General Information一般资料

The word atonement, constructed from at and one , means "to set at one" or "to reconcile."字赎罪,从一个在建,并指“定于一”或“调和”。In Christian Theology, atonement denotes the doctrine of the reconciliation of God and man accomplished by the Crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ.在基督教神学,赎罪表示神的和解,由耶稣受难和死亡的完成人论。

There have been three major theories of atonement: the ransom theory, the Anselmian theory, and the Abelardian theory. 有过三次重大理论的赎罪:赎金理论,Anselmian理论和Abelardian理论。

Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other Reformers developed the Anselmian theory in the direction of penal substitution. Liberal theologians have reverted to an Abelardian type of explanation. 马丁路德,约翰卡尔文,和其他改革者开发替代的Anselmian刑法理论中的方向。自由神学家已回复到一个解释Abelardian类型。 Gustav Aulen and other Swedish theologians have recently advocated a return to the ransom theory conceived in terms of victory over the powers of evil.古斯塔夫Aulen和其他瑞典神学家最近主张对赎金理论在胜利上了权力的邪恶设想的回报。Since the doctrine of the atonement has never been defined officially, Christian theologians consider themselves free to work out their own theory along lines consonant with the witness of Scripture.自赎罪的学说从来没有正式定义,基督教神学家认为自己可以自由地工作,他们的沿线与证人的经文辅音自己的理论。

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In Jewish theology, stress is placed on personal acts of atonement; vicarious atonement is given little importance.在犹太神学,看重的是个人的行为赎罪;替代赎罪,给出一点的重要性。

Reginald H Fuller雷金纳德ħ富勒

Bibliography 参考书目
V Taylor, Jesus and His Sacrifice (1937) and The Atonement in New Testament Teaching (1940).v泰勒,耶稣和他的牺牲(1937)和新约中的教学赎罪(1940)。


General Information一般资料

Atonement, in Christian theology, is the expiation of sin and the propitiation of God by the incarnation, life, sufferings, and death of Jesus Christ; the obedience and death of Christ on behalf of sinners as the ground of redemption; in the narrow sense, the sacrificial work of Christ for sinners.赎罪,在基督教神学,就是罪的赎罪和神的化身,生命,痛苦和死亡的耶稣基督赎罪;的服从和基督的死刑,作为赎回地面罪人代表;在狭义,基督为罪人牺牲的工作。 In the theology of many, including nearly all Universalists and Unitarians, atonement signifies the act of bringing people to God, in contradistinction to the idea of reconciling an offended God to his creation.在许多神学,包括几乎所有Universalists和神论,赎罪标志着人们带来上帝的对比,以调和一个冒犯了上帝对他的创作理念的行为。

The three principal theories by which theologians attempt to explain the atonement are the following: (1) the Anselmian or sacrificial, that the atonement consists fundamentally in Christ's sacrifice for the sins of humanity; (2) the remedial, that God, through the incarnation, entered into humanity so as to eliminate sin by the ethical process of Christ's life and death and make the human race at one with himself; and (3) the Socinian or moral influence, that Christ's work consists in influencing people to lead better lives.这三个其中神学家试图解释赎罪的主要理论有以下几方面:(1)Anselmian或牺牲的赎罪包括在基督的牺牲根本上为人类的罪,(2)补救,即上帝通过化身,对人道主义的进入,以消除由基督的生命和死亡ethical process罪,作出与自己的人类,以及(3)Socinian或道义上的影响力,基督的工作,影响人民过上更好的生活组成。The sacrificial theory takes two general forms: (a) the governmental, that Christ's work was intended to meet the demands of the law of God and make such a moral impression upon humans in favor of the divine government as to render their forgiveness safe; and (b) the satisfaction, that it was intended to satisfy divine justice and make the forgiveness of humanity possible and right.祭祀理论以两个一般形式:(一)政府,基督的工作是为了满足上帝的法规的要求,并在神圣政府赞成这样的呼吁人类道德的印象,以使他们的宽恕安全; (二)满意,这是为了满足神的公义,使人类有可能宽恕的权利。Each of these theories has been further developed many times.这些理论都有了进一步发展了许多倍。


Advanced Information先进的信息

This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New Testament except in Rom.这个词不会出现在新约圣经授权版本除了在光盘。5:11, where in the Revised Version the word "reconciliation" is used.5:11,凡在这个词的修订版“和解”一词。In the Old Testament it is of frequent occurrence.在旧约这是经常发生。The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, ie, the state of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is reconciliation.这个词的意义仅仅是在一,彪,即在一个被或正在协调的状态,使赎罪是和解。 Thus it is used to denote the effect which flows from the death of Christ.因此,它是用来表示其效果是从死亡的基督流动。But the word is also used to denote that by which this reconciliation is brought about, viz., the death of Christ itself; and when so used it means satisfaction, and in this sense to make an atonement for one is to make satisfaction for his offences (Ex. 32:30; Lev. 4:26; 5:16; Num. 6:11), and, as regards the person, to reconcile, to propitiate God in his behalf.但这个词也用来表示,通过此和解带来的,即,基督本身的死亡。因此,当用它指的满意度,在这个意义上,并作出了赎罪一个是让他满意罪行(出埃及记32:30,利未记4:26。5:16;。序号6:11),而且,正如有关人士,调和,是为了劝他代表上帝。

By the atonement of Christ we generally mean his work by which he expiated our sins.借着基督的赎罪,我们通常是指他的工作由他赎我们的罪。But in Scripture usage the word denotes the reconciliation itself, and not the means by which it is effected.但是在使用这个词是指经和解本身,而不是由它的影响的手段。When speaking of Christ's saving work, the word "satisfaction," the word used by the theologians of the Reformation, is to be preferred to the word "atonement."当基督的拯救工作,守信用“满意”,由宗教改革的神学家所用的字,说是要优先于单词“赎罪”。Christ's satisfaction is all he did in the room and in behalf of sinners to satisfy the demands of the law and justice of God.基督的满意是他在所有房间和罪人的代表,以满足对法律和正义的上帝的要求一样。Christ's work consisted of suffering and obedience, and these were vicarious, ie, were not merely for our benefit, but were in our stead, as the suffering and obedience of our vicar, or substitute.基督的工作包括痛苦和服从,而这些被替代,即不只是为了我们的利益,但在我们而起的,因为我们的痛苦和副主教,或替代服从。 Our guilt is expiated by the punishment which our vicar bore, and thus God is rendered propitious, ie, it is now consistent with his justice to manifest his love to transgressors.我们有罪,是赎的处罚,我们的牧师孔,因此,上帝是呈现吉祥,也就是说,它是现在符合他的正义,体现他的爱对违规者的。

Expiation has been made for sin, ie, it is covered.赎罪已罪,即制成,它是覆盖。The means by which it is covered is vicarious satisfaction, and the result of its being covered is atonement or reconciliation.由它覆盖的意思是替代的满意度,以及其被覆盖的补偿或和解的结果。To make atonement is to do that by virtue of which alienation ceases and reconciliation is brought about.为了赎罪是这样做,据此,停止与和解是异化带来的。Christ's mediatorial work and sufferings are the ground or efficient cause of reconciliation with God.基督的中保工作和苦难是上帝的和解与地面或有效率的原因。They rectify the disturbed relations between God and man, taking away the obstacles interposed by sin to their fellowship and concord.他们纠正神与人之间关系的干扰,带走他们的罪恶中间人金与和谐的障碍。The reconciliation is mutual, ie, it is not only that of sinners toward God, but also and pre-eminently that of God toward sinners, effected by the sin-offering he himself provided, so that consistently with the other attributes of his character his love might flow forth in all its fulness of blessing to men.和解是相互的,也就是说,它不仅是对神的罪人,也和前显然,上帝对罪人的赎罪祭,他本人提供,所以他的性格与其他属性,始终影响他爱流出来可能在其所有男性充满祝福。

The primary idea presented to us in different forms throughout the Scripture is that the death of Christ is a satisfaction of infinite worth rendered to the law and justice of God (qv), and accepted by him in room of the very penalty man had incurred.提出的主要思想在整个圣经不同的形式给我们的是,基督的死是一个提供法律和正义的上帝(请参阅)无限价值的满意度,他接受了罚款的人非常有发生的余地。 It must also be constantly kept in mind that the atonement is not the cause but the consequence of God's love to guilty men (John 3:16; Rom. 3:24, 25; Eph. 1:7; 1 John 1:9; 4:9).还必须不断地铭刻在脑海里的赎罪是不是原因,而是神的爱后果(约翰3:16有罪的人,罗马书3:24,25;。弗1:7。约翰一书1:9; 4:9)。The atonement may also be regarded as necessary, not in an absolute but in a relative sense, ie, if man is to be saved, there is no other way than this which God has devised and carried out (Ex. 34:7; Josh. 24:19; Ps. 5:4; 7:11; Nahum 1:2, 6; Rom. 3:5).赎罪,也可以认为是必要的,但绝对不是在一相对地,也就是说,如果人是要保存,没有比这是上帝制定并实施了(出34:7的其他方式;乔希。24:19;诗5:4。7:11;内厄姆1:2,6;罗3:5)。。 This is God's plan, clearly revealed; and that is enough for us to know.这是神的计划,清楚地表明,这是足以让我们知道。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Advanced Information先进的信息

The expression "to make atonement" is frequent in Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers, but rare in the rest of the Bible.的表达“,使赎罪”是经常在出埃及记,利未记和数字,但在其余的圣经罕见。The basic idea, however, is widespread.基本的想法,但是很普遍。The need for it arises from the fact that man is a sinner, a truth made plain throughout Scripture but infrequent outside the Bible.需要它从一个事实,那人是罪人时,一个朴素的真理使整个圣经,但圣经以外的很少。

In the OT sin is dealt with by the offering of sacrifice.在加时赛的罪过是处理由祭祀。Thus the burnt offering will be accepted "to make atonement" (Lev. 1:4), as also the sin offering and the guilt offering (Lev. 4:20; 7:7) and especially the sacrifices on the day of atonement (Lev. 16).因此,燔祭将被接受“,使赎罪”(利未记1:4),同时也作为赎罪祭,赎愆祭(利未记四时20分,7:7),特别是在赎罪日的牺牲(列夫。16)。 Of course, sacrifice is ineffective if offered in the wrong spirit.当然,牺牲是无效的,如果在错误的态度提出的。To sin "with a high hand" (Num. 15:30), ie, proudly and presumptuously, is to place oneself outside the sphere of God's forgiveness.罪的“具有高的手”(民数记15:30),即擅自骄傲地,是把超出了神的宽恕自己的领域。The prophets have many denunciations of the offering of sacrifice as the expression of a repentant and trustful heart is to find atonement.先知,对作为一个悔改的心和信任的表达提供了许多牺牲,谴责是找到赎罪。Atonement is sometimes made by means other than the sacrifices, such as the payment of money (Exod. 30:12-16) or the offering of life (II Sam. 21:3-6).赎罪是由手段有时比,如支付款项(出30:12-16),或提供的生活(二山姆。21:3-6)的牺牲,其他。In such cases to make atonement means "to avert punishment, especially the divine anger, by the payment of a koper, a ransom,' which may be of money or which may be of life" (L. Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross, 166).在这种情况下,使赎罪的手段“,以避免处罚,特别是神圣的愤怒由一科佩尔,赎金,'这可能是金钱的或可能是赔命”(莫里斯,使徒的布道跨,166)。 Throughout the OT sin is serious; it will be punished unless atonement is sought in the way God has provided.在整个加时赛罪是严重的,它会受到惩罚,除非是在上帝赎罪提供了当中。

This truth is repeated and enlarged upon in the NT.这个真理是重复和放大后,在新台币。There it is made clear that all men are sinners (Rom. 3:23) and that hell awaits them (Mark 9:43; Luke 12:5).在那里,它是明确表示,所有的人都是罪人(罗马书3:23),而等待他们的地狱(马克21:43;路加福音12:5)。 But it is just as clear that God wills to bring salvation and that he has brought it in the life, death, resurrection, and ascension of his Son.但它只是作为显然,上帝的意志为拯救,他带来了生命,死亡,复活,和他的儿子提升它。 The love of God is the mainspring (John 3:16; Rom. 5:8).神的爱是发条(约翰3:16;罗马书5:8)。。We are not to think of a loving Son as wringing salvation from a just but stern Father.我们并不认为作为一个充满爱的救赎捶胸顿足儿子从一个公正而严厉的父亲。It is the will of the Father that men be saved, and salvation is accomplished, not with a wave of the hand, so to speak, but by what God has done in Christ: "God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself" (II Cor. 5:19), a reconciliation brought about by the death of Christ (Rom. 5:10).这是天父的旨意,男人被保存,救恩是完成,不与波的手,可以这么说,通过什么神在基督做,但是:“上帝在基督里调和世界,以自己是”(二肺心病。5:19),和解所带来的基督的死(罗马书5:10)。 The NT emphasizes his death, and it is no accident that the cross has come to be accepted as the symbol of the Christian faith or that words like "crux" and "crucial" have come to have the significance that they possess.新台币强调他的死亡,这决不是偶然的交叉已经到了被看作是接受基督教信仰的象征,或者像“症结”和“关键”的字眼来具有重要意义,他们拥有的。 The cross is absolutely central to salvation as the NT sees it.十字架是绝对的核心救赎新台币看到它。This is distinctive of Christianity.这是基督教的特色。Other religions have their martyrs, but the death of Jesus was not that of a martyr.其他宗教有其烈士,但耶稣的死,是一个烈士没有。It was that of a Savior.这是一个救世主。His death saves men from their sins.他的死可以节省他们的罪的人。Christ took their place and died their death (Mark 10:45; II Cor. 5:21), the culmination of a ministry in which he consistently made himself one with sinners.基督死了自己的位置和其死亡(马克10:45;。二,肺心病5:21),一个部,他始终把自己与罪人一个高潮。

The NT does not put forward a theory of atonement, but there are several indications of the principle on which atonement is effected.新台币没有提出一个赎罪的理论,但也有其上的原则赎罪是影响一些迹象。Thus sacrifice must be offered, not the sacrifice of animals, which cannot avail for men (Heb. 10:4), but the perfect sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 9:26; 10:5-10).因此,必须提供牺牲,而不是动物的牺牲,这是不能利用男性(希伯来书10:4),但完美的基督牺牲(希伯来书9时26分; 10:5-10)。Christ paid sin's due penalty (Rom. 3:25-26; 6:23; Gal. 3:13).基督付出罪的,由于刑罚(罗3:25-26; 6:23;加拉太3:13。)。He redeemed us (Eph. 1:7), paying the price that sets us free (I Cor. 6:20; Gal. 5:1).他赎回我们(弗1:7),付出的代价,设置我们自由(林前6:20。加拉太5:1)。。He made a new covenant (Heb. 9:15).他做了一个新的盟约(希伯来书9:15)。He won the victory (I Cor. 15:55-57).他赢得了胜利(我肺心病。15:55-57)。He effected the propitiation that turns away the warth of God (Rom. 3:25), made the reconciliation that turns enemies into friends (Eph. 2:16).他实施的和解,轮流走神(罗马书3:25)沃斯,取得了和解变成朋友(以弗所书2:16)的敌人。His love and his patient endurance of suffering set an example (I Pet. 2:21); we are to take up our cross (Luke 9:23).他的爱和他的忍耐痛苦的榜样(我的宠物2:21。);我们要拿起我们的十字架(路加福音9:23)。Salvation is many-sided.救恩是多方面的。But however it is viewed, Christ has taken our place, doing for us what we could not do for ourselves.但是,无论是看的,基督已经采取了我们的地方,为我们做什么我们不能做自己。Our part is simply to respond in repentance, faith, and selfless living.我们的责任就是要响应悔改,信心和无私的生活。

L Morris L莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
RS Franks, The Work of Christ; LW Grensted, A Short History of the Doctrine of the Atonement; G. Smeaton, The Doctrine of the Atonement According to Christ and The Doctrine of the Atonement According to the Apostles; V. Taylor, The Atonement in NT Teaching and Forgiveness and Reconciliation; J. Owen, The Death of Death in the Death of Christ; J. Denney, The Death of Christ; AA Hodge, The Atonement; JM Campbell, The Nature of the Atonement; R. Wallace, The Atoning Death of Christ; JK Mozley, The Doctrine of the Atonement; CR Smith, The Bible Doctrine of Salvation; L. Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross; PT Forsyth, The Cruciality of the Cross.遥感弗兰克斯,基督的工作;长波Grensted,一个赎罪的学说的简短历史,克斯米顿,该学说的赎罪根据基督和使徒根据赎罪教义;诉泰勒,赎罪在NT教学与宽恕与和解的J.欧文,在死亡的基督身故的J.丹尼,死亡的基督;机管局Hodge的,赎罪; JM坎贝尔的赎罪的性质;河华莱士基督的赎罪死亡; jk的莫兹利,该学说的赎罪;铬史密斯,圣经教义的救恩;属莫里斯,宗座传教的十字架;铂佛塞斯,十字架的Cruciality。

Extent of the Atonement, Limited Atonement赎罪的范围,有限的赎罪

Advanced Information先进的信息

Although there are variations as to the basic ways in which this subject can be addressed, the choices boil down to two: either the death of Jesus was intended to secure salvation for a limited number or the death of Jesus was intended to provide salvation for everyone. The first view is sometimes called "limited atonement" because God limited the effect of Christ's death to a specific number of elect persons, or "particular redemption" because redemption was for a particular group of people.虽然有两个变化的基本途径,以在此问题都可以解决,选择归结为: 无论是耶稣的死亡是为了保证在有限的耶稣得救号码或死亡的目的是提供大家救赎。第一种观点有时被称为“有限的赎罪”,因为上帝死亡的影响有限,基督的一个选择具体人数,或“特别赎回”,因为赎回人是特定的组。 The second view is sometimes referred to as "unlimited atonement" or "general redemption" because God did not limit Christ's redemptive death to the elect, but allowed it to be for mankind in general.第二种观点有时被称为“无限的赎罪”“一般赎回”,因为上帝没有限制基督的救赎死亡的选举,但允许它成为一般人类的研究。

Particular Redemption特别是赎回

The doctrine that Jesus died for the elect in particular, securing their redemption, but not for the world, arose as the implications of the doctrine of election and the satisfaction theory of the atonement were developed immediately following the Reformation.该学说认为耶稣死了,尤其是选举,确保他们赎回,但对世界没有,便产生了选举学说和满意理论的赎罪影响立即制定了以下的改革。 A controversy arose that resulted in the Synod of Dort (1618-19) pronouncing that Christ's death was "sufficient for all but efficient for the elect."争议出现,在主教的dort(1618至1619年)宣告基督的死亡是造成“人人只是为选民高效足够了。”This did not satisfy many theologians, even some Calvinists, so the controversy has continued to this day.这并没有满足许多神学家,甚至一些加尔文教派,所以争论已经持续到今天。

There are numerous arguments used to defend the doctrine of limited atonement, but the following represent some of the more frequently found. 赎罪是有限的许多论据用来捍卫教义,但下面的代表发现了一些较为频繁。

General Redemption一般赎回

The doctrine of general redemption argues that the death of Christ was designed to include all mankind, whether or not all believe.赎回的一般学说认为,基督的死的目的是要包括所有的人类,是否所有相信。To those who savingly believe it is redemptively applied, and to those who do not believe it provides the benefits of common grace and the removal of any excuse for being lost.对于那些谁savingly相信这是redemptively应用,和那些谁不相信它提供的共同利益和优雅的任何借口,正在丧失清除。 God loved them and Christ died for them; they are lost because they refused to accept the salvation that is sincerely offered to them in Christ.上帝爱他们和基督为他们死,他们将丢失,因为他们拒绝接受认为是真诚地为他们提供了在基督的救恩。


Both points of view are trying to preserve something of theological importance.这两种观点正试图维护神学重要的事情。 The defenders of limited atonement are stressing the certainty of God's salvation and the initiative he took in offering it to man.有限的赎罪的捍卫者都强调了神的救恩的确定性和主动提供给他的人了。If salvation depended on our work, all would be lost.如果对我们的工作依赖得救,都将丢失。The defenders of general redemption are attempting to preserve the fairness of God and what to them is the clear teaching of Scripture.一般赎回的捍卫者正试图维护公平的上帝,什么对他们是圣经明确的教学。Salvation is no less certain because Christ died for all.救恩是没有那么肯定,因为基督全部死亡。It is the decision to reject it that brings about condemnation, and faith that puts one in a saving relationship with Christ who died that we might live.这是决定拒绝谴责带来约和信念,放在一个与基督储蓄关系谁死给我们带来的。EA Litton attempts to mediate the two views in this fashion: "And thus the combatants may not be in reality so much at variance as they had supposed. The most extreme Calvinist may grant that there is room for all if they will come in; the most extreme Arminian must grant that redemption, in its full Scriptural meaning, is not the privilege of all men" (Introduction to Dogmatic Theology, p. 236).电针利顿试图调解这种方式的两种观点:。“,从而在战斗可能无法在现实中有那么多的差异,因为他们原以为最极端的加尔文主义是有可能给予所有,如果他们会在房间;的最极端的阿民念主义必须承认,在其全部赎回圣经的意义,是不是所有的人的特权“(介绍教条式的神学,第236页)。

WA Elwell西澳埃尔韦尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
W. Rushton, A Defense of Particular Redemption; J. Owen, The Death of Death in the Death of Christ; AA Hodge, The Atonement; H. Martin, The Atonement; G. Smeaton, The Doctrine of the Atonement According to the Apostles and The Doctrine of the Atonement According to Christ; J. Davenant, The Death of Christ; NF Douty, The Death of Christ; AH Strong, Systematic Theology; J. Denney, The Death of Christ; JM Campbell, The Nature of the Atonement; L. Berkhof, Systematic Theology.瓦特拉什顿,一个特别赎回国防部的J.欧文,死亡,在死亡的基督死亡;机管局Hodge的,赎罪;阁下马丁,赎罪;克斯米顿,该学说的赎罪根据使徒以及根据基督赎罪学说的J.达文南特,死亡的基督;因子Douty,死亡的基督;阿强,系统神学的J.丹尼,死亡的基督; JM坎贝尔,自然的赎罪;属伯克霍夫的,有系统的神学。

Theories of the Atonement理论的赎罪

Advanced Information先进的信息

Throughout the Bible the central question is, "How can sinful man ever be accepted by a holy God?"整本圣经的中心问题是,“怎样才能罪孽深重的人永远不会接受一个神圣的上帝吗?”The Bible takes sin seriously, much more seriously than do the other literatures that have come down to us from antiquity.圣经把罪严重,更严重的是比已回落到我们从古代文献等。It sees sin as a barrier separating man from God (Isa. 59:2), a barrier that man was able to erect but is quite unable to demolish.它认为作为屏障分隔神(以赛亚书59:2),一个障碍,一个人能直立,但相当无法拆卸人犯罪。But the truth on which the Bible insists is that God has dealt with the problem.但事实上坚持圣经就是上帝的处理这个问题。He has made the way whereby sinners may find pardon, God's enemies may find peace.他提出的方式,即可能会发现赦免罪人,神的敌人可能会找到和平。Salvation is never seen as a human achievement.救恩是从未见过一个人的成就。In the OT sacrifice has a large place, but it avails not because of any merit it has of itself (cf. Heb. 10:4), but because God has given it as the way (Lev. 17:11).在加时赛的地方有一个大的牺牲,但不援用任何好处,因为它本身有(见希伯来书。10:4),而是因为上帝赋予的方式(利未记17:11)它。 In the NT the cross plainly occupies the central place, and it is insisted upon in season and out of season that this is God's way of bringing salvation.在新台币的交叉显然占据中心位置,是坚持在赛季后的季节,这是上帝的拯救带来的方式。There are many ways of bringing this out.有很多种方式实现了这一点。The NT writers do not repeat a stereotyped story.新台币作家不要重复千篇一律的故事。Each writes from his own perspective.每一个从自己的角度写。But each shows that it is the death of Christ and not any human achievement that brings salvation.但每个表明,它是基督的死亡,而不是任何人的成就,带来救赎。

