Baptism洗礼

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General Information一般资料

Baptism is a Sacrament of the Christian church in which candidates are immersed in water or water is poured over them in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. It is derived from the practice of John the Baptist, who baptized Jesus, and probably from the Jewish tebilah (a ritual bath). Matthew 28:19 calls upon Christians to make disciples and to baptize them. 洗礼圣事是耶稣的基督教教会在候选人都沉浸在水或水和圣灵浇在它们,在名称中的父亲,儿子精神。这 baptized派生从实践的施洗约翰,谁,and可能是从犹太人tebilah(一种仪式浴)。 马修28:19基督徒呼吁让弟子和他们施洗。

In the early church, baptism was administered after a period of preparation (catechumenate), preferably at Easter.在早期教会,洗礼是管理后一个时期的准备(慕道)最好是在复活节。It was performed in conjunction with the rites later called confirmation and Eucharist. The effects of baptism were believed to be union with Jesus in his death and Resurrection, forgiveness of sin, the gift of the Holy Spirit, membership in the church, and rebirth to new life in Christ. Some scholars believe infants were included among the candidates from the beginning; others believe that infant baptism began in the 3d century. Today Baptists and Disciples of Christ do not practice infant baptism and do insist on immersion.这是配合演出和圣餐仪式后来被称为确认。 洗礼的影响被认为是耶稣在他的工会的死亡和复活,罪得赦免的,精神的神圣礼物,教会的成员资格,重生到新的生命在基督里;。有些学者认为婴儿被列入候选人开始有人则认为,婴儿的洗礼世纪开始在3D 浸泡弟子今天浸信会和基督不实行婴儿的洗礼,做坚持。Most other churches baptize infants and permit the pouring of water.大多数其他教会洗礼的婴儿,并允许水涌出。 A few Protestant groups, such as the Quakers, reject outward baptism altogether. The Christian rite is in some ways similar to rites of purification used in other religions. 一些新教团体谊,如,拒绝完全对外洗礼。宗教是基督教仪式在某些方面类似于其他用于净化的仪式。

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Bibliography 参考书目
GR Beasley - Murray, Baptism in the New Testament (1973); AT Eastman, The Baptizing Community (1982); M Fahey, ed., Catholic Perspectives on Baptism, Eucharist, and Ministry (1986); A Schmemann, Of Water and the Spirit (1974); G Wainwright, Christian Initiation (1969).遗传资源比斯利 - 穆雷,在新约圣经(1973年)的洗礼;在伊士曼,该巴普蒂齐宁共同体(1982年)〔M费伊,教育署,天主教观点上的洗礼,圣体,和部(1986年),一个舒梅曼,水和。精神(1974)100温赖特,基督教启动(1969年)。


Baptism洗礼

Editor's Notes编者的话

In the normal process of things, one's Salvation is accomplished entirely separately from the Sacrament of Baptism.在事情​​发展的正常过程,人的救恩是完全分开完成的洗礼。A person proceeds through Regeneration and Justification and becomes Saved.通过再生和理由,并成为救了一个人得益。The subject of Baptism is a little different.洗礼的主题是有点不同。(And then the lifelong process of Sanctification follows.)(然后是圣洁终生的过程如下。)

There are even some different attitudes toward Baptism.甚至有一些不同的态度对洗礼。The very fact that this presentation needs to include around twenty different articles indicates that different Churches have different understandings regarding exactly what is required of a Baptism and what is meant by it.张女士介绍,这需要包括约二十个不同的文章表明,不同的教会有不同的理解究竟需要什么方面的洗礼,什么是它的意思。

The actual most "correct" one is called "Believer's Baptism".实际最“正确”的一个被称为“信徒的洗礼”。 [An entire article about Believer's Baptism is below, and most of these articles refer to it.] This is where, once a person IS Saved, whether as a 'new' Christian or a life-long Church attendee, a (public) Baptism is LATER performed, for that new Believer. [一个约信徒的洗礼,整篇文章的下面,其中大多数条款是指它。]这就是,一旦一个人无论是作为得救了,'新'基督教或终身会与会者,一(公)洗礼是晚演出的新信徒。 This Believer's Baptism is certainly actually the Sacrament that Jesus instituted.这信徒的洗礼是肯定实际上,耶稣设立圣餐。 It is an after-the-fact public acknowledgement and demonstration that a person has been Saved.这是一个后的实事求是的公开承认和示范,一个人已被储存。

There are many Churches and many Christians who consider Baptism to be a sort of "help" toward being Saved.有许多教堂和洗礼谁认为是一个“帮助”排序向被挽救了许多基督徒。"Infant Baptism" [see the article below] fits in this category, where a child clearly does not yet fully comprehend all the significance of being Saved or the Sacrament. “婴儿洗礼”[见下面的文章]在这一类别中,其中一个孩子显然还没有完全理解所有被保存或适合圣餐的意义。There can easily be such value, mostly in a psychological basis, but that concept seems clearly somewhat different from what Jesus intended Baptism to represent.有很容易被这种价值,主要是在一个心理基础,但这一概念看来显然有点耶稣的洗礼,代表不同的目的。

Since the only people who would receive a Believer's Baptism are those who have been ALREADY Saved, such people are expected to clearly and fully understand the difference between right and wrong.因为只有人谁都会收到一个信徒的洗礼是那些谁已经保存了,这样的人预期明确和充分认识正确与错误之间的区别。Such people also now recognize and understand the many "sins" they had done prior to becoming Saved as a Christian.这样的人现在也认识和了解许多“罪恶”,他们做了在成为一个基督徒得救。

The Baptism therefore represents a "washing away" of those past sins (forgiveness for them), allowing the new Christian to have a "clean slate" (called tabula rasa after the Latin for it) without carrying countless earlier guilts and sins.因此,代表的洗礼“冲走”这些(为他们宽恕)过去的罪孽,使新的基督教有一个“清白”(后为它称为白板拉丁)不带无数早期guilts和罪恶。 In addition, the "washing" of the Baptism implies a new "cleanness and purity" suitable for the entrance of a new Indwelling of the Holy Spirit (Holy Ghost) in that individual.此外,“洗”的洗礼,意味着一个新的“清洁和纯洁性”为一个圣灵(圣灵)在个别适合新留置入口。

The newly Saved Christian (or newly committed or re-committed Christian) therefore benefits from the Baptism regarding both his/her past (forgiveness) and future (guidance by the Spirit).新保存的基督教(或新提交或重新致力于基督教)的洗礼,因此,从双方利益有关他/她的过去(宽恕)和(所体现的精神指导下)的未来。

The combination of all these effects represents a public indication that the person has fully and totally committed to a Christian Faith.所有这些效果组合代表了公众表明该人已充分和完全致力于基督教信仰。A Church considers this Sacrament to represent a transition to becoming a "full" member of the Church.阿圣教会认为这代表过渡到成为一个“全”教会的成员。Where an individual was generally considered a "Seeker" before, now he/she is a Christian, and can take his/her rightful place in the structure of the Church.凡个人被普遍认为是“探索者”之前,现在他/她是一个基督徒,可以参加教会的结构他/她应有的地位。

The Sacrament of Baptism reflects on the other of the Two Sacraments that most Protestant Churches administer, the Eucharist.圣事的洗礼反映了两个圣礼,大多数新教教会管理,圣体等。 Prior to Baptism, nearly all Churches deny participation in the Eucharist to those present in the Church.在此之前的洗礼,几乎所有的教会在圣体否认参与那些在教会中。It is believed that the Eucharist is explicitly intended only for Christians who have been Baptized.据认为,只有圣体是明确谁已受洗为基督徒意。

Virtually ALL Christian Churches follow this Sacrament.几乎所有的基督教教会遵循这一圣事。It is quite important to all Christian Churches, since Jesus Himself instituted it.这是很重要的是所有的基督教教堂,因为耶稣自己提起它。

There seem to be two central themes regarding the various disagreements of Churches regarding Baptism, whether young children should be Baptized and the method to be used.似乎有两个关于教会的各种分歧方面的洗礼,无论是年轻的孩子接受洗礼和将要使用的方法的中心主题。Regarding young children, the concern is regarding the implications regarding a young child if he/she dies very young.对于年幼的孩子,值得关注的是关于一个年轻的孩子的影响方面,如果他/她死很年轻。The argument for Paedo-Baptism (child Baptism) is to assure that such a child would be Saved and then go to Heaven.对于Paedo -洗礼参数(儿童洗礼)是确保这样的孩子会被保存,然后去天堂。However, the early Christian Church had instituted "Household Salvation" [a separate presentation in BELIEVE] which concludes that ALL babies and young children of Christian parents are "automatically" protected (Saved) UNTIL they attain an age at which they are able to make an informed choice for themselves.但是,早期的基督教教会已经制定了“家庭救助”[一中认为单独介绍]的结论是,所有的婴儿和儿童的基督徒父母是“自动”保护(保存),直到他们能达到的年龄在他们能够做出一为自己明智的选择。

As to the precise method to be used in a Baptism Rite, the Bible does not really offer much information.至于准确的方法是用在洗礼仪式,圣经并没有真正提供多少信息。Each Church has had to make their own assumptions regarding the interpretations or meanings of certain words in the Bible, and in this way, they have arrived at different procedures. In fact, there is a story in the early Christian Church that accentuates this matter. 每个教会不得不作出自己的假设圣经关于在解释某些词或含义,并以这种方式,他们在不同的程序来。事实上,这里有一件事的故事在早期基督教教会的突出这一点。 It seems that a group of men were in the desert, around the second century after Christ, one of whom was a Christian Priest.看来,一群人在沙漠周围的基督后,其中一人是一个基督教牧师的第二个世纪。An elderly man in the group was not yet a Christian and he began to die, and he asked the Christian Priest to Baptize him.于本集团老翁还不是基督徒,他开始死亡,他问,基督教牧师给他洗礼。The Priest agreed but there was no water available.神父表示同意,但没有水可用。Due to necessity, the Priest felt that he had to use desert sand in the Baptism Rite!由于必要性,牧师认为他利用在成年礼的洗礼沙漠!He therefore did, and the man soon died.因此,他做到了,该名男子不久就死了。When the Priest got back to his Church leaders, he Confessed to them that he had done a Sin in performing a Baptism without water, and they then had extensive discussion regarding whether the "sand Baptism" had actually Saved the man or not and whether the Priest should be condemned.当神父回到他的教会领袖,他供认了他们在履行他做了一个没有水的洗礼罪,然后他们进行了广泛的讨论关于是否将“沙洗礼”实际上已保存的人,也不论是否在牧师应该受​​到谴责。 They eventually concluded that the Priest had done the right thing and that the sand Baptism had been valid and effective.他们最终得出结论,该神父做了正确的事情,而沙洗礼已有效及生效。However, they also made clear that water MUST be used in Baptisms except for such extreme circumstances.然而,他们也明确表示,水必须在洗礼中使用这种极端的情况下除外。

Many modern Churches have NO tolerance of any procedure other than the one that they perform in their Church.许多现代的教会有没有教堂容忍他们的程序以外的任何一个,因为他们的表现。 This situation has resulted in many schisms among Protestant Churches which use the different methods described below. Our [BELIEVE and A Christ Walk Church] attitude involves noting that the Lord is Compassionate and Loving, and we are tempted to think that He recognizes as valid ALL Baptisms which are done with the proper solemnity and attitudes of the participants. 造成这种情况下描述的方法在不同的教堂,其中许多分裂新教之间使用。我们的[相信,一个基督步行教会]的态度涉及注意到,主是慈悲,有爱心,我们禁不住想,他承认为有效的全洗礼是完成了适当的严肃性和参与者的态度。 For example, if a Church insists on immersion Baptism and the situation is regarding an Eskimo in a desolate area of northern Alaska, we think that the Lord would know the potential danger of fully immersing a person in ice-cold water there and that He would recognize as valid a pouring or sprinkling FOR THAT SITUATION.例如,如果一所教堂的洗礼和坚持浸泡的情况是关于在一个荒凉的阿拉斯加北部地区的爱斯基摩人,我们认为神会知道完全浸泡在冰水人有潜在的危险,他将识别为有效的一浇或对于这种情况浇水。 This would not alter that Church's official position but would simply apply Christian Compassion, which we believe the Lord would endorse.这会不会改变这个教会的官方立场,但会简单地套用基督教慈悲,我们相信主会赞同。

