Ascetical Theology苦行神学

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Classically, ascetical theology has been defined as the branch of theology dealing with the ordinary means of Christian perfection, eg, the disciplined renunciation of personal desires, the imitation of Christ, and the pursuit of charity. 经典,苦行神学已被界定为分行的神学与基督教交易的普通手段完善,例如放弃个人欲望的纪律,模仿基督,与慈善追求。 On this level it has been distinguished since the seventeenth century from moral theology (which deals with those duties essential for salvation and thus the avoidance of mortal and venial sins) and mystical theology (which deals with the extraordinary grace of God leading to infused contemplation and is thus a passive reception rather than an active pursuit). The borderline between moral and ascetical theology is hazy at best, while the distinction between it and mystical theology is often denied altogether.在这个层面,因为它一直尊敬的罪过)十七世纪从道德神学和(其中涉及这些基本的职责为拯救凡人,从而避免可宽恕和神秘神学 (其中涉及领导沉思和上帝注入了非凡的恩典因此是一个被动接受,而不是一个积极的追求)。 神学之间的界线是模糊的道德和苦行在最好的,而它的神学和神秘主义之间的区别往往是完全否认。

This fact becomes particularly clear when ascetical theology is divided in its usual manner into the purgative, illuminative, and unitive ways. The purgative way, which stresses the cleansing of the soul from all serious sin, clearly overlaps moral theology. 这一事实变得尤为明显,当苦行神学分为其一贯的方式进入泻药,照明,以及统一的方式。泻下的方式,它强调人犯罪清洗所有严重的,明确的重叠道德神学。 The unitive way, which focuses on union with God, can easily include mystical theology.在统一的方式,这对联盟的重点与神,可以很容易地包括神秘的神学。Only the illuminative way, the practice of positive Christian virtue, remains uncontested.只有照明方式,积极基督教美德的做法,仍然自动当选。Yet this threefold division of ascetical theology has been firmly established since Thomas Aquinas, although its roots can be traced to Augustine and earlier. Thus it is wisest to take ascetical theology in its broadest sense, meaning the study of Christian discipline and the spiritual life.然而,这三方面的苦行神学部已牢牢确立,因为托马斯阿奎那,但其根源可追溯到奥古斯丁和更早版本。 因此,它是最明智的采取最广泛的意义在其苦行神学,这意味着生活学习纪律和基督教的精神。

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The basis of ascetical theology is in the NT苦行神学的基础是在新台币

It was Jesus who spoke of fasting (Matt. 9:15; Mark 9:29), celibacy (Matt. 19:12), and the renunciation of possessions (Matt. 19:21; Mark 10:28; Luke 9:57 - 62; 12:33).谁是耶稣禁食发言(太9:15;马克9:29),独身(太19时12),以及财产放弃(太19时21分;马克10:28;路加福音9时57分 - 62; ​​12:33)。More importantly Jesus called for a general self-renunciation, a "taking up" of one's "cross" in order to follow him (Mark 8:34).更重要的是耶稣的一般自我放弃调用时,一个“走了”一个人的“十字架”,以跟随他(马克8时34分)。The Sermon on the Mount forms the directive for this lifestyle, closing with a call to a disciplined life (Matt. 7:13 - 27).山上宝训的形式对这种生活方式的指令,以有纪律的生活致电(太7点13 - 27日)闭幕。One must also include the call for constant watchfulness (Matt. 24:42; 25:13, or "abiding" in John).我们还必须包括为不断警惕电话(太24:42,25:13,或“守法”的约翰)。Paul picked up this theme with his call for self discipline (1 Cor. 9:24 - 27), his exhortation to put off the "old man" (Eph. 4:22) or to put to death the flesh (Col. 3:5), and his demand that Christians walk by the Spirit (Rom.8; Gal. 5).保罗拿起了他的要求自律这个主题(1肺心病9点24 - 27。),他告诫推迟“旧人”(弗4:22),或置于死亡的肉体(上校3 :5),他的要求,基督徒被圣灵(Rom.8步行;加拉太5)。。Similar examples could be discovered in James, John, or Peter.类似的例子可以发现在詹姆斯,约翰,或彼得。It is the unified witness of the NT that the Christian life is a discipline, a struggle, and that success in this struggle is enabled by the grace of God or his Spirit.这是新台币统一的见证,基督徒的生活是一门学科,一斗争,在这场斗争中取得成功是由上帝或他的圣灵的恩典启用。

The postapostolic church, beginning, perhaps, with the Shepherd of Hermas, began producing works on how this discipline was to be pursued; that is, how the goal of perfect charity and fellowship with God was to be gained.该postapostolic教堂,开始,或许与牧人书,开始生产这门学科是如何要追求的作品,即如何完善慈善机构,并与神交通的目标是可以得到的。 Spiritual teaching was quickly connected first with martyrdom as its highest good and then, partially under the influence of Neoplatonism, with virginity as a type of living martyrdom.精神教学,是先与殉道快速连接作为其最高好,然后,部分新柏拉图主义的影响下,作为烈士的生活类型的童贞。As the church became one with the Roman Empire, it was the monastic movement which took up and defended the rigor of the early period; this was to be the home of ascetical theology for much of the succeeding church history, producing the works of the desert fathers, Basil and the Eastern tradition of spiritual direction, and later the medieval monastic tradition, following in the steps of Augustine.由于教会成为一个与罗马帝国,它是寺院运动接手,捍卫了严谨的初期,这是成为对教会历史的成功非常ascetical神学家,生产的沙漠工程父亲,罗勒和东方传统精神方向,以及后来的中世纪寺院的传统,继在奥古斯丁的步骤。

In the Reformation period ascetical theology split into several different streams, some of which were more influenced by the medieval stress on the meditation on and identification with the human life of Christ and others more by the spiritual internalization of the life of Christ in the Devotio Moderna as seen especially in Thomas a Kempis's Imitation of Christ. The most radical stream was the Anabaptist one, which aimed at a disciplined church with primitive purity: the whole church fulfilled the monastic ideal of imitating Christ. The Catholic stream focused more upon a group of elect "first class" Christians (Francis de Sales, Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises), preserving the tradition of deep meditation on the human sufferings of Christ. Lutheran pietism and especially Calvinist Puritanism mediated ascetical theology to their respective traditions with their stress on holy lives (Richard Baxter, and in some respects William Law's Serious Call).在改革时期,Devotio Moderna ascetical神学分裂成几个不同的数据流,其中一些人的生活更影响了中世纪的压力上和冥想识别与基督和基督的人更多地受到内在精神的生活看,特别是在托马斯一肯皮斯的模仿基督的:。最激进的流是再洗礼派一,原始的,其目的是教会同在一个纪律纯度全教会完成了寺院的天主教流理想模仿基督。 的注意力更多地集中在一组选出“一流”的基督徒 (弗朗西斯德销售,依纳爵的神操),保虔诚主义基督。 路德的人类苦难的传统禅上,特别是加尔文清教介导的ascetical神学圣洁的生活 (理查德各自的传统,用自己的应力巴克斯特,并在某些方面威廉法的严重通话)。Finally, there is the whole holiness tradition, beginning with John Wesley.最后,还有一个整体的圣洁传统,韦斯利开始与约翰。

If these are classified as radical, catholic, state church, and holiness, one can find a place within these categories for the Quakers and others who, knowingly or unconsciously, repeat the calls of spiritual directors and writers on ascetical theology down the ages (eg, Richard Foster, Watchman Nee, or George Verwer).如果这些被归类为激进,天主教,国家教会,和圣洁,可以发现了如年龄( 一个地方在这些类别的贵格会和其他人谁,精神董事,重复调用明知或不自觉地和作家的ascetical神学理查德福斯特,倪柝声,或乔治Verwer)。

The common themes of ascetical theology in whatever its clothing are the following:无论其在服装ascetical神学的共同主题如下:

This last is the unitive way.这最后是统一的方式。While all of this can become a very individualistic seeking of perfection, the best writers of the tradition are aware of the body of Christ and thus formed their own groups to jointly pursue the goal and / or expected that the pursuit of perfection would lead to a deeper service to the whole body of Christ (eg, Fenelon).虽然这一切可以成为一个非常个人主义的精益求精,对传统的最优秀的作家,是基督的身体意识,从而形成了自己的团体,共同追求的目标和/或预期认为,追求完美将导致更深的服务,以基督的(例如,芬尔隆)全身。

In either its narrower classical sense or its broader sense including a large Protestant tradition ascetical theology is essentially that part of moral and pastoral theology which aims at the renewal of individuals and the church, deeper spiritual experience, and true holiness in primitive simplicity.在任何一种传统意义上的狭义或广义的,包括一个大型的新教传统ascetical神学本质是道德和牧灵神学,它是在个人和教会的更新,更深的精神体验的目的,在古朴真正的圣洁的一部分。 As such it is a theological discipline indispensable to the proper functioning of the church.因此,它是一个神学学科不可缺少的,教会的正常运作。

PH Davids PH值达维茨
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
P Brooks, Christian Spirituality; O Chadwick, Western Asceticism; E Cothenet, Imitating Christ; KR Davis, Anabaptism and Asceticism; A Devine, Manual of Ascetical Theology; R Foster, Celebration of Discipline; FP Harton, The Elements of the Spiritual Life; UT Holmes, A History of Christian Spirituality; KE Kirk, The Vision of God; J Linworsky, Christian Asceticism and Modern Man; R Lovelace, The Dynamics of Spiritual Life; Orthodox Spirituality; LC Shepherd, Spiritual Writers in Modern Times; M Thornton, English Spirituality; Dictionnaire de spiritualite ascetique et mystique; H von Campenhausen, Tradition and Life in the Church; R Williams, Christian Spirituality; O Wyon, Desire for God. P布鲁克斯,基督教灵性; Ø查德威克,西方禁欲主义,电子商务Cothenet,模仿基督,雷克南戴维斯,Anabaptism和禁欲主义,一个迪瓦恩,ascetical神学手册; ř福斯特,纪律性的庆祝活动;计划生育哈顿,对精神生活的元素; UT斯达康霍姆斯,一个历史的基督教灵性;柯柯克,神的视觉; Ĵ Linworsky,基督教禁欲主义与现代人与r洛夫莱斯,精神生活的动力学;东正教灵性;立法会牧羊人,在近代的精神作家〔M桑顿,英国灵性;德spiritualite ascetique辞典等神秘感; ħ冯坎彭豪森,传统和教会的生命; R威廉斯,基督教灵性; Ø Wyon,为上帝的欲望。

Ascetical Theology苦行神学

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of Christian asceticism.苦行者,作为一个神学分支,可能是简单地定义为基督教禁欲主义的科学论断。Asceticism (askesis, askein), taken in its literal signification, means a polishing, a smoothing or refining.禁欲主义(askesis,askein),在其字面意义在内,是指抛光,光滑或精炼。The Greeks used the word to designate the exercises of the athletes, whereby the powers dormant in the body were developed and the body itself was trained to its full natural beauty.希腊人用这个词来指定的运动员,练习,即在体内休眠的权力进行了开发和身体训练,其本身是完全自然的美。The end for which these gymnastic exercises were undertaken was the laurel-wreath bestowed on the victor in the public games.对于这些体操练习结束时进行了桂冠,花圈上在公共场比赛的胜利者赐予的。Now the life of the Christian is, as Christ assures us, a struggle for the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 11:12).现在的基督教生活,如同基督向我们保证,为天国(马太福音11:12)的斗争。To give his readers an object-lesson of this spiritual battle and moral endeavour, St. Paul, who had been trained in the Greek fashion, uses the picture of the Greek pentathlon (1 Corinthians 9:24).为了让他的读者对象的这种精神和道德的努力战斗,圣保罗,谁曾在希腊的时尚培训,课程采用了希腊五项(哥林多前书9:24)的图片。 The exercises to be assumed in this combat tend to develop and strengthen the moral stamina, while their aim is Christian perfection leading up to man's ultimate end, union with God.这次演习将在本次战斗中假定倾向于发展和加强道德后劲,而他们的目标是基督教完善领导到人的最终目的,与神的结合。Human nature having been weakened by original sin and ever inclining toward what is evil, this end cannot be reached except at the price of overcoming, with God's grace, many and serious obstacles.人性有被削弱原罪与以往任何时候都对什么是邪恶的倾斜,这到底能不能达到,除了在克服价格,与上帝的恩典,许多严重的障碍。 The moral struggle then consists first of all in attacking and removing the obstacles, that is the evil concupiscences (concupiscence of the flesh, concupiscence of the eyes, and pride of life), which effects of original sin serve to try and test man (Trid., Sess. V, De peccato originali).然后由道德的斗争在打击和消除各种障碍,首先,这是邪恶的concupiscences(concupiscence的肉,眼睛concupiscence,并今生​​的骄傲),这原罪的影响起到尝试和测试的人(论坛报。,阶段作业。五,德peccato originali)。This first duty is called by the Apostle Paul the putting off of "the old man" (Ephesians 4:22).这第一个任务是由所谓的使徒保罗把“旧人”(以弗所书4:22)关闭。The second duty, in the words of the same Apostle, is to "put on the new man" according to the image of God (Ephesians 4:24).第二项任务在同一使徒的话说,是“提上了新好男人”,按照神的形象(以弗所书4:24)。The new man is Christ.新的人是基督。It is our duty then to strive to become like unto Christ, seeing that He is "the way, and the truth, and the life" (John 14:6), but this endeavour is based on the supernatural order and, therefore, cannot be accomplished without Divine grace.然后是我们的责任,努力成为像祂基督,看到他是“道路,真理,生命”(约翰福音14:6),但这种努力是基于对超自然秩序,因此,不能不成神的恩典。 Its foundation is laid in baptism, whereby we are adopted as sons of God through the imparting of sanctifying grace.它的基础是奠定在洗礼,即我们作为神的儿子通过通过传授sanctifying恩典。