But none of them sets out a theory of atonement.但没有订出了赎罪的理论。There are many references to the effectiveness of Christ's atoning work, and we are not lacking in information about its many - sidedness.有到基督的赎罪工作成效多次提到,我们没有关于它的许多信息缺乏 - 片面性。 Thus Paul gives a good deal of emphasis to the atonement as a process of justification, and he uses such concepts as redemption, propitiation, and reconciliation.因此,保罗给出了一个很好的协议,强调作为一个过程的理由赎罪,他使用的赎回,和解,和解等概念。 Sometimes we read of the cross as a victory or as an example.有时候,我们读到的是胜利或交叉的例子。It is the sacrifice that makes a new covenant, or simply a sacrifice.这是牺牲,作出了新的盟约,或只是一种牺牲。There are many ways of viewing it.它有许多的观赏方式。We are left in no doubt about its efficacy and its complexity.我们现在看到没有关于其有效性和它的复杂性产生怀疑。View the human spiritual problem as you will, and the cross meets the need.查看人类的精神问题,因为你的意愿,符合两岸的需要。But the NT does not say how it does so.但NT并不说明它是如何这样做。

Through the centuries there have been continuing efforts to work out how this was accomplished.经过几个世纪也出现了继续努力工作,这是如何完成的。Theories of the atonement are legion as men in different countries and in different ages have tried to bring together the varied strands of scriptural teaching and to work them into a theory that will help others to understand how God has worked to bring us salvation.理论的赎罪军团是在不同国家和不同年龄的男性曾试图召集的各种典籍股和教学工作到一个理论,这将有助于别人了解上帝一直给我们带来拯救他们。 The way has been open for this kind of venture, in part at least, because the church has never laid down an official, orthodox view.该方法已被打开此类型的企业,至少部分,因为教会从来没有定下一个官方的,正统的看法。In the early centuries there were great controversies about the person of Christ and about the nature of the Trinity.在世纪初大约有基督的人,对大自然的三位一体很大的争议。Heresies appeared, were thoroughly discussed, and were disowned.异端出现,被彻底讨论,并否认。In the end the church accepted the formula of Chalcedon as the standard expression of the orthodox faith.最后,教会接受卡尔西作为正统信仰的标准表达公式。But there was no equivalent with the atonement.但是,有没有与赎罪同等学历。People simply held to the satisfying truth that Christ saved them by way of the cross and did not argue about how this salvation was effected.简单地举行了向人民满意的真理,基督在十字架上救了他们,并没有办法争论如何拯救是影响。

Thus there was no standard formula like the Chalcedonian statement, and this left men to pursue their quest for a satisfying theory in their own way.因此,有没有像迦克语句的标准公式,这让男人在追求自己的方式满足他们的理论追求。To this day no one theory of the atonement has ever won universal acceptance.为了这一天没有任何一种理论的赎罪曾经赢得了普遍的接受。This should not lead us to abandon the task.这不应该导致我们放弃任务。Every theory helps us understand a little more of what the cross means and, in any case, we are bidden to give a reason of the hope that is in us (1 Pet. 3:15).每个理论有助于我们了解一些什么样的手段和交叉,在任何情况下,我们被召给予的希望,使我们有理由更多(1宠物。3:15)。 Theories of the atonement attempt to do just that.理论的赎罪试图做到这一点。

It would be impossible to deal with all the theories of the atonement that have been formulated, but we might well notice that most can be brought under one or the other of three heads: those which see the essence of the matter as the effect of the cross on the believer; those which see it as a victory of some sort; and those which emphasize the Godward aspect.这将是不可能处理所有的已制定的赎罪理论,但我们可能会发现大多数可以带来下一个或其他的三个头:那些视效果的问题的本质十字架上的信徒;那些看作是某种胜利,以及那些强调Godward方面。 Some prefer a twofold classification, seeing subjective theories as those which emphasize the effect on the believer, in distinction from objective theories which put the stress on what the atonement achieves quite outside the individual.有些人喜欢一分为两类,看到的那些理论,强调在主观上的区别信徒的影响,从中放在外面什么赎罪相当的压力达到个人目的的理论。

The Subjective View or Moral Influence Theory主观查看或道德理论的影响

Some form of the subjective or moral view is held widely today, especially among scholars of the liberal school.一些主观或道德观的形式举行广泛的今天,尤其是开明派的学者。In all its variations this theory emphasizes the importance of the effect of Christ's cross on the sinner.在其所有的变化这一理论强调了基督的十字架上的罪人作用的重要性。The view is generally attributed to Abelard, who emphasized the love of God, and is sometimes called the moral influence theory, or exemplarism.普遍的观点是归咎于阿贝拉尔,谁强调神的爱,有时也被称为道德影响力的理论,或exemplarism。 When we look at the cross we see the greatness of the divine love.当我们在十字架上看看,我们看到了伟大的神圣的爱。this delivers us from fear and kindles in us an answering love.这也提供了免于恐惧的我们,对我们的爱点燃了回答。We respond to love with love and no longer live in selfishness and sin.我们响应爱与不爱,自私和罪恶长住。Other ways of putting it include the view that the sight of the selfless Christ dying for sinners moves us to repentance and faith.其他的方法包括把它认为眼前的无私基督为罪人死举动我们悔改和信念。If God will do all that for us, we say, then we ought not to continue in sin.如果上帝会为我们做了这一切,我们说的话,我们不应该继续在罪恶。So we repent and turn from it and are saved by becoming better people.因此,我们悔改,转离它,并通过成为更好的人得救。

The thrust in all this is on personal experience.在这一切的重点是个人的经验。The atonement, seen in this way, has no effect outside the believer.赎罪,以这种方式出现,没有外面的信徒的影响。It is real in the person's experience and nowhere else.它是在人的经验在其他地方实际。This view has been defended in recent times by Hastings Rashdall in The Idea of Atonement (1919).这一观点已经得到辩护黑斯廷斯Rashdall的赎罪思想(1919)近倍。

It should be said in the first instance that there is truth in this theory.应该说,在一审有真理在这一理论。Taken by itself it is inadequate, but it is not untrue.这两者本身是不够的,但它不是事实。It is important that we respond to the love of Christ seen on the cross, that we recognize the compelling force of his example.重要的是,我们回应基督的爱在十字架上看到的,我们认识到他的榜样强制力。

Probably the best known and best loved hymn on the passion in modern times is "When I Survey the Wondrous Cross," a hymn that sets forth nothing but the moral view.也许是最著名和最喜爱的赞美诗在近代的热情是“当我调查的奇妙十字架”,一首赞美诗,阐明不过是道德观。Every line of it emphasizes the effect on the observer of surveying the wondrous cross.每一行的,强调了对交叉观察员调查的奇妙效果。It strikes home with force.这家以武力打击。What it says is both true and important.它说什么是双方真实和重要。It is when it is claimed that this is all that the atonement means that we must reject it.这是当它声称这是所有的赎罪意味着我们必须拒绝它。Taken in this way it is open to serious criticism.采取这种方式是开放的严厉批评。If Christ was not actually doing something by his death, then we are confronted with a piece of showmanship, nothing more.如果基督没有对他的逝世实际做的事,那么我们就面临着一定的演技件,仅此而已。Someone once said that if he were in a rushing river and someone jumped in to save him, and in the process lost his life, he could recognize the love and sacrifice involved.有人曾经说过,如果他在冲河,有人跳下去救了他,在这个过程中失去了生命,他可以承认的爱与牺牲有关。But if he was sitting safely on the land and someone jumped into the torrent to show his love, he could see no point in it and only lament the senseless act.但如果他正趴在土地和安全地放入流水中有人跳下来显示他的爱,他实在看不出这一点,只有慨叹无谓的行为。Unless the death of Christ really does something, it is not in fact a demonstration of love.除非基督的死确实的东西,它其实是不是爱的示范。

The Atonement as Victory作为胜利赎罪

In the early church there seems to have been little attention given to the way atonement works, but when the question was faced, as often as not the answer came in terms of the NT references to redemption.在早期教会似乎已很少注意的方式给予补偿工作,但面临的问题时,经常因为没有答案的新台币引用赎回条款来了。 Because of their sin people rightly belong to Satan, the fathers reasoned.由于他们的罪的人正确地属于撒旦,父亲的理由。But God offered his son as a ransom, a bargain the evil one eagerly accepted.但神提供作为赎金,一个邪恶的一个欣然接受议价他的儿子。 When, however, Satan got Christ down into hell he found that he could not hold him.但是,当撒旦在地狱里的基督来了,他发现他不能抱他。On the third day Christ rose triumphant and left Satan without either his original prisoners or the ransom he had accepted in their stead.第三天上涨基督胜利和他原来的左不附带任何囚犯或他所代替他们接受赎金撒旦。It did not need a profound intellect to see that God must have foreseen this, but the thought that God deceived the devil did not worry the fathers.它并不需要一个深刻的理智地看到,上帝必须预见到这一点,但上帝没有魔鬼欺骗了父亲担心的思想。than Satan as well as stronger.比撒旦以及更强。They even worked out illustrations like a fishing trip: The flesh of Jesus was the bait, the deity the fishhook.他们甚至制定了这样一个钓鱼之旅插图:耶稣的肉饵的神灵的鱼钩。Satan swallowed the hook along with the bait and was transfixed.撒旦吞下钩饵一起,被呆若木鸡。This view has been variously called the devil ransom theory, the classical theory, or the fishhook theory of the atonement.这一观点已不同,名叫魔鬼赎金理论,经典理论,或赎罪鱼钩理论。

This kind of metaphor delighted some of the fathers, but after Anselm subjected it to criticism it faded from view.这样的一种比喻的父亲高兴一些,但经过安瑟伦受到批评,但它从视线中消失了。 It was not until quite recent times that Gustaf Aulen with his Christus Victor showed that behind the grotesque metaphors there is an important truth.直到最近的事实倍古斯塔夫与他的基督维克托Aulen表明,怪诞背后的隐喻有一个重要的真理。In the end Christ's atoning work means victory.最后基督的赎罪工作就是胜利。The devil and all the hosts of evil are defeated.魔鬼和所有主机的邪恶被打败。Sin is conquered.罪被征服。 Though this has not always been worked into set theories, it has always been there in our Easter hymns.虽然这并不总是成为集理论的工作,它一直存在于我们的复活节赞美诗。It forms an important element in Christian devotion and it points to a reality which Christians must not lose.它形成了一个重要的元素,在基督教的奉献,它指向一个现实,基督徒不能输。

This view must be treated with some care else we will finish up by saying that God saves simply because he is strong, in other words, in the end might is right.这一观点必须与其他一些护理治疗,我们将完成注册,他说神拯救,只是因为他是强有力的,换句话说,最终可能是正确的。 This is an impossible conclusion for anyone who takes the Bible seriously.这是任何人谁需要认真圣经不可能的结论。We are warned that this view, of itself, is not adequate.我们警告说,这种观点本身,是不足够的。But combined with other views it must find a place in any finally satisfying theory.但是,结合其他意见,必须找到一个最终能满足任何理论的地方。It is important that Christ has conquered.重要的是,基督征服。

Anselm's Satisfaction Theory安瑟伦的满意度理论

In the eleventh century Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, produced a little book called Cur Deus Homo?在十一世纪安瑟伦,坎特伯雷大主教,制作一本小书叫做姜黄素杀出智人?("Why did God become Man?"). (“为什么上帝成为人?”)。In it he subjected the patristic view of a ransom paid to Satan to severe criticism.他在文中遭到支付给撒旦严厉批评了赎金教父的看法。He saw sin as dishonoring the majesty of God.他认为不敬罪的上帝的威严。Now a sovereign may well be ready in his private capacity to forgive an insult or an injury, but because he is a sovereign he cannot.现在可能是一个主权在他的私人身份原谅的侮辱或伤害准备好,而是因为他是一个主权,他不能。 The state has been dishonored in its head.国家已被退票在其头部。Appropriate satisfaction must be offered.必须提供适当赔偿。God is the sovereign Ruler of all, and it is not proper for God to remit any irregularity in his kingdom.上帝是一切的最高统治者,这是不正确的上帝在他的王国汇出任何异常。Anselm argued that the insult sin has given to God is so great that only one who is God can provide satisfaction.安瑟伦认为,侮辱罪给上帝是如此之大,只有一个,谁是神可以提供满意的。But it was done by one who is man, so only man should do so.但它是通过一个谁是人,所以只有人应该这样做。Thus he concluded that one who is both God and man is needed.因此,他得出结论,一个谁是上帝和人是必要的。

Anselm's treatment of the theme raised the discussion to a much higher plane than it had occupied in previous discussions.安瑟伦的主题讨论,提出处理到一个更高飞机比它已占领以前的讨论。 Most agree, however, that the demonstration is not conclusive.大多数人都同意,不过,示威活动是不是决定性的。In the end Anselm makes God too much like a king whose dignity has been affronted.最后安瑟伦使神太像一个国王的尊严受到侮辱。 He overlooked the fact that a sovereign may be clement and forgiving without doing harm to his kingdom.他忽略了一个事实,即主权,可不做损害克莱门特和他的王国宽容。A further defect in his view is that Anselm found no necessary connection between Christ's death and the salvation of sinners.在他的进一步的缺点在于安瑟伦没有发现基督的死亡和救赎的罪人,必然联系。Christ merited a great reward because he died when he had no need to (for he had no sin).基督值得一大奖赏,因为他去世时,他也没有必要(他没有罪)。But he could not receive a reward, for he had everything.但他不能得到报酬,因为他拥有了一切。To whom then could he more fittingly assign his reward then to those for whom he had died?然后,他可以向谁更恰当地分配给他的奖励,然后那些人,他已经死了?This makes it more or less a matter of chance that sinners be saved.这使得它或多或少是个机会问题的罪人得救。Not very many these days are prepared to go along with Anselm.这些天不是很多准备去与安瑟伦一起。But at least he took a very serious view of sin, and it is agreed that without this there will be no satisfactory view.但是至少他花了很严重的罪过观点,并约定,如果没有这个就不会有令人满意的看法。

Penal Substitution刑法换人

The Reformers agreed with Anselm that sin is a very serious matter, but they saw it as a breaking of God's law rather than as an insult to God's honor.改革者同意安瑟伦,罪是一个非常严肃的事情,但他们认为这是上帝的触犯法律,而不是作为对上帝的侮辱其荣誉。The moral law, they held, is not to be taken lightly.道德律,他们认为,是不可掉以轻心。"The wages of sin is death" (Rom. 6:23), and it is this that is the problem for sinful man. “罪的工价就是死”(罗马书6:23),这是这是对有罪的人的问题。They took seriously the scriptural teachings about the wrath of God and those that referred to the curse under which sinners lay.他们认真对待有关上帝愤怒的圣经教导和那些提到的诅咒下,罪人所在。It seemed clear to them that the essence of Christ's saving work consisted in his taking the sinner's place.它似乎很清楚他们说,基督的拯救工作的本质在他参加的罪人的场所组成。In our stead Christ endured the death that is the wages of sin.在我们而起的基督忍受死亡是罪恶的工资。He bore the curse that we sinners should have borne (Gal. 3:13).他承担了我们应该承担的罪人(加拉太书3:13)的诅咒。The Reformers did not hesitate to speak of Christ as having borne our punishment or as having appeased the wrath of God in our place.改革者毫不犹豫地发言,有基督担当我们的惩罚或具有安抚上帝在我们的地方愤怒。

Such views have been widely criticized.这种观点得到了广泛的批评。In particular it is pointed out that sin is not an external matter to be transferred easily from one person to another and that, while some forms of penalty are transferable (the payment of a fine), others are not (imprisonment, capital punishment).特别是它指出,罪是不是一个外部的问题是很容易从一个人转移到另一个,而且,尽管某些形式的惩罚转让(以下的罚款付款),其他人不(监禁,死刑)。 It is urged that this theory sets Christ in opposition to the Father so that it maximizes the love of Christ and minimizes that of the Father.这是敦促,这一理论套在反对基督的父亲,使其最大限度地减少对基督的爱和对父亲说。Such criticisms may be valid against some of the ways in which the theory is stated, but they do not shake its essential basis.这些批评可能是对在其中的理论是说了一些有效的方法,但他们并没有动摇其基本依据。They overlook the fact that there is a double identification: Christ is one with sinners (the saved are "in" Christ, Rom. 8:1) and he is one with the Father (he and the Father are one, John 10:30; "God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself," 2 Cor. 5:19).他们忽略了一个事实,即有一个双重身份:基督是罪人之一(已保存的是“在”基督,光盘8:1。),他与父亲(他与父原为一,约翰福音10:30一“上帝在基督里,调和了世界,自言自语道:”哥林多后5:19)。。 They also overlook the fact that there is much in the NT that supports the theory.他们还忽略了一个事实,有许多在新台币,支持这一理论。It is special pleading to deny that Paul, for example, puts forward this view.这是特别恳求否认保罗,例如,提出了这一观点。 It may need to be carefully stated, but this view still says something important about the way Christ won our salvation.它可能需要仔细说明,但这种观点还说起基督的方式赢得了我们的拯救重要。


There is much about sacrifice in the OT and not a little in the NT.有很多关于牺牲在加时赛,而不是在新台币不大。Some insist that it is this that gives us the key to understanding the atonement.一些人坚持认为正是这一点使我们了解了赎罪的关键。 It is certainly true that the Bible regards Christ's saving act as a sacrifice, and this must enter into any satisfying theory.诚然,圣经视为一种牺牲基督的储蓄行为,而这必须订立任何令人满意的理论。But unless it is supplemented, it is an explanation that does not explain.但除非是补充,这是一个解释,没有解释。The moral view or penal substitution may be right or wrong, but at least they are intelligible.道德观或刑法替代可能是对的还是错的,但至少他们是理解的。But how does sacrifice save?但如何牺牲保存?The answer is not obvious.答案是并不明显。

Governmental Theory政府理论

Hugo Grotius argued that Christ did not bear our punishment but suffered as a penal example whereby the law was honored while sinners were pardoned.雨果格劳秀斯认为,基督没有承担我们的处罚,但作为一个例子,即刑事法律而被评为罪人被赦免受到影响。His view is called "governmental" because Grotius envisions God as a ruler or a head of government who passed a law, in this instance, "The soul that sinneth, it shall die."他的观点被称为“政府”,因为格劳秀斯设想作为一个统治者或政府首脑通过了一项法律,谁的上帝,在这种情况下,“灵魂的sinneth,他必死亡。” Because God did not want sinners to die, he relaxed that rule and accepted the death of Christ instead.因为上帝不想罪人死,他又放松了该规则,并接受基督的死来代替。He could have simply forgiven mankind had he wanted to, but that would not have had any value for society.他本来可以简单地原谅了他想人类,但​​不会有任何为社会创造价值。The death of Christ was a public example of the depth of sin and the lengths to which God would go to uphold the moral order of the universe.基督的死是一个罪恶的深度和长度来,上帝会去维护宇宙的道德公共秩序的例子。 This view is expounded in great detail in Defensio fidei catholicae de satisfactione Christi adversus F. Socinum (1636).阐述了这一观点,在Defensio fidei catholicae德satisfactione斯蒂adversus楼Socinum(1636)大细节。


All the above views, in their own way, recognize that the atonement is vast and deep.所有的上述看法,以自己的方式,认识到赎罪是巨大而深刻的。There is nothing quite like it, and it must be understood in its own light.有没有很喜欢它,它必须在它自己的光理解。The plight of sinful man is disastrous, for the NT sees the sinner as lost, as suffering hell, as perishing, as cast into outer darkness, and more.罪孽深重的人的困境是灾难性的,为新台币看到,失罪人,因为苦难的地狱灭亡,因为在外面黑暗演员,等等。An atonement that rectifies all this must necessarily be complex.赎罪是纠正这一切必然是复杂的。So we need all the vivid concepts: redemption, propitiation, justification, and all the rest.因此,我们需要各方面的生动概念:赎回,和解,理由,以及所有的休息。And we need all the theories.我们需要所有的理论。Each draws attention to an important aspect of our salvation and we dare not surrender any.每个提请注意的一个重要方面,我们的拯救我们不敢放弃任何。But we are small minded sinners and the atonement is great and vast.但是,我们狭隘思想罪人和赎罪是伟大而广阔。We should not expect that our theories will ever explain it fully.我们不应该期望我们的理论将永远充分解释。Even when we put them all together, we will no more than begin to comprehend a little of the vastness of God's saving deed.即使我们把它们放在一起,我们将不超过开始理解了上帝的拯救行动浩瀚不大。

L Morris L莫里斯

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
DM Baillie, God Was in Christ; K Barth, The Doctrine of Reconciliation; E Brunner, The Mediator; H Bushnell, The Vicarious Sacrifice; JM Campbell, The Nature of the Atonement; S Cave, The Doctrine of the Work of Christ; RW Dale, The Atonement; FW Dillistone, The Significance of the Cross; J Denney, The Death of Christ and The Christian Doctrine of Reconciliation; RS Franks, The Work of Christ; PT Forsyth, The Cruciality of the Cross and The work of Christ; L Hodgson, The Doctrine of the Atonement; TH Hughes, The Atonement; J Knox, The Death of Christ; RC Moberly, Atonement and Personality; J Moltmann, The Crucified God; L Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross and The Cross in the NT; RS Paul, The Atonement and the Sacraments; V Taylor, Jesus and His Sacrifice and The Atonement in NT Teaching; LW Grensted, A Short History of the Doctrine of the Atonement; R Wallace, The Atoning Death of Christ.糖尿病贝利,是神在基督里; K表巴特,和解原则,电子商务布伦纳,调解员,高h布什内尔,替代性牺牲; JM坎贝尔的赎罪的性质;的洞穴,在基督的工作原则;刻录戴尔,赎罪;防火墙,在十字架的意义Dillistone; Ĵ丹尼,在基督和基督教的教义和解死亡;遥感弗兰克斯,基督的工作;铂佛塞斯,在十字架和基督的工作Cruciality; L霍奇森,该赎罪教义;钍休斯,赎罪; Ĵ诺克斯,死亡的基督;钢筋混凝土莫伯利,赎罪和人格; Ĵ莫特曼,被钉十字架的上帝的L莫里斯,宗座传教的十字架与跨中新台币;遥感保罗,赎罪和圣礼; v泰勒,耶稣和他的牺牲和在新台币教学赎罪;长波Grensted,一个赎罪的学说的简短历史,ř华莱士,基督的赎罪之死。

Doctrine of the Atonement学说赎罪

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The word atonement, which is almost the only theological term of English origin, has a curious history.字赎罪,这几乎是唯一的英语的起源神学来看,有一个奇怪的历史。The verb "atone", from the adverbial phrase "at one" (ME at oon), at first meant to reconcile, or make "at one"; from this it came to denote the action by which such reconciliation was effected, eg satisfaction for all offense or an injury.动词“赎罪”,从副词短语“于一”,(我在奥安),在最初是指调和,或者“在一个”,从它来到这来表示,使这种和解是生效的行动,例如满意对所有罪行或受伤。 Hence, in Catholic theology, the Atonement is the Satisfaction of Christ, whereby God and the world are reconciled or made to be at one.因此,在天主教神学,赎罪是基督的,即上帝和世界的和解或作出须在满意度。"For God indeed was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself" (2 Corinthians 5:19). “上帝的确是在基督里,调和了世界,以自己的”(林后5:19)。The Catholic doctrine on this subject is set forth in the sixth Session of the Council of Trent, chapter ii.关于这个问题的提出,是天主教教义在安理会的遄达,第二章第六届会议。Having shown the insufficiency of Nature, and of Mosaic Law the Council continues:经显示了大自然的不足,并镶嵌法安理会继续:

Whence it came to pass, that the Heavenly Father, the Father of mercies and the God of all comfort (2 Corinthians 1, 3), when that blessed fullness of the time was come (Galatians 4:4) sent unto men Jesus Christ, His own Son who had been, both before the Law and during the time of the Law, to many of the holy fathers announced and promised, that He might both redeem the Jews, who were under the Law and that the Gentiles who followed not after justice might attain to justice and that all men might receive the adoption of sons.从那里来传递,这天上的父亲,父亲的慈爱和所有安慰(林后1,3),当那丰满的时候是幸福来(加拉太书4:4)打发人耶稣基督的神,他自己的儿子谁一直是,在法律面前都在法律的时候,父亲的许多神圣的宣布,并承诺,他可能都赎回的犹太人,谁是根据法律,而不是以后谁遵循外邦人司法可能达到绳之以法,所有的人得着儿子的名分。 Him God had proposed as a propitiator, through faith in His blood (Romans 3:25), for our sins, and not for our sins only, but also for those of the whole world (I John ii, 2).他建议,作为上帝和解者,通过在他的血液信仰(罗马书3:25),为我们的罪,而不是只,而且对整个世界(约翰二,二)我们的罪。

More than twelve centuries before this, the same dogma was proclaimed in the words of the Nicene Creed, "who for us men and for our salvation, came down, took flesh, was made man; and suffered. "And all that is thus taught in the decrees of the councils may be read in the pages of the New Testament.超过十二世纪在此之前,同样的教条,是在尼西亚信的话宣布,“谁对我们人类和我们的救恩,下来,花肉,而成为人。和遭受”,也会被这样教导在议会的法令可能会在阅读新约中的页面。 For instance, in the words of Our Lord, "even as the Son of man is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His life a redemption for many" (Matthew 20:28); or of St. Paul, "Because in him, it hath well pleased the Father that all fulness should dwell; and through him to reconcile all things unto himself, making peace through the blood of his cross, both as to the things that are on earth, and the things that are in heaven."例如,在我们的主词“,甚至作为人子来不是要被服事,乃是要服事人,并要舍命,作多人的赎”(马太20:28);或圣保罗,“因为在他看来,古人也高兴父亲,所有的丰满应该住;并通过他向调和一切事告诉他,使他在十字架上,通过血液,都以地球上的东西,是和平,和在天上的东西。“ (Colossians 1:19-20). (歌罗西书1:19-20)。The great doctrine thus laid down in the beginning was further unfolded and brought out into clearer light by the work of the Fathers and theologians.伟大的学说奠定了在开始进一步展开,并将其带入更明确的原则,由光的父亲和神学家的工作。And it may be noted that in this instance the development is chiefly due to Catholic speculation on the mystery, and not, as in the case of other doctrines, to controversy with heretics.它可以指出,在这种情况下发展,主要是因为天主教炒卖的奥秘,而不是在其他学说的情况下,与异端的争论。At first we have the central fact made known in the Apostolic preaching, that mankind was fallen and was raised up and redeemed from sin by the blood of Christ.起初,我们有这样一个中心事实知道在使徒传道,人类正下降,有人提出从罪恶和救赎的基督的血。But it remained for the pious speculation of Fathers and theologians to enter into the meaning of this great truth, to inquire into the state of fallen man, and to ask how Christ accomplished His work of Redemption.但它仍然是虔诚的神父和神学家推测,进入这个伟大的真理的意义,调查人的堕落状态,并要求基督如何完成他的救赎工作。 By whatever names or figures it may be described, that work is the reversal of the Fall, the blotting out of sin, the deliverance from bondage, the reconciliation of mankind with God.以任何名称或数字,它可说,这项工作是秋季的逆转,出罪,从束缚解脱,人类与上帝和解的印迹。And it is brought to pass by the Incarnation, by the life, the sufferings, and the death of the Divine Redeemer.而这引起了路过的化身的生命,痛苦和死亡的神圣救赎。All this may be summed up in the word Atonement.这一切都可能被归纳为一句话赎罪。This, is so to say, the starting point.这是这么说的出发点。And herein all are indeed at one.而本文提到的所有的确是在一。But, when it was attempted to give a more precise account of the nature of the Redemption and the manner of its accomplishment, theological speculation took different courses, some of which were suggested by the various names and figures under which this ineffable mystery is adumbrated in Holy Scripture.但是,当它试图给一个的赎回的性质和它的成就manner更精确的帐户,神学投机采取了不同的课程,其中一些是由不同的名称和条件,这是不可言喻的神秘勾画的数字显示圣经。 Without pretending to give a full history of the discussions, we may briefly indicate some of the main lines on which the doctrine was developed, and touch on the more important theories put forward in explanation of the Atonement.没有假装给予充分的讨论历史,我们可以简单地表明了一些关于该学说是发展主线,对较重要的理论和触摸摆在了赎罪解释前进。

(a) In any view, the Atonement is founded on the Divine Incarnation. (a)在任何角度来看,赎罪是建立在神的化身。By this great mystery, the Eternal Word took to Himself the nature of man and, being both God and man, became the Mediator between God and men.通过这一伟大的奥秘,永恒的字了,以自己的人的性质,既是人与上帝,成为神和人之间的中保。From this, we have one of the first and most profound forms of theological speculation on the Atonement, the theory which is sometimes described as Mystical Redemption.由此看来,我们有关于赎罪,这有时是神秘的赎回形容为投机神学理论的第一和最深刻的形式之一。Instead of seeking a solution in legal figures, some of the great Greek Fathers were content to dwell on the fundamental fact of the Divine Incarnation.而不是寻求法律的数字解决方案,而伟大的希腊教父有些内容纠缠于基本事实的神圣的化身。By the union of the Eternal Word with the nature of man all mankind was lifted up and, so to say, deified.到了永恒的Word与人的自然联盟全人类被举起来,并可以这么说,神化。"He was made man", says St. Athanasius, "that we might be made gods" (De Incarnatione Verbi, 54). “他是造人”说,圣亚他那修说,“我们可能作出的神”(德incarnatione Verbi,54)。"His flesh was saved, and made free the first of all, being made the body of the Word, then we, being concorporeal therewith, are saved by the same (Orat., II, Contra Arianos, lxi). And again, "For the presence of the Saviour in the flesh was the price of death and the saving of the whole creation (Ep. ad Adelphium, vi). “他的肉体被保存,并提出免费,首先,正在作出的Word身体,那么我们,作为concorporeal与其有关的,都是由相​​同的(Orat.,二,魂斗罗Arianos,LXI的)保存。又说,”就在肉救世主的存在是对死亡的价格和整个创作(插曲广告Adelphium,六)储蓄。 In like manner St. Gregory of Nazianzus proves the integrity of the Sacred Humanity by the argument, "That which was not assumed is not healed; but that which is united to God is saved" (to gar aproslepton, atherapeuton ho de henotai to theu, touto kai sozetai).在这样的方式圣格雷戈里的nazianzus证明的说法,完整的神圣人性“这是不假设是没有愈合,但认为这是团结的上帝是得救”(到噶尔aproslepton,atherapeuton豪德henotai到theu ,touto启sozetai)。This speculation of the Greek Fathers undoubtedly contains a profound truth which is sometimes forgotten by later authors who are more intent on framing juridical theories of ransom and satisfaction.这种猜测的希腊教父无疑包含了一个深刻的真理,是谁更有时在制定法律的理论和满意度赎金的意图后作家被遗忘。 But it is obvious that this account of the matter is imperfect, and leaves much to be explained.但很明显,这个问题的帐户是不完美的,极不解释。It must be remembered, moreover, that the Fathers themselves do not put this forward as a full explanation.必须记住,此外,父亲自己不把它作为充分说明这项工作。For while many of their utterances might seem to imply that the Redemption was actually accomplished by the union of a Divine Person with the human nature, it is clear from other passages that they do not lose sight of the atoning sacrifice.因为尽管他们的许多言论似乎在暗示,赎回实际上是由一个神圣的人与人的自然联盟完成,它是从其他通道,明确表示,他们不会失去视力的赎罪牺牲。 The Incarnation is, indeed, the source and the foundation of the Atonement, and these profound thinkers have, so to say, grasped the cause and its effects as one vast whole.化身确实是,源和赎罪的基础,这些深刻的思想家,这么说来,抓住了一个巨大的事业和整个的影响。Hence they look on to the result before staying to consider the means by which it was accomplished.因此,他们期待的结果才到下榻考虑由它来完成的手段。

(b) But something more on this matter had already been taught in the preaching of the Apostles and in the pages of the New Testament. (二)但在这个问题上更多的东西已经被教导在使徒说教和在新约中的页面。The restoration of fallen man was the work of the Incarnate Word.堕落的人恢复的是圣道的工作。"God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself" (2 Corinthians 5:19).“上帝在基督里调和世界,以自己”(林后5:19)。 But the peace of that reconciliation was accomplished by the death of the Divine Redeemer, "making peace through the blood of His cross" (Colossians 1:20).但这种和解的和平是通过对神的救赎,死亡“,使他在十字架上,通过和平的血”(歌罗西书1:20)。This redemption by death is another mystery, and some of the Fathers in the first ages are led to speculate on its meaning, and to construct a theory in explanation.这是另一个由赎回死亡的奥秘,并在第一年龄的父亲,导致一些猜测它的含义,并构建一个理论解释。Here the words and figures used in Holy Scripture help to guide the current of theological thought.这里的文字和圣经所使用的数字有助于指导当前的神学思想。Sin is represented as a state of bondage or servitude, and fallen man is delivered by being redeemed, or bought with a price.仙表示为一个束缚或奴役的国家,堕落的人是交付被赎回,或与一价买来的。"For you are bought with a great price" (1 Corinthians 6:20).(哥林多前书6:20)“因为你是一个伟大的价买来的。”"Thou art worthy, O Lord, to take the book, and to open the seals thereof; because thou wast slain, and hast redeemed to God, in thy blood" (Revelation 5:9). “你的艺术价值,主啊,采取书,并打开其中的印章,因为你废被杀,所救赎的上帝,在你的血”(启示录5:9)。Looked at in this light, the Atonement appears as the deliverance from captivity by the payment of a ransom.在这个角度看,表现为赎罪从圈养由支付赎金解救。This view is already developed in the second century.这种观点已经开发了第二个世纪。"The mighty Word and true Man reasonably redeeming us by His blood, gave Himself a ransom for those who had been brought into bondage. And since the Apostasy unjustly ruled over us, and, whereas we belonged by nature to God Almighty, alienated us against nature and made us his own disciples, the Word of God, being mighty in all things, and failing not in His justice, dealt justly even with the Apostasy itself, buying back from it the things which were His own" (Irenaeus Aversus Haereses V, i). “无垠的合理Word和真正的男人用自己的血挽救我们,给了自己对于那些谁已成为束缚带来了赎金。此外,由于叛教不公正的统治我们,,而我们的性质属于全能的上帝,我们对疏离自然,使我们对自己的弟子,上帝的话,在所有被强大的东西,不是没有在他的正义,公正地处理甚至与叛教本身,买回来的东西是自己的“(爱任纽Aversus Haereses V ,我)。And St. Augustine says in well-known words: "Men were held captive under the devil and served the demons, but they were redeemed from captivity. For they could sell themselves. The Redeemer came, and gave the price; He poured forth his blood and bought the whole world. Do you ask what He bought? See what He gave, and find what He bought. The blood of Christ is the price. How much is it worth? What but the whole world? What but all nations?"和圣奥古斯丁说,在著名的话:。。“男人下举行了魔鬼俘虏和服务的恶魔,但他们从圈养换取他们可以出售自己的救世主来了,给了价格;他倾注了他的血买了整个世界。你问他买什么?看他怎么给,并找到他买什么。基督的血的代价。它的价值是多少?什么,而是整个世界的什么,但所有国家? “(Enarratio in Psalm xcv, n. 5).(Enarratio在诗篇xcv,注5)。

It cannot be questioned that this theory also contains a true principle.这是不容质疑的,这一理论也包含了真实的原则。For it is founded on the express words of Scripture, and is supported by many of the greatest of the early Fathers and later theologians.因为它是建立在圣经的话表示,是由早期的父亲和许多后来的神学家最大的支持。But unfortunately, at first, and for a long period of theological history, this truth was somewhat obscured by a strange confusion, which would seem to have arisen from the natural tendency to take a figure too literally, and to apply it in details which were not contemplated by those who first made use of it.但不幸的是,在第一,并为长期的神学历史,这个真理是一个奇怪的有点混乱,这似乎已经从自然倾向采取这一数字过于从字面上出现模糊,和它适用于其中的细节没有考虑这些谁首先利用它。 It must not be forgotten that the account of our deliverance from sin is set forth in figures.它绝不能忘记,我们从罪恶中解脱帐户设置的数字等等。Conquest, captivity, and ransom are familiar facts of human history.征服,掳掠,勒索赎金,是人类历史上熟悉的真相。Man, having yielded to the temptations of Satan, was like to one overcome in battle.人,有屈服于撒旦的诱惑,喜欢一个能在战场了。Sin, again, is fitly likened to a state of slavery.仙,再次,是恰好比喻为一种奴役状态。And when man was set free by the shedding of Christ's precious Blood, this deliverance would naturally recall (even if it had not been so described in Scripture) the redemption of a captive by the payment of a ransom.而当人,是由基督的宝血脱落自由,这自然会记得解脱(即使它不是那么的经文描述)由支付赎金赎回的俘虏。

But however useful and illuminating in their proper place, figures of this kind are perilous in the hands of those who press them too far, and forget that they are figures.但是,不管有用和启发性的合适位置,这样的数字是在那些谁按他们太远了,忘记自己是危险人物的手中。This is what happened here.这就是发生在这里。When a captive is ransomed the price is naturally paid to the conqueror by whom he is held in bondage.当俘虏是赎的价格自然是由谁来支付的束缚,他是在举行的征服者。Hence, if this figure were taken and interpreted literally in all its details, it would seem that the price of man's ransom must be paid to Satan.因此,如果这个数字被带到和解释,在所有细节从字面上看,它似乎是人的赎金价格必须支付给撒旦。The notion is certainly startling, if not revolting.这一概念无疑是惊人的,如果不是令人厌恶。Even if brave reasons pointed in this direction, we might well shrink from drawing the concluslon.即使勇敢的原因,指出这个方向,我们很可能会缩小,从绘制concluslon。And this is in fact so far from being the case that it seems hard to find any rational explanation of such a payment, or any right on which it could be founded.其实,这是迄今为止在这种情况下,它似乎很难找到任何该等款项的支​​付合理的解释,或任何它可能是成立的权利。 Yet, strange to say, the bold flight of theological speculation was not checked by these misgivings.然而,奇怪的是,对神学的猜测大胆飞行未被选中的这些疑虑。In the above-cited passage of St. Irenæus, we read that the Word of God "dealt justly even with the Apostasy itself [ie Satan], buying back from it the things which were His own."在上面列举的圣爱任纽的推移,我们读到神的话语“公正地处理了叛教甚至本身[即撒旦],买回来的东西,这是他自己。”This curious notion, apparently first mooted by St. Irenæus, was taken up by Origen in the next century, and for about a thousand years it played a conspicuous part in the history of theology.这种奇怪的想法,显然首先由圣爱任纽酝酿,采取了由奥利在下一世纪,大约有一千多年中发挥了突出的神学历史的一部分。 In the hands of some of the later Fathers and medieval writers, it takes various forms, and some of its more repulsive features are softened or modified.在考虑到后来父亲和中世纪的作家的手中,它采取各种形式,它的某些功能更加丑恶软化或修改。But the strange notion of some right, or claim, on the part of Satan is still present.但有些权利,或要求对撒旦的一部分,奇怪的观念仍然存在。A protest was raised by St. Gregory of Nazianzus in the fourth century, as might be expected from that most accurate of the patristic theologians.有人提出了抗议,由圣格雷戈里的nazianzus在第四世纪,可能是从这一最准确的教父神学家预期。But it was not till St. Anselm and Abelard had met it with unanswerable arguments that its power was finally broken.但事实并非如此,直到圣anselm和阿贝拉尔会见了无法回​​答的论点认为其权力最终被打破。It makes a belated appearance in the pages of Peter Lombard.它使一个在彼得隆巴德迟来的网页的外观。(c) But it is not only in connection with the theory of ransom that we meet with this notion of "rights" on the part of Satan.(C),但它是不符合的赎金,我们遇到这样的“权利”的概念在理论连接只撒旦的一部分。Some of the Fathers set the matter in a different aspect.有些父亲发生在不同方面的问题。Fallen man, it was said, was justly under the dominion of the devil, in punishment for sin.堕落的人,有人说,这是公正下的魔鬼统治,在对罪的惩罚。But when Satan brought suffering and death on the sinless Saviour, he abused his power and exceeded his right, so that he was now justly deprived of his dominion over the captives.但是,当撒旦的无罪救主带来痛苦和死亡,他滥用职权,并超过他的右边,让他现在理直气壮地剥夺了他的统治的俘虏。 This explanation is found especially in the sermons of St. Leo and the "Morals" of St. Gregory the Great.这个解释被发现,特别是在圣利奥和“德”圣高利大的布道。Closely allied to this explanation is the singular "mouse-trap" metaphor of St. Augustine.关系密切,这一解释是奇异的“鼠标陷阱”圣奥古斯丁的比喻。In this daring figure of speech, the Cross is regarded as the trap in which the bait is set and the enemy is caught.在这个讲话大胆图,海底被视为在其中诱饵设置和敌人落入陷阱。"The Redeemer came and the deceiver was overcome. What did our Redeemer do to our Captor? In payment for us He set the trap, His Cross, with His blood for bait. He [Satan] could indeed shed that blood; but he deserved not to drink it. By shedding the blood of One who was not his debtor, he was forced to release his debtors" (Serm. cxxx, part 2). 。?。“救世主来了,骗子是克服我们的救赎做什么我们的绑架者在付款给我们,他设下的圈套,他带着他的十字架诱饵血,他[撒旦]确实可以流,血,但他当之无愧不要喝脱落一个谁不是他的债务人的血了。,他被迫释放他的债务人“(Serm. cxxx,第二部分)。

(d) These ideas retained their force well into the Middle Ages. (d)这些想法保留他们的力量早已进入中世纪。But the appearance of St. Anselm's "Cur Deus Homo?"但圣安瑟伦的外观“姜黄素杀出智人?”made a new epoch in the theology of the Atonement.提出了在新时代的神学赎罪。It may be said, indeed, that this book marks an epoch in theological literature and doctrinal development.可以说,事实上,这本书标志着神学文献和理论发展的新里程。There are not many works, even among those of the greatest teachers, that can compare in this respect with the treatise of St. Anselm.不会有太多的作品,即使是最伟大的教师的,它可以比较在这方面与圣安瑟伦著作的尊重。 And, with few exceptions, the books that have done as much to influence and guide the growth of theology are the outcome of some great struggle with heresy; while others, again, only summarize the theological learning of the age.而且,除少数例外,有很大的影响,作为指导发展所做的神学书籍是伟大的一些异端斗争的结果,而其他人,再次,只有总结了时代的神学学习。 But this little book is at once purely pacific and eminently original.但是,这本小书是一次纯粹的太平洋和突出原始。Nor could any dogmatic treatise well be more simple and unpretending than this luminous dialogue between the great archbishop and his disciple Boso.任何教条式的论文也可以更简单,也比这个巨人之间的大主教和他的弟子房总发光对话质朴。There is no parade of learning, and but little in the way of appeal to authorities.没有学习的游行,但在向当局提出上诉的方式很少。 The disciple asks and the master answers; and both alike face the great problem before them fearlessly, but at the same time with all due reverence and modesty.弟子问及船长的答案,以及双方都面临着很大的问题面前无所畏惧,但在以应有的尊敬和谦虚的同一时间。Anselm says at the outset that he will not so much show his disciple the truth he needs, as seek it along with him; and that when he says anything that is not confirmed by higher authority, it must be taken as tentative, and provisional.安瑟伦说,他不会有这么多的事实表明他的弟子,他需要的,因为它一直寻求与他在一开始,并认为时,他说什么,而并非由上级机关确认,它必须被视为暂时的,并采取临时。 He adds that, though he may in some measure meet the question, one who is wiser could do it better; and that, whatever man may know or say on this subject, there will always remain deeper reasons that are beyond him.他补充说,虽然他可能在一定程度上遇到问题,一个是谁可以做的更好更明智,并认为,无论是男子可能知道或者说对这个问题,将始终保持更深层次的原因是超越他。 In the same spirit he concludes the whole treatise by submitting it to reasonable correction at the hands of others.本着同样的精神,他说,提交在别人的手里合理调整整个论文。

It may be safely said that this is precisely what has come to pass.它可以安全地说,这正是已经到了通过。For the theory put forward by Anselm has been modified by the work of later theologians, and confirmed by the testimony of truth.这个理论提出安瑟伦提出了修改后的神学家的工作,以及对真理的证言证实。In contrast to some of the other views already noticed, this theory is remarkably clear and symmetrical.相对于其他已经注意到了一些看法,这个理论是非常清晰和对称的。And it is certainly more agreeable to reason than the "mouse-trap" metaphor, or the notion of purchase money paid to Satan.当然,这是比较认同比“鼠标陷阱”的比喻,或购货​​款支付给撒旦的概念的原因。Anselm's answer to the question is simply the need of satisfaction of sin.安瑟伦的问题的答案是简单的罪满意的需要。No sin, as he views the matter, can be forgiven without satisfaction.没有罪,因为他的意见的问题,是可以原谅没有满意。A debt to Divine justice has been incurred; and that debt must needs be paid.一,以神圣的正义债务已经产生,并认为债务的需要,必须支付。But man could not make this satisfaction for himself; the debt is something far greater than he can pay; and, moreover, all the service that he can offer to God is already due on other titles.但人不能为自己作此表示满意;债务的东西远远大于他可以支付;,此外,所有的服务,他可以向上帝的产品上已经到期。 The suggestion that some innocent man, or angel, might possibly pay the debt incurred by sinners is rejected, on the ground that in any case this would put the sinner under obligation to his deliverer, and he would thus become the servant of a mere creature.有人建议,一些无辜的人,或天使,有可能会支付罪人欠下的债务将被拒绝,理由是在任何情况下这会令他有义务拯救的罪人,他将因此成为一个单纯的生物仆人。 The only way in which the satisfaction could be made, and men could be set free from sin, was by the coming of a Redeemer who is both God and man.唯一的方式,可以作出满意,男人们可以摆脱了罪,是由一个救世主,谁是上帝和人的到来。His death makes full satisfaction to the Divine Justice, for it is something greater than all the sins of all mankind.他的逝世,使完全满意,以神圣的正义,因为它比所有的东西是全人类的罪更大。Many side questions are incidentally treated in the dialogue between Anselm and Boso.很多副作用的问题是顺带治疗anselm和房总之间的对话。But this is the substance of the answer given to the great question, "Cur Deus Homo?".但是,这是考虑到大问题,答案物质“姜黄素杀出智人?”。Some modern writers have suggested that this notion of deliverance by means of satisfaction may have a German origin.一些现代作家曾建议,这种方式解脱了满意的概念可能有德国血统。For in old Teutonic laws a criminal might pay the wergild instead of undergoing punishment.对于旧的条顿可能支付的刑事法律,而不是接受处罚wergild。But this custom was not peculiar or to the Germans, as we may see from the Celtic eirig, and, as Riviere has pointed out, there is no need to have recourse to this explanation.但是,这并不奇怪风俗或德国人,因为我们可以看到,从凯尔特eirig,并作为里维耶尔指出,没有必要诉诸于这一解释。 For the notion of satisfaction for sin was already present in the whole system of ecclesiastical penance, though it had been left for Anselm to use it in illustration of the doctrine of the Atonement.为了满足对罪的概念是已经在整个系统中存在的教会忏悔,但它已离开安瑟伦使用的学说的赎罪说明它。It may be added that the same idea underlies the old Jewish "sin-offerings" as well as the similar rites that are found in many ancient religions.还可以补充说,同样的想法的基础古老的犹太人“赎罪祭”,以及认为在许多古老的宗教发现了类似的仪式。It is specially prominent in the rites and prayers used on the Day of Atonement.这是特地在仪式上用的赎罪日祈祷突出。And this, it may be added, is now the ordinary acceptance of the word; to "atone" is to give satisfaction, or make amends, for an offense or an injury.而这,它可能会增加,是目前普通接受的字;在“赎罪”是让满意,或为犯罪或受伤修订。