Finally, we would note that in the region where Jesus lived, there was not an abundance of water!最后,我们注意到,在该地区居住的地方耶稣,有没有充足的水!Other than the Sea of Galilee, the Dead Sea and a very few rivers, available water was limited to what was raised from the few wells in the region.比加利利海,死海等极少数河流外,可用水资源有限到什么是来自该地区的几个油井提高。For early Baptisms that were not near one of those natural bodies of water, it seems hard to imagine that sufficient water for an immersion would always be brought up from wells!对于那些近水的自然天体一个不早洗礼,似乎很难想像,一个总是沉浸足够的水从水井带来了!(In the hot and dry climate, a font of water would soon evaporate, so it probably could not be re-used for any extended period without fully replacing the water.) So, even though we might want to believe that all early Baptisms were by full immersion, practical issues seem to sometimes preclude that. (在炎热和干燥的气候,水很快就会蒸发字体,所以它可能无法被重新使用的任何长时间没有完全取代水。)所以,即使我们可能愿意相信,所有早期的洗礼were通过充分浸泡,有时实际问题似乎排除了。

I will add a personal thought here, as Editor.我将添加一个个人想到这里,作为编辑器。It seems to me that the event of a Salvation, and then the event of a (public) Baptism acknowledging the first event, really only needs to involve that one individual and the Lord.在我看来,一个拯救事件,然后一(公)洗礼事件承认第一次活动,真的只需要涉及到一个人的主。The attending Members, and the Priest or Minister, and the Church, certainly all want to believe that their participation is important, but it seems likely that they are all secondary.与会的议员,和牧师或外交部长,和教会,当然都愿意相信他们的参与是重要的,但看来,他们都是次要的。We can certainly count on the Lord to have the proper mindset regarding the Solemnity of the event.我们当然可以依靠主有正确的心态有关这一事件的严肃性。That seems to leave it entirely to the attitude of the person being Baptized regarding the effectiveness of a Baptism.这似乎给它完全的人的态度接受洗礼关于洗礼的有效性。For this reason, our small Non-Denominational Church always asks that individual if there is a preference for the method of Baptism.由于这个原因,我们的小非宗派教会总是问,个人如果有一个方法偏好的洗礼。 We therefore are willing to perform a Trine Baptism for one person, an Immersion for another, and a Pouring for a third.因此,我们愿意履行一人,为另一浸泡,并为第三个浇特丽洗礼。We fee that OUR attitude is really not that important, even though we are the ones performing the Rite!我们的费用是我们的态度是真的不是那么重要,即使是那些我们礼的表演!As long as the Lord and the individual both agree of the great importance of the Baptism Rite, all the critically important things are provided for.只要上帝和个人都同意了成年礼的洗礼重视长,所有的东西都是极其重要的规定。(Our Church is aware that we have a very unusual approach to this subject!) If no preference is indicated, we generally mention a Pouring Baptism to the individual, but for extremely elderly or ill individuals, we may mention a Sprinkling Baptism. (我们的教会是知道,我们有一个非常不寻常的做法对这个问题!)如果没有偏好表示,我们一般提及浇注洗礼个人,但对于极个别老人或生病,我们可能会提到洒洗礼。 We feel that our function is really quite simple, that we are responsible for performing an immensely important Rite for the Lord and for that individual.我们认为,我们的功能确实很简单,我们是执行的耶和华和个别的一个极为重要的仪式负责。


Christian Baptism基督教的洗礼

Advanced Information先进的信息

Christian Baptism is an ordinance immediately instituted by Christ (Matt. 28: 19, 20), and designed to be observed in the church, like that of the Supper, "till he come."基督教的洗礼,是由基督立即某条例(太28:19,20),设计时应遵循的教堂般的吃饭时,“直等到他来。”The words "baptize" and "baptism" are simply Greek words transferred into English. This was necessarily done by the translators of the Scriptures, for no literal translation could properly express all that is implied in them. The mode of baptism can in no way be determined from the Greek word rendered "baptize."词语“洗礼”和“洗礼”只是表达所有的希腊文字转成英文。 这是通过一定的翻译没有圣经,可以适当的直译是他们暗示英寸的洗礼模式绝不能确定从提供的希腊字“洗礼”。Baptists say that it means "to dip," and nothing else.浸信会说,它的意思是“浸”,并没有别的。That is an incorrect view of the meaning of the word.这是对这个词的含义不正确的看法。It means both (1) to dip a thing into an element or liquid, and (2) to put an element or liquid over or on it. Nothing therefore as to the mode of baptism can be concluded from the mere word used.这意味着:(1)浸或液体的东西到一个元素,(2)跨越,它的元素或液体。 没有什么作为的洗礼,因此模式可用于完成从单纯的单词。

The word has a wide latitude of meaning, not only in the New Testament, but also in the LXX Version of the Old Testament, where it is used of the ablutions and baptisms required by the Mosaic law.这个词的含义很广的,不仅在新约,而且在旧约,在那里它是沐浴和洗礼的摩西律法规定使用LXX的版本。These were effected by immersion, and by affusion and sprinkling; and the same word, "washings" (Heb. 9:10, 13, 19, 21) or "baptisms," designates them all. In the New Testament there cannot be found a single well-authenticated instance of the occurrence of the word where it necessarily means immersion. Moreover, none of the instances of baptism recorded in the Acts of the Apostles (2:38-41; 8:26-39; 9:17, 18; 22:12-16; 10:44-48; 16:32-34) favours the idea that it was by dipping the person baptized, or by immersion, while in some of them such a mode was highly improbable.这些都是通过浸泡影响,并通过注水和洒水,同一个词,“洗”(希伯来书9:10,13,19,21)或“洗礼”,指定他们。以及在新约中出现无法找到一单井字验证实例的发生地方,必然意味着浸泡;。此外,没有实例(使徒的洗礼的行为记录在2:38-41 8:26-39; 9:17, 18; 22:12-16; 10:44-48; 16:32-34)赞成的想法,它是由浸洗礼的人,或浸泡,而在其中一些这样的模式是极不可能的。

The gospel and its ordinances are designed for the whole world, and it cannot be supposed that a form for the administration of baptism would have been prescribed which would in any place (as in a tropical country or in polar regions) or under any circumstances be inapplicable or injurious or impossible. Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the two symbolical ordinances of the New Testament. The Supper represents the work of Christ, and Baptism the work of the Spirit. 福音及其条例旨在为整个世界,它不能假定一个洗礼形式的政府将被规定将在任何地方(如在一个热带国家或极地地区)或者在任何情况下不适用或损害或不可能的。洗礼和主的晚餐是新约的两个条例的象征。 晚饭代表了基督的工作,圣灵的工作和洗礼的。

As in the Supper a small amount of bread and wine used in this ordinance exhibits in symbol the great work of Christ, so in Baptism the work of the Holy Spirit is fully seen in the water poured or sprinkled on the person in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. That which is essential in baptism is only "washing with water," no mode being specified and none being necessary or essential to the symbolism of the ordinance.正如在晚饭的面包和酒少量展品在本条例中使用的象征基督伟大的工作,所以在洗礼,圣灵的工作是充分看到倒在水中,或洒在人的名字父亲,儿子,和圣灵。 洗礼,这是至关重要的仅仅是“水冲洗,用”无模式正在被指定,没有必要或必需的象征性的条例。

The apostles of our Lord were baptized with the Holy Ghost (Matt. 3:11) by his coming upon them (Acts 1:8).我们的主的使徒被圣灵施洗由他来后,他们(徒1:8)(太3:11)。The fire also with which they were baptized sat upon them.火还与他们坐在他们受洗。The extraordinary event of Pentecost was explained by Peter as a fulfilment of the ancient promise that the Spirit would be poured out in the last days (2:17).在五旬节不同寻常的事件是由彼得解释作为一种古老的承诺,这一精神将倒在(2:17)完成了最后的日子。He uses also with the same reference the expression shed forth as descriptive of the baptism of the Spirit (33).他还使用相同的职权表达出来,作为棚的精神(33)洗礼的描述。In the Pentecostal baptism "the apostles were not dipped into the Spirit, nor plunged into the Spirit; but the Spirit was shed forth, poured out, fell on them (11:15), came upon them, sat on them."在五旬节洗礼“使徒们并没有把手伸进精神,也没有陷入到精神,但精神棚出来,倒出来,对他们的下降(11:15),在他们身上来了,他们坐在上面。” That was a real and true baptism. We are warranted from such language to conclude that in like manner when water is poured out, falls, comes upon or rests upon a person when this ordinance is administered, that person is baptized.这是一个真正的和真实的洗礼。 我们是从这样的语言来保证,在同样的方式结束时,水倒出,瀑布,临到是基于一个人或本条例管理时,这个人是受洗。

Baptism is therefore, in view of all these arguments "rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person."因此,洗礼,在所有这些论据“正确地浇或喷洒水后,人管理。”

The subjects of baptism.洗礼的主题。

This raises questions of greater importance than those relating to its mode.这就提出了更为重要的问题除了与它的模式的。

(from: The Church, by Professor Binnie, DD).(来源:宾妮教授,副署长堂)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Baptism洗礼

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Deriving from the Greek baptisma, "baptism" denotes the action of washing or plunging in water, which from the earliest days (Acts 2:41) has been used as the rite of Christian initiation.从希腊baptisma派生,“洗礼”是指在洗涤或暴跌的水,从最早的天(徒2:41),被称为基督教用行动启动仪式。 Its origins have been variously traced to the OT purifications, the lustrations of Jewish sects, and parallel pagan washings, but there can be no doubt that baptism as we know it begins with the baptism of John. Christ himself, by both precedent (Matt. 3:13) and precept (Matt. 28:19), gives us authority for its observance. On this basis it has been practiced by almost all Christians, though attempts have been made to replace it by a baptism of fire or the Spirit in terms of Matt.它的起源追溯到了不同程度的催产素的提纯,犹太教的教派的lustrations和平行异教洗涤,但可以毫无疑问的洗礼,因为我们知道约翰开始与洗礼。 基督本人,都先例(太3:13)及戒律(太28:19),给了我们遵守其权威。在此基础上一直实行的几乎所有的基督徒,虽然已作出努力的精神洗礼取代它由生火或条款马特。 3:11.3点11。

In essence the action is an extremely simple one, though pregnant with meaning. It consists in a going in or under the baptismal water in the name of Christ (Acts 19:5) or more commonly the Trinity (Matt. 28:19). 在本质上是一个极其简单的动作之一,尽管意义怀孕。它通常存在于持续的洗礼下或水的名称基督(徒19:5)或以上的三位一体(太28:19)。 Immersion was fairly certainly the original practice and continued in general use up to the Middle Ages.浸泡法相当原始的做法肯定是和一般使用最多的中世纪继续。The Reformers agreed that this best brought out the meaning of baptism as a death and resurrection, but even the early Anabaptists did not think it essential so long as the subject goes under the water. The type of water and circumstances of administration are not important, though it seems necessary that there should be a preaching and confession of Christ as integral parts of the administration (cf. Acts 8:37).改革者认为,最好的带出了复活的意义,为死亡的洗礼,但即使是早期的再洗礼派并不认为有必要,只要去水的主题下。当局类型的水和情况并不重要,虽然它似乎有必要,应该有一个说教和忏悔基督为 8:37)的一个组成部分的管理 (参见行为。Other ceremonies may be used at discretion so long as they are not unscriptural and do not distract from the true action, like the complicated and rather superstitious ceremonial of the medieval and modern Roman Church.其他仪式可以随意使用,只要它们不unscriptural,不要分散行动的真正喜欢复杂,而迷信的中世纪和现代的罗马教会礼仪。

Discussion has been raised concerning the proper ministers and subjects of the action.讨论已经提出的有关部长和行为主体正确的。