Thenceforth, it must be perfected by the supernatural virtues, the gifts of the Holy Ghost, and actual grace.自此,必须完善由超自然的美德,在圣灵的恩赐,和实际的宽限期。Since, then, ascetics is the systematic treatise of the striving after Christian perfection, it may be defined as the scientific guide to the acquisition of Christian perfection, which consists in expressing within ourselves, with the help of Divine grace, the image of Christ, by practising the Christian virtues, and applying the means given for overcoming the obstacles.自话,那么,修道是基督教后,追求完美的系统论述,它可能被定义为科学指南的基督教完善,其中包括在收购范围内表达自己,与神的恩典,基督的形象的帮助下,通过实践基督教的美德,并运用方式发出克服的障碍。 Let us subject the various elements of this definition to a closer examination.让我们受这个定义的各种元素,仔细观察。

A. Nature of Christian Perfection答:性质基督教完善

(1) To begin with, we must reject the false conception of the Protestants who fancy that Christian perfection, as understood by Catholics, is essentially negative asceticism (cf. Seberg in Herzog-Hauck, "Realencyklopädie für prot. Theologie", III, 138), and that the correct notion of asceticism was discovered by the Reformers. (1)首先,我们必须摒弃错误的观念的新教徒谁看中,基督教完善,作为天主教徒的理解,基本上是负面的禁欲主义(参见Seberg在赫尔佐格,克,“Realencyklopädie献给普罗特。神学”,三, 138号)和禁欲主义的正确的概念是由改革者发现。There can be no doubt as to the Catholic position, if we but hearken to the clear voices of St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure.不可能有任何怀疑,天主教会的立场,但如果我们不听从的圣托马斯和圣文德清晰的声音。For these masters of Catholic theology who never tired of repeating that the ideal of asceticism upheld by them was the ideal of the Catholic past, of the Fathers, of Christ Himself, emphatically state that bodily asceticism has not an absolute, but only a relative, value.对于这些大师的天主教神学谁太累了,从来没有重复的禁欲主义的理想,是他们坚持过去的理想的天主教,基督教的父亲自己,强调声明,身体禁欲主义已经不是绝对的,但只有相对的,值。 St. Thomas calls it a "means to an end", to be used with discretion.圣托马斯称之为“目的的手段”,要慎重使用。St. Bonaventure says that bodily austerities "prepare, foster, and preserve perfection" (ad perfectionem præparans et ipsam promovens et conservans; "Apolog. pauperum", V, c. viii).圣文德说,身体苦行“准备,培育,完善和维护”(专案perfectionem præparans等ipsam promovens等conservans;“Apolog pauperum。”,五,长八)。In proof of his thesis, he shows that to put an absolute value on bodily asceticism would lead to Manichæism.在他的论文中证明,他表明,把一个绝对值上会导致身体禁欲主义摩尼教。He also points to Christ, the ideal of Christian perfection, who was less austere in fasting than John the Baptist, and to the founders of religious orders, who prescribed fewer ascetic exercises for their communities than they themselves practised (cf. J. Zahn, "Vollkommenheitsideal" in "Moralprobleme", Freiburg, 1911, p. 126 sqq.).他还指出,基督,基督教完善的理想,谁是施洗比约翰空腹少严峻,以及对宗教命令,谁明为自己的社区少苦行演习比他们自己练习(参见j的赞恩的创始人, “Vollkommenheitsideal”中的“Moralprobleme”,弗赖堡,1911年,第126 sqq。)。On the other hand, Catholics do not deny the importance of ascetic practices for acquiring Christian perfection.另一方面,天主教徒不否认收购基督教完善的苦修做法的重要性。Considering the actual condition of human nature, they declare these necessary for the removal of obstacles and for the liberation of man's moral forces, thus claiming for asceticism a positive character.考虑到人性的实际情况,他们宣布这些必要为消除障碍,并为人类的道德力量的解放,从而为正面人物禁欲主义声称。 A like value is put upon those exercises which restrain and guide the powers of the soul.像值都使那些练习,制约和引导灵魂的权力。Consequently, Catholics actually fulfil and always have fulfilled what Harnack sets down as a demand of the Gospel and what he pretends to have looked for in vain among Catholics; for they do "wage battle against mammon, care, and selfishness, and practise that charity which loves to serve and to sacrifice itself" (Harnack, "Essence of Christianity").因此,实际履行和天主教徒始终应验哈纳克订下作为福音的需求,他假装在天主教徒之间有白看了,因为他们做“打工抗击钱财,护理和自私,实践,慈善它喜欢服务和牺牲自己“(的Harnack,”基督教的本质“)。 The Catholic ideal, then, is by no means confined to the negative element of asceticism, but is of a positive nature.天主教的理想,那么,决不是仅限于消极因素的禁欲主义,而是一种积极的性质。

(2) The essence of Christian perfection is love.(2)基督教完善的本质是爱。St. Thomas (Opusc. de perfectione christ., c. ii) calls that perfect which is conformable to its end (quod attingit ad finem ejus).圣托马斯(Opusc.德perfectione基督。,长二)调用,这是相符合的完美结束(狴attingit广告finem ejus)。Now, the end of man is God, and what unites him, even on earth, most closely with God is love (1 Corinthians 6:17; 1 John 4:16).现在,人类到底是神,甚至在地球上什么团结他,最密切的神是爱(哥林多前书6:17;约翰一书4:16)。All the other virtues are subservient to love or are its natural prerequisites, as faith and hope; Love seizes man's whole soul (intellect, will), sanctifies it, and fuses new life into it.所有其他的美德,是屈从于爱情或者是它的自然条件,为信仰和希望,爱抓住人的整个灵魂(智力,意志),成圣它,并融入到了新的生活。 Love lives in all things and all things live in love and through love.爱生活在一切事物和一切事物的爱,通过爱生活。Love imparts to all things the right measure and directs them all to the last end.爱所有的东西传授正确的措施,引导他们到最后结束。"Love is thus the principle of unity, no matter how diversified are the particular states, vocations, and labours. There are many provinces, but they constitute one realm. The organs are many, but the organism is one" (Zahn, lc, p. 146). “爱是这样的统一的原则,无论怎样多元化的特定国家,职业,和劳动力。有许多省份,但他们构成了一个境界。机关有很多,但生物体是一个”(赞恩,立法会,第146页)。 Love has, therefore, rightly been called "the bond of perfection" (Colossians 3:14) and the fulfilment of the law (Romans 13:8).爱有,因此,正确地被称为“完美结合”(歌罗西书3:14)和法律(罗马书13:8)的实现。That Christian perfection consists in love has ever been the teaching of Catholic ascetical writers.完善在于,基督教的爱曾经被天主教ascetical作家教学。A few testimonies may suffice.一些证词可能就足够了。Writing to the Corinthians, Clement of Rome says (1 Corinthians 49:1): "It was love that made all the elect perfect; without love nothing is acceptable to God" (en te agape ateleiothesan pantes oi eklektoi tou theou dicha agapes ouden euareston estin to theo; Funk, "Patr. apost.", p. 163).以书面形式向科林蒂安,克莱门特的罗马说,(哥林多前书49:1):“这是爱,使全部选出完美的,没有爱没有什么是可以接受的上帝”(恩特爱德ateleiothesan pantes爱eklektoi土特产品施展theou dicha agapes ouden euareston estin以西奥,冯克,“Patr apost。。”,第163页)。The "Epistle of Barnabas" insists that the way of light is "the love of him who created us" (agapeseis ton se poiesanta; Funk, lc, p. 91), "a love of our neighbour that does not even spare our own life" (agapeseis ton plesion sou hyper ten psychen sou), and it affirms that perfection is nothing else than "love and joy over the good works which testify to justice" (agape euphrosyns kai agalliaseos ergon dikaiosynes martyria).而“巴拿巴书信”坚持,光的方式是“他爱谁创造了我们”(agapeseis吨本身poiesanta;芬克,立法会,第91页),“我们的邻居甚至不爱自己的备件生活“(agapeseis吨plesion超十psychen叟叟),它肯定比任何人都没有完美的”爱和对正义的见证“(爱德euphrosyns启agalliaseos ergon dikaiosynes martyria)优秀作品的喜悦。St. Ignatius never wearies in his letters of proposing faith as the light and love as the way, love being the end and aim of faith ("Ad Ephes.", ix, xiv; "Ad Philad.", ix; "Ad Smyrn.", vi).圣依纳爵从不嫌烦的建议随着光线和信仰的方式爱他的信,爱是终结和信仰的目的(“广告Ephes。”,第九,第十四条,“广告Philad。”,第九章,“广告Smyrn 。“,第六章)。According to the "Didache", love of God and of one's neighbour is the beginning of the "way of life" (c. i), and in the "Epistle to Diognetus" active love is called the fruit of belief in Christ.根据“十二使徒遗训”,上帝的爱和自己的邻居是“生活方式”的开始(长一),并在“书信向Diognetus”积极的爱就是所谓的在基督信仰的果实。 The "Pastor" of Hermas acknowledges the same ideal when he sets down "a life for God" (zoe to theo) as the sum-total of human existence. “牧师”的hermas承认,同样的理想时,他订下“为神的生命”的总和,是人类生存的总(佐伊以西奥)。To these Apostolic Fathers may be added St. Ambrose (De fuga sæculi, c. iv, 17; c. vi, 35-36) and St. Augustine, who regards perfect justice as tantamount to perfect love.对这些使徒父亲可能会增加圣刘汉铨(德风雅sæculi角四,17人;角六,35-36)和圣奥古斯丁,谁视为等同于完美的爱情完美的正义。 Both St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure speak the same language, and their authority is so overpowering that the ascetical writers of all subsequent centuries have faithfully followed in their footsteps (cf. Lutz, "Die kirchl. Lehre von den evang. Räten", Paderborn, 1907, pp. 26-99).双方圣托马斯和圣文德讲同一种语言,他们的权力是如此压倒性的,所有其后的数百年的ascetical作家忠实地跟随他们的足迹(参见鲁兹,“模具kirchl。Lehre冯登埃旺。Räten”帕德博恩,1907年,页26-99)。

However, though perfection is essentially love, it is not true that any degree of love is sufficient to constitute moral perfection.不过,虽然基本上是完美的爱,这是不正确的,任何爱的程度足以构成道德完善。The ethical perfection of the Christian consists in the perfection of love, which requires such a disposition "that we can act with speed and ease even though many obstacles obstruct our path" (Mutz, "Christl. Ascetik", 2nd ed., Paderborn, 1909).在基督教的道德完善包括在爱的完美,这需要这样的性格“,我们可以采取行动的速度和易用性,即使许多障碍,阻碍我们的道路”(Mutz,“Christl。Ascetik”,第二版。,帕德博恩, 1909年)。But this disposition of the soul supposes that the passions have been subdued; for if is the result of a laborious struggle, in which the moral virtues, steeled by love, force back and quell the evil inclinations and habits, supplanting them by good inclinations and habits.但是,这种处置的灵魂假设的激情已被制服,因为如果是一个艰苦的斗争,其中的道德品德,由爱由小到大,逼退,并平息邪恶的倾向和习惯造成的,取代了他们良好的倾向习惯。 Only then has it really become "a man's second nature, as it were, to prove his love of God at certain times and under certain circumstances, to practise virtue and, as far as human nature may, to preserve his soul even from the slightest taints" (Mutz, lc, p. 43).只有这样,它真的成为“一个人的第二天性,因为它被证明在某些时候,在某些情况下,他对上帝的爱,实践美德,并尽可能人性的可能,保存从丝毫他的灵魂,即使污点“(Mutz,立法会,第43页)。 Owing to the weakness of human nature and the presence of the evil concupiscence (fomes peccati: Trid., Sess. VI, can. xxiii), a perfection that would exclude every defect cannot be attained in this life without a special privilege (cf. Proverbs 20:9; Ecclesiastes 7:21; James 3:2).由于人性的弱点和存在的邪恶concupiscence(腐peccati:。。。论坛报,第六阶段作业,可以二十三),一个完美的将排除一切缺损不能达到,没有特殊的权限(参见在此生活箴言20:9;传道书7:21;詹姆斯3:2)。 Likewise, perfection, on this side of the grave, will never reach such a degree that further growth is impossible, as is clear from the mind of the Church and the nature of our present existence (status vioe); in other words, our perfection will always be relative.同样,完善,对这一严重的一面,将永远达不到这种程度,进一步发展是不可能的,因为是明确的从教会的头脑和我们目前存在的本质(状态vioe),换句话说,我们的完美将永远是相对的。 As St. Bernard says: "An unflagging zeal for advancing and a continual struggle for perfection is itself perfection" (Indefessus proficiendi studium et iugis conatus ad perfectionem, perfectio reputatur; "Ep. ccliv ad Abbatem Guarinum").由于圣伯纳说:“一个热情,以推动和对完美不懈的斗争本身就是不断完善”(Indefessus proficiendi studium等iugis conatus专案perfectionem,就完美reputatur;“的EP ccliv广告Abbatem Guarinum。”)。Since perfection consists in love, it is not the privilege of one particular state, but may be, and has as a fact been, attained in every state of life (cf. PERFECTION, CHRISTIAN AND RELIGIOUS).由于在爱情完美组成,它不是某个国家的特权,但可能会,并已被作为一个事实,在生活的每一个国家达到(参见的完善,基督教和宗教)。 Consequently it would be wrong to identify perfection with the so-called state of perfection and the observance of the evangelical counsels.因此这将是错误的识别与完美所谓的状态和完善律师遵守的福音。As St. Thomas rightly observes, there are perfect men outside the religious orders and imperfect men within them (Summa theol., II-II, Q. clxxxiv, a. 4).正如圣托马斯正确地指出,有完美的男人以外的宗教命令和不完善的人在其中(总结theol。,二,二,问clxxxiv,甲4)。 True it is that the conditions for realizing the ideal of a Christian life are, generally speaking, more favourable in the religious state than in the secular avocations.如此,那就是,为实现人生理想的一个基督教的条件,一般来说,多见于宗教的国家逊于在世俗的业余爱好。But not all are called to the religious life, nor would all find in it their contentment (cf. COUNSELS, EVANGELICAL).但是,并非所有被召唤的宗教生活,也都将找到它的满足(见律师,传福音者)。To sum up, the end is the same, the means are different.总括来说,到底是一样的,手段是不同的。This sufficiently answers Harnack's objection (Essence of Christianity) that the Church considers the perfect imitation of Christ possible only for the monks, while she accounts the life of a Christian in the world as barely sufficient for the attainment of the last end.这足以回答哈纳克的异议(基督教的本质),教会认为基督只为僧尽善尽美的模仿,而她决算的基督徒生活在世界上几乎就在去年年底达到足够了。