(e) Whatever may be the reason, it is clear that this doctrine was attracting special attention in the age of St. Anselm.(五)无论是什么原因,很显然,这种学说被吸引在圣安瑟伦年龄特别注意。His own work bears witness that it was undertaken at the urgent request of others who wished to have some new light on this mystery.他自己的工作见证,它是在其他人谁希望有一些新的光这个谜的迫切要求进行。To some extent, the solution offered by Anselm seems to have satisfied these desires, though, in the course of further discussion, an important part of his theory, the absolute necessity of Redemption and of satisfaction for sin, was discarded by later theologians, and found few defenders.在一定程度上,安瑟伦提供的解决方案似乎已满足这些欲望,但在进一步的讨论,他的理论的一个重要组成部分,赎回绝对必要课程,并为罪满意,后来的神学家被丢弃,发现一些维护者。 But meanwhile, within a few years of the appearance of the "Cur Deus Homo?"但同时,在外观的几年“姜黄素杀出智人?”another theory on the subject had been advanced by Abelard.关于这个问题的另一个理论已经得到了推进亚伯拉德。In common with St. Anselm, Abelard utterly rejected the old and then still prevailing, notion that the devil had some sort of right over fallen man, who could only be justly delivered by means of a ransom paid to his captor.在共同与圣安瑟伦,阿贝拉尔完全摈弃了旧,然后依然盛行,概念,即魔鬼堕落的人多了一些有点好,谁只能通过公正支付给他的绑匪交付了赎金的手段。 Against this he very rightly urges, with Anselm, that Satan was clearly guilty of injustice in the matter and could have no right to anything but punishment.针对这一点,他很正确地敦促,与安瑟伦,撒旦显然是不公正的问题,可能犯有没有什么,但处罚权。But, on the other hand, Abelard was unable to accept Anselm's view that an equivalent satisfaction for sin was necessary, and that this debt could only be paid by the death of the Divine Redeemer.但是,另一方面,阿贝拉尔无法接受安瑟伦认为,为赎罪相当于满意是必要的,而且这种债务只能由神的救赎,死亡支付。 He insists that God could have pardoned us without requiring satisfaction.他坚持认为,上帝可以原谅我们无需满意。And, in his view, the reason for the Incarnation and the death of Christ was the pure love of God.而且,在他看来,为化身的原因和死亡的基督是神的纯洁的爱情。By no other means could men be so effectually turned from sin and moved to love God.没有其他办法可以由男人如此有效地转离罪恶和以爱心感动上帝。Abelard's teaching on this point, as on others, was vehemently attacked by St. Bernard.阿贝拉尔的教学在这一点上,作为对他人,被猛烈袭击圣伯纳。But it should be borne in mind that some of the arguments urged in condemnation of Abelard would affect the position of St. Anselm also, not to speak of later Catholic theology.但是,应该铭记的一些论点敦促在谴责阿贝拉尔会影响圣安瑟伦位置也,更不要说后来的天主教神学。

In St. Bernard's eyes it seemed that Abelard, in denying the rights of Satan, denied the "Sacrament of Redemption" and regarded the teaching and example of Christ as the sole benefit of the Incarnation.在圣伯纳德的眼睛似乎阿贝拉尔,否认撒旦的权利,否认“救赎圣事”,并把它作为唯一的化身利于教学和基督的榜样。 "But", as Mr. Oxenham observes, “但是”,正如奥克斯纳姆观察,

he had not said so, and he distinctly asserts in his "Apology" that "the Son of God was incarnate to deliver us from the bondage of sin and yoke of the Devil and to open to us by His death the gate of eternal life."他没有这么说,他清楚地声称在他的“道歉”,说“神的儿子的化身,提供从罪恶和魔鬼的​​枷锁束缚我们,并打开他的死给我们的永恒的生命之门。 “And St. Bernard himself, in this very Epistle, distinctly denies any absolute necessity for the method of redemption chosen, and suggests a reason for it not so very unlike Abelard's.而圣伯纳德自己,在这个书信,明显拒绝任何方式的选择赎回的绝对必要性,并提出了如果不这样很不像阿贝拉尔的原因。 "Perhaps that method is the best, whereby in a land of forgetfulness and sloth we might be more powerfully as vividly reminded of our fall, through the so great and so manifold sufferings of Him who repaired it." “也许这是最好的方法,即在一个健忘和懒惰的土地,我们可能会更生动有力的提醒我们秋季通过他如此伟大等多方面的痛苦谁把它修补好。”Elsewhere when not speaking controversially, he says still more plainly: "Could not the Creator have restored His work without that difficulty? He could, but He preferred to do it at his own cost, lest any further occasion should be given for that worst and most odious vice of ingratitude in man" (Bern., Serm. xi, in Cant.).在其他地方引起争议时,不说话,他更清楚地说:“难道不是造物主已经恢复了他的工作没有那样的困难,他可以,但他宁愿做他自己的成本,以免它再一次,应该对此事并给予最严重?最可憎的人,在副忘恩负义“(Bern.,变换SERM。十一,在斜面。)。 What is this but to say, with Abelard that "He chose the Incarnation as the most effectual method for eliciting His creature's love?"这是什么,而是说,你与阿贝拉尔说:“他选择最有效的方法,为激发他的动物的爱的化身?”(The Catholic Doctrine of the Atonement, 85, 86).(该赎罪,85,86天主教教义)。

(f) Although the high authority of St. Bernard was thus against them, the views of St. Anselm and Abelard, the two men who in different ways were the fathers of Scholasticism, shaped the course of later medieval theology. (六)虽然圣伯纳德高级管理局也攻击他们,因此,圣anselm和阿贝拉尔的意见后,两人谁都是以不同的方式士林的父亲,形成了后来的中世纪的神学课程。 The strange notion of the rights of Satan, against which they had both protested, now disappears from the pages of our theologians.在魔鬼的权利,对他们俩都抗议奇怪的概念,现在消失了,从我们的神学家的网页。For the rest, the view which ultimately prevailed may be regarded as a combination of the opinions of Anselm and Abelard.对于剩下的,认为这最终占了上风可能被视为对anselm和阿贝拉尔的意见相结合。In spite of the objections urged by the latter writer, Anselm's doctrine of Satisfaction was adopted as the basis.尽管在反对由后者作家呼吁,安瑟伦的满意学说被采纳为基础。But St. Thomas and the other medieval masters agree with Abelard in rejecting the notion that this full Satisfaction for sin was absolutely necessary.但是,圣托马斯和其他中世纪的主人同意阿贝拉尔拒绝了这种观念在这个充满罪恶的满意度是绝对必要的。At the most, they are willing to admit a hypothetical or conditional necessity for the Redemption by the death of Christ.充其量,他们愿意承认一个由基督的死救赎假设的或有条件的必要性。The restoration of fallen man was a work of God's free mercy and benevolence.堕落的人恢复的是上帝的怜悯和仁爱工作​​的自由。 And, even on the hypothesis that the loss was to be repaired, this might have been brought about in many and various ways.而且,即使是在假设的损失是被修复,这可能是带来了在许多不同的方法。The sin might have been remitted freely, without any satisfaction at all, or some lesser satisfaction, however imperfect in itself, might have been accepted as sufficient.罪过可能已经自由汇出,无任何满意的产品,或一些较小的满意度,但本身不完善,可能已被充分采纳。But on the hypothesis that God as chosen to restore mankind, and at the same time, to require full satisfaction as a condition of pardon and deliverance, nothing less than the Atonement made by one who was God as well as man could suffice as satisfaction for the offense against the Divine Majesty.但在神为人类选择了恢复,并在同一时间设定,要求作为赦免和释放,无非是由一个谁是上帝以及人的满意度足够,可作为赎罪之情况所作的完全满意反对神圣的国王陛下的罪行。 And in this case Anselm's argument will hold good.在这种情况下安瑟伦的论点,将靠得住。Mankind cannot be restored unless God becomes man to save them.人类能不能恢复,除非上帝变成人才能拯救他们。

In reference to many points of detail the Schoolmen, here as elsewhere, adopted divergent views.在谈到许多细节点的schoolmen,这里与其他地方一样,采取了不同的意见。One of the chief questions at issue was the intrinsic adequacy of the satisfaction offered by Christ.在问题的主要问题之一,是由基督所提供的充足的内在满意。On this point the majority, with St. Thomas at their head, maintained that, by reason of the infinite dignity of the Divine Person, the least action or suffering of Christ had an infinite value, so that in itself it would suffice as an adequate satisfaction for the sins of the whole world.在这一点上与圣托马斯多数认为,在他们的头,由人的神圣,最不采取行动或无限的痛苦,基督尊严的原因有一个无限的价值,因此,在它本身足以作为一个充足,满意为整个世界的罪恶。 Scotus and his school, on the other hand, disputed this intrinsic infinitude, and ascribed the all-sufficiency of the satisfaction to the Divine acceptation.司各脱和他的学校,另一方面,这种内在的无穷争议,并赋予了全自给自足的满意度,以神圣的认可。As this acceptation was grounded on the infinite dignity of the Divine Person, the difference was not so great as might appear at first sight.由于这验收的对神圣的人无限的尊严为基础,差异不是很大的可能会出现一见钟情。But, on this point at any rate the simpler teaching of St. Thomas is more generally accepted by later theologians.但是,在这在任何时候圣托马斯简单教学更被后来的神学家普遍接受率点。Apart from this question, the divergent views of the two schools on the primary motive of the Incarnation naturally have some effect on the Thomist and Scotist theology of the Atonement.除了这个问题,对主要动机的化身,两所学校的不同意见,当然有一些关于赎罪托马斯和Scotist神学的影响。 On looking back at the various theories noticed so far, it will be seen that they are not, for the most part, mutually exclusive, but may be combined and harmonized.在看的各种理论后发现,所以到目前为止,我们将看到,他们都没有,在大多数情况下,相互排斥的,而是可以结合和统一。 It may be said, indeed, that they all help to bring out different aspects of that great doctrine which cannot find adequate expression in any human theory.可以说,事实上,这些都有助于带出这个伟大学说的不同方面,不能找到任何人学理论的充分表达。And in point of fact it will generally be found that the chief Fathers and Schoolmen, though they may at times lay more stress on some favourite theory of their own, do not lose sight of the other explanations.而在事实上一点上一般会发现,族长和院学派的,尽管他们可能有时躺在更多一些自己喜欢的理论强调,不要忘记,其他的解释景象。

Thus the Greek Fathers, who delight in speculating on the Mystical Redemption by the Incarnation, do not omit to speak also of our salvation by the shedding of blood.因此,希腊的父亲,谁在对神秘的化身赎回投机喜悦,不要忽略我们所讲的流血得救也。Origen, who lays most stress on the deliverance by payment of a ransom, does not forget to dwell on the need of a sacrifice for sin.奥利,谁规定的解脱通过支付赎金的压力最大,也没忘记要纠缠于一个赎罪牺牲的需要。St. Anselm again, in his "Meditations", supplements the teaching set forth in his "Cur Deus Homo?"圣安瑟伦再次,在他的“沉思”,补充规定的设置在教学“姜黄素杀出智人?”Abelard, who might seem to make the Atonement consist in nothing more than the constraining example of Divine Love has spoken also of our salvation by the Sacrifice of the Cross, in passages to which his critics do not attach sufficient importance.阿贝拉尔,谁似乎使赎罪在于无非制约的例子有神圣的爱所讲十字架的牺牲拯救我们也通道,而他的批评不充分重视。 And, as we have seen his great opponent, St. Bernard, teaches all that is really true and valuable in the theory which he condemned.而且,正如我们已经看到他的伟大的对手,圣伯纳德,教导一切是真的,在宝贵的理论,他谴责。Most, if not all, of these theories had perils of their own, if they were isolated and exaggerated.大多数情况下,如果不是全部,有这些理论自身的危险,如果他们被孤立和夸大。But in the Catholic Church there was ever a safeguard against these dangers of distortion.但是,在天主教教会曾经有过一个防止这些危险的失真。As Mr. Oxenham says very finely,正如奥克斯纳姆说得很细,

The perpetual priesthood of Christ in heaven, which occupies a prominent place in nearly all the writings we have examined, is even more emphatically insisted upon by Origen.永恒的基督神父在天上,占地在几乎所有的著作中突出的地方,我们已经研究,更是强调坚持由奥利时。And this deserves to be remembered, because it is a part of the doctrine which has been almost or altogether dropped out of many Protestant expositions of the Atonement, whereas those most inclining among Catholics to a merely juridical view of the subject have never been able to forget the present and living reality of a sacrifice constantly kept before their eyes, as it were, in the worship which reflects on earth the unfailing liturgy of heaven.这是值得记住的,因为它是一个已几乎或完全退出了许多新教的赎罪论述,天主教徒,而那些最倾斜到一门学科的理论观点只是法律的一部分从来​​没有能够忘记了一个活生生的现实,牺牲现在,一直不断在他们眼前的,因为它是在祈祷,这反映了地球上的天堂经久不衰的礼仪。 (p. 38)(第38页)

The reality of these dangers and the importance of this safeguard may be seen in the history of this doctrine since the age of Reformation.这些危险的现实和保障这一点的重要性可能会在这个改革时代以来的历史上的学说。As we have seen, its earlier development owed comparatively little to the stress of controversy with the heretics.正如我们所看到的,其早期开发欠比较小的争议与异端的压力。And the revolution of the sixteenth century was no exception to the rule.和十六世纪的革命是没有例外。For the atonement was not one of the subjects directly disputed between the Reformers and their Catholic opponents.为了赎罪之间没有直接的改革者和反对者的天主教争议的主题之一。But from its close connection with the cardinal question of Justification, this doctrine assumed a very special prominence and importance in Protestant theology and practical preaching.但是,从它与枢机主教的理由问题的密切联系,这一理论假设一个很特别的突出在新教神学和实际的说教和重要性。 Mark Pattison tells us in his "Memoirs" that he came to Oxford with his "home Puritan religion almost narrowed to two points, fear of God's wrath and faith in the doctrine of the Atonement".马克派特森讲述了他的“回忆录”,他就同他到牛津的“家清教徒的宗教几乎缩小到两分,害怕上帝的愤怒和在赎罪主义信仰”我们。 And his case was possibly no exception among Protestant religionists.他的案子很可能是新教教友间无例外。In their general conception on the atonement the Reformers and their followers happily preserved the Catholic doctrine, at least in its main lines.在他们的总体构想赎罪改革者及其追随者愉快地保留了天主教教义,至少在其主要线路。And in their explanation of the merit of Christ's sufferings and death we may see the influence of St. Thomas and the other great Schoolmen.而在他们对基督的苦难和死亡的优点说明我们可能会看到圣托马斯和其他伟大院学派的影响。 But, as might be expected from the isolation of the doctrine and the loss of other portions of Catholic teaching, the truth thus preserved was sometimes insensibly obscured or distorted.但是,正如人们可以从孤立主义和对天主教教学的其他部分的损失预期,事实得以保留,有时不知不觉模糊或扭曲。 It will be enough to note here the presence of two mistaken tendencies.这将是足以说明这里存在两种错误倾向。

The first is indicated in the above words of Pattison in which the Atonement is specially connected with the thought of the wrath of God.首先是表示在派特森在其中赎罪是专门与神的忿怒想到连上面的字。It is true of course that sin incurs the anger of the Just Judge, and that this is averted when the debt due to Divine Justice is paid by satisfaction.这当然是真实的,罪招致法官的正义的愤怒,并认为这是避免到期债务时,以神圣的正义是由满意支付。But it must not be thought that God is only moved to mercy and reconciled to us as a result of this satisfaction.但它绝不能被认为上帝是仁慈和只转移到和解作为这个满意的结果给我们。This false conception of the Reconciliation is expressly rejected by St. Augustine (In Joannem, Tract. cx, section 6).这种虚假的和解概念是明确拒绝了圣奥古斯丁(在Joannem,道。国泰航空,第6节)。God's merciful love is the cause, not the result of that satisfaction.神的慈爱是事业,不是该满意的结果。

The second mistake is the tendency to treat the Passion of Christ as being literally a case of vicarious punishment.第二个错误是倾向视为是名副其实的替代处罚的情况下,基督的受难。This is at best a distorted view of the truth that His Atoning Sacrifice took the place of our punishment, and that He took upon Himself the sufferings and death that were due to our sins.这是最好的一个真理扭曲的看法,他的赎罪牺牲了我们的刑罚,而他后,自己的痛苦和死亡是由于我们的罪了。

This view of the Atonement naturally provoked a reaction.这种观点的赎罪自然引起了反应。Thus the Socinians were led to reject the notion of vicarious suffering and satisfaction as inconsistent with God's justice and mercy.因此,苏西尼被带往拒绝与上帝的公义和怜悯的替代不一致的痛苦和满意的概念。And in their eyes the work of Christ consisted simply in His teaching by word and example.在他们眼中,基督在他的工作包括通过语言和教学为例简单。Similar objections to the juridical conception of the Atonement led to like results in the later system of Swedenborg.到赎罪法律概念类似的反对,导致象在斯韦登伯格后系统的结果。More recently Albrecht Ritschl, who has paid special attention to this subject, has formulated a new theory on somewhat similar lines.最近阿尔布雷希里奇尔,谁已特别注意这个问题,已经制订了新的理论路线有点类似。His conception of the Atonement is moral and spiritual, rather than juridical and his system is distinguished by the fact that he lays stress on the relation of Christ to the whole Christian community.他的构想的赎罪是道德和精神,而不是司法和他的系统是由他奠定了一个事实,即在基督关系到整个基督教社会压力区分开来。 We cannot stay to examine these new systems in detail.我们不能留下来详细研究这些新的系统。But it may be observed that the truth which they contain is already found in the Catholic theology of the Atonement.但它可能会发现,它们所包含的真理,已经在天主教神学的赎罪发现。That great doctrine has been faintly set forth in figures taken from man's laws and customs.这个伟大的学说已经依稀载于从人的法律和习俗所采取的数字。It is represented as the payment of a price, or a ransom, or as the offering of satisfaction for a debt.它表示为一个价格付款,或赎金,或作为一个债券发行满意。But we can never rest in these material figures as though they were literal and adequate.但是,我们决不能在这些材料的数字,好像他们是字面和足够。As both Abelard and Bernard remind us, the Atonement is the work of love.由于两个阿贝拉尔和Bernard提醒我们,赎罪是爱的工作。 It is essentially a sacrifice, the one supreme sacrifice of which the rest were but types and figures.它实质上是一种牺牲,牺牲其中一个最高的,但其余类型和数字。And, as St. Augustine teaches us, the outward rite of Sacrifice is the sacrament, or sacred sign, of the invisible sacrifice of the heart.而且,正如圣奥古斯丁教导我们,向外的牺牲是圣餐仪式,或神圣的迹象心灵的无形的牺牲。 It was by this inward sacrifice of obedience unto death, by this perfect love with which He laid down his life for His friends, that Christ paid the debt to justice, and taught us by His example, and drew all things to Himself; it was by this that He wrought our Atonement and Reconciliation with God, "making peace through the blood of His Cross".它被这外来的服从至死牺牲这个完美的爱,使他奠定了他的朋友他的生命,基督支付债务绳之以法,并以他的榜样教导我们,并提请,都与自己的东西,它是这表明,他带来了我们的赎罪与和解与上帝“,使他在十字架上,通过血液和平”。

Publication information Written by WH Kent.出版信息的书面瓦肯特。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

The setting at one, or reconciliation, of two estranged parties-translation used in the Authorized Version for "kapparah," "kippurim."在一个设置,或和解,两个疏远的缔约方,翻译授权版本用于“kapparah”,“kippurim。”The root ("kipper"), to make atonement, is explained by W. Robertson Smith ("Old Testament in the Jewish Church," i. 439), after the Syriac, as meaning "to wipe out."根(“咸鱼”),使赎罪,是由W.罗伯逊史密斯解释(“旧在犹太圣经教会,”岛439)中,在叙利亚文的意思,“消灭”。 This is also the view taken by Zimmern ("Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Babylonischen Religion," 1899, p. 92), who claims Babylonian origin for both the term and the rite.这也是施文所采取的观点(“Beiträge楚Kenntniss明镜Babylonischen宗教”,1899年,第92页),无论是谁索赔期限和礼仪巴比伦的起源。 Wellhausen ("Composition des Hextateuchs," p. 335) translates "kapparah" as if derived from "kapper" (to cover).豪森(“组成德Hextateuchs”,页335)翻译“kapparah”好像从“kapper”(覆盖)而得。 The verb, however, seems to be a derivative from the noun "kofer" (ransom) and to have meant originally "to atone."动词,然而,似乎是从名词“kofer”衍生(赎金),并意味着原本“赎罪”。

Original Meaning.本义。

Just as by old Teutonic custom the owner of a man or beast that had been killed was to be pacified by the covering up of the corpse with grain or gold ("Wergeld") by the offender (Grimm, "Deutsche Rechts-Alterthümer," p. 740), so Abimelech gives to Abraham a thousand pieces of silver as a "covering of the eyes," in order that his wrongdoing may be over-looked (Gen. xx. 16, RV; AV, incorrectly "he" for "it").正如由旧习俗的条顿骑士团的一人或兽,被打死的主人是要安抚的掩饰与粮食或黄金的罪犯(“Wergeld”)(格林,“德意志Rechts - Alterthümer,”尸740页),因此给予亚伯拉罕亚比米勒,以便他做的坏事,可能超过一千银子作为“的眼睛,覆盖”件打量(创二十16,风疹病毒。视听,错误地“他”为“它”)。 "Of whose hand have I received any [kofer] bribe [AV, "taken a ransom"] to blind my eyes therewith?" “在谁手里,我收到任何[kofer]贿赂[视听,”采取了赎金“]我的眼睛失明与之?”says Samuel (I Sam. xii. 3).塞缪尔说:(i山姆。十二。3)。