In the first instance there may be agreement with Augustine that Christ himself is the true minister ("he shall baptize you," Matt. 3:11).在第一个实例可能有奥古斯丁协议, 基督自己是真正的部长 (“他应洗你,”马特。3:11)。But Christ does not give the external baptism directly; he commits this to his disciples (John 4:2). This is taken to mean that baptism should be administered by those to whom there is entrusted by inward and outward calling the ministry of word and sacrament, though laymen have been allowed to baptize in the Roman Church, and some early Baptists conceived the strange notion of baptizing themselves. Normally baptism belongs to the public ministry of the church.但是, 基督并没有给外部直接洗礼,他承诺这对他的门徒(约翰4:2)这意味着采取洗礼应该由那些人进行管理的话是有委托抵港及离港部的呼吁圣餐,虽然外行都被允许在罗马教会的洗礼,和一些早期的浸礼会的洗礼自己构思奇特的概念。 通常洗礼属于公共事务部的教会。

As concerns the subjects, the main difference is between those who practice the baptism of the children of confessing Christians and those who insist upon a personal confession as a prerequisite.作为关注的对象,主要的区别是谁之间的实践基督徒的承认后,谁的孩子和那些作为先决条件的个人供述坚持洗礼。 This point is considered in the two separate articles devoted to the two positions [Editor: presented below] and need not detain us in this exposition of positive baptismal teaching. It may be noted, however, that adult baptisms continue in all churches, that confession is everywhere considered important, and that Baptists often feel impelled to an act of dedication of children.这一点被认为是在这两个位置的两个单独的条款专门编辑:下文],无须扣留我们。博览会在这一教学积极洗礼[ 它可以指出,但是,成人洗礼教会继续在所有,即供认无处不认为重要,而浸信会经常感到推动一个儿童行为的奉献。Among adults it has been a common practice to refuse baptism to those unwilling to leave doubtful callings, though the attempt of one sect to impose a minimum age of thirty years did not meet with common approval.在成年人中有一种普遍的做法被拒绝的洗礼,那些不愿离开可疑召唤,虽然一节企图强加一个三十年的最低年龄不符合共同批准。 In the case of children, there has been misgiving concerning the infants of parents whose profession of Christian faith is very obviously nominal or insincere.在儿童中,出现了父母的疑虑关于基督教信仰的职业是非常明显的名义或虚假的婴儿。The special case of the mentally impaired demands sympathetic treatment, but there is no warrant for prenatal or forced baptisms, and even less for baptism of inanimate objects such as was practiced in the Middle Ages.精神障碍的治疗特殊情况需要同情,但没有进行产前或强制令洗礼,甚至是如在中世纪的洗礼,不实行无生命的物体。

A clue to the meaning of baptism is given by three OT types: the flood (I Pet. 3:19-20), the Red Sea (I Cor. 10:1-2), and circumcision (Col. 2:11-12).到线索的洗礼的意义,给出三个加时赛类型:洪水(我的宠物3:19-20。),红海(我肺心病10:1-2。)和割礼(西2:11 - 12)。These all refer in different ways to the divine covenant, to its provisional fulfillment in a divine act of judgment and grace, and to the coming and definitive fulfillment in the baptism of the cross.这些都涉及到神圣的盟约不同的方式,履行其临时在一个神圣的行为判断和宽限期,并在未来的十字架洗礼和最终实现。The conjunction of water with death and redemption is particularly apt in the case of the first two; the covenantal aspect is more particularly emphasized in the third.对死亡和水一起赎回,尤其是在首两个案例容易;的圣约方面更强调,特别是在第三。

When we come to the action itself, there are many different but interrelated associations.当我们的行动本身,也有许多不同但相互关联的联想。The most obvious is that of washing (Titus 3:5), the cleansing water being linked with the blood of Christ on the one side and the purifying action of the Spirit on the other (see I John 5:6, 8), so that we are brought at once to the divine work of reconciliation.最明显的是,洗涤(提多书3:5),清洁水正与基督在一边的精神和对其他与血液净化行动(见约翰一书5:6,8),因此我们带来了一次神圣的和解工作。 A second is that of initiation, adoption, or, more especially, regeneration (John 3:5), the emphasis again being placed on the operation of the Spirit in virtue of the work of Christ.第二个是,启动期,收养,或更特别是,再生(约翰3:5),重点又是对精神的行动摆在基督的工作美德。

These various themes find common focus in the primary thought of baptism (in the destructive, yet also life-giving, power of water) as a drowning and an emergence to new life, ie, a death and resurrection (Rom. 6:3-4). But here again the true witness of the action is to the work of God in the substitutionary death and resurrection of Christ. 这些不同的主题,找到共同的重点,在思想的洗礼(破坏性,但家人,功率水),也包括生活淹没在一个小学和一个6:3的出现,新的生命,即,死亡和复活(罗马书- 4)。但在这里再次见证真正的行动是对基督作神的代死和复活。This identification with sinners in judgment and renewal is what Jesus accepts when he comes to the baptism of John and fulfills when he takes his place between two thieves on the cross (Luke 12:50).这与在判断和重建罪人鉴定是耶稣接受他来到约翰的洗礼和满足,当他带着他的两个小偷在十字架上的地方(路加福音12:50)。 Here we have the real baptism of the NT, which makes possible the baptism of our identification with christ and underlies and is attested by the outward sign. Like preaching and the Lord's Supper, "baptism" is an evangelical word telling us that Christ has died and risen again in our place, so that we are dead and alive again in him, with him, and through him (Rom. 6:4, 11).在这里,我们有新台币真正的洗礼,这就有可能是基督的洗礼与我们的识别和基础,是核签的外在征象。 就像说教和主的晚餐“洗礼”是一个福音字告诉我们,基督已经死了在我们和复活的地方,所以,我们死了,活着的他又在与他,并通过他 (罗马书6:4,11)。

Like all preaching, however, baptism carries with it the call to that which we should do in response or correspondence to what Christ has done for us.像所有的说教,但是,该进行洗礼,我们应该做的反应或信函以基督为我们做了与它的呼叫。We, too must make our movement of death and resurrection, not to add to what Christ has done, nor to complete it, nor to compete with it, but in grateful acceptance and application. We do this in three related ways constantly kept before us by our baptism: the initial response of repentance and faith (Gal. 2:20); the lifelong process of mortification and renewal (Eph. 4:22-23); and the final dissolution and resurrection of the body (I Cor. 15). This rich signification of baptism, which is irrespective of the time or manner of baptism, is the primary theme that ought to occupy us in baptismal discussion and preaching.我们也必须使我们的死亡和复活的运动,而不是增加什么基督做了,也不去完成它,也没有与它竞争,但在感谢接受和应用。 我们这三个相关的方法我们一直在不断我们的洗礼:初期),响应的忏悔和信仰(加拉太书2:20终身);过程屈辱和更新(以弗所书4:22-23,最终解散和复活。身体(林前15 )。这种富有意义的洗礼,无论是时间或洗礼的方式,是主要的主题,我们应该占据的说教在讨论和洗礼。But it must be emphasized continually that this personal acceptance or entry is not independent of the once for all and substitutionary work of Christ, which is the true baptism.不过,我们必须不断强调,这个项目是个人接受或不属于一次​​独立的一切和基督,这才是真正的洗礼代替性的工作。

It is forgetfulness of this point which leads to misunderstanding of the so-called grace of baptism. This may be by its virtual denial. 这是洗礼健忘这一点,导致了误解所谓的恩典了。这可能是其虚拟的否定。Baptism has no grace apart from its psychological effects.从它的洗礼,没有宽限期,除了心理影响。It is primarily a sign of something that we do, and its value may be assessed only in explicable religious terms.这主要是我们做的东西,其价值可能被评定在宗教方面可解释的唯一迹象。The fact that spiritual gifts and even faith itself are true gifts of the Holy Spirit, with an element of the mysterious and incalculable, is thus denied.事实上,精神礼物,甚至信仰本身是圣灵的恩赐与真正的神秘和无法估量的组成部分,因此拒绝。

On the other hand, it may be by distortion or exaggeration. Baptism means the almost automatic infusion of a mysterious substance which accomplishes a miraculous but not very obvious transformation. 另一方面,它将有可能被扭曲或夸张。洗礼指一种神秘的物质几乎是自动输液,其中实现了一个奇迹,但不是很明显的转变。It is thus to be regarded with awe, and fulfilled as an action of absolute necessity to salvation except in very special cases.因此,它是被视为与敬畏,并作为绝对必要的拯救行动履行除非在非常特殊的情况。The true mystery of the Holy Spirit yields before ecclesiastical magic and theological sophistry.该教会在圣灵魔法和神学的诡辩产量真正奥秘。

But when baptismal grace is brought into proper relationship to the work of God, we are helped on the way to a fruitful understanding. 但是,当洗礼的恩典是神的适当关系带入到工作中,我们得到帮助的理解方式来取得丰硕成果。

First, and above all, we remember that behind the external action there lies the true baptism, which is that of the shed blood of Christ. Baptismal grace is the grace of this true reality of baptism, ie, of the substitutionary work of Christ, or of Christ himself. Only in this sense can we legitimately speak of grace, but in this sense we can and must.首先,最重要的,我们记得外部行动的背后,其实存在着真正的洗礼,这是恩典洗礼流血的基督。 是基督的恩典这一工作真正现实的代洗礼,在IE,或基督自己。只有在这个意义上可以说,我们合法的宽限期,但在这个意义上,我们能够而且必须的。

Second, we remember that behind the external action there lies the inward operation of the Spirit moving the recipient to faith in Christ's work and accomplishing regeneration to the life of faith. Baptismal grace is the grace of this internal work of the Spirit, which cannot be presumed (for the Spirit is sovereign) but which we dare to believe where there is a true calling on the name of the Lord.第二,我们还记得背后的外部行动中隐藏着在精神向内运作移动收件人信仰基督的工作,完成再生的信仰生活。 洗礼的恩典是被恩典不能让这种内部工作的精神,这假定(为精神是主权),但我们不敢相信那里是一个真正的主调用的名称。

Third, the action itself is divinely ordained as a means of grace, ie, a means to present Christ and therefore to fulfill the attesting work of the Spirit.,行动本身是神的恩典受戒作为一种手段,即目前的手段,因此基督的精神履行证明工作。It does not do this by the mere performance of the prescribed rite; it does it in and through its meaning. Nor does it do it alone; its function is primarily to seal and confirm, and therefore it does it in conjunction with the spoken and written word. It need not do it at the time of administration; for, under the gracious sovereignty of the Spirit, its fruition may come at a much later date. It does not do it automatically; for, whereas Christ is always present and his grace remains, there are those who respond to neither word nor sacrament and therefore miss the true and inward meaning and power.它不会做仪式的这一规定仅仅性能, 它的含义是在通过其。也不独自做到这一点它的功能主要是为了密封和确认,因此它和它结合的发言文字。它需要做的不是它的给药时间,在圣灵的恩典主权,其成果可能会在更晚的日期;。它不会自动做的,而基督是始终存在和他的宽限期仍然存在,还有那些既不字谁也不应对圣礼,因此错过了真正的和外来的意义和力量。

When we think in these terms, we can see that there is and ought to be a real, though not a magical, baptismal grace which is not affected greatly by the detailed time or mode of administration. The essentials are that we use it (1) to present Christ, (2) in prayer to the Holy Spirit, (3) in trustful dependence upon his sovereign work, and (4) in conjunction with the spoken word. Restored to this evangelical use, and freed especially from distorting and unhelpful controversy, baptism might quickly manifest again its power as a summons to live increasingly, or even to begin to live, the life which is ours in Christ crucified and risen for us.当我们认为在这些方面,我们可以看到,有也应该是一个真正的,虽然不是一个神奇的,洗礼的恩典,这是不会影响政府深受详细的时间或模式。要领是,我们使用它(1 )向(2)在祈祷基督,圣灵,(3)在相互信任的依赖主权后,他的工作,以及(4字)联同发言。还原到这个福音的使用,并释放尤其是歪曲和无益争议,洗礼可能会很快再次体现生活日益传票,或什至开始生活的权力,这是我们的生命在基督钉在十字架上为我们复活。

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
GW Bromiley, Baptism and the Anglican Reformers; J. Calvin, Institutes 4; WF Flemington, The NT Doctrine of Baptism; Reports on Baptism in the Church of Scotland; GR Beasley-Murray, Baptism in the NT; A. Oepke, TDNT, I, 529-46.毛重罗米立,洗礼和圣公会改革者的J.卡尔文学院4;永丰夫雷明,新台币的洗礼学说;关于在苏格兰教会洗礼的报告;遗传资源比斯利,穆雷,在NT洗礼的A. Oepke,TDNT,我,529-46。