(3) The ideal, to which the Christian should conform and towards which he should strive with all his powers both natural and supernatural, is Jesus Christ. (3)理想,对此应符合基督教和对他应该用他所有的权力,自然和超自然的努力,是耶稣基督。His justice should be our justice.他的正义应该是我们的正义。Our whole life should be so penetrated by Christ that we become Christians in the full sense of the word ("until Christ be formed in you"; Galatians 4:19).我们一生应该这样侵入我们成为基督在这个词的完整意义上的基督徒(“直等到基督成形在你们”;加拉太书4:19)。That Christ is the supreme model and pattern of the Christian life is proved from Scripture, as eg from John, xiii, 15, and I Peter, ii, 21, where imitation of Christ is directly recommended, and from John, viii, 12, where Christ is called "the light of the world".基督是至高无上的模型和基督徒的生活模式,从经文证明,从约翰,十三,十五例如,我和彼得,二,21日,在模仿基督是直接推荐,由约翰,八,十二,在基督被称为“世界之光”。 Cf.比照。also Rom., viii, 29, Gal., ii, 20, Phil., iii, 8, and Heb., i, 3, where the Apostle extols the excellent knowledge of Jesus Christ, for whom he has suffered the loss of all things, counting them but as dung, that he may gain Christ.也光盘。,八,29,半乳糖。,二,20,菲尔。,三,八,和河北。,我,3,其中使徒颂扬了他所遭受的一切损失耶稣基督的优秀的知识,事情,计数他们,但像粪土,他要得着基督。 Of the numerous testimonies of the Fathers we only quote that of St. Augustine, who says: "Finis ergo noster perfectio nostra esse debet; perfectio nostra Christus" (PL, XXXVI, 628; cf. also "In Psalm.", 26, 2, in PL, XXXVI, 662).我们的父亲只能引用大量证词,圣奥古斯丁,谁说:“菲尼什号ETM noster就完美诺斯特拉Esse品牌debet;就完美诺斯特拉基督”(特等,三十六,628;比照也“在诗篇。”,26。 2,特等,三十六,662)。In Christ there is no shadow, nothing one-sided.在基督里有没有影子,没有什么是片面的。His Divinity guarantees the purity of the model; His humanity, by which He became similar to us, makes the model attractive.他的神性保证了该模型的纯洁,他的人性,其中他成了类似给我们,使模型的吸引力。But this picture of Christ, unmarred by addition or omission, is to be found only in the Catholic Church and, owing to her indefectibility, will always continue there in its ideal state.但是,这张照片的基督,以增加或遗漏unmarred,是要发现,只有在天主教教会,但由于她indefectibility,将永远在理想的状态继续存在。 For the same reason, the Church alone can give us the guarantee that the ideal of the Christian life will always remain pure and unadulterated, and will not be identified with one particular state or with a subordinate virtue (cf. Zahn, lc, p. 124).出于同样的原因,教会一个人就能给我们保证的基督徒生活的理想,始终保持纯正,不会与一个特定的国家或与下属美德(参见zahn,信用证,页确定124)。 An unprejudiced.一个没有偏见的。 examination proves that the ideal of Catholic life has been preserved in all its purity through the centuries and that the Church has never failed to correct the false touches with which individuals might have sought to disfigure its unstained beauty.检验证明,理想的天主教生活一直保存在其所有的纯度和通过几个世纪,教会从来没有纠正与哪些人可能会试图丑化其未染色美容虚假的一面。 The individual features and the fresh colours for outlining the living picture of Christ are derived from the sources of Revelation and the doctrinal decisions of the Church.各单项功能和概述基督生活照片的新鲜色彩是来自源的启示和教会的教义的决定。These tell us about the internal sanctity of Christ (John 1:14; Colossians 2:9; Hebrews 1:9; etc.).这些告诉我们神圣的基督内我们(约翰1:14;歌罗西时09分;希伯来书1:9;等)。His life overflowing with grace, of whose fulness we have all received (John 1:16), His life of prayer (Mark 1:21, 35; 3:1; Luke 5:16; 6:12; 9:18; etc.), His devotion to His heavenly Father (Matthew 11:26; John 4:34; 5:30; 8:26, 29), His intercourse with men (Matthew 9:10; cf. 1 Corinthians 9:22), His spirit of unselfishness and sacrifice, His patience and meekness, and, finally, His asceticism as revealed in his fastings (Matthew 4:2; 6:18).他的一生充满着优雅,​​其丰满的,我们都领受(约翰福音1:16),他的生命祈祷(马克1:21,35; 3:1;路加福音5:16; 6:12; 9时18分,以此类推。),他热爱自己的天父(马太11点26分,约翰4时34分,5点半,8时26分,29岁),他的交往与男子(马太9时10分。比照哥林多前书9:22),他的无私奉献和牺牲,他的耐心,温柔,而且,精神终于,他在他的禁欲主义所揭示禁食(马太4时02; 6:18)。

B. Dangers of the Ascetical Life乙的苦修生活的危害

The second task of ascetical theology is to point out the dangers which may frustrate the attainment of Christian perfection and to indicate the means by which they can be avoided successfully.在第二项任务的ascetical神学,是要指出的危险,可能阻挠基督教的完善程度及指示,使他们能避免成功的手段。 The first danger to be noticed is evil concupiscence.首先要注意的是危险的邪恶concupiscence。A second danger lies in the allurements of the visible creation, which occupy man's heart to the exclusion of the highest good; to the same class belong the enticements of the sinful, corrupt world (1 John 5:19), that is, those men who promulgate vicious and ungodly doctrines and thereby dim or deny man's sublime destiny, or who by perverting ethical concepts and by setting a bad example give a false tendency to man's sensuality.另一个危险在于,有形的创造,它占据人的心的最高良好排斥的诱惑;在属于同一类的罪恶,腐败的世界(1约翰5:19),这是诱惑,这些男人谁颁布的恶性和ungodly学说,从而暗淡或否认人的崇高的命运,谁贪赃枉法的伦理观念,并树立了一个坏榜样,让虚假的倾向,人的感官或。 Thirdly, ascetics acquaints us not only with the malice of the devil, lest we should fall a prey to his cunning wiles, but also with his weakness, lest we should lose heart.第三,苦行者责任了解我们不仅与恶意的魔鬼,否则我们应属于一个被他狡猾的诡计,而且还与他的弱点,否则我们应该失去信心。 Finally, not satisfied with indicating the general means to be used for waging a victorious combat, ascetics offers us particular remedies for special temptations (cf. Mutz, "Ascetik", 2nd ed., p. 107 sqq.).最后,表示不满意的一般方法,为发动一场胜利的战斗中使用,苦行者为我们提供了特殊的诱惑特别补救办法(参见Mutz,“Ascetik”,第二版。,第107 sqq。)。

C. Means for Realizing the Christian Ideal三手段为实现党的基督教的理想

(1) Prayer, above all, in its stricter meaning, is a means of attaining perfection; special devotions approved by the Church and the sacramental means of sanctification have a special reference to the striving after perfection (frequent confession and communion). (1)祈祷,最重要的是,在其严格的意义,是一个完美的实现手段;由教会和圣事​​的方式进行审定成圣特别奉献有特别提到完善后(频繁忏悔与交流)努力。 Ascetics proves the necessity of prayer (2 Corinthians 3:5) and teaches the mode of praying with spiritual profit; it justifies vocal prayers and teaches the art of meditating according to the various methods of St. Peter of Alcantara, of St. Ignatius, and other saints, especially the "tres modi orandi" of St. Ignatius.苦行者证明了祈祷的必要性(2哥林多前书3:5),教导了祈祷与灵性利润模式,它证明声乐祷告,教导了沉思按照圣彼得的阿尔坎塔拉,圣依纳爵的各种方法的艺术,和其他圣人,特别是“特雷斯作案orandi”圣依纳爵。 An important place is assigned to the examination of conscience, and justly so, because ascetical life wanes or waxes with its neglect or careful performance.一个重要的地方被分配到省察,公正的,因为ascetical生活减弱或经其疏忽或谨慎的表现蜡。Without this regular practice, a thorough purification of the soul and progress in spiritual life are out of the question.如果没有这种惯常做法,一种灵魂和精神的彻底净化生活的进步是不可能的。It centres the searchlight of the interior vision on every single action: all sins, whether committed with full consciousness or only half voluntarily, even the negligences which, though not sinful, lessen the perfection of the act, all are carefully scrutinized (peccata, offensiones, negligentioe; cf. "Exercitia spiritualia" of St. Ignatius, ed. P. Roothaan, p. 3).该中心的内部视觉上的每一个行动探照灯:所有的罪孽,是否具有完全意识或只有一半自愿承诺,甚至negligences,虽然不是罪过,减轻该法的完善,都仔细审查(peccata,offensiones ,negligentioe;比照“Exercitia spiritualia”圣依纳爵,教育署体育罗特汉,第3页)。。。Ascetics distinguishes a twofold examination of conscience: one general (examen generale), the other special (examen particulare), giving at the same time directions how both kinds may be made profitable by means of certain practical and psychological aids.苦行者区分良心双重检查:一一般(examen兴业),其他特殊(examen particulare),在同一时间如何作出两种可能由某些实际的和心理的艾滋病意味着有利可图的方向付出。In the general examination we recall all the faults of one day; in the particular, on the contrary, we focus our attention on one single defect and mark its frequency, or on one virtue to augment the number of its acts.在一般的考试,我们记得所有故障的一天,相反在特定的,我们专注于一个单一的缺陷我们的注意力和马克的频率,在一个美德,或增加其行为的数量。

Ascetics encourages visits to the Blessed Sacrament (visitatio sanctissimi), a practice meant especially to nourish and strengthen the divine virtues of faith, hope, and charity.苦行者鼓励参观圣体(visitatio sanctissimi),一个实践中的含义,特别是加强对滋养和信念,希望,慈善神圣的美德。It also inculcates the veneration of the saints, whose virtuous lives should spur us on to imitation.它也灌输的圣人,他们应该促使我们对仿制良性的生命崇拜。It is plain that imitation cannot mean an exact copying.这是平原,模仿并不意味着可以精确复制。What ascetics proposes as the most natural method of imitation is the removal or at least the lessening of the contrast existing between our own lives and the lives of the saints, the perfecting, as far as is possible, of our virtues, with due regard to our personal disposition and the surrounding circumstances of time and place.什么苦行者建议作为最自然的方法模仿是消除或至少是与我们自己的生命和圣人,完善现有的生活对比减少,因为可能的范围并适当考虑到,我们的美德,我们个人的性情和时间和地点周围的情况。 On the other hand, the observation that some saints are more to be admired than imitated must not lead us into the mistake of letting our works be weighted with the ballast of human comfort and ease, so that we at last look with suspicion on every heroic act, as though it were something that transcended our own energy and could not be reconciled with the present circumstances.另一方面,观察,有些圣徒更值得钦佩的性格比模仿绝不能导致进入让我们的作品会有加权与镇流器的人体舒适度和易用性的错误我们,让我们带着怀疑的眼光看待每一个在最后的英雄法,就好像它是超越我们的东西,自己的能量和无法与目前的情况下协调。 Such a suspicion would be justified only if the heroic act could not at all be made to harmonize with the preceding development of our interior life.这种怀疑是有道理将只有当英雄的行为不可能在所有作出协调与我们前面的内部生活的发展。Christian ascetics must not overlook the Blessed Mother of God; for she is, after Christ, our most sublime ideal.基督教修道者不可忽视的上帝圣母,因为她是基督之后,我们最崇高的理想。No one has received grace in such fulness, no one has co-operated with grace so faithfully as she.没有人收到这样的丰满的恩典,没有人配合优雅运作都忠实地为她。It is for this reason that the Church praises her as the Mirror of Justice (speculum justitioe).正是由于这个原因,教会也称赞法官(窥器justitioe)镜面她。The mere thought of her transcendent purity suffices to repel the alluring charms of sin and to inspire pleasure in the wonderful lustre of virtue.她的超然纯度足以击退一想到罪的诱人魅力,并激励美德的美妙光泽的乐趣。

