订单是“完全无效”,并在给巴黎大主教随后的参考资料,他要求所有的天主教徒接受这个判决“固定,解决,不可撤销的“(firmum,ratum等irrevocabile)。

The Anglican Revival continues to reiterate its claim and to appropriate to itself, where practical, whatever in Catholic doctrine, liturgy, and practice, church vestments or church furniture, it finds helpful to its purpose.圣公会复兴继续重申其要求,并适当的本身,而实际的,无论在天主教教义,礼仪和实践,教堂法衣或教会家具,它认为有利于它的目的。 By the Lambeth judgment of 1891 it acquired a public sanction for many of its innovations.到1891年兰贝斯判断,其收购的诸多创新公共制裁。Since then it has gone further, and holds that no authority in the Church of England can override things which are authorized by "Catholic consent".从那时起,它已向前迈进一步,并认为没有在英国教会的权威可以覆盖的是由“天主教同意”授权的事情。It stands thus in the illogical and unhistorical position of a system which is philocatholic in its views and aspirations, but hopelessly committed to heresy and to heretical communication, and built upon an essentially Protestant foundation.它站在因此,在一个系统是philocatholic在其意见和愿望,但绝望地致力于异端和邪教的沟通不合逻辑和非历史的立场,并呼吁一个基本上新教的基础之上。 Although to Catholics its very claim is an impious usurpation of what belongs of right to the Catholic Church alone, it fulfils an informal mission of influencing English public opinion, and of familiarizing the English people with Catholic doctrines and ideals.虽然它很天主教徒是一个什么样的索赔权的天主教教会仅属于不恭的篡夺,它发挥了舆论的影响英语非正式的使命,并熟悉天主教的教义和理想的英语的人。

Like the Oxford movement, it educates more pupils than it can retain, and works upon premises which cannot but carry it in the long run farther than it is willing to go.像牛津运动,它教育学生比它更可以保留,并呼吁处所,这不能不随身携带,在长远来看,这远超过它愿意去工作。A branch theory which is repudiated by the principal branches, or a province theory which is unknown to the rest of the provinces, and a continuity theory of which more than twelve thousand documents in the Record Office and the Vatican Library are the overwhelming refutation, cannot form a standing ground which is other than temporary and transitional.一个分支理论,是由主要分支否定,或一个省的理论,是未知的,各省休息,一个连续性的理论,其中超过12000的记录办公室和梵蒂冈图书馆的文件是压倒性的反驳,不能组成一个常设地面它比其他临时和过渡性。 In the meantime, its work amongst the masses is often a species of catechumenate for Catholicism, and in all cases it is an active solvent and a steady undoing of the English Reformation.在此期间,其工作是群众之间经常为天主教慕道一个物种,并在所有情况下,它是一个积极的溶剂和稳定的英语改革失败的原因。


The number of Catholics in the world (1910) is said to exceed 230,000,000 (estimates by M. Fournier de Flaix, see The American Statistical Association Quarterly for March 1892).对天主教会在世界上(1910)的数量据说超过(由M.福涅尔德Flaix估计,看到美国统计协会的季度1892年3月)230,000,000。 The number belonging to the Greek and Eastern Churches is about 100,000,000.这个数字属于希腊和东方教会约1.00亿。The number of Anglicans in all countries is something less than 25,000,000.在所有国家的教徒人数超过25,000,000的东西少。Thus the relative proportion of those three Christian bodies which are sometimes grouped as being Episcopalian in constitution may be fairly stated by the three figures 23, 10, 2.5.因此,那些有时被作为是相当可能在宪法通过这三个数字23,10,2.5所述圣公会分为三个基督教团体的相对比例。The growth of Anglicanism has followed mainly upon the expansion of the Anglo-Saxon race.在随后的英国国教的增长主要依靠了盎格鲁撒克逊种族扩张。Its area may be said to include, besides the three nucleal countries (England, Ireland, Scotland), six others, namely: the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and India.它的面积可以说是包括,除了三个nucleal国家(英国,爱尔兰,苏格兰),六人,分别是:美国,加拿大,澳大利亚,新西兰,南非和印度。 But the bulk of its membership, in fact more than two-thirds, is to be found in England.但是,其成员大部分实际上比三分之二以上,是要在英国发现。In all the other countries of its areas it is in a minority of the Christian population.在所有的领域的其他国家,它是在一个基督教人口占少数。In five of them-Ireland, Scotland, the United States, Canada, and India &151; its numbers are considerably exceeded by those of the Catholic Church.其中5 -爱尔兰,苏格兰,美国,加拿大和印度&151;其数量是相当大的天主教教会的那些超出。Its foreign missions are very generously supported, and have extended their activity far into the heathen countries.其外交任务是非常慷慨的支持,并已延伸到远异教徒国家的活动。The following table is compiled from comparatively recent statistics.下表是从较近期的统计数据编制。The numbers given are of members, except when it is stated to be of communicants.这些数字给出的成员,除非它被声明为的圣餐。The ratio of communicants to members may be anything between 1 in 3 and 1 in 8.比例的圣餐成员可能是任何东西1至3和8 1。