Baptism (noun)洗礼(名词)

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Baptism, consisting of the processes of immersion, submersion and emergence (from bapto, "to dip"), is used (a) of John's "baptism," (b) of Christian "baptism," see B. below; (c) of the overwhelming afflictions and judgments to which the Lord voluntarily submitted on the cross, eg, Luke 12:50; (d) of the sufferings His followers would experience, not of a vicarious character, but in fellowship with the sufferings of their Master.洗礼,浸泡,淹没和出苗(从bapto,“蘸”)的过程组成,用于(a)约翰的“洗礼”(二)基督教的“洗礼”,见B.以下;(三)最痛苦的和判断,这是主在十字架上自愿提交的,例如,路加福音12:50;(四)的痛苦经验,而不是他的追随者将一个替代的性格,但在与他们的主人的痛苦奖学金。 Some mss.有些的MSS。have the word in Matt.有在马特的话。20:22-23; it is used in Mark 10:38-39, with this meaning.20:22-23,它是用来在马克10:38-39,有这个意思。


Baptism (noun)洗礼(名词)

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as distinct from baptisma (the ordinance), is used of the "ceremonial washing of articles," Mark 7:4, 8, in some texts; Heb.从baptisma(以下简称条例),不同的是使用了“礼仪文章洗涤,”马克7:4,8,在一些文本;河北。9:10; once in a general sense, Heb.曾经在一般意义上,希伯来; 9:10。6:2.6:2。


Baptism, Baptize (verb)洗礼,施洗(动词)

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"to baptize," primarily a frequentative form of bapto, "to dip," was used among the Greeks to signify the dyeing of a garment, or the drawing of water by dipping a vessel into another, etc. Plutarchus uses it of the drawing of wine by dipping the cup into the bowl (Alexis, 67) and Plato, metaphorically, of being overwhelmed with questions (Euthydemus, 277 D). “为施洗,”主要是bapto成对的形式,“沾”,是在希腊人用来表示一个成衣染色,或到另一个水浸泡的船只绘图等Plutarchus使用它的绘图由蘸入碗杯(亚历克西斯,67),柏拉图,比喻被淹没了疑问(Euthydemus,277晚),葡萄酒。 It is used in the NT in Luke 11:38 of washing oneself (as in 2 Kings 5:14, "dipped himself," Sept.); see also Isa.它是在NT的洗涤自己在路加福音11:38(如在2国王5:14,“蘸自己,”九月);又见伊萨。21:4, lit., "lawlessness overwhelms me."21:4,点燃。“无法无天淹没了我。”In the early chapters of the four Gospels and in Acts 1:5; 11:16; 19:4, it is used of the rite performed by John the Baptist who called upon the people to repent that they might receive remission of sins.在四福音和使徒行传1:5早期的章节; 11:16; 19:4,这是用施洗约翰谁执行的号召后,他们可能会接受悔改的罪得赦仪式。Those who obeyed came "confessing their sins," thus acknowledging their unfitness to be in the Messiah's coming kingdom.那些谁服从来“忏悔自己的罪过”,从而承认他们不适宜将在弥赛亚的到来王国。

Distinct from this is the "baptism" enjoined by Christ, Matt.从这一独特的是“洗礼”,由基督,马特受命。28:19, a "baptism" to be undergone by believers, thus witnessing to their identification with Him in death, burial and resurrection, eg, Acts 19:5; Rom. 28:19,一个“洗礼”,由信徒的经历,因此他目睹了他们与鉴定死,埋葬和复活,例如,行为19:5;光盘。6:3-4; 1 Cor.6:3-4 1肺心病。 1:13-17; 12:13; Gal.1:13-17; 12:13;半乳糖。3:27; Col. 2:12.3:27;上校2:12。The phrase in Matt.在马特的词组。28:19, "baptizing them into the Name" (RV; cf. Acts 8:16, RV), would indicate that the "baptized" person was closely bound to, or became the property of, the one into whose name he was "baptized." 28:19,“他们中的名受洗”(房车。比照徒8:16,风疹病毒),将表明,“洗礼”的人是息息相关的,或成为了谁的名字,他是,一个属性“洗礼”。 In Acts 22:16 it is used in the middle voice, in the command given to Saul of Tarsus, "arise and be baptize," the significance of the middle voice form being "get thyself baptized."在使徒行传22:16它是用来在中间的声音,在给予大数扫罗的命令,“起来,并洗”的声音正在形成中的意义“得到你自己洗。” The experience of those who were in the ark at the time of the Flood was a figure or type of the facts of spiritual death, burial, and resurrection, Christian "baptism" being an antitupon, "a corresponding type," a "like figure," 1 Pet.这些是谁在方舟在大洪水时的经历是一个数字或精神上的死亡,埋葬和复活,基督教的“洗礼”作为一个antitupon,“相应的类型,”一“般的人物类型的事实,“1宠物。 3:21.3:21。

Likewise the nation of Israel was figuratively baptized when made to pass through the Red Sea under the cloud, 1 Cor.同样,以色列国是比喻受洗时作出穿过红海在云下,1肺心病。10:2.10:2。The verb is used metaphorically also in two distinct senses: firstly, of "baptism" by the Holy Spirit, which took place on the Day of Pentecost; secondly, of the calamity which would come upon the nation of the Jews, a "baptism" of the fire of divine judgment for rejection of the will and word of God, Matt.动词用来比喻也有两种不同的意思:第一,“洗礼”的圣灵,其中发生在一天的降临的地方;第二,灾难将降临的犹太人,一个“洗礼”的国家在对意志和上帝的拒绝神圣的判断词马特火灾。 3:11; Luke 3:16. 3:11,路加福音3:16。


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Believers Baptism信徒的洗礼

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Where the gospel is first preached or Christian profession has lapsed, baptism is always administered on confession of penitence and faith.凡第一次宣讲福音或基督教界已经失效,受洗总是经管忏悔和信仰的自白。In this sense believers' baptism, ie, the baptism of those who make a profession of faith, has been an accepted and persistent phenomenon in the church.在这个意义上信徒的洗礼,即那些谁做专业的信念的洗礼,已成为在教堂接受和持久的现象。Yet there are powerful groups among Christians who think that we should go further than this.然而,有基督教徒之间谁认为我们应该再进一步比这个强大的团体。Believers' baptism as they see it is not merely legitimate; it is the only true baptism according to the NT, especially, though not necessarily, in the form of immersion.信徒们的洗礼,因为他们看到它不仅是合法的,它是唯一真正的洗礼根据新台币,特别是在浸泡的形式,虽然不一定。

This is seen first from the precept which underlies its institution.这被认为是从戒其中强调了它的第一个机构。When Jesus commanded the apostles to baptize, he told them first to make disciples and said nothing whatever about infants (Matt. 28:19). In other words, preaching must always precede baptism, for it is by the word and not the sacrament that disciples are first made. Baptism can be given only when the recipient has responded to the word in penitence and faith, and it is to be followed at once by a course of more detailed instruction.当耶稣吩咐使徒为施洗,他告诉他们,第一次使弟子,并说没有任何关于婴儿(太28:19)。换言之,传道必须始终先洗礼,因为它是由这个词,而不是圣礼的弟子是首次提出。洗礼,可当收件人只给予回应了字忏悔和信念,是应遵循的详细说明在一次由课程。

That the apostles understood it in this way is evident from the precedents which have come down to us in Acts.使徒们理解,这种方式是从已回落到我们的行为明显的先例。On the day of Pentecost, for example, Peter told the conscience-stricken people to repent and be baptized; he did not mention any special conditions for infants incapable of repentance (Acts 2:38).在五旬节那天,例如,彼得告诉良心灾区人民悔改,受洗,他没有提及的婴儿无法悔改(徒2:38)任何特殊条件。Again, when the Ethiopian eunuch desired baptism, he was told that there could be no hindrance so long as he believed, and it was on confession of faith that Philip baptized him (Acts 8:36ff.).同样,当埃塞俄比亚太监所需的洗礼,有人告诉他,不可能有任何障碍,只要他相信,而且它的信念,菲利普洗礼供认是他(徒8:36几段)。。 Even when whole households were baptized, we are normally told that they first heard the gospel preached and either believed or received an endowment of the Spirit (cf. Acts 10:45; 16:32-33).即使整个家庭受了洗,我们通常告诉记者,他们第一次听到福音传给,要么相信或收到捐赠的精神(参见行为10:45; 16:32-33)。In any case, no mention is made of any other type of baptism.在任何情况下,没有提到任何其他类型的洗礼。

The meaning of baptism as developed by Paul in Rom.意义的洗礼发达保罗在罗马书。6 supports this contention. 6支持这一论点。It is in repentance and faith that we are identified with Jesus Christ in his death, burial, and resurrection.这是在悔改和信心,我们与耶稣基督确定他的死亡,埋葬和复活。To infants who cannot hear the word and make the appropriate response, it thus seems to be meaningless and even misleading to speak of baptism into the death and resurrection of Christ. The confessing believer alone knows what this means and can work it out in his life. In baptism, confessing his penitence and faith, he has really turned his back on the old life and begun to live the new life in Christ. He alone can look back to a meaningful conversion or regeneration and thus receive the confirmation and accept the challenge that comes with baptism. To introduce any other form of baptism is to open the way to perversion or misconception.对婴儿谁不能听到这个词,并作出适当的反应,因此,它似乎是毫无意义,甚至是误导的洗礼,谈论到死亡和基督复活。 的忏悔信徒仅知道这是什么意思,可以工作一生的目标进发。洗礼,承认他的忏悔和信念,他真的把他的生活回到了旧的生活,并开始新的生活在基督里。 只有他可以回顾一个有意义的转换或再生,从而收到确认并接受挑战附带的洗礼。引进任何其他形式的洗礼,是开辟道路的曲解或误解。

To be sure, there is no direct prohibition of infant baptism in the NT.可以肯定的是,没有婴儿的洗礼,在新台币直接禁止。But in the absence of direction either way it is surely better to carry out the sacrament or ordinance as obviously commanded and practiced than to rely on exegetical or theological inference for a different administration.但无论哪种方式的方向是肯定的情况下更好地执行条例的任命或指挥和实践显然比对训诂或神学推理依赖不同的管理。 This is particularly the case in view of the weakness or irrelevance of many of the considerations advanced.这是尤其是在虚弱或不相关的考虑许多先进查看情况。

Christ's blessing of the children, for example, shows us that the gospel is for little ones and that we have a duty to bring them to Christ, but it says nothing whatever about administering baptism contrary to the acknowledged rule (Mark 10:13ff.).基督的孩子们的祝福,例如,告诉我们,福音是小朋友和我们有责任把他们带到基督,但它什么也不说,有关管理的洗礼,违背了公认的规则(马克10:13几段)。 。Again, the fact that certain characters may be filled with the Spirit from childhood (Luke 1:15) suggests that God may work in infants, but it gives us no warrant to suppose that he normally does so, or that he does so in any given case, or that baptism may be given before this work finds expression in individual repentance and faith.再次,事实上,某些字符可能会从童年充满了灵(路1:15)的工作表明,上帝可能在婴儿,但它使我们无法保证正常的假设,他这样做,或者说,他这样做在任何特定情况下,或可给予洗礼在此之前的工作表现在个别悔改和信心的表现。 Again, the children of Christians enjoy privileges and perhaps even a status which cannot be ascribed to others.同样,基督徒的孩子享受特权和地位,甚至有可能不能归因于他人。They are reckoned in some sense "holy" by God (I Cor. 7:14).他们估计在一定意义上的“圣地”的神(我肺心病。7:14)。But here too there is no express connection with baptism or the baptismal identification with Jesus Christ in death and resurrection.但这里也有或没有与洗礼与耶稣基督死亡与复活洗礼鉴定Express连接。