(2) Self-Denial is the second means which ascetics teaches us (cf. Matthew 16:24-25). (2)自我否定是其中苦行者教导我们(参见马修16:24-25)第二种方式。Without it the combat between spirit and flesh, which are contrary to each other (Romans 7:23; 1 Corinthians 9:27; Galatians 5:17), will not lead to the victory of the spirit (Imitatio Christi, I, xxv).没有它的精神和肉体之间的战斗,这是违背对方(罗马书23分;哥林多前书9:27;加拉太书5:17),不会导致精神(Imitatio基督教,我,二十五)胜利。 How far self-denial should extend is clear from the actual condition of human nature after the fall of Adam.多远的自我否定,应延长显然,从人性后,亚当的堕落的实际情况。The inclination to sin dominates both the will and the lower appetites; not only the intellect, but also the outer and the inner senses are made subservient to this evil propensity.对犯罪倾向都占主导地位的意愿和较低的胃口,不仅智力,而且外部和内部的感觉是屈从于这一邪恶的倾向。Hence, self-denial and self-control must extend to all these faculties.因此,自我否定和自我控制,必须扩大到所有这些院系。Ascetics reduces self-denial to exterior and interior mortification: exterior mortification is the mortification of sensuality and the senses; interior mortification consists in the purification of the faculties of the soul (memory, imagination, intellect, will) and the mastering of the passions.苦行者减少对外部和内部的自我苦行否定:外屈辱是性感和感官屈辱,室内屈辱的灵魂(记忆,想象,智慧,意志)和掌握的激情院系净化组成。 However, the term "mortification" must not be taken to mean the stunting of the "strong, full, healthy" (Schell) life; what it aims at is that the sensual passions do not gain the upper hand over the will.但是,术语“禁欲”不能被理解的“强大,全面,健康”(谢尔)生命发育迟缓,它的目的是,在感官激情不取得对将占上风。 It is precisely through taming the passions by means of mortification and self-denial that life and energy are strengthened and freed from cumbersome shackles.正是通过驯化的屈辱和自我否定,生命和能量得到加强,从繁琐的手段摆脱束缚的激情。But while the masters of asceticism recognize the necessity of mortification and self-denial and are far from deeming it "criminal to assume voluntary sufferings" (Seeberg), they are just as far from advocating the so-called "non-sensual" tendency, which, looking upon the body and its life as a necessary evil, proposes to avert its noxious effects by wilful weakening or even mutilation (cf. Schneider, "Göttliche Weltordnung u. religionslose Sittlichkeit", Paderborn, 1900, p. 537).不过,虽然禁欲主义的主人认识到mortification和自我否定的必要性和远离推定其“犯罪承担自愿的苦难”(西贝尔格),他们是从鼓吹所谓的“非感官”的趋势,无远弗是,其中,在尸体和它作为一个必要的邪恶的生活来看,建议,以避免削弱甚至被故意残害其有害的影响(参见施奈德,“Göttliche Weltordnung美国religionslose Sittlichkeit”,帕德博恩,1900年,第537页)。On the other hand, Catholics will never befriend the gospel of "healthy sensuality", which is only a pretty-sounding title, invented to cloak unrestricted concupiscence.另一方面,天主教会从未交朋友“健康性感”,这只是一个漂亮的冠冕堂皇的头衔福音,发明的斗篷无限制concupiscence。

Special attention is devoted to the mastering of the passions, because it is with them above all else that the moral combat must be waged most relentlessly.特别注意的重点是掌握了的激情,因为它是高于一切的道德与他们作战,必须发动最无情。Scholastic philosophy enumerates the following passions: love, hatred, desire, horror, joy, sadness, hope, despair, boldness, fear, anger.士林哲学列举了以下的激情:爱情,仇恨,欲望,恐惧,喜悦,悲伤,希望,绝望,勇气,恐惧,愤怒。Starting from the Christian idea that the passions (passiones, as understood by St. Thomas) are inherent in human nature, ascetics affirms that they are neither sicknesses, as the Stoics, the Reformers, and Kant maintain, nor yet harmless, as was asserted by the Humanists and Rousseau, who denied original sin.起价基督教思想,激情(passiones,由圣托马斯理解)是人类本性所固有的,修道者申明,他们既不是生病,因为斯多葛学派,改革者,康德维护,也不是无害的,因为有人断言的人文主义与卢梭,谁否认原罪。 On the contrary, it insists that in themselves they are indifferent, that they may be employed for good and for evil, and that they receive a moral character only by the use to which the will puts them.相反,它坚持认为,在自己,他们都无动于衷,他们可能是良好的和邪恶的就业,使他们获得品德只有通过使用这把他们的意志。 It is the purpose of ascetics to point out the ways and means by which these passions can be tamed and mastered, so that, instead of goading the will to sin, they are rather turned into welcome allies for the accomplishment of good.这是修行的目的,指出了这些方式和激情可以驯服和掌握,因此这意味着不是唆使罪的意愿,他们是相当欢迎的盟友变成了良好的成绩。 And since the passions are inordinate in as far as they turn to illicit things or exceed the necessary bounds in those things which are licit, ascetics teaches us how to render them innocuous by averting or restraining them, or by turning them to loftier purposes.此外,由于过度激情在尽可能因为他们把非法的东西或超过这些事情都是合法的,必要的范围苦行者教导我们如何避免或限制提供了它们,或者把他们的崇高目的,这种无毒的。

(3) Labour, also, is subservient to the striving after perfection. (三)劳动,同时,是屈从于后,追求完美。Untiring labour runs counter to our corrupt nature, which loves ease and comfort.不懈的劳动违背我们的腐败性质,爱安逸和舒适。Hence labour, if well-ordered, persistent, and purposeful, implies self-denial.因此劳工,如果妥善有序,持久性,并有针对性,意味着自我否定。This is the reason why the Catholic Church has always looked upon labour, both manual and mental, as an ascetic means of no small value (cf. Cassian, "De instit. coenob.", X, 24; St. Benedict, Rule, xlviii, li; Basil, "Reg. fusius tract." c. xxxvii, 1-3; "Reg. brevius tract.", c. lxxii; Origen, "Contra Celsum", I, 28).这就是为什么天主教教会一直看不起劳动,手动和精神,作为不小的值(参见卡西安,一个苦行的手段,因此,第十,24“德instit coenob。。”,圣本笃,规则,四十八,李,罗勒,“条fusius道。。”长三十七,1-3;“。。条brevius道”,长lxxii,奥利,“魂斗罗Celsum”,我28)。 St. Basil is even of the opinion that piety and avoidance of labour are irreconcilable in the Christian ideal of life (cf. Mausbach, "Die Ethik des hl. Augustinus", 1909, p. 264).圣巴索是虔诚和劳动回避生活中不可调和的基督教的理想(参见毛斯巴赫,“模具Ethik万的HL。奥古斯丁”,1909年,第264页)甚至认为。

(4) Suffering, too, is an integral constituent of the Christian ideal and pertains consequently to ascetics.(四)痛苦,太,是一个基督教的理想,并因此涉及到苦行者组成成分。But its real value appears only when seen in the light of faith, which teaches us that suffering makes us like unto Christ, we being the members of the mystic body of which He is the head (1 Peter 2:21), that suffering is the channel of grace which heals (sanat), preserves (conservat), and tests (probat).但其真正的价值只有在出现在信仰的光照下,它教导我们,基督的苦难,使我们像祂,我们正在对神秘机构的成员,而他的头部(1彼得2:21),这种痛苦被视为医治的恩典通道(sanat),蜜饯(保护生物学)和测试(probat)。 Finally, ascetics teaches us how to turn sufferings into channels of heavenly grace.最后,苦行者教导我们如何变成天上的恩典渠道的痛苦。

(5) The Virtues are subjected to a thorough discussion.(5)的美德受到了彻底的讨论。As is proved in dogmatic theology, our soul receives in justification supernatural habits, not only the three Divine, but also the moral virtues (Trid., Sess. VI, De justit., c. vi; Cat. Rom., p. 2, c. 2, n. 51).由于是在教条式的神学证明,我们的灵魂受到超自然的理由的习惯,不仅是三个神圣的,也是道德的美德(Trid.,第六阶段作业,德justit,三六;。。。。猫罗,第2页角2,注51)。 These supernatural powers (virtutes infusoe) are joined to the natural faculties or the acquired virtues (virtutes acguisitoe), constituting with them one principle of action.这些超自然的权力(virtutes infusoe)加入到了自然系或后天美德(virtutes acguisitoe),与他们组成一个行动的原则。It is the task of ascetics to show how the virtues, taking into account the obstacles and means mentioned, can be reduced to practice in the actual life of the Christian, so that love be perfected and the image of Christ receive perfect shape in us.这是修行的任务,以展示的传统美德,同时考虑到上述各种障碍和手段,可以归结为在基督教的实际生活实践,使爱得到完善和基督的形象在我们获得完美的形状。 Conformable to the Brief of Leo XIII, "Testem benevolentiæ" of 22 Jan., 1899, ascetics insists that the so-called "passive" virtues (meekness, humility, obedience, patience) must never be set aside in favour of the "active" virtues (devotion to duty, scientific activity, social and civilizing labour); for this would be tantamount to denying that Christ is the perpetual model.相符合的,利奥十三世简言之,1899年1月22日“Testem benevolentiæ”,修道者坚持认为,所谓的“被动”的美德(温柔,谦逊,服从,忍耐)必须永远无法获得的物品放在一边,赞成“积极“美德(忠于职守,科学活动,社会和文明的劳动),而这无异于否认基督是永恒的模式。 Rather, both kinds must be harmoniously joined in the life of the Christian.相反,这两种必须和谐地加入了基督徒的生活。True imitation of Christ is never a brake, nor does it blunt the initiative in any field of human endeavour.基督从来就不是一个真正的模仿是刹车,也没有在任何钝人类努力领域的主动权。On the contrary, the practice of the passive virtues is a support and aid to true activity.相反,对被动的美德的做法是一个真正的支持和援助活动。Besides, it not rarely happens that the passive virtues reveal a higher degree of moral energy than the active.此外,很少发生的事,不是被动的美德,揭示了较积极的道德能量高的程度。The Brief itself refers us to Matt., xxi, 29; Rom., viii, 29; Gal., v, 24; Phil., ii, 8; Heb., xiii, 8 (cf. also Zahn, lc, 166 sqq.).简短的本身是指我们的Matt,21,29;。罗,八,29;。加尔,五,24岁;。菲尔,二,八。。希伯来书,十三,8(参见也赞恩,立法会,166 sqq 。)。

D. Application of the Means in the Three Degrees of Christian Perfection. D.通过应用手段在基督教完善的三度。Imitation of Christ is the duty of all who strive after perfection.模仿基督是一切追求完美的责任谁后。It lies in the very nature of this formation after the image of Christ that the process is gradual and must follow the laws of moral energy; for moral perfection is the terminus of a laborious journey, the crown of a hard-fought battle.它坐落在这个之后,基督的形象,这一进程是渐进的,而且必须遵循法律,道德形成的能量非常的性质;对于道德完善是一个艰苦的旅程总站,一个来之不易的战斗冠。 Ascetics divides those who strive after perfection into three groups: the beginners, the advanced, the perfect; and correspondingly sets down three stages or ways of Christian perfection: the purgative way, the illuminative way, the unitive way.苦行者划分那些力求完美,谁后分成三组:初学者,先进,完善,并相应设置了三个阶段或基督教完善的方法:泻下的方式,照明方式,统一的方式。 The means stated above are applied with more or less diversity according to the stage which the Christian has reached.上述的手段与或多或少多样性根据基督教已达到该阶段的应用。In the purgative way, when the appetites and inordinate passions still possess considerable strength, mortification and self-denial are to be practised more extensively.在泻下的方式,当过度的欲望和激情仍然拥有相当实力,mortification和自我否定是实行更广泛。 For the seeds of the spiritual life will not sprout unless the tares and thistles have first been weeded out.对于精神生命的种子不会发芽,除非有稗子和蒺藜首先被淘汰。In the illuminative way, when the mists of passion have been lifted to a great extent, meditation and the practice of virtues in imitation of Christ are to be insisted on.在照明方式,当激情的迷雾已经解除在很大程度上,冥想,以及在模仿基督美德的做法要坚持。During the last stage, the unitive way, the soul must be confirmed and perfected in conformity with God's will ("And I live, now not I; but Christ liveth in me": Galatians 2:20).在最后阶段,统一的方式,灵魂必须得到确认和完善符合上帝的意志(“和我住,现在不是我,而是基督在我里面活着”:加拉太书2:20)。 Care must, however, be taken not to mistake these three stages for wholly separate portions of the striving after virtue and perfection.必须谨慎,但是,应注意不要误以为这三个阶段后,为追求完美的美德和完全独立的部分。 Even in the second and the third stages there occur at times violent struggles, while the joy of being united with God may sometimes be granted in the initial stage as an inducement for further advance (cf. Mutz, "Aszetik," 2nd ed., 94 sq.).即使在第二和第三阶段,有时有暴力发生的斗争,而被美国的喜乐与上帝有时在初始阶段给予作为继续前进的诱因(参见Mutz,“Aszetik,”第二版。, 94平方米)。

E. Relation of Ascetics to Moral Theology and Mysticism大肠杆菌对道德的关系苦行者神学和神秘主义

All these disciplines are concerned with the Christian life and its last end in the next world; but they differ, though not totally, in their mode of treatment.所有这些学科所关注的基督徒的生活及其在未来世界的结局,但他们不同,虽然不是完全在他们的治疗模式。Ascetical theology, which has been separated from moral theology and mysticism, has for its subject-matter the striving after Christian perfection; it shows how Christian perfection may be attained by earnestly exercising and schooling the will, using the specified means both to avoid the dangers and allurements of sin and to practise virtue with greater intensity. ascetical神学,已经从道德神学和神秘主义的分离,有其主题事项而奋斗着的基督教完善,它显示了如何基督教完善可由切实行使及就学意愿,使用指定的方法既避免危险达到和罪恶的诱惑,并以更大的力度实践美德。 Moral theology, on the other hand, is the doctrine of the duties, and in discussing the virtues is satisfied with a scientific exposition.道德神学,另一方面,是教义的职责,并在讨论用科学的论断是满意的美德。Mysticism treats essentially of "union with God" and of the extraordinary, so-called mystic prayer.基本上把神秘主义“与神联合”和非凡,所谓的神秘的祈祷。Though also those phenomena which are accidental to mysticism, such as ecstasy, vision, revelation, fall within its scope, yet they are by no means essential to the mystic life (cf. Zahn, "Einführung in die christl. Mystik", Paderborn, 1908).虽然这些现象,亦是偶然的神秘主义,如摇头丸,远见,启示,其范围之内,但他们绝不是必不可少的神秘生活(参见赞恩,“在模具christl Einführung。Mystik”,帕德博恩, 1908年)。It is true that mysticism includes also matter of ascetics, such as the endeavour of purification, vocal prayer, etc.; but this is done because these exercises are looked upon as preparatory to the mystical life and must not be discarded even in its highest stage.诚然,神秘主义也包括物质的苦行者,如净化,声乐祈祷等努力,但这样做是因为这些演习看作筹备的神秘的生活,不能丢弃,即使在其最高阶段。 Nevertheless, the mystical life is not merely a higher degree of the ascetical life, but differs from it essentially, the mystical life being a special grace granted to the Christian without any immediate merit on his part.然而,神秘的生活不单单是一个ascetical生活化程度较高,但不同于它本质上来说,是一个神秘的生活没有任何特殊的恩典授予立即对他的部分优点,以基督教。