"Kofer" was the legal term for the propitiatory gift or ransom in case a man was killed by a goring ox: "If there be laid on him a [kofer] ransom [AV, inaccurately, "a sum of money"] (Ex. xxi. 30); but this "kofer nefesh" (ransom for the life) was not accepted in the case of murder (Num. xxxv. 31, 32). The dishonored husband "will not regard any ransom" ("kofer"; Prov. vi. 35). No man can give a kofer for his brother to ransom him from impending death (Ps. xlix. 8, Hebr.; AV 7). At the taking of the census "they shall give every man a ransom for his soul unto the Lord . “Kofer”是该和解的礼品或赎金的情况下被一名男子被打死牛戈林法律术语:“如果有放在他一个[kofer]赎金[视听,不准确,”一笔钱“](前。二十一30)。但这个“kofer诉愿”(这生命赎金)不被接受的谋杀案(民数记三十五例31,32)不兑现的丈夫“会不会把任何赎金”(“kofer”。。 ;箴六35)没有人可以给他的弟弟kofer为要胁,从即将到来的死亡(诗篇第四十九届他8日,黑布尔。。。。。。影音7)在普查采取“应当让每个人一赎金为他的灵魂献给主。 ..half a shekel" (Ex. xxx. 12, Hebr.). Similarly, Jacob, in order to make his peace with his brother Esau, says, "I will appease ["akapperah"] his [angry] face with the present" (Gen. xxxii. 21, Hebr. [AV 20]); that is, "I will offer a kofer." When the blood of the murdered Gibeonites cries to heaven for vengeance, David says: "Wherewith shall I make atonement ["bammah akapper"]?" that is, "With what kind of kofer shall I make atonement?" (II Sam. xxi. 3). "The wrath of a king is as messengers of death: but a wise man will [by some propitiatory offering or kofer] pacify it" (Prov. xvi. 14). Every sacrifice may be considered thus as a kofer, in the original sense a propitiatory gift; and its purpose is to "make atonement ["le kapper"] for the people" (Lev. ix. 7, x. 17).半舍客勒“(出三十。12,黑布尔)。。同样,雅各,为了使与他的哥哥以扫说,他的和平”,我会安抚[“akapperah”]与目前他​​的[愤怒]面对“ (。。创三十二21,黑布尔[影音20]),也就是“。我将提供一个kofer”当被谋杀的基遍人血的呼声升天复仇,大卫说:“怎能叫我做赎罪[” (。。二山姆二十一3)。bammah akapper“?]”,即“?以什么样的kofer我应该作赎罪”的“一王之怒是死亡使者:但是一个聪明的人会[一些和解的提供或kofer]安抚它“(箴十六14。)一切牺牲因此可以考虑作为kofer在原来意义上的和解的礼物。,其目的是”使[为“乐kapper”]赎罪人“(利未记九。七,十,17)。

Connection with Sacrifice.连接与祭祀。

In the priestly laws, the priest who offers the sacrifice as kofer is, as a rule, the one who makes the Atonement (Lev. i.-v., xvi., etc.); only occasionally is it the blood of the sacrifice (Lev. xvii. 11), or the money offering ("kesef kippurim," Ex. xxx. 15, 16; Num. xxxi. 50), that makes Atonement for the soul; while the act of Atonement is intended to cleanse the person from his guilt ("meḥaṭato," Lev. iv. 26, v. 6-10).在祭司的法律,神父谁提供与kofer牺牲,作为一项规则,谁使赎罪(利未记i.-v.,十六,等等。);只是偶尔是血的牺牲(利未记十七11。),或提供资金(“kesef kippurim,”前xxx 15,16;。。。编号三十一50。),这使得为灵魂赎罪;而赎罪的行为是为了净化人从他的内疚(“meḥaṭato,”列夫。四。26日,五6-10)。

In the prophetic language, however, the original idea of the kofer offering had become lost, and, instead of the offended person (God), the offense or guilt became the object of the Atonement (compare Isa. vi. 7, Hebr.: "Thy sin ["tekuppar"] is atoned for [AV, "purged"]"; Isa. xxvii. 9, Hebr.: "By this, therefore, shall the iniquity of Jacob be atoned for [AV, "purged"]"; I Sam. iii. 14: "The iniquity of Eli's house shall not be atoned for [AV, "purged"] with sacrifice nor offering for ever"; Prov. xvi. 6: "By mercy and truth iniquity is atoned for [AV, "purged"]"); and, consequently, instead of the priest as the offerer of the ransom, God Himself became the one who atoned (Deut. xxi. 8, "Kapper le'amka Israel," "Atone thou for thy people Israel" [Driver, Commentary, "Clear thou thy people"; AV, "Be merciful, O Lord"]; compare Deut. xxxii. 43, "And he will atone for the land of his people [Driver, Commentary, "Clear from guilt"; AV, "will be merciful unto his land, and to his people"]; see also Jer. xviii. 23; Ezek. xvi. 63; Ps. lxv. 4, lxxviii. 38, lxxix. 9; II Chron. xxx. 18).在先知的语言,但是,提供的kofer原来的想法已经成为失传,而不是得罪人(神),犯罪或内疚成了赎罪的对象(比较伊萨六,七,黑布尔。。。: “你的罪[”tekuppar“]是赎罪[视听,”整肃“]”;赛二十七9,黑布尔:。。。“通过这一点,因此,应雅各的罪孽为赎罪[视听,”整肃“] “;。我心三14:。”论以利家的罪孽,不得有血气的[视听,“整肃”]永远与牺牲,也没有提供“;箴十六6:。。”通过慈爱和诚实的罪孽赎罪的[视听,“整肃"]");,因此,而不是作为赎金要约人牧师,神自己成为一个谁合为一体(申命记21。8,”Kapper le'amka以色列“,”赎罪你以色列你的人“[司机,评注,”清除你你的人“;视听,”要怜悯,主啊“];比较申三十二43。。”他会为他赎罪人民的土地[司机,评,“明确从罪恶感”,视听,“将是怜悯他的土地,和他的人民”],还见耶十八23;。。以西结书十六63;。。诗第六十五四,第七十八号38,lxxix。。。。 9;二慢性xxx 18)。。。

Atonement Idea Spiritualized.赎罪思想的灵性。

Thus there is in Scripture a successive spiritualization of the idea of Atonement.因此,有一个连续的赎罪的想法在圣经的精神境界。Following the common view, David says (I Sam. xxvi. 19): "If the Lord have stirred thee up against me, let him accept an offering [to appease the anger of God]."共同的看法之后,大卫说,(我心二十六19。。):“如果上帝已经激起你打击我,让他接受一个提供[为了安抚愤怒的上帝]。” But while this cruder view of sacrifice underlies the form of worship among all Semites (see Robertson Smith, "Religion of the Semites," pp. 378-388), the idea of Atonement in the priestly Torah is based upon a realizing sense of sin as a breaking-away from God, and of the need of reconciliation with Him of the soul that has sinned.不过,虽然这种牺牲粗糙基础的观点在所有闪米特人崇拜的形式(见罗伯逊史密斯,“宗教的闪米特人,”页378-388),在赎罪的祭司在诵读经文的想法是根据实现的罪孽感作为一个磨合远离上帝,以及加强与灵魂,他已经犯了罪和解的必要性。 Every sin-whether it be "ḥeṭ."每罪,无论是“过度紧张。”a straying away from the path of right, or "'avon," crookedness of conduct, or "pesha',"-rebellious transgression-is aseverance of the bond of life which unites the soul with its Maker.一偏离了正确的道路,或“'雅芳,”欺瞒的行为,或“pesha',”-反叛侵,是对生命的团结的纽带,其制作的灵魂aseverance了。 "The soul that sinneth, it shall die," says Ezek.“灵魂的sinneth,他必死亡,说:”以西结书。xviii.十八。20 (compare Deut. xxx. 15-19; Ps. i. 6; Jer. ii. 13).20(比较申xxx 15-19;。。诗一6。。耶二13。)。It is the feeling of estrangement from God that prompts the sinner to offer expiatory sacrifices-not only to appease God's anger by a propitiatory gift, but also to place his soul in a different relation to Him.它是从神疏​​离感,提示罪人提供赎罪的牺牲,不仅要通过和解的礼物安抚上帝的愤怒,而且也为在一个不同的关系对他自己的灵魂。 For this reason the blood, which to the ancients was the life-power or soul, forms the essential part of the sacrificial Atonement (see Lev. xvii. 11).由于这个原因,血液,这是古人对生命的力量和灵魂,形成了祭祀赎罪(见列弗。十七。11)的重要组成部分。This is the interpretation given by all the Jewish commentators, ancient and modern, on the passage; compare also Yoma 5a; Zeb.这是所有犹太评论家所作的解释,古代和现代的通道;比较,也山脉5A条;瑞伯。6a, = "There is no Atonement except with blood," with the identical words in Heb. 6a中,=“没有赎罪除非血”,在希伯来相同的话。ix.九。22, RV: "Apart from shedding of blood there is no remission [of sins]."22,风疹病毒:“除了流血,没有[罪过]缓解。”The life of the victim was offered, not, as has been said, as a penalty in a juridical sense to avert Heaven's punishment, not to have man's sins laid upon it as upon the scapegoat of the Day of Atonement, and thus to have the animal die in his place, as Ewald thinks ("Alterthümer," p. 68), but as a typical ransom of "life by life"; the blood sprinkled by the priest upon the altar serving as the means of a renewal of man's covenant of life with God (see Trumbull, "The Blood Covenant," p. 247).受害人的生活提供,而不是,正如人们所说的作为一个法律意义上的刑罚,以避免上天的惩罚,而不是使人类的罪后,它奠定了作为后,在赎罪日的替罪羊,因此,有动物死在他的位置,作为埃瓦尔德认为(“Alterthümer”,第68页),但作为一种“生活的生活”的典型赎金;血液由神父洒在为一个人的盟约更新服务手段坛与神的生命(见特兰伯尔,“血公约”,第247页)。 In Mosaic ritualism the atoning blood thus actually meant the bringing about of a reunion with God, the restoration of peace between the soul and its Maker.在马赛克的赎罪仪式主义实际上意味着血液从而实现对一个与上帝,灵魂之间恢复和平和它的创团聚。Therefore, the expiatory sacrifice was accompanied by a confession of the sins for which it was designed to make Atonement (see Lev. v. 5, xvi. 21; Num. v. 7; compare Maimonides, "Yad," Teshubah, i. 1): "no atonement without confession of sin as the act of repentance," or as Philo ("De Victimis," xi.) says, "not without the sincerity of his repentance, not by words merely, but by works, the conviction of his soul which healed him from disease and restores him to good health."因此,赎罪的牺牲是伴随着的,它旨在使罪孽忏悔赎罪(见列弗诉五,十六21;。。编号诉7。比较迈蒙尼德,“亚”Teshubah岛1):“没有不作为的行为罪认罪悔罪赎罪”,或斐洛(“德Victimis,”喜)说,“真不悔改,他的诚意,而不是仅仅用语言,而是由工程,。他的灵魂信念,治好他的疾病和恢复他身体健康。“

Atonement for the Whole People.赎罪的全体人民。

The sacrificial Atonement, based as it was on the symbolic offering of life for life, assumed a more awful or somber character when a whole community was concerned in the blood-guiltiness to be atoned for.赎罪的牺牲,因为它的基础是对生命的象征,提供了生活,更可怕的,或承担了性格阴沉时,整个社会是在血液有罪关注的是赎罪。 While, in the time of David, people in their terror had recourse to the pagan rite of human sacrifice (II Sam. xxi. 1-9), the Deuteronomic law prescribed in such a case a mild and yet rather uncommon form of expiation of the murder; namely, the breaking of the neck of a heifer as a substitute for the unknown murderer (Deut. xxi.1-9).虽然,在大卫的时间,其恐怖的人求助于人类牺牲异教仪式(二山姆。二十一。1-9)中,deuteronomic法在这种情况下规定的温和,但并不常见的形式赎罪谋杀,即对作为一个未知的凶手代(申命记xxi.1 - 9)小母牛颈部断裂。To the same class belongs the goat in the annual Atonement ritual (Lev. xvi. 7-22), which was to carry away all the sins of the children of Israel into an uninhabited land and was sent out to Azazel in the wilderness, while another goat was killed as usual, and its blood sprinkled to make Atonement for the sanctuary, cleansing it of the uncleanness of all the transgressions of the children of Israel.对于同一类属于在每年的赎罪仪式山羊(利未记十六。7-22),这是进行远离到一个无人居住的土地所有以色列人的罪,被发出了旷野,阿撒兹勒,而另一山羊像往常一样被打死,其血液洒,以弥补圣殿赎罪,洁净的所有以色列人的罪过污秽了。 In the case of the one goat, the doom emanating from unknown and therefore unexpiated sins of the people was to be averted; in the other case the wrath of God at the defilement of His sanctuary -which often implied the penalty of death (Num. i. 53)-was to be pacified.在一个山羊的情况下,从人民厄运,因此unexpiated不明罪是要避免产生,而在其他情况下,神在他的庇护,这污辱愤怒往往隐含了死刑(民数记一,53),是被平定。 The very idea of God's holiness, which made either the approach to Mt.上帝的圣洁,这使得无论是方法,山的想法。Sinai, the seat of God (Ex. xix. 12), the Ark (II Sam. vi. 7), or even the mere sight of God (Isa. vi. 5; Judges xiii. 22), bring death, rendered the ritual of the Day of Atonement the necessary culmination of the whole priestly system of expiation of sin. (。出埃及记十九12)西奈半岛,是神的座位,方舟(二山姆六,七。。),甚至仅仅看到神(以赛亚书六5;。。法官十三22),带来死亡,呈现的仪式在赎罪日的整个罪恶赎罪的祭司系统所需的顶点。

Repentance and Atonement.忏悔和赎罪。

Yet, while the sacrificial rites were the only means of impressing upon the people God's holiness and the dreadful consequence of man's sinfulness, the idea of the Atonement assumed a far deeper and more spiritual aspect in the lives and teachings of the Prophets.然而,尽管仅是祭祀仪式后,市民留下深刻印象的神的圣洁和人类的罪恶可怕后果手段,摆出一副赎罪的想法,在生活和教诲的先知更深入,更远远精神方面。 Neither Hosea, Amos, and Micah, nor Isaiah recognizes the need of any means of reconciliation with God after estrangement by sin, other than repentance.无论是何西阿,阿莫斯,弥迦,以赛亚也承认罪恶的疏远后,任何需要与上帝和解的手段,比其他悔改。"Take with you words, and turn to the Lord: say unto him, Take away all iniquity and receive us graciously: so will we render as bullocks the offerings of our lips" (Hosea xiv. 2, Hebr.; compare Amos v. 22-24; Isa. i. 13-17, and the well-known passage, Micah vi. 6-8): "Shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old? . . . Shall I give my first-born for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul? He hath shewed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?"). “带上你的话,依次向上帝祷告:对他说,带走所有的罪孽和慷慨地接待我们:这样,我们使我们的嘴唇作为牛犊的祭品”(何西阿十四2,黑布尔,比较阿莫斯五。。 。。?。。。22-24;赛一13-17,和著名的推移,米卡六6-8):“要我来之前他和燔祭,与旧的一年我给小牛我第一次为自己的罪过出生,我的身体为我的灵魂仙果他所指示你,人哪,什么是好的?主,岂是什么要求,而是你行公义,好怜悯,并谦虚地与你的神走?“)。


But the prophet Ezekiel-a priest and therefore more deeply penetrated with the sense of sin and purity than other prophets-is not satisfied with the mere negation of ritualism.但先知以西结,一个牧师,因此更深深的罪恶和纯度比其他先知感侵入,并不满足于仅仅是否定的形式主义。Repudiating, like Jeremiah, the idea held by his contemporaries that men undergo punishment on account of their fathers' sins, he lays the greater stress on the fact that the fruit of sin is death, and exhorts the people to cast away their sin and, returning to God, to live (Ezek. xviii. 4-32).批判,像耶利米,他的同时代人认为,经过对他们父亲的罪孽帐户处罚的想法,他奠定了一个事实,就是对罪恶的果实是死亡更大的压力,并敦促人民摆脱他们的罪,回神,住(结十八。4-32)。 For him Atonement is wrought by acquiring "a new heart and a new spirit" (ib. 31).为他赎罪,虽然有见地获得“新心和新的精神”(同上31)。In striking contrast with the other prophets, Ezekiel combines the belief in a complicated atoning ritual (as mapped out in Ezek. xl.-xlvi.) with the prophetic, hope in the redeeming power of God's spirit which shall cleanse the people from their impurities and endow them with "a new heart and a new spirit" (xxxvi. 26).在与其他先知鲜明的对比,以西结结合在一个复杂的赎罪仪式的信念(例如映射出在ezek。xl. -四十六。)与先知,在神的精神力量挽救希望的要洁净的人从他们的杂质并赋予“新的心和新的精神”(xxxvi. 26)他们。


In no one, however, does the most elaborate ritualism of the Atonement sacrifice appear so closely intertwined with the profoundest spiritual conception of God's atoning powers as in Moses the lawgiver himself.在任何一个,但是,这是最详细的赎​​罪牺牲形式主义表现得如此紧密地与上帝的赎罪权力深刻的精神作为自己的立法者摩西的概念交织在一起。 When the worship of the Golden Calf had provoked God's wrath to such a degree that He said to Moses, "Let me alone. . . . that I may consume them; and I will make of thee a great nation" (Ex. xxxii. 10), the latter, desirous of making an Atonement for their transgression, asked the Lord to forgive the people's sin, or else to blot Moses' own name out of His book (the book of life); and he persisted in imploring God's pardon even after He had said, "Whosoever hath sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book," until finally, in answer to Moses' entreaty, the full glory of God, His compassionate mercy, His long-suffering and forgiving love, were revealed and Moses' prayer for the people's pardon was granted (Ex. xxxiv. 1-9;Num. xiv. 17-20).当金犊崇拜惹神的愤怒到这种程度,他对摩西说:“让我一个人,我可能会消耗他们。。。。,我必叫你成为大国”(出三十二。 10),后者,作出了对他们的过失赎罪渴望,求主赦免人的罪,或者别的印迹摩西对他的书中(生命册)自己的名称;及他恳求神的赦免坚持即使在他曾说过:“凡有的对我犯了罪,他将我涂抹我的书”,直到最后在回答摩西的恳求,神的盛开,他的同情心怜悯,他的长期痛苦和宽恕的爱,揭示了摩西的为人民的祈祷获得赦免(出三十四1-9;。序号十四17-20。。)。 There Moses' own self-abnegating love, which willingly offered up his life for his people, disclosed the very qualities of God as far as they touch both the mystery of sin and the divine forgiveness, and this became the key to the comprehension of the Biblical idea of Atonement.有摩西的自身的abnegating爱,心甘情愿地为他提供了他的生活,透露是神的素质,据他们既神秘触摸罪和神的宽恕,这成为关键的理解圣经的想法赎罪。 The existence of sin would be incompatible with a good and holy God, but for His long-suffering, which waits for the sinner's return, and His condoning love, which turns man's failings into endeavors toward a better life.罪恶的存在将不符合良好的和神圣的神,但他的长期痛苦,这对于罪人的回报等待,和他的纵容的爱,而成为对人类更美好的生活努力的失败。 Each atoning sacrifice, therefore, must be understood both as an appeal to God's forgiving mercy, and as a monition to the sinner to repentance.每个atoning牺牲,因此,必须被理解为神的宽恕怜悯同时呼吁,作为一个罪人悔改的忠告。"Let the wicked forsake his way and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the Lord, and he will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon" (Isa. lv. 7).“让恶人离弃自己的道路和不义的人他的想法:让他归向耶和华,他将在他身上施怜悯,我们的神,他必广行赦免”(以赛亚书低压7。)。

Substitutes for Sacrifice.替补牺牲。

It was quite natural that, during the Exile, when no sacrifice could be offered, other means of obtaining forgiveness and peace should be resorted to.这是很自然的,流亡期间,在没有牺牲可提供,获得宽恕和其他和平手段应采取。First of all, prayer rose in value and prominence.首先,祈祷价值和显着上升。As Moses interceded for his people, praying and fasting for forty days and forty nights in order to obtain God's pardon (Ex. xxxii. 30; Deut. ix. 18, 25), so did every prophet possess the power of obtaining God's pardon by his prayer.正如摩西出面替他的人民,祈福,四十天四十夜禁食,以获得神的赦免(出三十二30;。。。申九18,25),所以没有每一个先知具备获得上帝的赦免的权力他的祈祷。 Abraham, as a prophet, prayed for the life of Abimelech (Gen. xx. 7); Pharaoh, after a confession of his sin, asked Moses and Aaron to pray to God for the withdrawal of the plague of hail (Ex. ix. 27, 28); acknowledging their sin, the people ask Samuel to intercede for them (I Sam. xii. 19); and Jeremiah is expressly warned: "Pray not thou for this people, neither lift up a cry or prayer for them" (Jer. xi. 14; compare ib. xv. 1).亚伯拉罕,为生命祈祷使亚比米勒先知,(创二十七日。);法老后,他的罪过忏悔,问摩西和亚伦祈祷上帝了鼠疫冰雹(出九撤出。 27,28);承认他们的罪,人们问塞缪尔,替他们祈求(我心十二19);和耶利米是明确警告说:。。“请你不要为这百姓,不要为他们呼求祷告” (耶十一14;。比较兴业十五1。。)。See Prayer.见祈祷。

Fasting, Almsgiving, Suffering.斋戒,施舍,痛苦。

The great dedication prayer of King Solomon requires on the part of the sinner only a turning of the face in prayer in the direction of the Temple in order to meet with a response from heaven and with forgiveness of his sin (I Kings viii. 30, 33, 35, 48-50).所罗门王的伟大的奉献精神需要在祈祷的唯一一个转折的脸在祈祷寺方向,以满足从天上反应和他的罪过的宽恕罪人的一部分(我国王八。30 33,35,48-50)。The very idea of sacrifice is spurned by the Psalmist (Ps. l. 8-14, li. 12-20 [AV 11-19]): "Sacrifice and offering thou dost not desire" (xl. 7 [AV 6]); "The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit" (li. 18 [AV 17]).牺牲的想法是非常唾弃的诗人(诗湖8-14,李12-20 [影音11-19]。):“祭物和礼物,你也许不希望”(xl. 7 [影音6]) ,“神所要的祭就是忧伤的灵”(li. 18 [视听17])。 Throughout the Psalms sincere repentance and prayer form the essentials to Atonement.在整个诗篇真诚的忏悔和祈祷的方式来赎罪的要领。Prayer is "as incense" and "the evening sacrifice" (Ps. cxli. 2); with the Lord is forgiveness, "He shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities" (Ps. cxxx. 4-8).祈祷是“为香”和“晚祭”(诗篇cxli 2。​​),与主是宽恕,“他必救赎以色列脱离一切的罪孽”(诗篇cxxx 4-8。)。Fasting especially appears to have taken the place of sacrifice (Isa. lviii. 1-3; Zach. vii. 5).特别是空腹似乎已经采取了牺牲的地方(以赛亚lviii 1-3;。。扎克第七5。)。Another means of Atonement in place of sacrifice is offered to King Nebuchadnezzar by Daniel: "Break off thy sins by almsgiving ["ẓedakah" (AV, "righteousness")], and thine iniquities by showing mercy to the poor" (Dan. iv. 24, Hebr. [AV 27]).另一种方式赎罪的牺牲的地方是所提供的丹尼尔王尼布甲尼撒:“以施舍折断你的罪恶[”ẓedakah“(视听,”义“)]通过展示怜悯穷人,你的罪孽”(Dan.四。24,黑布尔。[影音27])。 Most efficacious seemed to be the atoning power of suffering experienced by the righteous during the Exile.最有效的似乎是痛苦的流亡期间由经验丰富的赎罪正义的力量。This is the idea underlying the description of the suffering servant of God in Isa.这是思想背后的神的仆人在伊萨痛苦的描述。liii.liii。4, 12, Hebr.:4,12,黑布尔。:

"The man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. . . he hath borne our pains [AV, "griefs"], and carried our sorrows. . . . But he was wounded for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities . . ." “人的痛苦和悲伤熟悉。。。他所承担的痛苦[视听,”悲伤“],背负我们的痛苦。。。。但他为我们的罪孽压伤。我们的过犯,多人受伤。。”"The chastisement for [AV, "of"] our peace was upon him; and with his stripes were we [AV, "we are"] healed." “该惩罚的[影音”的“]我们的和平,是对他和他的条纹是我们[视听”,“。治愈我们]”"All we like sheep had [AV, "have"] gone astray; we had [AV, "have"] turned every one to his own way." “所有我们喜欢羊了[视听,”有“]误入歧途,我们有[视听,”有“]把每一个他自己的方式。”

"And the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all."“而必担在他身上我们所有的罪孽。”

"He was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken."“他被切断了对土地的生活:对我百姓的罪过是他失措。”"He bare the sin of many and made intercession for the transgressors."“他担当多人又为罪犯代求罪。”

Post-Biblical Atonement.后圣经赎罪。

Whoever may have formed the subject of this tragic song-whether Zerubbabel or some other martyr of the Babylonian Exile-the seer, in embodying it in his message of comfort to his people, desired to assure them that of greater atoning power than all the Temple sacrifices was the suffering of the elect ones who were to be servants and witnesses of the Lord (Isa. xlii. 1-4, xlix. 1-7, l. 6).谁可能形成这种悲惨的主题曲,无论所罗巴伯或一些巴比伦流亡,其他烈士的先见体现在贺电中安慰他的人民的期望,以保证他们的,是大于一切权力寺赎罪牺牲是痛苦的选举那些谁被仆人和主证人(以赛亚书四十二。1-4,第四十九届。1-7湖6)。 This idea of the atoning power of the suffering and death of the righteous finds expression also in IV Macc.这种对痛苦和死亡的正义赎罪的执政理念的表达也发现在IV排雷。vi.六。27, xvii.27,十七。21-23; M. Ḳ.21-23;先生K表。 28a; Pesiḳ.28A条;Pesiḳ。 xxvii.二十七。174b; Lev.174b;列弗。R. xx.; and formed the basis of Paul's doctrine of the atoning blood of Christ (Rom. iii. 25).传译二十。,形成了保罗的血液赎罪的基督(罗马书三25。)学说的基础。It was the inspiration of the heroic martyrdom of the Ḥasidim or Essenes (Ps. xxix. 2, cxvi. 15; Philo, "Quod Omnis Probus Liber," § xiii.).这是对爱色尼的Ḥasidim或英勇就义的启示(诗篇二十九2,cxvi 15。。斐洛,“狴Omnis普罗比斯或函”§十三。)。The principle of Atonement by sacrificial blood was, on the whole, adhered to during the second Temple.在赎罪的牺牲的血的原则是,就​​整体而言,坚持在第二圣殿。Job's intercession on behalf of his friends is accompanied by their burnt offering, which is to atone for their sins (Job xlii. 8; compare i. 5).约伯的代表对他的朋友说情是伴随着他们的燔祭,这是为他们的罪孽赎罪(伯四十二8;。比较一5)。In the Book of Jubilees Noah and Abraham make Atonement for the earth and for man by means of sacrificial blood (vi. 2, vii. 3, xvi. 22).在挪亚和亚伯拉罕的jubilees书为地球和血供祭祀的人赎罪的手段(第六二,七。三,十六。22)。In Sibyllines iii.在Sibyllines三。626 et seq., the heathen are told to offer hecatombs of bulls and rams to obtain God's pardon for their sins (compare Ps. lxxvi. 12; Isa. lvi. 7); but in Sibyllines iv. 。626起,异教徒被告知提供的公牛和公羊hecatombs获得上帝的赦免他们的罪(比较诗lxxvi 12。。赛LVI的7。。),但在Si​​byllines四。29, 161, the Essene view, deprecating sacrifice, seems to be expressed.29,161,厄认为,自嘲牺牲,似乎是表达。Nevertheless, the conception of Atonement underwent a great change.不过,在赎罪观念发生了很大变化。The men of the Great Synagogue-disciples of the Prophets and imbued with the spirit of the Psalms-had made prayer an essential element of the Temple service; and whereas the Ḥasidean liturgy, accentuating divine forgiveness and human repentance, took little notice of sacrifice, the Levites' song and the prayers introduced as parts of the worship lent to the whole sacrificial service a more symbolic character.曾是伟大的犹太教堂,先知门徒的男子和的诗篇,取得了祷告的圣殿充满服务精神的基本要素,以及礼仪加剧而Ḥasidean神的宽恕和人悔改,牺牲了小的通知,利未人的歌曲,并作为崇拜部分介绍了祈祷借给整个祭祀服务更象征性的人物。 Accordingly, each of the two lambs ("kebasim") offered every morning and evening as a burnt-offering (Num. xxviii. 3, 4) was declared by the school of Shammai to be "kobesh," intended "to subdue" the sins of Israel (see Micah vii. 19: "Yikbosh 'avonotenu" = "He will subdue our iniquities," AV) during the year until the Day of Atonement should do its atoning work.因此,每两个羔羊(“kebasim”)提供为燔祭,每天早上和傍晚(民数记二十八。3,4)是由沙麦学校宣布为“kobesh,”打算“征服”的以色列的罪孽(见第七米卡19:。“Yikbosh'avonotenu”=“他将征服我们的罪孽,”AV)的过程中,直到赎罪日赎罪应该做的工作一年。 By the school of Hillel the lamb was to be "kobes," "to wash Israel clean" from sin; see Isa.到了学校的希勒尔的羔羊是成为“kobes”,“洗干净以色列从罪”,见伊萨。i.18; Jer.18;哲。ii.二。22; Pesiḳ.22;Pesiḳ。 vi.六。61b; Pesiḳ.61B条;Pesiḳ。 R. 16 (ed. Friedmann, p. 84) and 81, p.命令第16条(编辑弗里德曼,第84)和81页195; and more especially the notes by Buber and Friedmann, ad loc.195;,更尤其是注意到布伯和弗里德曼,广告同上。Compare also the expression "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world" (John i. 29).也比较表达“看哪神的羔羊,其中去掉了世界的罪”(约翰一29)。"The morning sacrifice atoned for the sins committed during the previous night, the afternoon sacrifice for the sins committed in the daytime" (Tan., Pinḥas, 12). “早上在牺牲前一天晚上所犯的罪赎,为在白天犯下的罪孽下午牺牲”(Tan.,Pinḥas,12)。

The whole idea of sin was, in fact, deepened.罪恶的整个想法是,事实上,深化。It was regarded rather as a breaking-away from theoriginal sinless state of man as the child of God-which state must be restored-than as a wrong committed against God needing covering up.它被视为而不是作为一个磨合远离theoriginal人无罪的国家为儿童神的国家必须恢复比作为对上帝的承诺需要掩盖错误。 The expressions "temimim" (spotless) and "ben shanah" (of the first year) (Num. xxviii. 3), suggested the thought that sin-laden man should become "spotless like a child of one year" (Pesiḳ. R. lc; compare Shab. 89b).中,“temimim”(一尘不染)和“本shanah”(第一年)(民数记二十八。三),建议本以为赎罪拉丹的人应该成为“就像一个孩子一尘不染的一年”(pesiḳ.二ř 。立法会;比较沙巴89b)。。Of course, as a symbolic rite, this mode of cleansing oneself from sin could be, and actually was, replaced by daily baptism and fasting such as were practised by the Ḥasidim-those heroes of prayer who in time of national distress made intercession for the people far more effectively than did the priests in the Temple (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 2, § 1; xviii. 8, § 4; compare Ta'anit 19a, 20a, 23a).当然,作为一个象征性的仪式,这种清洗自己的罪过可模式,实际上是,取而代之的是每天的洗礼和斋戒,如被的Ḥasidim,那些实行谁祈祷英雄在国家危难之时作出的调解人比没有更有效地在圣殿祭司(约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”十四2,§ 1。十八8,§ 4。比较Ta'anit 19A条,20A条,23A条)。Still the words of Simon the Just, "The world rests on the Law, worship, and works of benevolence" (Ab. i. 2), retained their validity likewise for the Ḥasidim, who felt the need of an atoning sacrifice (Ned. 10a; Ker. vi. 3).西蒙的话仍然是公正,“世界依赖于法律,崇拜和仁工程”(ab.一2),保留的ḥasidim,谁觉得需要一个atoning牺牲(Ned.其有效性同样10A条; ker的六3)。。。It was especially owing to the assistance offered by the "ma'amadot," the chosen representatives of the people, with their fasts and prayers, that the daily sacrifice assumed a more spiritual character, so that to it was applied the passage (Jer. xxxiii. 25): "If my covenant be not maintained day and night [by the service] I would not have made the ordinances of heaven and earth" (Meg. 31b; Ta'anit 27b).特别是由于它是由所提供的援助“ma'amadot,”人民选出的代表与他们的斋戒和祈祷,即每天承担了更多的牺牲精神品格,所以,为了将其应用于通过(耶。三十三25):“如果我的盟约是不保留[由服务]一天晚上,我也不会作出了天地条例”(Meg. 31B条; Ta'anit 27B款)。

After the Fall of the Temple.后寺兴衰。

The cessation of sacrifice, in consequence of the destruction of the Temple, came, therefore, as a shock to the people.停止的牺牲在圣殿被毁的后果,来了,因此,作为一个对人民的冲击。It seemed to deprive them of the divine Atonement.这似乎剥夺了他们神圣的赎罪。Hence many turned ascetics, abstaining from meat and wine (Tosef., Soṭah, xv. 11; Ab. RN iv.); and Joshua ben Hananiah, who cried out in despair, "Wo unto us! What shall atone for us?"因此,许多原来苦行者,从肉和酒(Tosef.,Soṭah,十五11。。。;抗体护士四)弃权和约书亚贲哈拿尼雅,谁喊绝望了,“禾告诉我们,我们应当怎样赎罪!?” only expressed the sentiment of all his contemporaries (IV Esd. ix. 36: "We are lost on account of our sins").只表示他同时代的所有情绪(四公共服务电子化九36:。。“我们失去了我们的罪账户”)。It was then that Johanan b.就在那时,哈难乙Zakkai, pointing to Hosea vi. Zakkai指着何西阿六。6 (RV), "I desire mercy and not sacrifice," to Prov.6(右),“我喜爱怜恤,不喜爱祭祀”,以省。xvi.十六。6, "By mercy and truth iniquity is purged [atoned for]," and to Ps.6,“通过慈爱和诚实的罪孽清除[为赎罪]”,并到PS。lxxxix.lxxxix。3 (AV 2), "The world is built upon mercy," declared works of benevolence to have atoning powers as great as those of sacrifice.3(影音2),“世界是怜悯建成后,”申报的作品,善有像那些伟大的牺牲赎罪权力。

Christian Idea of Atonement.基督教思想赎罪。

This view, however, did not solve satisfactorily for all the problem of sin-the evil rooted in man from the very beginning, from the fall of Adam (IV Esd. iii. 20, viii. 118).这种观点,但是,并没有令人满意地解决所有的人从一开始就植根于罪,邪恶的问题,从亚当的堕落(四公共服务电子化。三。20,八。118)。 Hence a large number of Jews accepted the Christian faith in the Atonement by the blood "shed for many for the remission of sins" (Matt. xxvi. 28; Heb. x. 12; Col. i. 20) or in Jesus as "the Lamb of God" (John i. 29; Apoc. of John vii. 14, and elsewhere).因此,大量的犹太人所接受“为缓解的罪孽多人流出来,”血液中的赎罪基督信仰(太二十六28;。希伯来书十12;。上校一20)或以耶稣“神的羔羊“(约翰一29;载脂蛋白C约翰七14,和其他地方。。)。 It was perhaps in opposition to this movement that the Jewish teachers, after the hope for the rebuilding of the Temple in the second century had ended in failure and wo, strove to develop and deepen the Atonement idea.正是在这一运动也许反对的犹太教师,后为在该庙重建的第二个世纪的希望已经结束失败和禾,努力发展和深化赎罪的想法。R. Akiba, in direct opposition to the Christian Atonement by the blood of Jesus, addressed his brethren thus: "Happy are ye, Israelites. Before whom do you cleanse yourselves, and who cleanses you? Your Father in heaven; for it is said: 'I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean; from all your filthiness . . . will I cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you'" (Ezek. xxxvi. 26); and again it is said that the Lord, "the hope of Israel" (Jer. xiv. 8), is also a "fountain of water" (a play on the Hebrew word "miḳweh").传译秋叶,直接反对由基督教耶稣的血赎罪,解决他的弟兄们是这样的:。?“你们是幸福的,以色列人在洁净的人做你自己,谁在天上的洁净你父亲,因为它是说:'。。。我会洒在你们身上干净的水,你们是干净的,从所有的污秽我要洁净你们一个新的心脏也将我给你,和新灵放在你们里面将我。'“(以西结书。三十六26);。与这又是说,上帝,(耶利米书十四“以色列希望”8),也是一个(对希伯来文“miḳweh”玩)“水喷泉”。。 "As the fountain of water purifies the unclean, so does God purify Israel" (Yoma viii. 9). “由于饮水机净化不洁的,所以没有上帝净化以色列”(山脉八。9)。This doctrine, which does away with all mediatorship of either saint, high priest, or savior, became the leading idea of the Jewish Atonement.这一学说,它摒弃了所有的或者圣人,大祭司,或救世主mediatorship,成为犹太人赎罪的主导思想。

Elements of Atonement.元素赎罪。

Accordingly, Atonement in Jewish theology as developed by the Rabbis of the Talmud, has for its constituent elements: (a) on the part of God, fatherly love and forgiving mercy; (b) on the part of man, repentance and reparation of wrong.因此,在犹太神学赎罪由拉比的犹太法典的发展,已对其构成要素:(一)关于上帝,慈父般的爱和宽恕怜悯的一部分;(二)对人,悔改的一部分,错误的赔偿。 The following exposition will serve to enlighten the reader on these elements:下面的论述将有助于启发读者对这些要素:

(a) While God's quality of justice ("middat hadin"), which punishes the wrong-doing, would leave no hope for man, since "there is not a righteous man upon earth that doeth good and sinneth not" (Eccl. vii. 20, RV), God's quality of mercy ("middat haraḥamin") has from the very beginning provided repentance as the means of salvation (Gen. R. i, xii.; Pesiḳ. xxv. 158b; Pesiḳ. R. 44; Pes. 54a.) "Thou hast mercy upon all; thou condonest the sins of men in order that they should amend" (Wisdom xi. 23).(一)而上帝的质量公正(“middat hadin”),这惩罚错误的做法,不会留下对人类的希望,因为“没有一个义人在地球上行善的和必不犯罪”(传道书七。20,风疹病毒),神的慈悲(“middatharaḥamin”)已经从一开始就提供作为拯救的手段(将军河我,十二悔改。Pesiḳ二十五​​158b。。。Pesiḳ第44;瘟54A条)。。“你要求所有竟怜悯你condonest罪的男子,使他们应修改”(智慧十一23)。。 "Wherever there are sins and righteous deeds set against each other in the scale of justice, God inclines it toward mercy"(Pesiḳ. xxvi. 167a). “哪里有罪孽和相互对立的规模在司法正义的事迹,对上帝的摆布下倾斜”(pesiḳ.二十六。167a)。

Divine Mercy.神圣慈悲。

Far from being merely judicial compensation for an outward act, as Weber ("System der Alt-Synagogalen Theologie," pp. 252, 300-304) asserts, the divine mercy is expressly represented by Hillel as working in favor of pardoning those who have no merit: "He who is plenteous in mercy turns the scale of judgment toward mercy" (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 3; RH 17a).不仅仅只是一种外在的行为的司法赔偿,正如韦伯(“体系>按住Alt Synagogalen神学”,第252,300-304)断言,神圣的慈悲是明确表示赞成由希勒尔在赦免那些谁工作有没有任何好处:“他是谁在丰盛的慈爱轮流迈向怜悯的审判尺度”(Tosef.,葬身十三3;铑17A条。。)。 This quality of mercy is sure to prevail as soon as it is appealed to by the mention of the thirteen attributes with which the Lord appeared to Moses in response to his prayer for forgiveness after the sin of the Golden Calf (RH 17b).这种慈悲是一定要胜利,尽快提出上诉,因为它是对13个属性与该主出现在回应他的原谅摩西祷告后,金犊(铑17B条)罪提起来。 No matter how vile the sinner-be he as wicked as Manasseh or as Ahab-the gate of repentance is open to him (Pesiḳ. xxv. 160b, 162a).(Pesiḳ. xxv. 158b; Yer. Mak. ii. 31d).不管是多么卑鄙的罪人,是他像玛拿西或邪恶的亚哈,悔改的大门是开放给他(pesiḳ.二二十五158b。。;也门里亚尔麦二31D条。。)(pesiḳ.二二十五达1​​600,162A章。)。 。

"Human Wisdom, when asked, 'What shall be done with the sinner?' “人类的智慧,当记者问,'什么应做与罪人?'replieth, 'Evil pursueth sinners' (Prov. xiii. 21). Prophecy, when asked, 'What shall be done with the sinner?'replieth,'邪恶追赶罪人'(箴十三。21)。预言,当记者问,'什么应与罪人呢?'replieth, 'The soul that sinneth, it shall die' (Ezek. xviii. 4). The Law, when asked, 'What shall be done with the sinner?'replieth'的灵魂sinneth,他必死亡'(结十八。4)。法律,当记者问,'什么应做与罪人?'replieth, 'Let him bring a guilt-offering and the priest shall atone for him' (Lev. i. 4 [Hebr.]). God himself, when asked, 'What shall be done with the sinner?' replieth,'让他带来罪恶感祭,祭司要为他赎罪'(利未记岛4 [黑布尔。])。神自己,当问,应当用什么做的罪人?'replieth, 'Let him repent, and he will be atoned for; was it not said: "Good and upright is the Lord: therefore will he teach sinners in the way of repentance" (Psalms xxv. 8). For, my children, what do I require of you? "Seek me and live"'" replieth,'让他悔改,他将有血气的,是不是说:“好正派是主:因此将他任教的忏悔方式罪人”,因为,我的孩子,(诗篇二十五8)。。这就是我需要你吗?“求我,活”'“

Upon these ideas, which can be traced through the entire Apocryphal literature, was based the liturgy of the fast-days, and that of the Day of Atonement in particular; they are probably best expressed in the Ne'ilah prayer of the latter, which, going much further back than the second century (seeYoma 87b, where Rab of Babylonia and R. Johanan of Palestine refer to some portions of it), contains such sentences as the following:根据这些想法,这可以通过追踪整个猜测文学,是基于对快速天礼仪,而中,特别是赎罪日,他们可能是最好的了后者,这表示Ne'ilah祈祷,去更远的回报比在第二世纪(seeYoma 87B条,其中饶的巴比伦王国和R.约哈难的巴勒斯坦指它的某些部分),载有如下这样的句子:

"Thou offerest thy hand to transgressors, and Thy right hand is stretched out to receive the repentant" (Pes. 119a).“你的手你offerest对违规者,你的右手伸出接收忏悔”(Pes. 119A条)。 "Not in reliance upon our merits do we lay our supplications before Thee, O Lord of all the world, but trusting in Thy great mercy. Thou dost not find delight in the perdition of the world, but Thou hast pleasure in the return of the wicked that they may live." “不是我们的优点倚我们躺在你面前,啊,世界上所有的主,我们的恳求,但在你的大怜悯信任。你也许不觉得在世界灭亡的喜悦,你却在返回竟高兴邪恶使他们活了。“

The saying of the Rabbis, "Higher is the station of the sinner who repenteth than that of him who has never sinned" (Ber. 34b; see Pes. 119a; Luke xv. 10), emanates from the same principle of God's redeeming grace:(Pesiḳ. ib. 162b).该拉比说:“较高的是谁的千古罪人谁比他从来没有犯过罪悔改站”(Ber. 34B条。见狗119A条。路加福音十五10),源自上帝的救赎恩典同样的原则:(pesiḳ.二兴业162B条。)。

"God says, 'Open for me a gate no wider than a needle's eye, and I will open for you a gate through which camps and fortifications can pass'" (Pesiḳ. xxv. 163b). “上帝说,'我一门不超过一针的眼睛更广泛地打开,我会为你打开一扇大门营地和工事,通过它可以传递'”(pesiḳ.二十五。163b)。"When the angels wanted to shut the windows of heaven against the prayer of Menasseh, saying, 'Can a man who set an idol in the Temple repent?' “当天使想关闭反对Menasseh祈祷天上的窗户,说,一个人可以谁设置在寺庙中悔改偶像?'God said, 'If I receive him not in his repentance, I shut the door upon all penitents'; and He bored a hole under His throne of Glory to hear his supplication"上帝说,'如果我接受他的忏悔不是他,我呼吁所有忏悔者关闭的门',以及他根据他的无聊荣耀的宝座孔听到他的恳求“


(b) On the part of man Atonement is obtained in the first place by repentance, which consists of an outward Confession Of Sins ("widdui," Lev. v. 5; xvi. 21) prescribed for the high priest on the Day of Atonement (Yoma 36b), and for the criminal before his execution, to expiate his sins (Sanh. vi. 2); and recited on penitential and fast days and by proselytes at the time of their admission into the Jewish fold (see "Prayers of Asenath," xiii.-xiv.) also by the dying ("Ebel Zuṭṭarti," in Brüll's "Jahrb." i. 11). (二)关于人的赎罪部分是由悔改获得第一名,其中一个向外的罪孽忏悔包括(“widdui,”列夫诉5。十六21。)订明的当天的大祭司赎罪(山脉36B条),以及他的前执行刑法,以赎自己的罪孽(sanh.六2。)和背诵在其入院时的忏悔和斋戒日和的proselytes到犹太倍(见“祈祷对阿塞纳丝,“xiii.至十四。)临死之前(也”玉宝Zuṭṭarti,“在Brüll的”Jahrb。“岛11)。 This is to be the expression of self-reproach, shame, and contrition.这是值得的自责,羞愧,痛悔的表达。"They must feel shame throughout their whole soul and change their ways; reproaching themselves for their errors and openly confessing all their sins with purified souls and minds, so as to exhibit sincerity of conscience, and having also their tongues purified so as to produce improvement in their hearers" (Philo, "De Execratione," viii.). “他们必须感到羞耻的整个整个的灵魂,改变自己的方式;责备自己的过失,并公开承认自己所有的灵魂和思想纯化的罪孽,从而表现出良心诚意,也有自己的舌头纯化,以改善生产在他们的听众“(​​斐洛,”德Execratione,“八。)。 The verse, "He who sacrifices thank-offerings [AV, "praise"] glorifies me" (Ps. 1. 23), is taken by the Rabbis as signifying, "He who sacrifices his evil desire while offering his confession of sin ["zobeaḥ todah"] honors God more than if he were praising Him in the world that now is and in the world to come" (Sanh. 43b).的诗句,“谁牺牲的感谢祭[视听,”赞美“]美化我”(诗1。23),是由拉比作为象征,“谁牺牲自己邪恶的欲望,同时提供他的罪恶[自白“zobeaḥtodah”]神比以往更多的荣誉,他在赞美世界,现在是,在未来世界“(Sanh. 43B条)他。"He who feels bitter shame and compunction over his sins is sure of obtaining pardon" (Ber. 12b; Hag. 5a).“他感到痛苦的羞愧和谁在他的罪过悔恨,是确保获得赦免”(Ber. 12B条;黑格5A条。)。