Reference to the household baptisms of Acts is of no greater help. The probability may well be that some of these households included infants, yet this is by no means certain.参考洗礼家庭的行为是没有更大的帮助。概率可能是,这些包括一些家庭的婴儿,然而,这决不是肯定的。 Even if they did, it is unlikely that the infants were present when the word was preached, and there is no indication that any infants were actually baptized.即使他们这样做,这是不可能的婴儿在场时,这个词是鼓吹过,并且没有任何实际上婴儿受洗的迹象。At very best this could only be a hazardous inference, and the general drift of the narratives seems to be in a very different direction.在最好的这只能是一个危险的推论,而一般漂移的叙述似乎是在一个非常不同的方向。

Nor does it serve to introduce the OT sign of circumcision.它也没有起到介绍割礼加时赛的迹象。There is certainly a kinship between the signs.当然是有亲属关系之间的迹象。But there are also great differences.但也有很大的差异。The fact that the one was given to infant boys on a fixed day is no argument for giving the other to all children some time in infancy.是的,一个给定在一个固定的一天男婴其实是没有给对方一些所有儿童在婴儿期的时间参数。 They belong, if not to different covenants, at least to different dispensations of the one covenant: the one to a preparatory stage, when a national people was singled out and its sons belonged naturally to the people of God; the other to the fulfillment, when the Israel of God is spiritual and children are added by spiritual rather than natural regeneration.他们属于,如果不是不同的契约,至少要在一个不同的特许契约:到一个准备阶段一,当一个国家的人是其儿子挑出来,并自然地属于神的人,到实现其他当神的以色列是对精神和孩子们添加的精神,而不是自然再生。 In any case, God himself gave a clear command to circumcise the male descendants of Abraham; he has given no similar command to baptize the male and female descendants of Christians.在任何情况下,神自己也给了一个明确的命令,男性割礼亚伯拉罕的后裔,他有没有类似的命令为施洗基督徒的男性和女性的后代。

Theologically, the insistence upon believers' baptism in all cases seems better calculated to serve the true significance and benefit of baptism and to avoid the errors which so easily threaten it.神学,后信徒的洗礼,似乎在任何情况下更好地坚持以服务计算的真正意义和洗礼利益,避免错误的那么容易构成威胁。Only when there is personal confession before baptism can it be seen that personal repentance and faith are necessary to salvation through Christ, and that these do not come magically but through hearing the word of God.只有当有个人供述之前洗礼,才能看出个人悔改和信心是必要的,通过基督的救恩,而这些不来,而是通过神奇地听到上帝的话。 With believers' baptism the ordinance achieves its significance as the mark of a step from darkness and death to light and life. The recipient is thus confirmed in the decision which he has taken, brought into the living company of the regenerate, which is the true church, and encouraged to walk in the new life which he has begun.与信徒的洗礼条例作为实现其人生的意义和标志的一个步骤,从黑暗和死亡的光。 收款人因而证实了这项决定,这在他所居住的公司,带进再生,而真正的教堂,并鼓励他们走在新的生活,他已经开始。

This means that in believers' baptism faith is given its proper weight and sense. The need for faith is recognized, of course, in infant baptism. 这意味着,在信徒的洗礼信仰给予其适当的重量和意义。需要的信念是公认的,在婴儿的洗礼,当然。It is contended that infants may believe by a special work of the Spirit, or that their present or future faith is confessed by the parents or sponsors, or that the parents or sponsors exercise vicarious faith, or even that faith is given in, with, or under the administration.如果认为婴儿可能相信一个精神的特殊工作,或者说,他们现在或将来的信心是由父母交待或赞助,或行使父母或赞助商替代信心,甚至认为信仰是,给予,或根据当局。 Some of these notions are manifestly unscriptural.这些概念有些是明显unscriptural。In others there is a measure of truth.还有一些学校是有一定道理的措施。But none of them meets the requirement of a personal confession of personal faith as invariably fulfilled in believers' baptism.但他们没有满足了个人信心,总是在信徒的洗礼完成个人忏悔的要求。

Again, believers' baptism also carries with it a genuine, as opposed to a spurious, baptismal grace. The expression of repentance and faith in baptism gives conscious assurance of forgiveness and regeneration and carries with it an unmistakable summons to mortification and renewal. 同样,信徒的洗礼还附有一个真正的,而不是虚假的,洗礼的恩典。表达悔改的洗礼中和信仰让自觉保证和再生的宽恕和附带着一个明白无误的传票,屈辱和更新。 Properly understood, this may also be the case with infant baptism, as in the Reformed churches.正确的理解,这也可能是与婴儿的洗礼,在改革的情况作为教堂。But a good deal of embarrassed explanation is necessary to make this clear, and there is always the risk of a false understanding, as in the medieval and Romanist view of baptismal regeneration. Baptism on profession of faith is the only effective safeguard against the dangerous notion that baptism itself can automatically transfer the graces which it represents.但尴尬的是处理好解释要表明这一点,并总有一个错误的理解风险再生,如在浪漫主义鉴于中世纪和洗礼。 信仰洗礼的行业是唯一有效的防止了危险的概念洗礼本身可以自动转移的青睐,它代表了。

To the exegetical and theological considerations there may also be added some less important but noteworthy historical arguments.对于训诂和神学方面考虑,也可能是增加了一些不太重要,但值得注意的历史论据。First, there is no decisive evidence for a common Jewish practice of infant baptism in apostolic times.首先,没有任何一种常见的婴儿的洗礼,在使徒时代犹太实践的决定性证据。Second, the patristic statements linking infant baptism with the apostles are fragmentary and unconvincing in the earlier stages.其次,连接与婴儿洗礼的使徒教父语句支离破碎,在早期阶段,缺乏说服力。Third, examples of believers' baptism are common in the first centuries, and a continuing, if supressed, witness has always been borne to this requirement.第三,信徒的洗礼是常见的例子在第一世纪,持续,如果抑制,证人一直承担这一要求。Fourth, the development of infant baptism seems to be linked with the incursion of pagan notions and practices.第四,婴儿洗礼的发展,似乎要与异教徒的观念和实践的入侵联系起来。Finally, there is evidence of greater evangelistic incisiveness and evangelical purity of doctrine where this form of baptism is recognized to be the baptism of the NT.最后,还有一个更大的布道尖锐和有关学说的洗礼,在这种形式是公认的洗礼的NT福音纯度的证据。

GW Bromiley毛重罗米立

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
K. Barth, The Teaching of the Church Regarding Baptism and Church Dogmatics IV/4; A. Booth, Paedobaptism Examined; A. Carson, Baptism in Its Modes and Subjects; J. Gill, Body of Divinity; J. Warns, Baptism; K. Aland, Did the Early Church Baptize Infants?k.巴特,教会的教学洗礼和教会教义关于第IV / 4;答摊位,Paedobaptism审查;卡森,在其模式与学科洗礼的J.吉尔的神体的J.警告说,洗礼;光奥兰,有没有婴幼儿早期教会的洗礼? D. Moody, The World of Truth.四穆迪,真理的世界。


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Infant Baptism, Paedobaptism, or Pædobaptism婴儿的洗礼,Paedobaptism,或Pædobaptism

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In a missionary situation the first subjects of baptism are always converts.在传教情况的洗礼总是第一个科目转换。But throughout Christian history, attested as early as Irenaeus and Origen with a reference back to the apostles, it has also been given to the children of professing believers.但是,在整个基督教的历史,证明早在爱任纽和奥利与参考回到使徒,它也被赋予了自称信徒的孩子。This has not been solely on grounds of tradition, or in consequence of a perversion, but for what have been regarded as scriptural reasons.这并没有得到完全的传统理由,或在一个变态的后果,但为了什么原因,已被视为圣经。

To be sure, there is no direct command to baptize infants. 可以肯定的是,没有直接的命令洗礼的婴儿。But there is also no prohibition. Again, if we have no clear-cut example of an infant baptism in the NT, there may well have been such in the household baptisms of Acts, and there is also no instance of the children of Christians being baptized on profession of faith. 但也没有禁止。同样,如果我们没有明确的洗礼,在新台币安婴儿切的例子,有可能有过这样的洗礼家庭的行为,而且也没有被实例基督徒儿童受洗的职业的信念。 In other words, no decisive guidance is given by direct precept or precedent.换句话说,没有决定性的指导,给予直接戒或先例。

Yet there are two lines of biblical study which are thought to give convincing reasons for the practice. The first is a consideration of detailed passages or statements from the OT and NT. 然而,有两行实践圣经研究,被认为是对给予令人信服的理由。第一新台币通道和详细考虑或报表中催产素。The second is a consideration of the whole underlying theology of baptism as it comes before us in the Bible.第二个是整个神学的洗礼基本考虑,因为它出现在我们面前的圣经。

To begin with the detailed passages, we naturally turn first to the types of baptism found in the OT. All these favor the view that God deals with families rather than individuals. When Noah is saved from the flood, his whole family is received with him into the ark (cf. 1 Pet. 3:20-21).首先详细的通道,我们当然首先要OT的类型中发现的洗礼。 所有这些有利于认为,收到涉及的是家庭而不是个人当诺亚的洪水中救,他的整个家庭进入方舟(见1宠物。3:20-21)。 When Abraham is given the covenant sign of circumcision, he is commanded to administer it to all the male members of his house (Gen. 17; cf. Col. 2:11-12 for the connection between baptism and circumcision).当亚伯拉罕是由于割礼的立约的记号,他是指挥管理到他家所有的男性成员(创17;。比照的洗礼和割礼之间的连接上校书2:11-12)。 At the Red Sea it is all Israel (men, women, and children) which passes through the waters in the great act of redemption that foreshadows not only the sign of baptism but the work of God behind it (cf. 1 Cor. 10:1-2).在红海这是所有以色列(男人,妇女和儿童),其中通过在巨大的赎回行为的水域不仅通过这预示签署的洗礼,但它背后的神的工作(参见林前10。: 1-2)。

In the NT the ministry of our Lord is particularly rich in relevant statements.在新台币我们的主部,特别是在有关声明丰富。He himself becomes a child, and as such is conceived of the Holy Spirit.他自己变成一个孩子,因此是圣灵怀了孕。The Baptist, too, is filled with the Spirit from his mother's womb, so that he might have been a fit subject for baptism no less than circumcision very early in life.浸信会,也充满了圣灵从他母亲的子宫里,这样他可能有过不超过割礼的洗礼很早就不适合的主题。Later, Christ receives and blesses the little ones (Matt. 19:13-14) and is angry when his disciples rebuff them (Mark 10:14).后来,基督的接收和祝福(太19:13-14)小朋友和他的弟子时很生气,拒绝他们(马克10:14)。He says that the things of God are revealed to babes rather than the wise and prudent (Luke 10:21).他说,神的事情透露给小孩子,而不是明智和审慎的(路加福音10:21)。He takes up the statement of Ps.他占据了PS发言。8:2 about the praise of sucklings (Matt. 21:16).8:2对乳儿(太21:16)的一致好评。He warns against the danger of offending against little ones that believe in him (Matt. 18:6), and in the same context says that to be Christians we have not to become adults but to become as children.他警告不要针对该相信他(太18:6)小的违规的危险,而在同样的情况下说是基督徒,我们还没有成为成人,但要成为为儿童。

In the first preaching in Acts it is noticeable that Peter confirms the covenant procedure of the OT with the words: "The promise is unto you, and to your children."在使徒行传第一个值得注意的是,彼得证实了该公约的字样加时赛过程:“无极是给你们和你们的儿女。”In the light of the OT background and the similar procedure in proselyte baptisms, there is little reason to doubt that the household baptisms would include any children who might belong to the families concerned.在加时赛的背景和类似的程序在proselyte洗礼轻,没有什么理由怀疑,家庭洗礼将包括任何可能属于谁的儿童的家庭有关。

In the epistles children are particularly addressed in Ephesians, Colossians, and probably 1 John. We also have the important statement in 1 Cor.在书信的儿童特别处理的以弗所书,歌罗西书,并可能约翰一书。 我们也有一肺心病重要发言英寸7:14 in which Paul speaks of the children of marriages that have become "mixed" by conversion as "holy." This cannot refer to their civil status, but can only mean that they belong to the covenant people, and therefore will obviously have a right to the covenant sign. 7时14分,其中保罗谈到婚姻状态的儿童,这已经成为“混合”的转换,“神圣的。”这不可能是指公民,而只能说他们属于该公约的人,因此将有明显的以签署该公约的权利。