F. Historical Development of Asceticism楼的禁欲主义的历史发展

(1) The Holy Bible(1)圣经

Abounds in practical instructions for the life of Christian perfection.盛产对于基督教完善生活的实际指导。Christ himself has drawn its outlines both as to its negative and positive requirements.基督本人已制定其轮廓都以它的消极和积极的要求。His imitation is the supreme law (John 8:12; 12:26), charity the first commandment (Matthew 22:36-38; John 15:17); the right intention is that which imparts value to the exterior works (Matthew 5-7), while self-denial and the carrying of the cross are the conditions for His discipleship (Matthew 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; Luke 9:23; 14:27).他的模仿是最高的法律(约翰福音8:12; 12时26分),慈善第一诫命(马太22:36-38;约翰15:17),右边的意向是,它赋予价值的外部工程(马太5 -7),而自我否定和十字架的实施是为他的门徒的条件(马太10:38; 16时24分;马克34分;路加福音9:23,14:27)。Both by His own example (Matthew 4:2) and His exhortations (Matthew 17:20; Mark 9:28) Christ recommended fasting.由他自己的例子(马太4:2)和他的嘱托(马太17时二十,马可福音9:28)基督都建议禁食。He inculcated sobriety, watchfulness, and prayer (Matthew 24:42; 25:13; 26:41; Mark 13:37; 14:37).他灌输清醒,警觉,并祈祷(马太24:42; 25:13,26:41,马可福音13:37,14:37)。He pointed to poverty as a means of gaining the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 6:19; 13:22; Luke 6:20; 8:14; 12:33; etc.) and counselled the rich youth to relinquish everything and to follow Him (Matthew 19:21).他指出,贫穷作为获取手段的天国(马太福音6时19分,13时22路加福音6时20分,8时14分,12时33分,等等),并劝告富青年放弃一切,跟随他(马太19:21)。 That this was a counsel and not a strict command, given in view of the particular attachment of the youth to the things of this world, is shown by the very fact that the Master had twice said "keep the commandments", and that he recommended the renunciation of all earthly goods only on the renewed inquiry after the means that lead to perfection (cf. Lutz, lc, against the Protestants Th. Zahn, Bern, Weiss, Lemme, and others).这是一名律师,而不是一个严格的命令,在特定的附件的青年对这个世界的事物的意见,鉴于,是由这一事实表明,师父曾两​​次说:“遵守诫命”,他建议世间的一切商品只有在重新调查后,意味着放弃,导致完美(参见鲁兹,立法会,对新教徒钍。赞恩,伯尔尼,魏斯,让我和,和其他人)。 Celibacy for God's sake was praised by Christ as worthy of a special heavenly reward (Matthew 19:12).偏偏称赞独身的基督作为一个特殊的天朝奖励(马太19:12)值得。Yet marriage is not condemned, but the words, "All men take not this word, but they to whom it is given", imply that it is the ordinary state, celibacy for God's sake being merely a counsel.然而,婚姻不是谴责,但这些话:“所有的人倒不是这个词,但他们对人,这是给予”,意味着它是一般的国家,为神的缘故而仅仅是一名律师独身。 Indirectly, Christ also commended voluntary obedience as a means for attaining the most intimate union with God (Matthew 18:4; 20:22, 25).间接的,基督也赞扬作为实现与神最亲密的联盟意味着自愿服从(马太十八点04分,20:22 25)。What Christ had outlined in his teachings the Apostles continued to develop.什么基督在他的教导使徒继续发展概述。It is especially in St. Paul that we find the two elements of Christian asceticism brought out in well-defined terms: mortification of inordinate desires as the negative element (Romans 6:8, 13; 2 Corinthians 4:16; Galatians 5:24; Colossians 3:5), union with God in all our thoughts, words, and deeds (1 Corinthians 10:31; Galatians 6:14; Colossians 3:3-17), and active love of God and our neighbour (Romans 8:35; 1 Corinthians 13:3) as the positive element.这是在圣保罗,特别是让我们发现了基督教禁欲主义的两个要素带来了良好定义的条款进行:作为负面因素过多欲望(罗马书6时08分,13屈辱;哥林多后书4:16;加拉太书5:24 ;歌罗西书3:5),与神联盟在所有我们的思想,言语和行动(哥林多前书10时31分;加拉太书6:14;歌罗西书3:3-17),神的爱和我们的邻居主动(罗马书8 :35;林前13:3)为积极因素。

(2) Fathers and Doctors of the Church(2)父亲和医生的教会

With the Bible as a basis, the Fathers and Doctors of the Church explained particular features of the Christian life in a more coherent and detailed manner.由于圣经为基础,父亲和医生的教会在一个更加协调一致的解释和详细地的基督徒生活的特点。The Apostolic Fathers called the love of God and man the sun of Christian life, which, animating all virtues with its vital rays, inspires contempt of the world, beneficence, immaculate purity, and self-sacrifice.使徒教父叫做上帝的爱和人的基督教生活,这,动画,其重要的光线所有的美德,激发蔑视世界,慈善,完美无暇的纯洁,和自我牺牲的太阳。 The "Didache" (qv), which was intended to serve as a manual for catechumens, thus describes the way of life: "First, thou shalt love God, who created thee; secondly, thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself; whatever thou wishest that it should not be done to thee, do not to others."在“didache”(请参阅​​),其目的是作为慕道手册,因此,描述的生活方式:“首先,你要爱上帝,谁创造了你,其次,你要爱人如己;不管你假如您愿意,它不应该做的你,不给别人。“ Following probably the "Didache", the so-called "Epistle of Barnabas", written at the end of the second century, represents the Christian life under the figure of the two ways, that of light and that of darkness.以下大概是“十二使徒遗训”,所谓的“巴拿巴书信”在第二个世纪末写的,代表了下图的两种方式基督徒的生活,那光明和黑暗。 Two Epistles, which purport to come from the pen of St. Clement, but were probably written in the third century, exalt the life of virginity, if grounded on the love of God and accompanied by the corresponding works, as heavenly, divine, and angelic.两个书信,其中声称来自圣克莱门特的笔,但可能是在公元三世纪的书面,发扬童贞的生活,如果接地对上帝的爱和相应工程的陪同下,如天上的,神圣的,并天使。 We also mention St. Ignatius of Antioch, of whose letters St. Polycarp says that they contain "faith and patience and all edification in the Lord", and the "Pastor" of Hermas, who in the twelve commandments inculcates simplicity, truthfulness, chastity, meekness, patience, continence, confidence in God, and perpetual struggle against concupiscence.我们还提到圣依纳爵的安提阿,他信说,圣波利卡普它们包含“的信念和耐心,所有在主教化”和“牧师”的黑马,谁在十二戒律灌输简单,真诚,贞洁,温柔,忍耐,节制,在上帝的信心,以及对concupiscence永久的斗争。 With the third century the works on Christian asceticism began to show a more scientific character.随着第三世纪的基督教禁欲主义的作品开始显示出更科学的性质。In the writings of Clement of Alexandria and Gregory the Great ("Moral.", XXXIII, c. xxvii; cf. also Cassian, "Coll,", IX, XV) there may be observed traces of the threefold degree which was afterwards systematically developed by Dionysius the Areopagite.在克莱门特的亚历山大和格里高利大的著作(“道德。”三十三,长二十七;。比照也卡西安,“科尔”,第九,十五)有可能是观察了三倍程度的痕迹这是事后系统开发戴奥尼夏Areopagite。 In his "Stromata" Clement sets forth the full beauty and grandeur of "true philosophy".在他的“基质”克莱门特阐述了充分的美丽和“真正的哲学”的伟大。It is particularly remarkable that this author delineates, even in its details, what is now known as ethical culture, and that he endeavours to harmonize it with the example given by Christ.这是特别了不起,笔者也界定了,即使是在它的细节,什么是现在被称为伦理文化,而他的努力协调与基督给出的例子。The life of the Christian is to be ruled in all things by temperance.对基督徒的生活是要在所有的事情靠节制统治。Following out this idea, he discusses in a casuistic form food and drink, dress and love of finery, bodily exercises and social conduct.这一想法之后,他讨论了诡辩的形式食品和饮料,服装和服饰的爱,身体练习和社会风气。Beginning with the fourth century, a twofold line of thought is discernible in the works on Christian life: one speculative, laying stress on the union of the soul with God, the Absolute Truth and Goodness; the other practical, aiming principally at instruction in the practice of the Christian virtues.从第四世纪初,在思想路线上的双重基督徒生活的作品明显:一是投机性,突出了与上帝,绝对真理和善良的灵魂工会的压力,另一方面实际,针对教学主要在实践基督教的美德。 The speculative element prevailed in the mystical school, which owes its systematic development to Pseudo-Dionysius and which reached its highest perfection in the fourteenth century.投机盛行于神秘的元素学校,这归功于其系统的发展,以伪狄奥尼修斯并在十四世纪达到最高的完善。The practical element was emphasized in the ascetical school with St. Augustine as its chief representative, in whose footsteps followed Gregory the Great and St. Bernard.实际内容是强调在与圣奥古斯丁的首席代表苦修学校,在他的后尘高利大和圣伯纳。

It may suffice to detail the principal points on which the writers prior to the medieval-scholastic period dwelt in their instructions.它可能足以详细的要点上的作家之前,在他们的指示中世纪经院期间居住。On prayer we have the works of Macarius the Egyptian (d. 385) and of Tertullian (d. after 220), who supplemented his treatise on prayer in general by an explanation of the Lord's Prayer.在祈祷我们有(后四220)埃及米加利阿斯(四385)和良的作品,谁补充,他的论文在祈祷一般由一个主祷文的解释。 To these two must be added Cyprian of Carthage (d. 258), who wrote "De oratione dominica", and St. Chrysostom (d. 407).这两个必须添加的迦太基(四258),谁写的“德oratione蠹”,和圣金口(四407)塞浦路斯。Penance and the spirit of penance were treated by Tertullian (De poenitentia), Chrysostom ("De compunctione cordis", "De poenitentia"), and Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 386) in his second catechetical instruction.忏悔和赎罪的精神,治疗良(德poenitentia),金口(“德compunctione科迪斯”,“德poenitentia”),和耶路撒冷的西里尔(四386),在他的第二个问答指令。 That the life of the Christian is a warfare is amply illustrated in St. Augustine's (d. 430) "De agone christiano" and in his "Confessions".这对基督徒的生活是一种充分说明是在圣​​奥古斯丁(四430)“德agone Christiano联系”,并在他的“忏悔录”战争。Chastity and virginity were treated by Methodius of Olympus (d. 311) in his "Convivium", a work in which ten virgins, discussing virginity, demonstrate the moral superiority of Christianity over the ethical tenets of pagan philosophy.贞操和贞操均采用奥林巴斯Methodius(四311)在他的“Convivium”,一个工作,其中十个童女,讨论处女,表现出对异教哲学的伦理原则的基督教道德优越感。 The same subject is discussed by the following Fathers: Cyprian (d. 258); Gregory of Nyssa (d. 394) in his "De virginitate"; Ambrose (d. 397), the indefatigable eulogist and champion of the virginal life; Jerome in his "Adversus Helvidium de virginitate" and "Ad Eustachium"; Chrysostom (d. 407) in his "De virginitate", who, though extolling virginity as a heavenly life, yet recommends it only as a counsel; Augustine in his works "De continentia", "De virginitate", "De bono viduitatis".同一主题下,讨论了父亲:塞浦路斯(四258),格雷戈里的果树在他的“德virginitate”(四394),刘汉铨,不知疲倦eulogist和处女生活冠军(四397);杰罗姆在他的“相反Helvidium德virginitate”和“广告Eustachium”;金口(四407)在他的“德virginitate”,谁,但作为一个天上歌颂生命的贞操,但只是作为一个律师的建议是,在他的作品奥古斯丁“德continentia“,”德virginitate“,”德博诺viduitatis“。

On patience we have the works of Cyprian, Augustine, and Tertullian's "De patientia", in which he speaks of this virtue as an invalid might speak of health to console himself.我们在耐心上有塞浦路斯,奥古斯丁,和良的“德patientia”,其中他的这种美德作为无效可能讲卫生为了安慰自己,说话的作品。 Chrysostom's "De jejunio et eleemosyna" discusses fasting.金口的“德jejunio等eleemosyna”讨论禁食。Almsgiving and good works are encouraged in Cyprian's "De opere et eleemosynis" and in Augustine's "De fide et operibus".救济和优秀作品,鼓励在塞浦路斯的“德opere等eleemosynis”和奥古斯丁的“德有诚意等operibus”。 The value of labour is explained in "De opere monachorum" by St. Augustine.劳动价值是解释“德opere monachorum”由圣奥古斯丁。Nor are treatises on the different states of life wanting.也不是想对生活在不同国家论文。Thus St. Augustine's "De bono conjugali" treats of the married state; his "De bono viduitatis" of widowhood.因此,圣奥古斯丁的“德博诺conjugali”的已婚状态对待,他的“德博诺viduitatis”的守寡。 A frequent subject was the priesthood.一个常见的​​主题是神职人员。Gregory of Nazianzus, in his "De fuga", treats of the dignity and responsibility of the priesthood; Chrysostom's "De sacerdotio" exalts the sublimity of this state with surpassing excellence; St. Ambrose in his "De officiis", while speaking of the four cardinal virtues, admonishes the clerics that their lives should be an illustrious example; St. Jerome's "Epistola ad Nepotianum" discusses the dangers to which priests are exposed; finally, the "Regula pastoralis" of Gregory the Great inculcates the prudence indispensable to the pastor in his dealings with different classes of men.格雷戈里的nazianzus在他的“德风雅”,待人的尊严和神职人员的责任;金口的“德sacerdotio”高举这个州的优秀至极的崇高,在他的“德officiis”圣刘汉铨,虽然说话四项基本原则的美德,告诫神职人员,他们的生活应该是一个杰出的范例;圣杰罗姆的“书信集广告Nepotianum”讨论了危险的祭司都暴露;最后,“雷古拉pastoralis”的格雷戈里大灌输的不可缺少的谨慎牧师与男子不同类别的交易。 Of prime importance for the monastic life was the work "De institutis coenobiorum" of Cassian.对寺院的生活最重要的是工作“德institutis coenobiorum”的卡西安。But the standard work from the eighth to the thirteenth century was the Rule of St. Benedict, which found numerous commentators.但是从第八标准工作到13世纪是圣本笃,结果发现许多评论家规则。Of the saint or rather his Rule St. Bernard says: "lpse dux noster, ipse magister et legifer noster est" (Serm. in Nat. S. Bened., n. 2).圣人或者更确切地说,他的第圣伯纳说:“lpse的DUX noster,ipse魔导师等legifer noster美国东部时间”(Serm.在纳特学Bened,注2。。)。Illustrations of the practice of Christian virtues in general were the "Expositio in beatum Job" of Gregory the Great and the "Collationes Patrum" of Cassian, in which the various elements of Christian perfection were discussed in the form of dialogues.在一般的基督教美德的实践说明是在“在beatum博览会的工作”格里高利大和“Collat​​iones Patrum”的卡西安,其中基督教完善的各种因素,其中以对话的形式讨论。