Reparation of Wrong.修复错误的。

But the main stress is laid upon the undoing of the wrong done.但主要强调的是后,奠定了做错的失败。"No sin that still cleaves to the hand of the sinner can be atoned for; it is as if a man would cleanse himself in the water while holding the contaminating object in his hand; therefore it is said, 'He that covereth his sins shall not prosper, but whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall have mercy" (Prov. xxviii. 13; Ta'anit 16a). “没有罪仍然劈开到罪人手可有血气的,这是因为如果一个男人会清洗自己在水中握住他的手污染的对象,所以说,'他说他的罪过应盖没有繁荣,惟有confesseth和离弃他们应具有慈悲“(箴二十八13;。Ta'anit 16A条)。If a man steal a beam and use it in building, he must tear down the building in order to return the stolen thing to its owner: thus of the men of Nineveh it is said, "Let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in [cleaves to] their hands" (Jonah iii. 8; Yer. Ta'anit ii. 65b; Bab. B. Ḳ. 66b).如果一个人偷梁和使用建设中,但他必须拆除的建设,以偷来的东西归还其主人:对尼尼微人是这样说,“让他们把每一个从他邪恶的方式之一,从暴力,在[劈开来]是他们的手“(约拿三8;。。。也门里亚尔Ta'anit二65B条。巴布乙ḳ理应知道313A。)。 Further, repentance consists in abandoning the old ways, and in a change of heart; for it is said "Rend your heart and not your garments, and turn unto the Lord your God" (Joel ii. 13); that is to say, "If you tear your heart, you need not tear your garments over a loss of sons and daughters" (Pesiḳ. xxv. 161b; Yer. Ta'anit, lc).此外,忏悔在于放弃旧的方式,并在改变主意,因为它是说:“你们当撕裂的心,不是你的衣服,归向耶和华你的上帝”(珥二13。),这就是说, “如果你撕裂你的心,你不用翻出来的儿子和女儿的损失你的衣服”(pesiḳ.二二十五161B条。。也门里亚尔Ta'anit,立法会)。"They poured out their hearts like water before God" (Yer. Ta'anit ii. 65d).“他们在上帝面前一样倾注了他们的心水”(Yer. Ta'anit二。65D条)。"He who says, 'I will sin and repent; I will sin again and repent again,' will never be allowed time to repent" (Yoma viii. 9). “谁说,'我将罪恶和忏悔,我会再次和悔改再次犯罪,'将永远不会被允许的时间都要悔改”(山脉八9。)。Repentance rests on selfhumiliation.忏悔取决于selfhumiliation。"Adam was too proud to humiliate himself, and was therefore driven from Paradise" (Num. R. xiii. 3). “亚当太自豪地羞辱自己,因此逐出乐园”(num.传译十三。3)。"Cain who humbled himself was pardoned" (Pesiḳ. xxv. 160ab; Gen. R. xi., xxii.). “该隐谁自卑被赦免”(pesiḳ.二二十五160ab。将军河十一,二十二。。)。"Great is the power of repentance; for it reaches up to the throne of God; it brings healing (Hosea xiv. 5 [AV 4]); it turns sins resulting from ill-will into mere errors (according to Hosea xiv, 2 [AV 1]); nay, into incentives to meritorious conduct" (Yoma 86ab). “伟大的是悔改的权力,因为它最多时达神的宝座,它带来医治(。何西阿第十四5 [影音4]),它原来的罪孽造成的不良将成为单纯的错误(根据何西阿十四,二[影音1]);不仅如此,进入到立功奖励“(山脉86ab)。"He who sincerely repents is doing as much as he who builds temple and altar and brings all the sacrifices" (Lev. R. vii.; Sanh. 43b). “他是谁做真诚悔改和他一样​​多谁建寺庙和祭坛,并把所有的牺牲”(利未记河七;。。葬身43B条)。

Prayer, Fasting, and Charity.祈祷,斋戒和慈善事业。

Hand in hand with repentance goes prayer.与悔改手拉手去祈祷。"It takes the place of sacrifice" (Pesiḳ. xxv. 165b, according to Hosea xiv. 3 [AV 2]). “这需要牺牲的地方”(pesiḳ.二十五。165b,根据何西阿十四。三[影音2])。When God appeared to Moses after the sin of the Golden Calf, He taught him how to offer prayer on behalf of the sinladen community (RH 17b).当上帝出现后,金犊罪摩西,他教他如何提供对sinladen社区(相对湿度17B条)的名义祈祷。That prayer is the true service ('Abodah) is learned from Dan.祈祷是真正的服务('阿布达)是从丹教训。iv.四。24, there having been no other service in Babylonia (Pirḳe R. El. xvi.; Ab. RN iv.). 24,有没有在东风已被其他服务(pirḳe传译下午十六;。。。抗体护士四。)。"As the gates of repentance are always open like the sea, so are [holds R. 'Anan] the gates of prayer" (Pesiḳ. xxv. 157b).“作为悔改的大门是永远敞开大海一样,所以是[握着R.的阿南]盖茨的祈祷”(pesiḳ.二十五。157B条)。

But repentance and prayer are as a rule combined with fasting as a token of contrition, as is learned from the action of King Ahab recounted in I Kings xxi.但是,忏悔和祈祷为作为一个象征性的忏悔禁食结合了规则,因为是从亚哈行动的经验在我讲述国王二十一。27, of the men of Nineveh referred to in Jonah iii.27尼尼微的男人,提到在约拿三。7, and of Adam in Vita Adæ et Evæ, 6; Pirḳe R. El.7,在维塔Adæ等Evæ,6亚当;pirḳe传译下午。xx.; 'Er.二十。'呃。18b.18B条。Fasting was regarded like "offering up the blood and fat of the animal life upon the altar of God" (Ber. 17a; compare Pesiḳ., ed. Buber, p. 165b, note).空腹被认为像“提供了血液和神的祭坛后,该动物生活的脂肪”(Ber. 17A条,比较Pesiḳ,海关布伯,第165b,请注意。。)。With these is, as a rule, connected charity, which is "more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice" (Prov. xxi. 3).这些是,作为一项规则,连接慈善机构,这是“更容易接受,而不是牺牲的上帝”(箴二十一。3)。On every fastday charity was given to the poor (Sanh. 35a; Ber. 6b).在每一个fastday慈善是考虑到穷人(Sanh. 35A条。误码率6B型)。"Prayer, charity, and repentance, these three together, avert the impending doom" (Yer. Ta'anit ii. 65b).“祈祷,慈善,和悔改,这三个人一起,避免迫在眉睫的末日”(Yer. Ta'anit二。65B条)。"Repentance and works of benevolence are together the paracletes [pleaders] for man before God's throne (Shab. 32a), and a shield against punishment" (Abot iv. 11).“忏悔和仁的作品一起paracletes [辩护人]对于人在上帝面前的宝座(Shab. 32A条),以及反对惩罚盾”(Abot四。11)。

Suffering as Means of Atonement.苦难作为赎罪方式。

Another thing considered by the Rabbis as a means of Atonement is suffering.作为一个赎罪的拉比考虑的另一途径就是痛苦。Suffering is more apt than sacrifice to win God's favor and to atone for man (Mek., Yitro, 10; Sifre, Deut. 32; Ber. 5a).苦难是比牺牲更容易赢得上帝的青睐和对人类赎罪(Mek.,Yitro,10岁; Sifre,申命记32;。误码率5A条。)。 Poverty also, in so far as it reduces man's physical strength, has atoning power (Pesiḳ. xxv. 165a).贫困也是迄今为止,因为它降低人的体力,已赎罪功率(pesiḳ.二十五。165a)。Similar power was ascribed to exile (Sanh. 37b); also to the destruction of the Temple, which was held as a security-a play on the word -for Israel's life (Gen. R. xlii.; Ex. R. xxxi.; Lev. R. xi.).类似的权力是归因于流亡(Sanh.第37B),也给了庙,这被认为是安全上的字对以色列的生命(创传译四十二发挥举行销毁;。。惠河三十一。 ;列夫河十一)。。。Above all, death atones for sin (Sifre, Num. 112; Mek., Yitro, 7).首先,对罪死atones(sifre,序号112。。丁酮,Yitro,7)。"Let my death make atonement for all my sins," say men when dying or in peril (Ber. 60a; Sanh. vi. 2). “让我所有的罪让我死赎罪,”说男人临终的时候,或在危险(Ber.第60A条;葬身六2。。)。Particularly the deathof the righteous atones for the sins of the people.特别是deathof为人民的正义atones罪。"Like the sanctuary, he is taken as security ["mashkon"] for the life of the community" (Tan., Wayaḳhel 9; Ex. R. xxxv. 4; Lev. R. ii.). “就像避难所,他是作为安全[”mashkon“],为市民的生活”(Tan.,Wayaḳhel9;惠河三十五4;。。。。列夫河二)。

Suffering or Death of the Righteous.义人的痛苦或死亡。

That the death of the righteous atones is learned from II Sam.这义atones死亡据悉,从二山姆。 xxi.二十一。14, which says that after the burial of Saul and Jonathan "God was entreated for the land" (Pesiḳ. xxvii. 174b). 14,它说,经过对扫罗和约拿单埋葬“上帝乞求的土地”(pesiḳ.二十七。174b)。"Where there are no righteous men in a generation to atone for the people, innocent school-children are taken away" (Shab. 33b).“哪里有这一代人没有正义为人民赎罪,无辜学校的孩子们都带走”(Shab. 33 B的)。So also does the suffering of the righteous atone; as in the case of Ezekiel (Sanh. 39a) and Job (Ex. R. xxi.).所以也没有义人赎罪的痛苦;如以西结(Sanh. 39A条)及工作情况(例如传译二十一。)。R. Judah haNasi's suffering saved his contemporaries from calamities (Gen. R. 96).犹大哈纳斯河的痛苦免于灾难(创传译96)他的同时代人。God is the King whose wrath is, in Prov.上帝是国王的愤怒是,在省。xvi.十六。14, referred to "as messengers of death," and the wise man who makes Atonement for it is Moses, who pacifies Him by prayer (Ex. R. xliii.). 14,简称“作为死亡使者”,而聪明的人谁使赎罪,因为这是摩西,谁安抚他的祈祷(出河四十三。)。The death of Israel at the hands of his persecutors is an atoning sacrifice (Sifre, Deut. 333).以色列在他的迫害者的手中死亡是一种赎罪的牺牲(Sifre,申命记。333)。

Study of the Torah.研究的律法。

Atoning powers are ascribed also to the study of the Law, which is more effective than sacrifice, especially when combined with good works (RH 18a; Yeb. 105a; Lev. R. xxv.).赎罪的权力,也赋予了该法的研究,这是更有效的,而不是牺牲,尤其是当有善行联合(铑18A条; Yeb 105A号。。列夫河二十五。)。The table from which the poor received their share atones for man's sins in place of the altar (see Altar); the wife being the priestess who makes Atonement for the house (Ber. 55a; Tan., Wayishlaḥ, vi.).该表,从中获得了可怜的人的罪孽在坛(见坛)将它们的份额atones;暂时的女祭司谁使这所房子赎罪妻子(Ber.第55A。谈,Wayishlaḥ,六。)。 The meritorious lives of the Patriarchs especially possess a great atoning power (Ex. R. xlix.).立功的始祖,特别是拥有一个强大的生命赎罪功率(出埃及记第四十九届河。)。The Holy Land itself has atoning qualities for those who inhabit it or are buried in its soil, as is learned from Deut.圣地本身已为那些谁赎罪居住,或在其领土上埋藏的是从deut据悉,素质。xxxii.三十二。43, which verse is interpreted "He will make His land an Atonement for His people" (see Sifre, Deut. 333; Gen. R. xcvi.; Ket. 111a; Yer. Kil. ix. 32c). 43,这诗句的解释:“他将他的土地为自己的人民赎罪”(见Sifre,申333;。将军河xcvi。氯胺酮111A章。。也门里亚尔基尔加丹九32C条。。)。 On the other hand, the descent of the wicked (heathen) into Gehenna for eternal doom is, according to Isa.另一方面,对恶人(异教徒)下降到地狱永恒的厄运是,按照伊萨。xliii.四十三。(AV), an atoning sacrifice for the people of Israel (compare Prov. xxi. 18). (影音),对以色列人民的赎罪祭(比较省。二十一。18)。"I gave Egypt for thy ransom [kofer], Ethiopia and Seba for thee" (Sifre, Deut. 333; Ex. R. xi.). “我给你的赎金为[kofer]为你,埃塞俄比亚和西巴埃及”(Sifre,申333。。惠河十一。)。

Atonement Is Regeneration.赎罪是再生。

The whole idea underlying Atonement, according to the rabbinical view, is regeneration-restoration of the original state of man in his relation to God, called "teḳanah" (RH 17a; 'Ar. 15b).整个构思基础赎罪,根据犹太教认为,这是再生,是从人的原始状态恢复他的亲戚神,所谓的“teḳanah”(铑17A条;'氩15B条。)。 "As vessels of gold or of glass, when broken, can be restored by undergoing the process of melting, thus does the disciple of the law, after having sinned, find the way of recovering his state of purity by repentance" (R. Akiba in Ḥag. 15a). “作为黄金或玻璃破碎时,船只可以恢复在经历的融化过程,从而没有法律的弟子,后犯了罪,求他收回了悔改的纯度国道”(河秋叶在女巫。15A条)。 Therefore he who assumes a high public office after the confession of his sins in the past is "made a new creature, free from sin like a child" (Sanh. 14a; compare Midr. Sam. xvii., "Saul was as one year old"; I Sam. xiii. 1, AV "reigned one year'" RV "was thirty years old").因此,他谁承担后,在过去的罪恶忏悔具有重要的公共办公室“作出了新的生物,像一个孩子从自由罪”(Sanh. 14A条,比较Midr三十七,“扫罗为一体的一年。。。老“。。我心第十三1,著名的”在位一年“房车”是三十岁“)。In fact, the Rabbis declare that the scholar, the bridegroom, and the Nasi, as well as the proselyte, on entering their new station in life, are freed from all their sins, because, having by confession of sins, fasting, and prayer prepared themselves for the new state, they are, as it were, born anew (Yer. Bik. iii. 65c, d; Midr. Sam. lc).事实上,拉比宣布学者,新郎和纳西,以及对进入的proselyte生活的新站,是从他们的罪恶中解脱出来,因​​为,拥有的罪孽忏悔,斋戒,祈祷编制了新的国家本身,他们是,因为它被重新诞生(Yer.碧三65度,D组;。。。。Midr山姆立法会)。 This is the case also with the change of name or locality when combined with change of heart (Pesiḳ. xxx. 191a; RH 16b).这是与地方的名称或变更时也改变主意时,合并(pesiḳ.二xxx 191A条。湿度16B条)。The following classical passage elucidates the rabbinical view as taught by R. Ishmael (of the second century; Yoma, 86a):(compare Mishnah Shebu. i. 1-6).通过下面的经典阐发了犹太教认为教授的R.伊斯梅尔(第二个世纪,山脉,86A条):(一比1-6米示拿Shebu。)。

"There are four different modes of Atonement. If a man fails to fulfil the duty incumbent upon him in case of a sin of omission, for him repentance suffices, as Jeremiah (iii. 22) says, 'Return, ye backsliding children, and I will heal your backsliding.'“有四种不同的模式赎罪。如果一个人不履行的情况下,对过错责任后,他有责任对他来说,忏悔就够了,正如耶利米(iii. 22)说,'回报,你们背道的儿女,和我要医治你们背道的。'If he has transgressed a prohibitory law-a sin of commission-the Day of Atonement atones: of him the Löw says, 'On this day He shall atone for your sins to cleanse you' (Lev. xvi. 30). If he be guilty of crimes such as entail the death penalty and the like, repentance and the Day of Atone ment can not expiate them unless suffering works as a purifying factor: to this the Psalmist refers when he says, 'I will visit their transgressions with the rod and their iniquities with stripes' (Ps. lxxxix. 33 [AV 32]). And if the crime amount to a desecration of the name of God and the doing of great harm to the people at large, nothing but death can be the penalty; as Isaiah (xxii. 14) says, 'Surely this iniquity shall not be atoned for you [AV "purged from you"] till ye die, saith the Lord God of Hosts'" Whether the Day of Atonement atoned only for sins committed in error and ignorance or involuntarily (Heb. ix. 7), or also for those committed wilfully with a high hand (Num. xv. 26, 30), whether only after due repentance or without it, is discussed by the Rabbis (Shebu. 13a; Yoma 85b); and the resulting opinion is that just as the scapegoat atoned for all the sins of the nation, whether committed involuntarily or wilfully (Shebu. i. 6), so also does the Day of Atonement, true repentance having the power of turning all sins into mere errors, such as are forgiven to the whole congregation according to Num.如果他犯了一个禁止性法律​​的佣金的赎罪日atones罪:(。利未记十六30)。低他说:'在这一天,他应为自己的罪过赎罪清洗你'如果他是犯了罪,如涉及死刑之类的,忏悔和赎罪彪不能赎罪,除非苦难作为净化因子著作加以日:是指对这种情况的诗人时,他说,'我将访问他们的越轨与棒与条纹'(诗篇lxxxix。33 [视听32])他们的罪孽。如果犯罪构成对上帝的名义亵渎和伤害做的伟大的此刻,只有死亡的人可以是罚款,正如以赛亚书(xxii. 14)说,'这真是罪孽必不使你赎罪[视听“清除了你”],直到你们死,这是耶和华说万军之神'“是否为罪赎罪日赎罪只承诺在错误和无知或不自愿地(希伯来书九。7),或也具有很高的手犯故意的(民数记十五。26,30),是否只有经过适当的悔改或者没有它,是讨论由拉比(Shebu 。13A条;山脉85B条),以及由此产生的看法是,正如所有民族的罪恶的替罪羊有血气,不论其是不由自主地,或故意(Shebu.一6),所以也做的赎罪日,真正的悔改有要成为单纯的错误,所有的罪孽电源,如赦到整个教会按序号。 xv.十五。26.26。All the greater emphasis is laid on sincere repentance, without which the Day of Atonement is inefficient (Maimonides, "Yad," Teshubah, i. 3).所有的更大的重点是放在真诚悔改,没有它的赎罪日是低效(迈蒙尼德,“亚”Teshubah,一3)。

Annual Redintegration of Man.每年的复旧的男人。

All the various elements effecting Atonement are in a marked degree combined in the Day of Atonement, to make it the occasion of the great annual redintegration of man.所有的影响赎罪各种要素在赎罪日结合了显着的程度,使其成为伟大的人每年的复旧之际。It is called "Shabbat Shabbaton," the holiest of rest-days as the Shabbath of the Sabbatical month (Lev. xxiii. 32), because it was to prepare the people for the festival of harvest joy, the Succoth feast at the close of the agricultural season (Ex. xxiii. 16, xxxiv. 22; Lev. xxiii. 34, xxv. 9, 10; Ezek. xl. 1).它被称为“安息日Shabbaton”的作为休假一个月Shabbath(利未记二十三。32)最神圣的休息天,因为它是准备收获的喜悦,在关闭疏割人的节日盛宴农业季节(出埃及记二十三十六,三十四22;。。34列弗二十三,二十五9,10。。。以西结书xl的1。。)。 Whereas Ezekiel (xlv. 18-20) intended to have the first and the seventh day of the first month rendered days of Atonement for the year, the Mosaic law ordained that the new moon of the seventh month should be a Sabbath (Lev. xxiii. 24), heralding forth with the trumpet in more solemn sounds than on other new-moon days (Num. x. 10) the holy month; and this was to be followed by the day which was to consecrate both the nation and the sanctuary by imposing atoning rites.鉴于以西结(xlv. 18-20)拟具的第一和渲染的赎罪日该年度的第一个月第七天,镶嵌法受戒的是,第七个月新月应该是一个安息日(利未记二十三。24),预示随着小号出更庄严的声音比其他新新月天(民数记十,10)的圣月,而这是由一天,都奉献国家和圣所遵循征收赎罪仪式。 These rites were of a two-fold character.这些仪式是一个双重性格。

Day of Atonement.赎罪日。

Atonement for the people was made in a form without any parallel in the entire sacrificial system, Lev.为人民赎罪是在没有任何形式在整个祭祀制度,列弗平行。xvi.十六。7-22, or Deut.7-22,或申。 xxi.二十一。4, perhaps excepted. 4,或许除外。A scapegoat, upon which the high priest laid the sins of the people, was sent forth into the wilderness to Azazel (a demon,according to Ibn Ezra on Lev. xvi. 10, related to the goatlike demons, or satyrs, referred to in Lev. xvii. 7; compare Yoma 67b); and its arrival at the rock of Ḥadudo,where it was cast down the precipice, was signalized as the moment of the granting of pardon to the people by the waving of a wisp of snow-white wool in place of one of scarlet, over the Temple gate, crowds of young people waiting on the hills of Jerusalem to celebrate the event by dancing (Yoma iv. 1-8; Ta'anit iv. 8).一个替罪羊,在此基础大祭司奠定了人的罪,被差遣到到阿撒兹勒(恶魔旷野,根据伊本以斯拉在列弗。十六。十,关系到goatlike恶魔,还是萨特,所指列夫十七7;。。比较山脉67b)和其于Ḥadudo,它被打倒悬崖岩石的到来,是作为给予赦免的人时刻灯号由雪一缕挥舞,在一个地方朱红在庙口,白羊毛,在耶路撒冷山上等候的人群以年轻人跳舞庆祝活动(山脉四1-8;。Ta'anit四8。)。

Obviously this primitive rite was not of late origin, as is alleged by modern critics, but was a concession rather to ancient Semitic practise, and its great popularity is shown by the men of rank accompanying it, by the cries with which the crowd followed it, and by tales of a miraculous character related in the Mishnah and the Gemara (Yoma 66a, 67a, 68b).显然,这原始的成年礼没有后期出身,作为现代批评家所说,而是一个相当优惠的古代闪族的做法,其大受欢迎,是表现出它的秩男子陪同,由与该人群的呼喊它遵循,并通过在mishnah和革马拉(山脉66A条,第67A,68B条)与一个神奇的人物故事。 On the other hand, the sprinkling by the high priest of the blood of the bullock, the ram, and the second goat, consecrated to the Lord, was in full keeping with the usual Temple ritual, and distinguished itself from the sacrificial worship of other days only by the ministrations of the high priest, who, clad in his fine linen garb, offered the incense and sprinkled blood of each sin-offering upon the Holy of Holies and the veil of the Holy Place for the purification of the whole sanctuary as well as of his own household and the nation.另一方面,通过对公牛的,这羊,山羊第二献给主,大祭司洒血,正在全力与通常的宗庙礼保管,区别于其他祭祀崇拜自己只能由大祭司,谁在他的外衣穿着细麻布the ministrations天,所提供的香,洒血每个赎罪后,至圣祭和圣面纱地点整个圣殿中纯化以及他自己的家庭和国家。The impressiveness of these functions, minutely described in Mishnah (Yoma ii.-vii.), has been vividly pictured by Ben Sira, whose words in Ecclus.这些功能的感人情景,在示拿细描述(山脉白介素-七。),已生动地便西拉,他们的话语中Ecclus合照。(Sirach) 1.(西拉奇)1。were embodied in the synagogue liturgy at the close of the 'Abodah.都体现在犹太教堂礼仪在'阿布达关闭。But while, according to Scripture, the high priest made Atonement (Lev. xvi. 30), tradition transferred the atoning power to God, as was expressed in the high priest's prayer commencing, "Kapper na" (O Lord, atone Thou for the iniquities, the sins, and the transgressions," Yoma iii. 8, iv. 2, vi. 2); interpreting the verse (Lev. xvi. 30): "Through that day He, the Lord, shall atone for you" (Yoma iii. 8; Sifra, Aḥare Mot, viii.).但同时,根据圣经,大祭司作出赎罪(利未记十六。30),传统转让给上帝赎罪权力,因为有人在大祭司的祷告开始,“Kapper娜”(主啊,为你赎罪罪孽的罪恶和罪过,“山脉三第8,四二,六2);解释经文(利未记十六30):。。。。”这一天中他,主阿,为你赎罪“(山脉三8;。sifra,aḥare摩托罗拉,八)。。