It will be noted that in different ways all these statements bring before us the covenant membership of the children of professing believers. They thus introduce us directly to the biblical understanding of baptism that provides the second line of support for baptizing infants. 值得注意的是,它会以不同的方式我们把所有这些语句之前,自称信徒儿童公约的成员。因此,他们直接向我们介绍圣经的洗礼理解,提供了第二个婴儿洗礼线的 ​​支持。

As the Bible sees it, baptism is not primarily a sign of repentance and faith on the part of the baptized.由于圣经看来,主要不是洗礼的忏悔和信仰上的洗礼的一部分迹象。It is not a sign of anything that we do at all.这是不是什么我们都做的迹象。It is a covenant sign (like circumcision, but without blood-shedding), and therefore a sign of the work of God on our behalf which precedes and makes possible our own responsive movement.这是一个立约的记号(如割礼,但没有流血), 因此运动签署响应神的工作代表我们的前面,使可能的是我们自己。

It is a sign of the gracious election of the Father who plans and establishes the covenant.这是一个父谁计划,并建立了亲切的选举公约的迹象。It is therefore a sign of God's calling.因此,它是上帝的呼召的迹象。Abraham no less than his descendants was first chosen and called by God (Gen. 12:1).亚伯拉罕没有比他的子孙,那么首先选择和神(创12:1)调用。Israel was separated to the Lord because he himself had said: "I will be your God, and ye shall be my people" (Jer. 7:23). Of all disciples it must be said: "Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you" (John 15:16).以色列分开,以主,因为他自己也说:我将是你的神,你们要作我的子民“(耶7:23)。”所有的弟子必须说:“不是你们拣选了我,但我选择了你“(约翰福音15:16)。 The elective will of God in Christ extends to those who are far off as well as nigh, and the sign of it may be extended not only to those who have responded, but to their children growing up in the sphere of the divine choice and calling.上帝在基督选修将延伸到那些谁是遥远的临近以及和它的签署不仅可以延长那些谁已作出回应,但他们的孩子成长在神圣的选择范围,并要求。

But baptism is also a sign of the substitutionary work of the Son in which the covenant is fulfilled. As a witness of death and resurrection, it attests the death and resurrection of the One for the many without whose vicarious action no work even of repentance and faith can be of any avail. It preaches Christ himself as the One who is already dead and risen, so that all are dead and risen in him (II Cor. 5:14; Col. 3:1) even before the movements of repentance and faith which they are summoned to make in identification with him.但是洗礼也是履行签署的代替性的工作,儿子在该公约是。 由于死亡和复活的见证,它证明的死亡和复活的一个为许多人没有行动的替代工作,即使没有悔改和信仰可以是任何利用它宣扬基督自己为一个谁已经死和复活,让所有的死和复活(二肺心病。5:14上校3:1),即使在运动前的忏悔和信心,使他们都被召到与他鉴定。 This substitutionary work is not merely for those who have already believed.这种代替性的工作不仅是为那些谁已经相信。It may and must be preached to all, and the sign and seal given both to those who accept it and to the children who will be brought up with the knowledge of what God has already done for them once for all and all-sufficiently in Christ.它也必须是鼓吹所有,并签名,盖章都给予那些谁接受它,并在谁是带来了什么神已经给他们做过一次对所有和所有在基督充分认识子女。

Finally, baptism is a sign of the regenerative work of the Holy Spirit by which individuals are brought into the covenant in the responsive movement of repentance and faith.最后,受洗是一个再生的圣灵的工作,其中个人到该公约所带来的悔改和信心运动反应的迹象。But the Holy Spirit is sovereign (John 3:8).但圣灵是主权(约翰一书3:8)。He works how and when and in whom he pleases.他的作品如何以及何时和在其中,他为所欲为。He laughs at human impossibilities (Luke 1:37). He is often present before his ministry is perceived, and his operation is not necessarily coextensive with our apprehension of it.他笑1:37)人不能做的事(路。 他经常被他的前部是目前认为,他的操作并不一定是与我们共存的理解。He does not disdain the minds of the undeveloped as fit subjects for the beginning, or if he so disposes the completion, of his work. So long as there is prayer to the Spirit, and a readiness to preach the evangelical word when the opportunity comes, infants may be regarded as within the sphere of this life-giving work which it is the office of baptism to sign and seal.他并不轻视科目开始适应经济欠发达的头脑的,或者如他作主,他的工作完成。 只要有祷告的精神,并愿意为传福音的话,当机会来了,婴儿可能会被视为在该领域的印章赋予生命的工作,它是Office签署和洗礼。

Where infant baptism, or paedobaptism, or pædobaptism, as it is sometimes called, is practiced, it is right and necessary that those who grow to maturity should make their own confession of faith. But they do so with the clear witness that it is not this which saves them, but the work of God already done for them before they believed.凡婴儿的洗礼,或paedobaptism,或pædobaptism,因为它有时被称为,是实行, 这是正确和必要的,那些谁成长壮大,应使自己的信仰自己的供认。但他们看到这样的明确,这是不这既节约了他们,但神的工作已经为他们所做的,才相信了。 The possibility arises, of course, that they will not make this confession, or do so formally.发生的可能性,当然,他们不会让这个自白,或做那么正式。But this cannot be avoided by a different mode of administration.但是,这无法避免由不同的给药方式。It is a problem of preaching and teaching.这是一个问题的说教和教学。And even if they do not believe, or do so nominally, their prior baptism as a sign of the work of God is a constant witness to call or finally to condemn them.而且,即使他们不相信,或者这样做名义上,他们作为神的工作之前签署的洗礼是一个常数证人打电话或最终谴责他们。

On the mission field adult baptism will naturally continue.在团场成人洗礼,自然会继续下去。In days of apostasy it can and will be common even in evangelized lands.在叛教天它可以而且将普通甚至在传教的土地。Indeed, as a witness to the fact that our response is really demanded it is good for the church that there should always be a Baptist section within it.事实上,作为对我们的反应是要求它是真正的教会,凡事总有部分浸在其中一个很好的事实见证。But once the gospel has gained an entry into a family or community, there is good scriptural and theological ground that infant baptism should be the normal practice.但是,一旦得到了一个福音到家庭或社区项目,有较好的圣经和神学的理由是婴儿的洗礼,应该是正常的做法。

GW Bromiley毛重罗米立

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
GW Bromiley, The Baptism of Infants; J. Calvin, Institutes 4.16; O. Cullmann, Baptism in the NT; PC Marcel, The Biblical Doctrine of Infant Baptism; Reports on Baptism in the Church of Scotland; W. Wall, The History of Infant Baptism; J. Jeremias, Infant Baptism in the First Four Centuries; H. Thielicke, The Evangelical Faith, III.毛重罗米立,洗礼的婴儿的J.卡尔文学院4.16;澳Cullmann在新台币,洗礼;电脑马塞尔,婴儿洗礼的圣经教义,就在苏格兰教会洗礼的报告; W. Wall先生,其历史婴儿洗礼的J. jeremias,婴儿的前四世纪的洗礼;阁下•悌理柯,福音派信仰,三。


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Lay Baptism莱洗礼

Advanced Information先进的信息

The NT affords neither precept nor precedent for the administration of baptism except by an ordained minister. From an early period, however, laymen did give baptism where ministers were not available. 新台币让该政府的洗礼,也没有先例的戒律,除了由受戒部长。从早期的时期,但是,外行人确实给部长们的洗礼,在无法使用。The custom was defended by Tertullian and later theologians on the ground that what is received may be passed on, that the sacrament is more important than order, and that the rule of love permits it.自定义是辩护良和后来的神学家,理由是什么,可在收到传递,认为圣餐是最重要的秩序,而且爱的规则允许的。Some early authorities insisted on certain qualifications (eg, monogamy or confirmation), and the medieval church drew up an order of precedence.一些早期当局坚持(例如,一夫一妻或确认)某些资质条件,并制定了一个中世纪教堂的优先顺序。

Luther approved of the practice, seeing in it an exercise of the priesthood of the laity.路德批准的做法,也看到了一个俗人神职人员演习。But the Reformed school rejected and suppressed it on the ground that it is not scriptural, destroys good order, and is linked with the false idea of an absolute necessity of baptism.但是,改革的学校拒绝,镇压,理由是它不是圣经它,破坏良好的秩序,并与一个绝对必要的洗礼与错误的观念。Baptism by midwives was particularly disliked.由助产士洗礼特别不喜欢。The practice was fully debated in the Church of England, and eventually discontinued after the Hampton Court Conference in 1604.这一做法得到了充分辩论,英国教会,并最终在汉普顿法院会议之后于1604年停产。

GW Bromiley毛重罗米立

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
J. Bingham, Works, VIII; GW Bromiley, Baptism and the Anglican Reformers. j的宾厄姆,工程,八,毛重罗米立,洗礼和圣公会改革者。


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Rebaptism Rebaptism

Advanced Information先进的信息

During the second century, the church in Asia Minor, faced with considerable heresy, refused to recognize the validity of heretical baptism.在第二个世纪,小亚细亚的教会,具有相当的异端面对,拒绝承认邪教洗礼的有效性。Converts to the orthodox faith from heretical groups were accordingly rebaptized.从邪教的东正教信仰团体被转换成相应rebaptized。The church at Rome, however, took the position that the rite was valid when properly performed, ie, with the correct formula and with the right intention, despite the erroneous views of its administrator.在罗马教会,但是,采取的立场是成年礼时有效的正确执行,即用正确的配方和正确的意图,尽管它的管理员的错误观点。 In North Africa, Tertullian, then Cyprian, would not recognize the baptism of heretics.在北非,良,然后塞浦路斯,不会承认异端的洗礼。Cyprian carried on a bitter controversy with Stephen, bishop of Rome, on this issue.塞浦路斯与斯蒂芬进行,罗马的主教,在这个问题上一场激烈的争论。An anonymous writing, De rebaptismate, set forth the position of the church at Rome.一个匿名写作,德rebaptismate,提出在罗马教会的立场。It made a distinction between water baptism and Spirit baptism.它提出了在水的洗礼和精神洗礼的区别。When a heretic was admitted to the church by the laying on of hands, the Spirit was conveyed, making further application of water unnecessary.当一个邪教组织被接纳所奠定的手去了教堂,灵转达,使水的不必要的进一步应用。

The Roman position was endorsed by the Council of Arles (314) and was championed by Augustine in his controversy with the Donatists.罗马的立场是赞同阿尔勒(314)理事会,由奥古斯丁在他的倡导与多纳徒争议。Its advocates could point to the fact that Scripture contained no instance of rebaptism, that the analogous rite of circumcision was not repeatable, and that the questioning of the legitimacy of heretical baptism made the efficacy of the rite depend upon man rather than God.它的倡导者可以指向一个事实,即圣经中没有rebaptism实例,类似的割礼仪式是不可重复,而且对邪教洗礼的合法性提出质疑的仪式效果,而不是依赖于人的神。 The Council of Trent, in its fourth canon on baptism, reaffirmed the Catholic position.安理会的遄达,在其上的洗礼第四佳能,重申了天主教会的立场。

In Reformation times the Anabaptists insisted on baptism for those who had been baptized in infancy, and this has continued to be the position of the Baptist churches.在改革时代洗礼的anabaptists坚持为那些谁一直在婴儿接受洗礼,这一直是浸信会教堂的位置。The Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England practice what is known as conditional baptism in cases where there is doubt as to the validity of prior baptism.罗马天主教和英国国教 ​​的做法什么是已知的洗礼洗礼有条件的情况下,作为有疑问,作为之前的有效性。The formula used in the Church of England begins, "If thou art not already baptized, I baptize thee."在英格兰教会的公式开始,“如果你的艺术尚未受洗,我洗礼你。”

EF Harrison外汇基金哈里森
Elwell Evangelical Dictionary Elwell宣布了福音字典

Bibliography 参考书目
EW Benson, Cyprian; Blunt; HG Wood in HERE.东西向本森,塞浦路斯;钝;氢化物在这里木材。