(3) The Medieval-Scholastic Period(3)中世纪时期士林

The transition period up to the twelfth century exhibits no specially noteworthy advance in ascetical literature.过渡期至十二世纪展品没有特别值得注意的苦修文学前进。To the endeavour to gather and preserve the teachings of the Fathers we owe Alcuin's "De virtutibus et vitiis".对于收集和保存努力的父亲的教诲,我们有责任阿尔昆的“德virtutibus等vitiis”。But when in the twelfth century speculative theology was celebrating its triumphs, mystical and ascetical theology, too, showed a healthy activity.但是,当在十二世纪投机神学是庆祝胜利,神秘和ascetical神学,也表现出健康的活动。The results of the former could not but benefit the latter by placing Christian morality on a scientific basis and throwing ascetical theology itself into a scientific form.前者的结果不能受惠,但在科学基础上把基督教道德和科学的形式投身一个ascetical神学本身后者。The pioneers in this field were St. Bernard (d. 1156) and Hugh and Richard of St. Victor.在这一领域的先驱有圣伯纳(四1156)和休和理查德圣胜利者。St. Bernard, the greatest mystical theologian of the twelfth century, also holds a prominent place among ascetical writers, so that Harnack calls the "religious genius" of the twelfth century.圣伯纳德,最大的十二世纪的神秘的神学家,还持有ascetical作家之间的显眼处,使哈纳克所谓的“宗教天才”的12世纪。 The basic idea of his works, especially prominent in his treatise "De gratia et libero arbitrio", is that the life of the Christian should be a copy of the life of Jesus.他的作品的基本思想,尤其是在他的论文“德特惠等自由人arbitrio”突出,是基督徒生活的应该是耶稣的生命副本。 Like Clement of Alexandria, he, too, lays down precepts for the regulation of the necessities of life, as food and dress, and for the implanting of God's love in man's heart, which would sanctify all things ("Apologia", "De præcepto et dispensatione").像亚历山大克莱门特,他也规定了对生活的必需品规管食物和衣服,戒律,并为植入人的心,这将圣万物的上帝的爱(“纵容”,“德præcepto等dispensatione“)。 Many are the steps by which love ascends till it reaches its perfection in the love for God's sake.许多人爱的步骤,其中上升,直到它达到其在偏偏爱的完美。Among his ascetical writings are: "Liber de diligendo Deo", "Tractatus de gradibus humilitatis et superbiæ", "De moribus et officio episcoporum", "Sermo de conversione ad clericos", "Liber de consideratione".在他的苦修的著作有:“liber德diligendo迪奥”,“逻辑哲学论德gradibus humilitatis等superbiæ”,“德moribus等委员episcoporum”,“Sermo德conversione广告clericos”,“liber德consideratione”。

Frequent allusions to St. Augustine and Gregory the Great are scattered through the pages of Hugh of St. Victor (d. 1141), so much so that he earned the distinction of being called a second Augustine by his contemporaries.圣奥古斯丁和格里高利大都是分散的,通过频繁的典故圣维克托休(草1141)的网页,以至于他赢得了被称为第二奥古斯丁他同时代的区别。 He was undoubtedly the first to give to ascetical theology a more or less definite, scientific character.毫无疑问,他是第一个给ascetical神学或多或少明确的,科学性。The ever-recurring theme of his works is love.他的作品不断反复出现的主题是爱。But what he aimed at above all in his writings was to lay bare the psychological bearings of mystical and ascetical theology.但他在他的著作在上述所有目的是要揭露的神秘和ascetical神学心理轴承。Noteworthy are his works: "De vanitate mundi", "De laude caritatis", "De mode orandi", "De meditatione".值得注意的是他的作品:“德vanitate曼迪”,“德以优异成绩caritatis”,“德模式orandi”,“德meditatione”。 His pupil, Richard of St. Victor (d. 1173), though more ingenious and systematic, is yet less intent upon practical utility, except in his work "De exterminatione mali et promotione boni".他的学生理查德圣维克多(四1173),但更巧妙和系统性,又是不太实际效用的意图后,除了在他的作品“德exterminatione马里等promotione博尼”。 The great theologians of the thirteenth century, who were no less famous for their scholastic "Summæ" than for their ascetical and mystical writings, brought ascetical teaching to its perfection and gave it the definite shape it has retained as a standard for all future times.十三世纪,谁没有那么他们的学业“Summæ”名优比他们ascetical而神秘的著作,伟大的神学家带来了苦修教学及其完善并赋予它一定的形状,它已经成为一个为所有未来时间的标准保留。 No other epoch furnishes such convincing proof that true science and true piety are rather a help than a hindrance to each other.没有其他时代furnishes等有力证据真正的科学和真正的虔诚是相当一个比一个互相妨碍的帮助。Albert the Great, the illustrious teacher of the great Thomas, who was the first to join Aristotelean philosophy with theology and to make philosophy the handmaid of theology, was at the same time the author of excellent works on ascetics and mysticism, as, eg, "De adhærendo Deo", the ripest fruit of his mystic genius, and "Paradisus animæ", which was conceived along more practical lines.阿尔贝太好了,伟大的托马斯杰出的老师,谁是第一个加入亚里士多德哲学与神学使哲学的神学的婢女,是在同一时间内,对修行者和神秘主义的优秀作品的作者,因为,如“德adhærendo迪奥”,神秘的天才,他最成熟的果实,“Paradisus animæ”,这是更实际的线路沿设想。To St. Thomas we owe the ascetic work "De perfectione vitæ spiritualis"; in it he explains the essence of Christian perfection so lucidly that his line of argumentation may even in our days serve as a model.圣托马斯我们欠苦行工作“德perfectione简历精神性”,在它的时候,解释了基督教完善精髓,清晰地,他的论证线甚至可能在我们这个时代的一个模型服务。 His other works, too, contain ample material of value both for ascetics and for mysticism.他的其他作品,也同时包含了神秘主义的修行和充足的材料价值。

The Seraphic Doctor, St. Bonaventure, "treats of mystic theology", to use the words of Leo XIII, "in a manner so perfect that the unanimous opinion of the most expert theologians regards him as the prince of mystic theologians". The纯洁的医生,圣文德“,待人的神秘神学”,使用的利奥十三世的话说,“在地如此完美,最专业的神学家一致意见看成是神秘的神学家王子他。” Of his authentic works the following deserve to be mentioned: "De perfectione evangelica", "Collationes de septem donis Spiritus sancti", "Incendium amoris", "Soliloquium", "Lignum vitæ", "De præparatione ad Missam", "Apologia pauperum".他的真迹以下值得一提:“德perfectione evangelica”,“Collat​​iones德年九月份多尼斯Spiritus的sancti”,“Incendium amoris”,“Soliloquium”,“铁梨木”,“德præparatione广告Missam”,“纵容pauperum “。From the pen of David of Augsburg, a contemporary of these great masters, we have an ascetic instruction for novices in his book entitled "De exterioris et interioris hominis compositione".从大卫的奥格斯堡,这些当代大师,钢笔我们在题为“德exterioris等interioris原虫compositione”一书中为新手苦行指令。 He leads the reader along the three well-known ways, purgative, illuminative, and unitive, purposing to make the reader a spiritual man.他领导沿三个著名的方式,泻下,照明,并统一的读者,purposing使读者一种精神的人。By severely disciplining the faculties of the soul and subordinating the flesh to the spirit, man must restore the original order, so that he may not only do what is good, but likewise do it with ease.通过严厉管教院系的灵魂和肉体服从的精神,人类必须恢复原有的秩序,使他不仅可以做什么是好,但它同样不轻松。There remains to be mentioned the "Summa de vitiis et virtutibus" of Peraldus (dc 1270).仍有被提及的“总结德vitiis等virtutibus”的Peraldus(直流1270年)。The fourteenth century is characterized throughout by its mystical tendencies.十四世纪的特点是始终以它的神秘主义倾向。Among the works which this period produced, Henry Suso's "Booklet of Eternal Wisdom deserves special mention on account of its highly practical value. Pre-eminent in the fifteenth century were Gerson, Dionysius the Carthusian, and the author of the "Imitation of Christ". Relinquishing the ideals of the mystic writers of the fourteenth century, Gerson attached himself again to the great scholastic writers, thus avoiding the vagaries which had become alarmingly frequent among the mystics. His "Considerationes de theologia mystica" shows that he belongs to the practical school of asceticism. Dionysius the Carthusian is esteemed as a highly gifted teacher of the spiritual life. Both mysticism properly so called and practical asceticism owe valuable works to his pen. To the latter category belong: "De remediis tentationum", "De via purgativa", "De oratione", "De gaudio spirituali et pace interna", "De quatuor novissimis".其中工程,这一时期产生的,亨利苏索的“小册子的永恒智慧值得在其高度的实用价值帐户特别一提。预先在十五世纪杰出的格尔森,狄奥尼修斯的卡尔特,和作者的”模仿基督“ 。放弃对十四世纪的神秘作家的理想,格尔森附本人再次向伟大的作家,在学术,从而避免了这已经成为令人震惊的神秘主义者之间的​​频繁变化莫测。他的“Considerationes德神学mystica”显示,他属于实用。禁欲主义学校戴奥尼夏卡尔特是尊敬作为精神生活极具天赋的老师都妥善所谓神秘主义和禁欲主义的实际欠他的笔宝贵的工程,后一类属于:。。“德remediis tentationum”,“德经purgativa “,”德oratione“,”德高迪奥spirituali步伐等国际集“,”德四重奏novissimis“。

The "Imitatio Christi", which appeared in the middle of the fifteenth century, deserves special attention on account of its lasting influence.在“Imitatio基督”,这在十五世纪中叶出现,就值得考虑其持久的影响力特别关注。"It is a classic in its ascetical unction and perfect in its artistic style" (Hamm, "Die Schönheit der kath. Moral", Munich-Gladbach, 1911, p. 74). “这是一个典型的在其苦修油膏,并在其艺术风格完美”(哈姆,“模具Schönheit明镜与Kath。道德经”,慕尼黑,格拉德巴赫,1911年,第74页)。 In four books it treats of the interior spiritual life in imitation of Jesus Christ.在四书看待的模仿耶稣基督在室内的精神生活。 It pictures the struggle which man must wage against his inordinate passions and perverse inclinations, the indulgence of which sullies his conscience and robs him of God's grace: "Vanity of vanities and all is vanity, except to love God and serve Him alone" (Vanitas vanitatum et omnia vanitas præter amare Deum et illi soli servire: I, i).它描绘了斗争的人都必须发动对他的过分热情的和有害的倾向,放纵其中sullies他的良心和剥夺了上帝的恩典他:“虚空的虚空,一切都虚荣,除了爱上帝和事奉单”(Vanitas vanitatum等OMNIA公司vanitas præter阿马雷赞美颂等illi索利索拉布servire:我,我)。It advises mortification and self-denial as the most efficacious weapons in this struggle.它建议在这个斗争的最有效武器mortification和自我否定。It teaches man to establish God's kingdom in his soul by the practice of virtues according to the example of Jesus Christ.它教人建立在他的灵魂由根据耶稣基督的例子美德实践神的王国。It finally leads him to union with Christ by exciting love for him as well as by pointing out the frailty of all creatures: "It is necessary to leave the beloved thing for the beloved, because Jesus wishes to be loved above all things" (Oportet dilectum propter dilectum relinquere, quia Jesus vult solus super omnia amari: II, xvii).这最终导致他与基督联合的激动人心的爱,以及由他指出,所有的生物脆弱:“有必要离开心爱的心爱的东西,因为耶稣要高于一切爱”(Oportet dilectum propter dilectum relinquere,quia耶稣vult索卢斯超强的Omnia阿马里:二十七)。The thoughts of the "Imitation" are thrown into epigrams so simple that they are within the mental grasp of all.在“模仿”的思想是扔进警句这么简单,他们在所有的心理把握的。Though the book betrays that the author was well versed not only in Scholastic philosophy and theology, but also in the secrets of the mystical life, yet this fact never obtrudes itself on the reader, nor does it obscure the meaning of the contents.虽然该书的作者是背叛精通不仅在士林哲学和神学,并在神秘的生命,但这一事实的秘密,但从未obtrudes对读者本身,也不掩盖了所指的内容。 There are a number of quotations from the great doctors Augustine, Bernard, Bonaventure, and Thomas, from Aristotle, Ovid, and Seneca; yet these do not mar the impression that the whole work is the spontaneous outburst of an intensely glowing soul.有一个从奥古斯丁,伯纳德,文德,和托马斯,从亚里士多德,奥维德,伟大的医生和塞内卡报价数目,然而这些都不三月的印象,整个工作是一种​​极其炽热的灵魂自发突出。 It has often been said that the teachings of the "Imitation" are "unworldly" and show little appreciation for science.人们常常说,“模仿”的教诲是“unworldly的”,并显示对科学太多的回报。But, to judge the work aright, one must take into consideration the peculiar circumstances of the time.但是,为了正确地判断工作,必须考虑到当时的特殊情况。Scholasticism had entered on a period of decline and had lost itself in intricate subtleties; mysticism had gone astray; all classes had been more or less infected with the spirit of licentiousness.士林已进入一个时期的下降,也失去了自己在错综复杂的微妙;神秘主义已经误入歧途,所有班级已或多或少与淫的精神感染。 It is conditions like these that give us the key to interpret phrases such as the following: "I would rather feel compunction than know how to define it" (Opto magis sentire compunctionem quam scire ejus definitionem) or "This is the highest wisdom: through contempt of the world to strive for the kingdom of heaven" (Ista est summa sapientia: per contemptum mundi tendere ad regna coelestia).它是这样的条件,给我们的关键,如词组的解释如下:“我宁愿感到内疚比知道如何界定它”(光电magis sentire compunctionem华富scire ejus definitionem)或“这是最高的智慧:通过世界蔑视争取天国“(ISTA的美国东部时间总结sapientia:每contemptum蒙迪tendere广告regna coelestia)。