Great stress was laid on the cloud of incense in which the high priest was enveloped when entering the Holy of Holies; and many mystic or divinatory powers were ascribed to him as he stood there alone in the darkness, as also to the prayer he offered, to the Foundation Stone ("Eben Shetiyah"), on which he placed the censer, and to the smoke of the sacrifice (Yoma, 53a, b et seq.; Tan., Aḥare 3; Lev. R. xx., xxi.; compare Book of Jubilees xii. 16).巨大的压力奠定了对香中,大祭司是笼罩在进入至圣所云,还有许多神秘的或占卜的权力归因于他,因为他站在那里,独自在黑暗中,也为他提供的祈祷,该基金会石(“埃本Shetiyah”),对他放置香炉,以及对牺牲(山脉,53A条,乙等及以下吸烟;。。谈,Aḥare3;。。列弗传译二十,21。 ;比较第十二书的jubilees 16)。。The prayer offered by the high priest (according to Yer. Yoma v. 2; Tan., 'Aḥare 4; Lev. R. xx.) was that the year might be blessed with rain, heat, and dew, and might yield plenty, prosperity, independence, and comfort to the inhabitants of the land.由高级神职人员所献的祷告(。据也门里亚尔山脉诉2;谈,'Aḥare4;。。。列弗传译二十)被认为可能与今年雨水,供热,露水祝福,并可能产生大量,繁荣,独立和安慰地的居民。

In the course of time the whole Temple ritual was taken symbolically, and more stress was laid on the fasting, the prayers, and the supplications, to which the people devoted the whole day, entreating pardon for their sins, and imploring God's mercy.在时间的过程中,采取了全寺仪式象征性和更大的压力是在禁食,祈祷,并恳求,所规定的专门讨论了整整一天的人,恳求他们的罪孽赦免,并恳求上帝的怜悯。 This at least is the view expressed by Philo ("De Septenario," 23), even if it was not yet shared by the people in general, when the Epistle to the Hebrews (ix.) and that of Barnabas (vii.) were written.这是至少斐洛(“德Septenario,”23)表达的观点,即使是尚未由人民共享一般来说,当书信向希伯来人(ix.)和巴拿巴(vii.)被写的。 It was after the destruction of the Temple, and through the synagogue, that the Day of Atonement assumed its high spiritual character as the great annual regenerator of Jewish life in connection with New-Year's Day.这是后圣殿被毁,并通过犹太教堂,是在赎罪日就任伟大的犹太人生活在每年的再生与新型元旦连接高精神品格。

Day of Sealing God's Decree.日封上帝的法令。

Down to the first century, in Apocalyptical as well as in New Testament writings, the idea of the divine judgment was mainly eschatological in character, as deciding the destiny of the soul after death rather than of men on earth.下至一世纪,在新约中Apocalyptical著作得好,神圣的判决的想法,主要是在性格末世论,作为决定死后灵魂的命运,而不是地球上的人。 But under the influence of Babylonian mythology, which spoke of the beginning of the year-"zagmuk"-on the first day of Nisan, as the time when the gods decided the destiny of life (Jensen, "Kosmologie," pp. 84-86, 238), the idea developed also in Jewish circles that on the first of Tishri, the sacred New-Year's Day and the anniversary of Creation, man's doings were judged and his destiny was decided; and that on the tenth of Tishri the decree of heaven was sealed (Tosef., RH i. 13; RH 11a, 16a), a view still unknown to Philo ("De Septenario," 22) and disputed by some rabbis (RH 16a).但在巴比伦神话的影响,这一年中,“zagmuk”上的第一天尼散月的时间,当神决定了一生的命运(詹森,“Kosmologie,”页84开始发言 - 86,238),这个想法发展也犹太圆圈,在提斯利,神圣的新型元旦和创作周年之际,人的所作所为进行了判断和自己的命运,决定第一,并认为在提斯利第十法令天堂是密封的(Tosef.,铑一13;相对湿度第11A,16A条),有一种观点仍然不明斐洛(“德Septenario,”22)和一些拉比(铑16A条)有争议。 Thus, the first ten days of Tishri grew to be the Ten Penitential Days of the year, intended to bring about a perfect change of heart, and to make Israel like new-born creatures (Pesiḳ. xxiii., xxiv.; Lev. R. xxix.), the culmination being reached on the Day of Atonement, when religion's greatest gift, God's condoning mercy, was to be offered to man.因此,提市黎月上旬成长为十大悔罪天的一年,旨在实现完美的心的变化,使如新出生的动物以色列(pesiḳ.二二十三,二十四。。。列弗ř 。十九。)达成的高潮是在赎罪,当宗教的最大的礼物,上帝的宽恕怜悯,是提供给男人日。It was on this day that Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the Tables of the Law received in token of God's pardon of the sin of the golden calf, while the whole congregation fasted and prayed.正是在这一天,摩西从西奈山下来用在神的金牛犊的罪赦免法的令牌获得表,而整个聚集禁食祈祷。The Day of Atonement was thenceforth made the annual day of divine forgiveness of sin, when Satan, the accuser, failed to find blame in the people of Israel, who on that day appeared pure from sin like the angels (see Seder 'Olam R. vi.; Tan., Ki Tissa, 4; Pirḳe R. El. xlvi.).在赎罪日是此后作出了罪,当撒旦,原告,没有发现在以色列,谁在这一天出现了从单纯的像天使罪的人怪神的宽恕每年的一天(见塞德'奥兰河六;。潭,奇Tissa,4;。pirḳe传译下午四十六)。。。 According to Pirḳe R. El.据pirḳe传译下午。xxix., the circumcision of Abraham took place on the Day of Atonement, and the blood which dropped down on the very spot where the altar afterward stood in the temple on Moriah is still before the eyes of God to serve as means of Atonement.二十九。,就是亚伯拉罕的割礼发生在每年的赎罪日进行,而血,掉在那个地方非常坛后来在寺庙停止对特莫赖厄前面还有神的眼中,作为赎罪的手段。

A Day of Confiding Joy.一个倾诉欢乐的日子。

Far from being the means of "pacifying an angry God," as suggested by Cheyne ("Encyc. Bibl." sv), or from leaving a feeling of uncertainty and dread of suspense concerning God's pardoning love in the heart, as Weber ("Altsynagogale Theologie," p. 321) maintains, these ten days are the days of special grace when the Shekinah is nigh, and God longs to grant pardon to His people (Pesiḳ. xxiv.).远不是手段“摆平愤怒的上帝”,由进益建议(“Encyc。Bibl。”希沃特),或离开正如韦伯的不确定性和关于上帝的赦免在心里爱的悬念恐惧的感觉,(“ Altsynagogale神学“,第321页)坚持认为,这十天是特殊的恩典时,舍吉拿的日子近了,神渴望给予赦免他的人(pesiḳ.二二十四。)。 The Day of Atonement is the "one day" prepared from the beginning to unite the world divided between the light of goodness and the darkness of sin (Gen. R. ii., iii.), "a day of great joy to God" (Tanna debe Eliyahu Ri).在赎罪日是“一天”从一开始就准备团结光线之间的善良和罪恶的黑暗除以世界(将军河二。,三。)“的巨大喜悦神的一天” (坦纳debe埃利亚胡里)。"Not depressed and in somber garments as the suppliant appears before the earthly judge and ruler should Israel on New-Year's Day and on the Day of Atonement stand before the Ruler and the Judge on high, but with joy and in white garments betokening a cheerful and confiding spirit" (Yer. RH i. 57b). “不沮丧,在低沉的服装,作为恳求前出现的人间法官和以色列应该对新型元旦和关于赎罪日前统治者和法官对高站在统治者,但欢乐和白色服装betokening开朗并吐露精神“(Yer.铑一57B条)。 Only later generations regarded these white garments, the Sargenes-in which also the dead were dressed in order to appear before the Judge of all flesh full of gladsome hope-as shrouds, and considered them as reminders of death (Yer. RH lc; Eccl. R. ix. 7; Gen. R. lc; Brueck, "Pharisäische Volkssitten," 1368).只有把这些后人白色服装,在Sargenes在死者中也穿着,以便出现之前,所有肉充满希望法官gladsome作为整流罩,并认为作为一种死亡的提醒(Yer.相对湿度立法会;传道书。河九7;。将军河立法会; Brueck“Pharisäische Volkssitten,”1368年)。"The firstday of Succoth is called the first day [Lev. xxiii. 35] because on it a new record begins, the sins of the year having been wiped off on Atonement Day" (Tan., Emor., 22).他说:“疏割firstday被称为第一天[列弗。二十三。35]因为在这一个新的记录开始,一年的罪已被关上擦了擦赎罪日”(Tan.,Emor。,22)。 The sins of the preceding year therefore, unless they have been repeated, should not be confessed anew (Tosef., Yoma, v. 15; Yoma 86b; Ex. R. lii.).(Yoma viii. 9).前一年的罪过,因此,除非他们已经反复,不应该重新承认(Tosef.,山脉,诉15人;山脉86B条。。惠河崇礼)。(山脉八9。)。

"He who says, 'I will sin, and the Day of Atonement shall make atonement for me,' for him the Day of Atonement is of no avail. Only such sins as concern man's relation to God will be pardoned. Sins committed by man against his fellow man are pardoned only after his fellow man's pardon has been obtained; for it is said: 'From all your sins before the Lord ye shall be cleansed' (Lev. xvi. 30), thus excluding sins before man" “谁说,'我将罪,赎罪日应为我赎罪,对他的赎罪日是无济于事的。它们也担心人的关系的上帝,只有这样的罪将被赦免。罪孽人犯他的同胞是反对赦免人只是在他的同胞的赦免,已获得,因为它是说:(。利未记十六30)'从你所有的罪孽,在耶和华面前,你们应清洗',从而排除在人的罪“

Both Fast-Day and Festal Day.既快又日和喜庆的节日。

The Day of Atonement has thus a double character; it is both a fast-day and a festal day.在赎罪日就此双重性质,它是既快一天,喜庆的节日。It comprises the elements of the great fast-day of the year, on which are prohibited all those things from which the people abstained on any other public fast-day, such as eating and drinking, bathing and anointing, the wearing of sandals or shoes, etc. (Yoma 76b and 77a).它包括大快天的一年,这是禁止从所有这些事情,人民投弃权票的要素的任何其他公共快天,如吃,喝,洗澡和恩膏,在穿着凉鞋或皮鞋等(山脉76b及77A条)。 Another mode of affliction or penitence, however, is prohibited (Yoma 74b; Sifra, Aḥare, vii.).另一种模式的痛苦或忏悔,但禁止(山脉74B条。Sifra,Aḥare,七)。There were likewise embodied in the liturgy of the Day of Atonement all those forms of supplications and portions of the liturgy used on public fast-days (Ta'anit iv. 1), including the most characteristic portion recited at sunset, Ne'ilah ("the closing of the gates of the sun").有同样体现在所有的赎罪日的恳求和部分公共礼仪快速天使用的表格礼仪(Ta'anit四。1),包括最具特色的部分背诵在日落时分,Ne'ilah( “闭幕的太阳门”)。Of these the confession of sins forms the oldest and most prominent part of each portion of the day's liturgy, the alphabetical order in the catalogue of sins having originated in Ḥasidic circles (Rom. i. 29 et seq.; Didache v.; Shab. 54a) rather than in the Temple liturgy (Sifra i.; Yoma iii. 8).这些形式的罪孽忏悔的每一天的礼仪部分最古老和最突出的部分,在按字母顺序排列的罪孽目录哈西德派起源于有界(罗马书一29起。十二使徒遗训诉;沙巴。 54A条),而不是在寺庙礼拜仪式(Sifra一;山脉三8)。。This is to be followed by the "Seliḥot," the appeals to God's forgiveness as expressed in the thirteen Attributes of God as He appeared to Moses on Sinai, promising "Salaḥti," "I have forgiven" (Num. xiv. 18-20).这是由其次是“Seliḥot,”向上帝的宽恕呼吁在13个属性的上帝似乎他表示摩西在西奈半岛,有为“Salaḥti”,“我已经原谅”(民数记十四。18-20 )。The reading from the Law of the chapter on the Atonement sacrifice in Lev.从本论列夫赎罪牺牲章有法阅读。xvi., in the morning portion, is followed by the reading from the prophet Isaiah (lvii. 15-lviii. 14) as Hafṭarah, which has been significantly chosen to impress the worshipers with the lesson that the external rite of fasting is valueless without the works of righteousness and beneficence.十六。,早上部分,其次是从先知以赛亚的先知书阅读,这已大大选择留下深刻印象的教训的信徒们,外部的斋戒仪式是毫无价值没有(lvii. 15 lviii 14。)作品义和行善。

Differing in this respect from any other fast-day, and resembling all Sabbath and festival days, the celebration of the Day of Atonement begins in the synagogue on the preceding evening, in conformity with Lev.在这不同任何其他快速天的尊重,所有类似安息日和节日天,在赎罪日庆祝活动始于对前一个晚上犹太教堂,与列夫一致。xxiii.二十三。32 (Yoma 81b).32(山脉810)。 It probably did so during the time of the Temple (Yoma 19b), but not in the Temple itself (Yoma i. 2).它这样做可能在该庙(山脉19B条)的时间,但不是在圣殿(山脉一,二)。This evening service-called Kol-Nidre from its opening formula, which canceled rash vows-with its strongly marked melodies and songs, assumed in the course of time a very impressive character.这从开幕式,其中取消夜诊服务皮疹所谓科尔- Nidre誓言,其显着的旋律和强烈的歌曲,在时间的一个非常令人印象深刻的品德课承担。On the Day of Atonement itself, the noon or "musaf" (additional) service-presenting as its chief feature the 'Abodah, a graphic description of the whole Atonement service of the Temple-is followed by the afternoon or "Minḥah" service, which begins with the reading from the Law of the chapter on incestuous marriages, with a side-reference, as it were, to Azazel, the seducer to lewdness (Meg. 31a; Tos. ad loc.; Yoma 67b), and as Hafṭarah, the Book of Jonah, containing the great lesson of God's forgiving love extended to Gentiles as well as to Jews.在赎罪本身,中午或“musaf”日(附加)服务为主要功能介绍的'阿布达,是该庙赎罪服务整个图形的描述,其次是下午或“Minḥah”服务,这与从开始对乱伦的婚姻有章有法读,边引用,因为它是,到阿撒兹勒,对淫荡诱惑(Meg. 31A条。陶氏广告同上。山脉67b),和先知书,约拿书,包含了神的宽恕爱的伟大教训延长以及犹太人外邦人。This is followed by the Ne'ilah service, in which the main ideas of the day are especially emphasized-repentance conditioning forgiveness, and God's sealing the decree of man for the ensuing year.这是其次Ne'ilah服务,其中一天的主要思想是特别强调,悔罪调理宽恕与上帝的密封的男子来年的法令。The service ends with a solemn invocation of God's name, the Shema', and the sevenfold exclamation, "The Lord, He is God" (compare I Kings xviii. 39), forming the climax of the continuous devotions of the day.该服务结尾的神的名字,架构'庄严的调用,和七倍惊叹号,“主,他是神”(比较我国王十八。39),形成了当天的不断奉献的高潮。 As a signal of the close of the sacred day, so that the people may know that they can work or eat (Tos. to Shab. 114b), or for other reasons (see Kol Bo, lxx.; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 623, 6; Ṭur Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 624), the trumpet is blown once, or, as in Palestine, four times-"Teḳi'ah, Shebarim, Teru'ah, Teḳi'ah" (see Maḥzor Vitry, pp. 345, 356; Abudrahim, "Seder Tef. Yom Kippurim."). (。Tos.到沙巴114b​​)作为神圣的一天关闭信号,让人们可以知道,他们可以工作或吃,或因其他原因(见科尔,LXX的博。Shulḥan'Aruk,OraḥḤayyim ,623,6;图尔OraḥḤayyim,624),是吹小号的一次,也为在巴勒斯坦,四次,“Teḳi'ah,Shebarim,Teru'ah,Teḳi'ah”(见Maḥzor维特里,第345 ,356; Abudrahim,“赎罪Kippurim塞德毒性当量因子。。”)。Either in the Kol-Nidre service, as in Jerusalem, before the main prayers (Schwartz, "Das Heilige Land," p. 336), or after the morning service (Maḥzor Vitry, p. 353; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 621, 6), the dead are commemorated, and gifts are offered for their salvation (see Tan., Haazinu, i. ed. Vienna, 1853, p. 28; Pesiḳ. xxvii. 174b, and Roḳeaḥ, quoted in Beth Joseph to Ṭur Oraḥ Ḥayyim, lc)-a custom which in the Reform liturgy has been made a more prominent part of the service.无论是在科尔- Nidre服务,如耶路撒冷,在主祈祷(施瓦茨,“达斯Heilige土地”,第336页),或服务后,今天上午(Maḥzor维特里,第353;Shulḥan'Aruk,OraḥḤayyim, 621,6),纪念死去的人,和礼品是他们的救赎(见谈提供,Haazinu岛海关维也纳,1853年,第28页;。。Pesiḳ二十七174b和Roḳeaḥ,约瑟夫在贝丝引用的。。图尔OraḥḤayyim,立法会),一个是在改革已经取得了礼仪服务的部分更为突出的习俗。 In preparation for the Day of Atonement it is usual to offer gifts of charity, according to Prov.在为赎罪日准备是平常提供慈善捐赠,根据省。x.2, "Righteousness [charity] delivereth from death," and to go to the cemetery to visit the graves of the dead, a practise taken over from the fast-days (Ta'anit 16a; Yer. Ta'anit ii. 65a).2,“义[慈善]救从死亡”,并到墓地参观的死,接管快天的做法坟墓(Ta'anit 16A条。。也门里亚尔Ta'anit二65A条) 。

The custom of bringing candles to burn in the synagogue the whole day, in memory of the dead, may have originated in the desire to light up the otherwise dark synagogue for the recital of prayers and psalms by the pious during the entire night.了将蜡烛点燃了一整天的犹太教堂在纪念死者,自定义,可能起源于欲望照亮了整个晚上在为诗篇的祈祷和虔诚的演奏会,否则由暗会堂。 This is the one view expressed in Kol Bo lxviii.; but other reasons of a mystic nature are given for it there as well as in Maḥzor Vitry, p.这是一种观点认为在科尔博lxviii表示。而是一个神秘的性质的其他原因是因为它那里以及在Maḥzor维特里,由于第340; Abudrahim, lc; and Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 610.340; Abudrahim,立法会;和Shulḥan'Aruk,OraḥḤayyim,610。

Very significant, as showing a deep-rooted desire for some form of atoning sacrifice, is the custom-known already in the time of the Geonim, and found in Asia and Africa (see Benjamin II., "Acht Yahre in Asien und Africa," 1858, p. 273), as well as in Europe (Asheri Yoma viii. 23; Maḥzor Vitry, p. 339; Kol Bo lxviii.; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 605), though disapproved by Naḥmanides, Solomon ben Adret, and Joseph Caro (Ṭur Oraḥ Ḥayyim, lc)-of swinging over one's head, on or before the eve of Atonement Day, a fowl, usually a rooster or hen; solemnly pronouncing the same to be a vicarious sacrifice to be killed in place of the Jew or Jewess who might be guilty of death by his or her sin.非常重要,因为显示了某种形式的赎罪牺牲根深蒂固的愿望,是自定义知名的Geonim时间了,在亚洲和非洲发现(见本杰明二。“Acht有限公司在Asien Yahre非洲, “1858年,第273页),以及在欧洲(Asheri山脉八23;。Maḥzor维特里,第339页;科尔博lxviii。Shulḥan'Aruk,OraḥḤayyim,605),虽然由Naḥmanides,拒绝所罗门群岛本Adret和约瑟夫卡罗(图尔OraḥḤayyim,立法会),摆动超过一个人的头部,或以前的赎罪日,一鸟,通常是公鸡或母鸡前夕,郑重宣告了同样是一个替代牺牲到位丧生的犹太人或犹太女人谁可能是该死的他或她的罪过。 Fishes and plants, also (see Rashi, Shab. 81b), perhaps originally only these, were used in the gaonic time.鱼类和植物,也(见赖希,沙巴。810),也许原本只是这些,是在gaonic使用时间。The slaughtered animal or its equivalent was then given to the poor (see Kapparot).屠宰动物或同等学历,然后给穷人(见Kapparot)。Another custom of similar character is the receiving on the eve of Atonement Day, either in the synagogue or at home-the latter is usually the place in Jerusalem (see Schwartz, lc)-of thirty-nine stripes at the hand of a neighboras penalty for one's sins, according to Deut.另一个类似性质的规矩是收到关于赎罪日前夕,无论是在犹太教堂或在家里,后者通常是在耶路撒冷举行(见施瓦茨,立法会),对三九条纹在一个neighboras罚款手为自己的罪,根据申。 xxv.二十五。3, while reciting the Confession of Sins.3,而背诵的罪孽忏悔。(See Maḥzor Vitry, p. 344; Kol Bo, lxviii.; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 607.) According to Benjamin II., lc, people in Persia strip themselves to the loins in order to receive these stripes on the naked body (see Malḳut Schlagen). (见Maḥzor维特里,第344页;科尔博,lxviii。。Shulḥan'Aruk,OraḥḤayyim,607)。根据本杰明第二,立法会,人们在波斯条为了自己的腰收到关于这些条纹裸体机构(见MalḳutSchlagen)。 This is followed by bathing, so that man may appear pure in both body and soul before God on "the great day."其次是洗澡,因此,人在神面前可能出现在身体和心灵纯洁“伟大的一天。”

The Karaite Day of Atonement with its liturgy is to a great extent similar to that of the Rabbinite Jews.在与其礼仪赎罪日是圣经派在很大程度上类似于Rabbinite犹太人。It also begins half an hour before sunset of the preceding day, and lasts until half an hour after sunset of the day itself (see Karaites).它也开始前,前一天日落半小时,持续到后半的一天本身(见卡拉)日落小时。 The Samaritans, also, adopted the custom of preparing for the day by a purificative bath and of spending the night and the day in the synagogue with prayer and fasting, singing hymns, and reading from the Law (See Samaritans).撒玛利亚会,同时,通过了这一天准备了一purificative浴和消费中的祈祷和禁食犹太教堂昼和夜,唱圣歌,并从法律(见撒玛利亚)阅读习惯。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Hamburger, RBT i., under Versöhnung und Versöhnungstag; Zunz, SP pp. 76-80; Sachs, Die Religiöse Poesic der Juden in Spanien, 1845, pp. 172 et seq.; Brueck, Pharisäische Volkssitten, 1855, pp. 135-146.K.汉堡包,仙踪林岛,下Versöhnung有限公司Versöhnungstag;聪茨,SP的第76-80;萨克斯,模具Spanien,1845年Religiöse Poesic德国犹太人,第172页起; Brueck,Pharisäische Volkssitten,1855年,第135 - 。 146.K.

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