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Modes of Baptism模式的洗礼

Advanced Information先进的信息

There are, generally speaking, two opinions regarding the proper manner of administering baptism: that only immersion is lawful and that the mode is a matter of indifference. It would not be correct to identify the immersionist as the Baptist position, for some Baptists do not accept the necessity of immersion. 还有,一般来说,对于两种意见的方式,妥善管理的洗礼:只有浸泡是合法,而模式是一个无关紧要的不是这将不正确的识别浸会的immersionist作为位置,对于一些浸信会接受浸泡的必要性。 The early Anabaptists as a rule baptized by pouring, and still today certain writers who strongly condemn infant baptism are indifferent as to mode (eg, Karl Barth).作为一项规则,早期再洗礼派浇洗礼,今天仍然强烈谴责某些作家谁漠不关心婴儿的洗礼,以模式(例如,卡尔巴特)。

The immersionist position is founded on three arguments. 该immersionist的立场是建立在三个参数。

The second position is essentially a negative one.第二位的基本上是负面的。

It denies the immersionist insistence that baptism is rightly administered only by immersion; instead, it contends that in the NT baptism, in its external form, is simply a washing, a cleansing, which can as well be effected by pouring (affusion) or sprinkling (aspersion) as by immersion.它否认immersionist坚持洗礼是唯一正确的管理,通过浸泡,相反,它认为在新台币洗礼,它的外在形式,是一个简单的洗涤,一种清洁,可也被浇(注水),或洒影响(中伤)经浸泡。

While there is widespread agreement that baptizein in classical Greek means "to immerse," because baptizein has become a technical theological term in the NT it is maintained that the classical and secular usage cannot by itself be normative.虽然目前普遍认为,在古典希腊手段baptizein“沉浸”,因为baptizein已成为一个技术在新台币神学来看也认为,古典和世俗的用法本身不能被规范。 The term diatheke, for example, universally means "testament" in the Greek of the NT period, but it cannot be given that meaning in its NT usage.这个词diatheke,例如,普遍指的NT时期希腊文的“遗嘱”,但它不能给予在其新台币使用的意义。That in its biblical and theological use baptizein has come to mean simply "to wash" or "to purify with water" is indicated by certain occurrences of the term in the LXX and NT where baptizein cannot mean immerse (Sir. 34:25; Luke 11:38; Acts 1:5; 2:3-4, 17; 1 Cor. 10:1-2; Heb. 9:10-23).在圣经和神学使用baptizein这已经意味着简单的“洗”或“净化水”,是表示通过在长期的LXX和NT在baptizein不能意味着沉浸(Sir. 34:25某些事件;卢克11:38,徒1:5; 2:3-4,17,1肺心病10:1-2;。希伯来书9:10-23)。。The last text in particular is a reminder that the purificatory water rites of the OT, the biblical antecedents of baptism, were never immersions. It is further maintained that it is at least implausible that certain baptisms recorded in the NT were immersions (Acts 2:41; 10:47-48; 16:33).尤其是在最后一个文本是一个提醒的是,催产素精制水仪式,经历洗礼的圣经,从来没有浸入2。 委员会还认为它至少是难以置信的记录在某些被浸入新台币洗礼 (使徒: 41; 10:47-48; 16:33)。Nor, it is contended, can appeal be made to the use of the prepositions "in" and "into" which are ambiguous and, if pressed, in Acts 8:38 would require the immersion of both subject and minister.也不是,它是有争议的,可以提出上诉作出了介词“在”使用“到”,这是含糊不清,如果按下,在使徒行传20:38将需要两个主题部长浸泡。

While baptism certainly signifies union with Christ in his death and resurrection, it is denied that this has relevance for the mode.虽然洗礼当然标志着他的死亡和复活与基督联合,这是无可否认,这对模式的相关性。In Rom.在ROM中。6:6 union with Christ in his crucifixion and in Gal.6:6联盟与基督在十字架上,在他的半乳糖。3:27 being clothed with Christ are included in the signification of baptism, but no mode illustrates these aspects of the symbolism of baptism. 3:27被披上基督的洗礼中包含的意义,但没有模式说明了这些方面的洗礼的象征意义。Further, water is a singularly unlikely symbol for the earth into which one is buried, as the immersionist contends. Actually, sprinkling is as well established in Ezek.此外,水是一个被埋葬的象征奇不可能把地球作为immersionist争辩。 其实,喷灌以及以西结书是建立英寸36:25 and Heb. 36:25和河北。9:10, 13-14; 10:22. 9:10,13-14; 10:22。

It is conceded that immersion was the primary mode in the early church, but it is pointed out that other modes were permitted (cf. Didache 7; Cyprian, Epistle to Magnus 12), the earliest artistic representations depict baptism by pouring (affusion), and that some of the influences contributing to the popularity of immersion well may not have been healthy. In general, the nonimmersionist contends that rigor in matters of form is contrary to the spirit of NT worship, contrary to the universal indifference to the mode of celebrating the Lord's Supper, and subject to the scandal that, in principle, the immersionist depopulates the church of most of its membership and most of its finest sons and daughters.这是承认,沉浸在早期教会中的主要模式,但它指出,其他模式是允许的 (参见使徒遗训7;塞浦路斯,书信马格努斯12),最早的艺术表现描绘浇注洗礼(注水)而一些健康的影响已普及作出贡献的浸泡以及可能没有。 一般而言,nonimmersionist争辩说,在严格的形式,重要的是违背了崇拜的精神新台币,这违背了普遍的冷漠的庆祝方式主的晚餐,并受丑闻,在原则上,immersionist depopulates教会其成员大部分和女儿最优秀的儿子和其。

RS Rayburn遥感雷伯恩

Bibliography 参考书目
A. Carson, Baptism, Its Mode and Its Subjects; TJ Conant, The Meaning and Use of Baptizein; J. Warns, Baptism; J. Gill, Body of Divinity; AH Strong, Systematic Theology; A. Oepke, TDNT, I, 529, 46; BB Warfield, "How Shall We Baptize?"卡森,洗礼,它的模式及其科目; TJ科南,意义和Baptizein使用的J.警告说,洗礼的J.吉尔的神体;阿强,系统神学的A. Oepke,TDNT,我, 529,46;沃菲尔德,“我们应如何洗?”in Selected Shorter Writings of Benjamin B. Warfield, II; WGT Shedd, Dogmatic Theology; RL Dabney, Lectures in Systematic Theology; R. Watson, Theological Institutes; RG Rayburn, What About Baptism?在较短的著作选本杰明乙沃菲尔德,二; wgt谢德,教条式的神学设计RL达布,讲座系统的神学;河沃森,神学院校;怎么样洗礼的RG雷伯恩,?J. Murray, Christian Baptism. J.默里,基督教的洗礼。


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Trine (Triune) Immersion Baptism特丽(三位一体)沉洗礼

One popular aspect of Baptizing a Christian involves a triple Baptism, called a Trine Baptism or a Triune Baptism.一个巴普蒂齐宁一个基督徒流行方面涉及到一个三重洗礼,称为特丽洗礼或一三一洗礼。In contrast with a single immersion or a single sprinkling of water, this involves three quickly successive immersions or sprinklings.在浸泡或用一个单一的水洒相反,这涉及三个快速连续浸泡或sprinklings。

Historical Practice历史实践

There is no evidence that the Jews practiced trine immersion, nor had they doctrinal reason to do so.没有任何证据表明,犹太人实行拱浸泡,他们也没有理由这样做的理论。A threefold scheme is sometimes detected in the sequence of circumcision, baptism and sacrifice, but this sequence is reflected rather in the baptism, confirmation, and first communion of the early Church.有时三倍计划中检测到的割礼,洗礼和牺牲序列,但这个序列是相当的洗礼,确认反映,和早期教会的共融。

The NT neither commands trine immersion nor provides any example of it. The only possible connection is with the trinity (Mt. 28:19), but single immersion might equally well be deduced from the reported baptizing in the name of Christ. 新台币既不命令拱浸泡,也不提供任何IT的例子。唯一可能的连接)是三位一体(太28:19,但单浸泡可能同样能代表报告推断在基督施洗的名称。

Yet trine immersion is undoubtedly early and seems to have established itself quickly as the common practice, though with no apparent appeal to the Apostles.然而,三次沉浸无疑是早, 似乎已经迅速确立了自己作为使徒的共同做法,虽然没有明显的呼吁。Thus the Didache speaks of trine immersion (or affusion): "But if thou hast neither [cold or warm running water], pour water three times [Gk. tris] on the head 'in the Name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit'" (7:3).因此,十二使徒遗训谈到拱浸泡(或注水):“但如果你既没有[冷水或温水],倒入水三次[竞招聘教师。]的顶上,在圣灵名称父,子和圣灵'“(7:3)。 Justin Martyr, too, seems to have hinted at trine immersion (Apol. i.61), and it is plainly attested by Tertullian: "And indeed it is not once only, but three times, that we are immersed into the Three Persons, at each several mention of Their names" (nam nec semel, sed ter, ad singula nomina. in personas singulas, tinguimur; Adv. Prax. 26; cf. also De corona 3). The Apostolic Constitutions reiterate: "if any bishop or presbyter does not perform the three immersions of the one admission, but one immersion, which is given into the death of Christ, let him be deprived" (xlvii. 50).贾斯汀烈士,似乎也有)暗示拱浸泡(Apol. i.61,这显然是核签良:“事实上它不是只有一次,而是三次,我们是人浸入三,每提及他们的名字几个“南之三,广告singula nomina。在人物singulas,NEC公司tinguimur;地。普凯。26塞梅尔;,比照。桑达德也电晕3)。( 使徒宪法重申:”如果任何主教或牧师不执行一入学三个浸入,但一浸,这是由于进入基督的死亡,让他被剥夺“(xlvii. 50)。

At a later stage Gregory allowed single immersion, in Spain, thus giving rise to the famous Toledo ruling much cited by the Reformers. 在后一阶段格雷戈里允许单一浸泡,在西班牙,从而产生了许多著名的托莱多执政所列举的改革者。This ruling seems to have been in opposition to a false Arian conception of the three persons and to emphasize their essential oneness in deity. In both Western and Eastern Churches trine immersion has continued to be the common practice.这一裁决似乎在反对神的三个假阿里安一个概念的人,并在强调自己的基本统一性。 在西方和东方教会三次沉浸一直是常见的做法。

Reformation Teaching教学改革

The Reformers did not object in principle to trine immersion. For Luther it was a neutral matter. 改革者不反对在原则上拱浸泡。路德它是一个中立的问题。Calvin, too, argued for liberty in the matter, although he did not practice trine baptism; he also permitted either immersion or sprinkling (Inst. iv.15.19).卡尔文,也主张在自由问题,但他没有练习拱洗礼, 他还允许任何浸泡或喷洒 (机构iv.15.19)。The principle of a primary conformity to what is actually found in Scripture probably influenced Calvin's own practice.一所小学的原则,什么是符合实际的影响可能在圣经中找到Calvin的自己的做法。

In England the Sarum Use prescribes dipping, "first on the right side, then the left, then the face."在英国,塞勒姆浸渍使用规定“,在右侧,然后在左侧,然后在脸上第一次。”In 1549 the first Book of Common Prayer maintains trine immersion; in the 1552 edition dipping remains, but the three dippings are abandoned as of no true moment.在1549年的第一本书的共同祈祷三次沉浸维护,而在1552年版浸渍仍然存在,但三个酸洗是作为没有真正的时刻放弃。 T. Becon (ca. 1511-1567) granted that the trine practice is ancient, but he listed it among things indifferent, since "Christ left the manner of baptism free in the church" (Works, 2, ed. J. Ayre for Parker Society [1843-44]).吨Becon(约公元1511年至1567年)的三分做法理所当然 ​​地认为是古老的,但他列举它事物之间漠不关心,因为“基督离开了教堂的方式免费的洗礼”(工程,二,编辑。j的艾尔为帕克会[1843年至1844年])。 Later opinion tended to harden against the practice.后来意见倾向于强化反对这种做法。Thus J. Calfhill (ca. 1530-1576), almost certainly erroneously, dismissed it as a "strange invention of Tertullian" (Works, 213, ed. Parker Society). Reformation teaching and practice was generally biased against the custom on the ground that it was an addition with no biblical sanction or true theological weight. A principle of liberty was not abandoned, however, except by the narrower Puritans.因此j的Calfhill(约1530至1576年),几乎可以肯定错误,驳回)它作为一个发明的“怪良”(工程,213,编辑。帕克社会。 改革教学与实践普遍地偏向于对自定义这是另外一个清教徒,没有真正的圣经神学制裁或重量。一个原则自由是没有放弃,但较窄,除由。