(4) Modern Times(4)近代

During the sixteenth century St. Teresa and St. Ignatius of Loyola stand out most prominently owing to the wide-felt influence which they exerted upon the religion of their contemporaries, an influence that is still at work through their writings.在16世纪圣德肋撒和圣依纳爵罗耀拉站出来最突出的原因是广泛的影响力,他们感到他们同时代后产生的宗教,一个影响力,仍是通过他们的著作的工作。 The writings of St. Teresa arouse our admiration by the simplicity, clearness, and precision of her judgment.圣德肋撒引起我们钦佩的著作由简单,清晰,和她的判断的精度。Her letters show her to be an enemy of everything that smacks of eccentricity or singularity, sham piety or indiscreet zeal.她的信件显示她的一切,这是一个偏心或奇异,假虔诚或轻率的热情之嫌的敌人。One of her principal works, the "Way to Perfection", though written primarily for nuns, also contains apposite instructions for those who live in the world.她的主要作品之一,“道完美”,但主要是为尼姑写的,还包含那些谁活在这个世上适当的指示。While teaching the way to contemplation, she yet insists that not all are called to it and that there is greater security in the practice of humility, mortification, and the other virtues.而教学的方式沉思,她却坚持认为,不是所有的都呼吁,并希望有更大的安全的谦逊,屈辱,并实施其他美德。Her masterpiece is the "Castle of the Soul", in which she expounds her theory of mysticism under the metaphor of a "castle" with many chambers.她的代表作是“灵魂的城堡”,她在其中阐述了下一个“城堡”与很多商会比喻她的神秘主义理论。The soul resplendent with the beauty of the diamond or crystal is the castle; the various chambers are the various degrees through which the soul must pass before she can dwell in perfect union with God.用的钻石或水晶的美丽灿烂的灵魂,是城堡的各种不同程度商会是通过它的灵魂,必须通过之前,她可以住在与神的完美结合。 Scattered throughout the work are many hints of inestimable value for asceticism as applied in everyday life.整个工作都是分散的禁欲主义作为日常生活中的应用具有不可估量的价值很多的涵义。This fact is undoubtedly due to the well-founded conviction of the saint that even in extraordinary states the ordinary means must not be set aside altogether, so that illusions may be guarded against (cf. J. Zahn, "Introduction to Mysticism" p. 213).这一事实无疑是由于圣人的充分理由相信,即使在特殊国家的普通的方法不能完全被搁置,这样可以防范幻想(参见j的赞恩,“神秘主义概论”,第213页)。

In his "Exercitia spiritualia" St. Ignatius has left to posterity not only a grand literary monument of the science of the soul, but also a method unparalleled in its practical efficacy of strengthening the willpower.在他的“Exercitia spiritualia”圣依纳爵给后人留下了不仅是盛大文学纪念碑的灵魂科学,而且在其加强意志力实际效果无与伦比的方法。The booklet has appeared in numberless editions and revisions and, "despite its modest guise, is in reality a complete system of asceticism" (Meschler).这本小册子已出现在无数的版本和修订和“,尽管其微薄的幌子,实际上是一个完整的系统的禁欲主义”(Meschler)。 The four weeks of the Exercises acquaint the exercitant with the three degrees of the spiritual life.演习的四周熟悉的精神生活的三度exercitant。The first week is taken up with cleansing the soul from sin and from its inordinate attachment to creatures.第一周是采取与清洗从罪恶和其过度依恋灵魂的生物。The second and third weeks lead the exercitant along the illuminative way.第二周和第三周带领沿照明方式exercitant。 The portrait of Christ, the most lovable of all men, is outlined before his eyes, so that he can contemplate in the humanity the reflex of Divine light and the supreme model of all virtues.基督的,所有的人最可爱,纵向概述在他眼前,让他可以考虑在人类的神圣的光的反射和所有美德的最高典范。The meditations of the fourth week, the subject of which are the resurrection etc., lead to union with God and teach the soul to rejoice in the glory of the Lord.第四个星期的沉思,其中的主题是复活等,导致欧盟与上帝和教导灵魂欢庆在主的荣耀。It is true, there are many rules and regulations, the sequence is most logical, the arrangement of the meditations follows the laws of psychology; yet these exercises do no violence to the free will, but are meant to strengthen the faculties of the soul.这是事实,有许多规则和规例,是最合乎逻辑的顺序,对沉思安排遵循心理规律,但这些演习做没有暴力的自由意志,但都是为了加强院系的灵魂。 They do not, as has often been asserted, make the exercitant a powerless instrument in the hands of the confessor, nor are they a mystic flight to heaven, accomplished by means of a compulsion which intends a rapid advance in perfection by a mechanical process (Zöckler, "Die Tugendlehre des Christentums", Gütersloh, 1904, p. 335).他们不这样做,因为经常被人断言,使exercitant在手中的忏悔无力的工具,也不是一个神秘的飞行到天堂,如果用强制,打算通过一个机械过程,在完善快速推进方式完成( Zöckler,“模具Tugendlehre万christentums”,居特斯洛,1904年,第335页)。Their marked intellectualism, so frequently objected to, in no way constitutes a hindrance to mysticism (Meschler, "Jesuitenaszese u. deutsche Mystik" in "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach", 1912).他们的显着理智,所以经常反对,绝不构成了对神秘主义的障碍(Meschler,“Jesuitenaszese美国德意志Mystik”中的“Stimmen澳元玛丽亚- Laach”,1912年)。On the contrary, they make man's moral will truly free by removing the hindrances, while, by cleansing the heart and by accustoming the mind to meditative prayer, they are an excellent preparation for the mystical life.相反,他们把人的道德意志真正通过消除障碍,而利用清洁的心和头脑习惯于以冥想祈祷,自由的,他们是生活在神秘的出色的准备工作。 Louis of Granada, OP (d. 1588), also belongs to this period.格拉纳达,任择议定书(草1588),路易斯也属于这一时期。His work "La guia de pecadores" may justly be styled a book full of consolation for the erring.他的作品“香格里拉东望洋德pecadores”可以理直气壮地一书的样式为有过错的安慰爆满。His "El memorial de la vida cristiana" contains instructions which take the soul from the very beginning and lead her to the highest perfection.他的“厄尔尼诺纪念德拉维达cristiana”包含指令,从一开始的灵魂,带她到最高的完善。Louis of Blois (Blosius), OSB (d. 1566), is of a mind kindred to St. Bernard.布卢瓦(Blosius),定向结构刨花板(卒于1566年)路易,是骨肉圣伯纳德的头脑。His "Monile spirituale" is the best known of his numerous works.他的“Monile spirituale”是最好的他的许多作品而闻名。 Thomas of Jesus (d. 1582) wrote the "Passion of Christ" and "De oratione dominica".耶稣(草1582)托马斯写的“基督受难记”和“德oratione蠹”。

A great number of ascetical writers sprang up during the seventeenth century.一个作家的ascetical大量涌现是在十七世纪。Among them St. Francis de Sales stands out most prominently.其中圣弗朗西斯德销售最为突出脱颖而出。According to Linsemann, the publication of his "Philothea" was an event of historical importance.据Linsemann,他的“Philothea”的发行是一个具有历史意义的事件。To make piety attractive and to adapt it to all classes whether living in Court circles, in the world, or in a monastery, this was his aim and in this he succeeded.为了使虔诚的吸引力和生活是否适应在法庭界在世界上,或在寺院它的所有班级,这是他的目标和在此,他成功了。 Of a mild and sweet temperament, he never lost sight of the habits and particular circumstances of the individual.一个温和而甜美的气质,他从未失去的习惯和个人具体情况视线。Though unwavering in his ascetical principles, he yet possessed an admirable facility for adapting them without constraint or rigidity.虽然在他的苦修原则不动摇,他还拥有一个无约束或刚度适应他们令人钦佩的设施。In the practice of mortification he recommends moderation and adaptation to one's state of life and to personal circumstances.在屈辱的练习,他建议适度和适应自己的生活状态和个人情况。Love of God and of man: this he puts down as the motive power of all actions.上帝的爱和对人:这一点,他放下作为一切行动的原动力。 The spirit of St. Francis pervades the whole of modern asceticism, and even today his "Philothea" is one of the most widely read books on asceticism.圣弗朗西斯的精神贯穿于整个现代禁欲主义,直到今天他的“Philothea”是对禁欲主义的最广泛阅读的书籍之一。 "Theotimus", another work of his, treats in the first six chapters of the love of God, the rest being devoted to mystical prayer.“Theotimus”,另一个他的工作,对待上半年上帝的爱章,其余被用于神秘的祈祷。His letters, too, are very instructive.他的信,也都是非常有启发性。Attention may be called to the new edition of his works (Euvres, Annecy, 1891 sqq.).注意可能被要求到他的作品新版(Euvres,阿纳西,1891 sqq。)。"Il combattimento spirituale" of Scupoli (d. 1610) was spread very widely and earnestly recommended by Francis de Sales.“伊尔combattimento spirituale”的Scupoli(草1610)是非常广泛的传播,切实弗朗西斯德销售建议。

To the same period belong the following authors and works.在同一时期属于下列作家和作品。 Bellarmine, SJ (d. 1621): "Gemitus columbæ"; "De ascensione mentis in Deum"; "De arte bene moriendi".贝拉明,律政司司长(四1621):“Gemitus columbæ”,“赞美颂德在ascensione mentis”,“德arte贝内moriendi”。Alphonsus Rodriguez, SJ (d. 1616): "Exercicio de perfección y virtudes cristianas" (3 vols., Seville, 1609), which has frequently been re-edited and translated into nearly all languages.阿方罗德里格斯,律政司司长(四1616):“Exercicio德perfección Ÿ virtudes cristianas”(3卷,塞维利亚,1609年。),它常常被人们重新编辑成几乎所有的语言。John of Jesus-Mary, OCD (d. 1615): "Teologia Mistica" (Naples, 1607), highly esteemed by Bellarmine and Francis de Sales.约翰耶稣,玛丽,强迫症(卒于1615年):“Teologia Mistica”(那不勒斯,1607年),由贝拉明高度评价和弗朗西斯德销售。Alvarez de Paz, SJ (d. 1620): "De vita spirituali ejusque perfectione" (1608); "De exterminatione mali et promotione boni" (1613); "De inquisitione pacis" (1617), which was frequently re-edited.阿尔瓦雷斯代帕斯,律政司司长(四1620):“德履历表spirituali ejusque perfectione”(1608年),“德exterminatione马里等promotione渤泥”(1613),“德inquisitione pacis”(1617),这是经常重新编辑。Gaudier, SJ (d. 1620): "De perfectione vitæ spiritualis" (1619; new ed., 3 vols., Turin, 1903-4). Gaudier,律政司司长(四1620):“德perfectione简历精神性”(1619,新的海关,3卷,都灵,1903至1​​904。。)。 La Puente, SJ (d. 1624): "Guia espiritual" (Valladolid, 1609), containing, according to his own statement, a brief epitome of the spiritual life both active and contemplative (prayer, meditation, trials, mortification, practice of virtue); "De la Perfección del Cristiano en todos sus estados" (1612).拉普恩特,律政司司长(四1624):“东望洋espiritual”(巴拉多利德,1609年),载,根据他自己的声明,一个既活跃了精神生活和沉思(祈祷,默想,审判,屈辱,实践简要缩影德),“德拉Perfección德尔罗纳尔多恩托多斯技能提升计划estados”(1612)。 Both works have ever been highly esteemed by all ascetical men and have been translated into many languages.两项工程曾经被高度评价所有苦修的人,并已译成多种文字。Lessius, SJ (d. 1623): "De perfectionibus moribusque divinis", a work distinguished both for its scientific and ascetical spirit.Lessius,律政司司长(四1623):“德perfectionibus moribusque divinis”,一个杰出的工作,为它的科学和ascetical精神两者。Nlcholas Lancicius, SJ (d. 1638), past-master in the spiritual life, whose saintly personality is reflected in his writings (new ed., Cracow, 1889 sqq.): "De exteriore corporis compositione"; "De quatuor viis perveniendi ad perfectionem"; "De humanarum passionum dominio": "De mediis ad virtutem"; "De causis et remediis in oratione".Nlcholas Lancicius,律政司司长(四1638),过去在精神生活,圣洁的人格是体现在他的著作硕士(新版,克拉科夫,1889 sqq。。):“德exteriore corporis compositione”,“德四重奏越南非法入境者perveniendi专案perfectionem“,”德humanarum passionum dominio“:”德mediis广告virtutem“,”德中oratione causis等remediis“。 Greatly valued is his book of meditations: "De piis erga Deum et coelites affectibus"; it has been translated into several languages.非常重视的是他的沉思的书:“德piis等coelites affectibus普遍赞美颂”,它已被翻译成多种语言。Schorrer, SJ: "Synopsis theol. ascet."Schorrer,律政司司长:“故事梗概theol ASCET的。。”(Dillingen, 1662; rare edition). (迪林根,1662年,稀有版)。Godinez, SJ: "Práctica de la teologia mystica" (La Puebla de los Angeles, date-->1681), of which we have a Latin edition together with a commentary by de la Reguera, SJ (Rome, 1740). Godinez,律政司司长:“Práctica德拉teologia mystica”(拉普埃布拉洛杉矶,日期“ - > 1681),其中我们有一个由德拉Reguera,律政司司长(罗马,1740)的评注一拉丁文版在一起。