England英格兰 32,526,07532526075 Between 13 and 17 millions or 2,223,207 communicants13至17百万或2223207圣餐
Ireland爱尔兰 4,458,7754458775 581,089581089
Scotland苏格兰 4,472,1034472103 134,155 (Epis. Ch of Scotland &151; Year Book, 1906) 134155(Epis.苏格兰&151;年鉴,1906年总)
United States美国 76,303,38776303387 823,066 communicants823066圣餐
Canada加拿大 5,371,0515371051 680,346680346
Australia澳大利亚 3,774,2823774282 1,256,6731256673
New Zealand新西兰 772,719772719 315,263315263
South Africa南非 1,135,7351135735 Under 300,000 or 48,487 communicants在300,000或48487圣餐
India印度 2,923,2412923241 453,462453462

The foregoing statistics concerning the Christian population of England and her dependencies are, with the exception of Australia and New Zealand, taken from the Census, 1901 (British Empire Official Year Book, which is also to be consulted for the Anglican population of Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, and India).上述关于英国和她的基督教人口依赖上述统计数字,与澳大利亚和新西兰,从人口普查,1901年(大英帝国的官方年鉴,也是要为爱尔兰,加拿大圣公会人口谘询采取例外,新西兰和印度)。 The figures for the Christian populations of Australia, in 1901, and New Zealand are given respectively in "Whitaker's Almanac", 1906, which includes 6,851 aborigines, and the "New Zealand year Book", 1904, which excludes the Maoris.澳洲基督教的人口,在1901年,新西兰的数字分别载于“惠特克的年历”,1906年,其中包括6851原住民,“新西兰年鉴”,1904年,它排除了毛利人。 The Christian population of the United States is based on the Abstract of the twelfth Census, and that of South Africa on the European population, 1904, as contained in "Whitaker's Almanac", 1906.对美国基督教人口是根据第十二届普查抽象的,是南非的欧洲人口,1904年,在“惠特克的年历”,1906年中。For several decades there has been no return of religious denominations in the British Government Census.几十年来一直没有宗教教派在英国政府的人口普查的回报。The Church of England is popularly estimated to include about 17,000,000.英国教会是普遍估计包括约17,000,000。 Its official "Year Book" (1906), which is also the authority for the number of communicants in the United States and South Africa, gives the number of communicants in England, as 2,223,207.其官方的“年鉴”(1906年),这也是为在美国和南非的人数communicants权威,给在英国的人数communicants为2223207。 This multiplied by 6 would give a membership of 13,339,242.乘以6,这将引致13339242会员。The same authority give the number of baptisms as 615,621.同样的权力赋予洗礼人数为615621。This, upon the usual multiple of 22.5, would give a membership of 13,860,000.这在一般多为22.5,将引致1386.0万会员。 The number belonging to the Church of England would thus seem to be between thirteen and seventeen millions.这个数字属于英国教会将因此似乎是十三和十七万元之间。For the number of Anglicans in Australia in 1901, refer again to "Whitaker's Almanac", 1906.对于在澳大利亚教徒人数在1901年,再次提及“惠特克的年历”,1906年。

Publication information Written by J. Moyes.出版信息写了J.莫耶斯。Transcribed by Nicolette Ormsbee.王匡奥姆斯比转录。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Wilkins, Concilia (London, 1737); Calendar of State Papers: Henry VII (London, 1862 sqq.); Edward VI (1856 sqq.); Elizabeth (ibid., 1863 sqq.); Prothero, Sclect Statutes; Cardwell, Documentary Annals (Oxford, 1844); Cranmer, Works; Gairdner, History of the Church of England in the XVIth Century; Dixon, Hist.威尔金斯,Concilia(伦敦,1737年),日历国家论文:(。1856 sqq)亨利七世(。伦敦,1862年sqq)爱德华六世,伊丽莎白(同上,1863年sqq。);普罗西罗,Sclect章程;卡德威尔,纪实年鉴(牛津,1844年);克兰默,工程;盖尔德纳,在英格兰,在第十六届世纪的教堂历史;迪克森,组织胺。 of Church of England (London, 1878-1902); Wakeman, Introduct.作者:英国(伦敦,1978至02年)的教会;魏斐德,公司简介。 to Hist.到历史。of Church of England (London 1897); Cardwell, History of Conferences (London, 1849); Gibson, the Thirty-nine Articles; Browne, Hist.英格兰教会(伦敦1897年);卡德威尔,对会议的历史(伦敦,1849年);吉布森,第三十九条;布朗,组织胺。of the Thirty-nine Articles; Keeling, Liturgiae Britannicae; Gasquet and Bishop, Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer (London, 1891); Dowden, The Workmanship of the Prayer Book; Bulley, Variations of the Communion and Baptismal Offices; Brooke, Privy Council Judgements; Seckendorff, History of Lutheranism; Janssen, History of the German People, V, VI; Original Letters of the Reformation (Parker Series); Zurich Letters (Cambridge, 1842-43); Benson, Archbishop Laud (London, 1887); Church, The Oxford Movement (London and New York, 1891); Newman, Apologia; Liddon, Life of Pusey (London and New York, 1893-94), III; Benson, Life of Archbishop Benson第三十九条;基林,Liturgiae Britannicae;赛和主教,爱德华六世和共同祈祷(伦敦,1891年)的书;道登,祈祷的书工艺;布利,洗礼的共融和办事处变化;布鲁克,英国枢密院判决; Seckendorff,路德教历史;扬森,对历史的德国人,五,六;原信的改革(派克系列);苏黎世信函(剑桥,1842年至1843年),本森,大主教劳德(伦敦, 1887年);教会,牛津运动(伦敦和纽约,1891年);纽曼,纵容,利敦,对蒲赛(伦敦和纽约,1893年至1894年),三生命;本森,本森生活的大主教

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