Surin, SJ (d. 1665), wrote his important "Catéchisme spirituel" at a time when he was subject to interior trials (cf. Zahn, "Mystik", p. 441).苏林,律政司司长(四1665),写了他的重要“Catéchisme纤弱,”在这个时候,他是受室内试验(参见赞恩,“Mystik”,第441)。 The book appeared in many editions and translations, but was placed on the Index.书中出现了许多版本和译本,但在指数内。 The edition of Fr.FR的版本。 Fellon, SJ (1730), and the latest edition of Fr.坠落,律政司司长(1730),和神父的最新版本。Bouix (Paris, 1882) probably do not fall under this prohibition, because in them the errors have been corrected.Bouix(巴黎,1882年),可能不属于这一禁令,因为在他们的错误已被纠正。After Surin's death appeared: "Les fondements de la vie spirituelle" (Paris, 1667); "Lettres spirituelles" (ib., 1695); "Dialogues spirituels" (ib., 1704).苏林后的死亡出现:“莱斯fondements德拉争夺spirituelle”(巴黎,1667),“Lettres spirituelles”(同上,1695),“对话spirituels”(同上,1704)。Gasper Druzbicki, SJ (d. 1662), is the author of a considerable number of ascetical works both in Polish and in Latin, many of which were translated into other languages.加斯珀Druzbicki,律政司司长(四1662),是一个相当数量的ascetical作家的作品无论是在波兰和拉丁美洲,其中许多是翻译成其他语言。 There are two complete editions of his works: one published at Ingolstadt (1732) in two folios, the other at Kalisz and Posen (1681-91).有两个完整的版本,他的作品:一个是在英戈尔斯塔特(1732年)出版了两个对开页,在卡利什和波森(1681年至1691年)等。 Among his numerous works are: "Lapis lydius boni spiritus"; "Considerationes de soliditate veræ virtutis"; "De sublimitate perfectionis"; "De brevissima ad perfectionem via"; "Vota religiosa".在他的许多作品有:“青金石利迪斯博尼醑”,“Considerationes德soliditate veræ virtutis”,“德sublimitate perfectionis”,“德brevissima专案perfectionem通过”;“Vota religiosa”。The "Mystica theologia Divi Thomæ" of Thomas à Vallgornera, OP (d. 1665), published at Barcelona, (1662 and 1672) and at Turin (1890), is almost exclusively made up of quotations from St. Thomas and is a rich storehouse of ascetical material.在“Mystica神学航空维修部Thomæ”托马斯à Vallgornera,作品(草1665)在巴塞罗那出版,(1662年和1672年)和都灵(1890年),几乎完全是由来自圣托马斯报价,是一个丰富的仓库的ascetical材料。 From the pen of Cardinal Bona, O. Cist.从红衣主教博纳,澳中科院笔。(d. 1674), we have: "Principia et documents vitæ christianæ" (Rome, 1673) and "Manuductio ad coelum" (Rome, 1672 and 1678), both of which works, remarkable for their simplicity and practical utility, were frequently re-edited; the still valuable "De sacrificio Missæ"; "De discretione spirituum"; "Horologium asceticum". (四1674),我们已:“等文件的简历christianæ原理”(罗马,1673年)和“Manuductio广告coelum”(罗马,1672年和1678年),这两个工程来说,他们的简单和实际效用显着,经常重新编辑;仍然有价值的“德sacrificio Missæ”,“德discretione spirituum”,“时钟座asceticum”。Complete editions of his works appeared at Antwerp, Turin, Venice.他的作品完整版本出现在安特卫普,都灵,威尼斯。Morotius, O. Cist., in his "Cursus vitæ spiritualis" (Rome, 1674; new ed., Ratisbon, 1891), follows closely the lead of St. Thomas. Morotius,澳中科院,在他的“Cursus简历精神性”。(罗马,1674年;。新版,拉蒂斯邦,1891年),紧随圣托马斯领先。The "Summa theologiæ mysticæ" (new ed., 3 vols., Freiburg, 1874) is the best and most widely read work of Philip of the Blessed Trinity (d. 1671), the philosopher among the mystic writers. “总结theologiæ mysticæ”(新版。,3卷。,弗赖堡,1874年)是三位一体的祝福(草1671),作家之间的神秘的哲学家菲利普最好,最广泛阅读的工作。 He wrote in the spirit of St. Thomas, following definite scientific principles and showing their practical application in the spiritual life.他写道:在圣托马斯的精神,经过一定的科学原则,并显示他们在精神生活的实际应用。 Anthony of the Holy Ghost, OCD (d. 1674), was a disciple of the author just named.安东尼的圣灵,强迫症(草1674),是一个刚刚任命笔者弟子。His "Directorium mysticum" (new ed., Paris, 1904), dominated by the spirit of.他的“Directorium mysticum”(新版。,巴黎,1904年),由精神为主。his master, was written for the instruction of his pupils.他的主人,是写给他的学生指导。He is also the author of the following works: "Seminarium virtutum" (3rd ed., Augsburg and Würzburg, 1750), "Irriguum virtutum" (Würzburg, 1723), "Tractatus de clericorum ac præcipue sacerdotum et pastorum dignitate", etc. (Würzburg, 1676).他还对以下作者的作品:“Seminarium v​​irtutum”(第三版,奥格斯堡和维尔茨堡,1750。)“Irriguum virtutum”(维尔茨堡,1723),“逻辑哲学论德clericorum交流præcipue sacerdotum等pastorum dignitate”等(维尔茨堡,1676)。

In the course of the eighteenth century a number of valuable works on asceticism and mysticism were published.在十八世纪的禁欲主义和神秘主义关于出版了一些有价值的作品。To Neumeyer, SJ (d. 1765), we owe the "Idea theol. ascet.", a complete, scientifically arranged epitome.为了Neumeyer,律政司司长(四1765年),我们才有了“思想theol。ASCET的。”,一个完整,科学地安排的一个缩影。 Rogacci, SJ (d. 1719), wrote "Del uno necessario", an instruction in the love of God, which ranks high in ascetical literature and was translated into several languages. Rogacci,律政司司长(四1719),写了“德尔乌诺necessario”,在神的爱,居苦修文学高,被翻译成几种语言指令。Among the best literary productions, and widely read even today, is Scaramelli's (d. 1752) "Direttorio ascetico".其中最好的文学作品,并广泛阅读即使在今天,是斯卡拉梅利的(卒于1752年)“Direttorio ascetico”。The author treats asceticism apart from mysticism.笔者除了对待禁欲主义的神秘主义。A treatise on the virtues is contained in Dirkink, SJ, "Semita perfectionis" (new ed., Paderborn, 1890).关于美德的论文,载于Dirkink,律政司司长,“Semita perfectionis”(新版。,帕德博恩,1890年)。Designed along broad lines is the "Trinum perfectum" (3rd ed., Augsburg, 1728) by Michael of St. Catherine.沿广线的设计是“Trinum perfectum”(第3版。,奥格斯堡,1728)的圣凯瑟琳迈克尔。Katzenberger, OFM, wrote "Scientia salutis" (new ed., Paderborn, 1901).Katzenberger,外交使团办公室,写了“报ACTA salutis”(新版。,帕德博恩,1901年)。Schram's "Institutiones theol. mysticæ" (2 vols.) combines asceticism with mysticism, though the author is at his best in the ascetical parts.施拉姆的“Institutiones theol。mysticæ”(2卷)。禁欲主义与神秘主义相结合,尽管作者在他的苦修部分是数一数二的。St. Alphonsus Liguori (d. 1787), rightly called the "Apostolic Man", published a large number of ascetic works, full of heavenly unction and tender-hearted piety.圣阿方liguori(四1787),正确地称为“使徒的人”,出版了一大批苦行作品,天上的油膏和多情的虔诚爆满。 The best-known and most important of them are: "Pratica di amar Gesù Cristo" (1768), "Visita al SS. Sacramento", perhaps the most widely read of all his ascetical works: "La vera sposa di Gesù Cristo" (1760), a sure guide to perfection for countless souls.最有名的和最重要的是他们:“Pratica迪阿马尔Gesù基督山”(1768年),“Visita人党卫军萨克拉门托。”也许是最广泛的阅读所有的苦行作品:“德拉贝拉sposa迪Gesù克里斯托”( 1760),一个肯定的指南,为无数灵魂的完善。

Complete treatises on asceticism, published during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, are the following: Grundkötter, "Anleitung zur christl. Vollkommenheit" (Ratisbon, 1896).完成论文的禁欲主义,在十九世纪和二十世纪的出版,有以下几种:Grundkötter,“Anleitung楚christl Vollkommenheit。”(拉蒂斯邦,1896年)。Leick, C. SS.Leick,角的SS。 R., "Schule der christl. Vollkommenheit" (Ratisbon, 1886), inspired by the writings of St. Alphonsus Liguori.河,“明镜christl学派。Vollkommenheit”(拉蒂斯邦,1886年),由圣阿方liguori的著作的启发。 Weiss, OP, "Philosophie der christl. Vollkommenheit" (vol. V of his "Apologie"; Freiburg 1898).魏斯,任择议定书,“哲学的明镜christl Vollkommenheit。”(第五卷,他的“辩护”,弗赖堡1898年)。The author is extraordinarily well read, and his conception of the spiritual life is unusually deep.作者是非常好读,他的精神生活却异常深刻的概念。Ribet, "L'ascétique chrétienne" (Paris, 1888).瑞贝,“欧莱雅ascétique chrétienne”(巴黎,1888)。Tissot, "La vie intérieure".天梭,“香格里拉争夺intérieure”。Saudreau, "Les degrés de la vie spirituelle" (Angers, 1896 and 1897), a work full of unction. Saudreau,“法国degrés德拉争夺spirituelle”(昂热,1896年和1897年),一个完整的unction工作。His other works, "Les faits extraordinaires de la vie spirituelle" (1908) and "La vie d'union à Dieu" (1909), belong to mysticism properly so called.他的其他作品,“法国既成事实extraordinaires德拉争夺spirituelle”(1908年)和“La争夺德联盟à Dieu酒店”(1909年),属于所谓正确的神秘主义。Poulain, SJ, "La grâce d'oraison", though of a mystic character, yet treats of the ordinary method of prayer.Poulain,律政司司长,“香格里拉德oraison宽限期”,虽然一个神秘人物,但待人的祈祷普通的方法。 Saudreau and Poulain are reliable throughout and their works are among the best productions in this branch. Saudreau和Poulain是可靠的和他们的作品中贯穿在这个分支是最好的产品。Rousset, OP, "Directorium asceticum" (Freiburg, 1893).鲁塞,作品,“Directorium asceticum”(弗赖堡,1893年)。Meynard, OP, "Traité de la vie intérieure" (Paris, 1899), based on St. Thomas. Meynard,作品,“Traité德拉争夺intérieure”(巴黎,1899年),在圣托马斯基础。Meyer, SJ, "First Lessons in the Science of the Saints" (2nd ed., St. Louis, 1903), translated into several languages.迈耶,律政司司长,“第一课中的圣人科学”(第二版。,圣路易斯,1903年),翻译成几种语言。Francis X. Mutz, "Die christliche Aszetik" (2nd ed., Paderborn, 1909).弗朗西斯十Mutz,“模具christliche Aszetik”(第二版。,帕德博恩,1909年)。Joseph Zahn, "Einführung in die christliche Mystik" (Paderborn, 1908), important also for asceticism.约瑟夫赞恩,“在模具christliche Mystik Einführung”(帕德博恩,1908年),也是重要的禁欲主义。Berthier, "De la perfection chrétienne et de la perfection religieuse d'après S. Thomas et S. François de Sales" (2 vols., Paris, 1901).贝蒂埃,“去香格里拉完美chrétienne等德拉完善religieuse德apr镳学Thomas等第弗朗索瓦德销售”(2卷。,巴黎,1901年)。 A. Devine, "Manual of Ascetical Theology" (London).答:迪瓦恩,“手动的ascetical神学”(伦敦)。Ryan, "Groundwork of Christian Perfection" (London).瑞安,“基督教的完善基础”(伦敦)。Buchanan, "Perfect Love of God" (London).布坎南,“神完全的爱”(伦敦)。

An exhaustive list of Catholic ascetical writers is given in Migne, "Encycl. théologique", XXVI; "Dict. d'ascéticisme", II, 1467.天主教ascetical作家一个详尽的清单是由于在米涅,“Encycl théologique。”,二十六,“快译通德ascéticisme。”第一,二,1467。Non-Catholic authors: Otto Zöckler, "Die Tugendlehre des Christentums, geschichtlich dargestellt" (Gütersloh, 1904).非天主教作者:奥托Zöckler,“模具Tugendlehre万christentums,geschichtlich dargestellt”(居特斯洛,1904年)。W. Hermann, "Der Verkehr des Christen mit Gott" (6th ed., Stuttgart, 1908), and "Die sittlichen Weisungen Jesu" (Göttingen, 1907).瓦特赫尔曼,“明镜Verkehr德克里森麻省理工戈特”(第6版。,斯图加特,1908年)和“模具sittlichen Weisungen耶稣”(哥廷根,1907年)。Kähler, "Verkehr mit Christo in seiner Bedeutung für das eigene Leben" (Leipzig, 1904).凯勒,“Verkehr在围网渔船Bedeutung献给达斯eigene酸奶麻省理工克里斯托”(莱比锡,1904年)。 Peabody, "Jesus Christ and the Christian Character".皮博迪,“耶稣基督和基督徒的品格。”A. Ritschl, "Christiiche Vollkommenheit" (Göttingen, 1902).答:里奇尔,“Christiiche Vollkommenheit”(哥廷根,1902)。Sheldon, "In his Steps -- What Would Jesus do?", widely read in England.谢尔顿,“在他的步骤 - 上帝会怎么做?”,在英国广泛阅读。

Publication information Written by Franz X. Mutz.出版信息撰稿弗朗茨十Mutz。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯j.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

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