The Reformation view seems on the whole to be the most satisfactory.改革的观点似乎总体上是最令人满意的。Since trine immersion lacks direct biblical support, it is not a binding obligation.由于缺乏直接的三次沉浸圣经的支持,它不是一个具有约束力的义务。A different baptismal practice does not affect the sacrament and may be preferred by churches that try to exclude what is not biblically enjoined.另一种不同的洗礼的做法不影响圣餐,并可能被教会试图排除什么不是圣经责成首选。 Nevertheless, trine immersion has impressive historical attestation. It is not devoid of helpful signification and does not corrupt the sacrament. A liberty of judgment may thus be conceded to Churches that maintain the practice.然而,令人印象深刻的三次沉浸在历史的见证。 这不是毫无意义的帮助,不会损坏圣礼。一个自由的判决可能会因此而让步,以维护教会的做法。In other words, it belongs to the sphere where each church may and should decide for itself the most appropriate form of fulfilling the scriptural ordinance.换言之,它属于每个领域教堂可能,并应自行决定履行条例的圣经最适当的形式。


Strong's Definitions for (Greek) Biblical Baptism words为(希腊文)圣经的洗礼词强的定义

907 baptizo907 baptizo

from a derivative of 911; TDNT - 1:529,92; verb从911衍生物; TDNT - 1:529,92;动词

AV - baptize (76), wash 2, baptist 1, baptized + 2258 1; 80影音 - 洗(76),洗2,浸1,洗+ 2258 1; 80

1) to dip repeatedly, to immerse, to submerge (of vessels sunk) 1)浸多次,沉浸,淹没(船只沉没)
2) to cleanse by dipping or submerging, to wash, to make clean with water, to wash one's self, bathe 2)清洗浸泡或淹没了,洗,就用干净水,洗一个人的自我,洗澡
3) to overwhelm3)以压倒


Not to be confused with 911, bapto.为了不被混淆911 bapto。The clearest example that shows the meaning of baptizo is a text from the Greek poet and physician Nicander, who lived about 200 BC It is a recipe for making pickles and is helpful because it uses both words.最明显的例子,它展示baptizo含义是从希腊诗人和医生Nicander,谁生活在约公元前200年,是制造泡菜的配方,是有用的,因为它使用了两个词的文本。 Nicander says that in order to make a pickle, the vegetable should first be 'dipped' (bapto) into boiling water and then 'baptised' (baptizo) in the vinegar solution. Nicander说,为了使一个泡菜,蔬菜应首先被浸泡'(bapto)进入沸水,然后'洗礼'在醋液(baptizo)。Both verbs concern the immersing of vegetables in a solution.这两个动词关切地蔬菜浸泡在溶液中。But the first is temporary.但首先是暂时的。The second, the act of baptising the vegetable, produces a permanent change.第二,蔬菜的洗礼行为,产生一个永久性的变化。

When used in the New Testament, this word more often refers to our union and identification with Christ than to our water baptism.在新约时使用这个词往往是指我们的联盟和基督认同,而放弃与水的洗礼。 eg Mark 16:16.例如马克16:16。 'He that believes and is baptised shall be saved'.'他的信而受洗的必然得救'。Christ is saying that mere intellectual assent is not enough.基督是说,仅仅是智力赞同是不够的。There must be a union with him, a real change, like the vegetable to the pickle!必须有一个与他结合,是真正的改变,如在腌制蔬菜,!

Bible Study Magazine, James Montgomery Boice, May 1989.圣经研究杂志,詹姆斯蒙哥马利博伊斯,1989年5月。


908 baptisma908 baptisma

from 907; TDNT - 1:545,92; nn从907; TDNT - 1:545,92;神经网络

AV - baptism 22; 22影音 - 洗礼22; 22

1) immersion, submersion1)浸泡,淹没
1a) of calamities and afflictions with which one is quite overwhelmed1A)条的灾难和困苦,哪一个是难言
1b) of John's baptism, that purification rite by which men on confessing their sins were bound to spiritual reformation, obtained the pardon of their past sins and became qualified for the benefits of the Messiah's kingdom soon to be set up. 1B)条的约翰的洗礼,即净化仪式,由上承认他们的罪行是必然的精神改革,男子获得了他们过去的罪孽赦免,并成为对弥赛亚的王国是即将成立的好处资格。 This was valid Christian baptism, as this was the only baptism the apostles received and it is not recorded anywhere that they were ever rebaptised after Pentecost.这是有效的基督教的洗礼,因为这是唯一接受洗礼的使徒,这是没有记录的任何地方,他们从此过五旬rebaptised。
1c) of Christian baptism; a rite of immersion in water as commanded by Christ, by which one after confessing his sins and professing his faith in Christ, having been born again by the Holy Spirit unto a new life, identifies publicly with the fellowship of Christ and the church. 1C号)基督教的洗礼,一个沉浸在由基督吩咐水仪式,其中一承认自​​己的罪后,他的信仰和信奉基督,出生后由圣灵所不欲又一个新的生命,确定公开的团契基督和教会。


In Rom.在ROM中。6:3 Paul states we are "baptised unto death" meaning that we are not only dead to our former ways, but they are buried.6:3保罗说我们是“受洗,以至于死”这意味着我们不仅我们以前的方式死,但他们被埋葬。To return to them is as unthinkable for a Christian as for one to dig up a dead corpse!要返回到他们是作为一个基督徒作为一个不可思议的一个死人尸体挖!In Moslem countries a new believer has little trouble with Moslems until he is publicly baptised.在穆斯林国家的一个新的穆斯林信徒已经与小的麻烦,直到他公开接受洗礼。It is then, that the Moslems' know he means business, and then the persecution starts.它是那么,穆斯林群众知道他指的业务,然后迫害开始。See also discussion of baptism under No. 907.另见第907号洗礼的讨论。


909 baptismos909 baptismos

from 907; TDNT - 1:545,92; nm从907; TDNT - 1:545,92;纳米

AV - washing 3, baptism 1; 4影音 - 洗涤3,洗礼1 4

1) a washing, purification effected by means of water1)洗涤,净化水的手段影响
1a) of washing prescribed by the Mosaic law (Heb 9:10) which seems to mean an exposition of the difference between the washings prescribed by the Mosaic law and Christian baptism 1A)条的洗涤镶嵌法(来9:10),这似乎意味着之间的洗涤的镶嵌法规定的差异和基督教的洗礼规定博览会


910 Baptistes910 Baptistes

from 907; TDNT - 1:545,92; nm从907; TDNT - 1:545,92;纳米

AV - Baptist 14; 14影音 - 浸会14; 14

1) a baptiser1)施洗
2) one who administers the rite of baptism2)一个谁管理的洗礼仪式
3) the surname of John, the forerunner of Christ3)约翰,基督的先行者姓


911 bapto 911 bapto

a primary word; TDNT - 1:529,92; v主词; TDNT - 1:529,92; v

AV - dip 3; 3影音 - 浸3 3

1) to dip, dip in, immerse1)浸,蘸,浸
2) to dip into dye, to dye, colour2)动用染料,染料,色


Not to be confused with 907, baptizo.为了不被混淆907 baptizo。The clearest example that shows the meaning of baptizo is a text from the Greek poet and physician Nicander, who lived about 200 BC It is a recipe for making pickles and is helpful because it uses both words.最明显的例子,它展示baptizo含义是从希腊诗人和医生Nicander,谁生活在约公元前200年,是制造泡菜的配方,是有用的,因为它使用了两个词的文本。 Nicander says that in order to make a pickle, the vegetable should first be 'dipped' (bapto) into boiling water and then 'baptised' (baptizo) in the vinegar solution. Nicander说,为了使一个泡菜,蔬菜应首先被浸泡'(bapto)进入沸水,然后'洗礼'在醋液(baptizo)。Both verbs concern the immersing of vegetables in a solution.这两个动词关切地蔬菜浸泡在溶液中。But the first is temporary.但首先是暂时的。The second, the act of baptising the vegetable, produces a permanent change.第二,蔬菜的洗礼行为,产生一个永久性的变化。


Baptism洗礼

Catholic Information天主教新闻

One of the Seven Sacraments of the Christian Church; frequently called the "first sacrament", the "door of the sacraments", and the "door of the Church".的基督教教会的七个圣礼之一;经常被称为“第一圣事”中,“圣礼门”,和“教会之门”。

The subject will be treated under the following headings:这个问题将被视为按下列标题:

I. Authoritative Statement of Doctrine一,权威性原则声明

II.二。Etymology词源

III.三。Definition定义

IV.四。Types类型

V. Institution of the Sacrament五,各级机构的圣

VI.六。Matter and Form of the Sacrament物质和形式的圣餐

VII.七。Conditional Baptism有条件的洗礼

VIII.八。RebaptismRebaptism

IX.九。Necessity of Baptism洗礼的必要性

X. Substitutes for the SacramentX的替代品的圣

XI.十一。Unbaptized Infants未受洗礼的婴儿

XII.十二。Effects of Baptism作者:洗礼

XIII.十三。Minister of the Sacrament部长的圣餐

XIV.十四。Recipient of Baptism收件人的洗礼

XV.十五。Adjuncts of Baptism附加语的洗礼

XVI, Ceremonies of Baptism十六,洗礼仪式

XVII.十七。Metaphorical Baptism隐喻洗礼

I. AUTHORITATIVE STATEMENT OF DOCTRINE一,权威的教义声明

At the outset we think it advisable to give two documents which express clearly the mind of the Church on the subject of baptism.在一开始我们就认为它可给予这两个文件上清楚地表达主题的洗礼心灵的教会。They are valuable, also, as containing a summary of the main points to be considered in the treatment of this important matter.它们是有价值的,同时,含有一对在处理这一重要问题考虑的要点总结。Baptism is defined positively in the one and negatively in the other.积极的洗礼,是定义在一个和其他负面影响。

(1) The Positive Document: "The Decree for the Armenians"(1)阳性文件:“对亚美尼亚人的法令”

"The Decree for the Armenians", in the Bull "Exultate Deo" of Pope Eugene IV, is often referred to as a decree of the Council of Florence.他说:“亚美尼亚人的法令”中的公牛“Exultate迪奥”教皇尤金四,经常被称为作为安理会的佛罗伦萨的法令。 While it is not necessary to hold this decree to be a dogmatic definition of the matter and form and minister of the sacraments, it is undoubtedly a practical instruction, emanating from the Holy See, and as such, has full authenticity in a canonical sense.虽然这是没有必要举行这项法令是一个问题的形成和部长的圣礼式的定义,这无疑是一个实践教学,从罗马教廷所产生的,因此,在一个规范意义上完整的真实性。 That is, it is authoritative.也就是说,它是权威的。The decree speaks thus of Baptism:该法令说这样的洗礼:

Holy Baptism holds the first place among the sacraments, because it is the door of the spiritual life; for by it we are made members of Christ and incorporated with the Church.神圣的洗礼圣礼中占有第一的地方,因为它是精神生命之门,由它,我们是由基督与教会的成员,并注册成立。And since through the first man death entered into all, unless we be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, we can not enter into the kingdom of Heaven, as Truth Himself has told us.此外,由于通过的第一人死亡进入所有,除非我们是重生的水和圣灵,我们不能进入天国,因为真理告诉我们自己。The matter of this sacrament is true and natural water; and it is indifferent whether it be cold or hot.这个圣餐的事项真实,天然水,它是漠不关心,无论是冷或热。The form is: I baptize thee in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost.的形式是:我在洗的名字父亲和儿子和你的圣灵。We do not, however, deny that the words: Let this servant of Christ be baptized in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost; or: This person is baptized by my hands in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, constitute true baptism; because since the principal cause from which baptism has its efficacy is the Holy Trinity, and the instrumental cause is the minister who confers the sacrament exteriorly, then if the act exercised by the minister be expressed, together with the invocation of the Holy Trinity, the sacrament is perfected.我们不这样做,但是,否认的话:让这基督的仆人在父亲的姓名及子及圣灵受洗,或:此人是受洗的父亲名字的我的手,圣子和圣灵,构成了真正的洗礼,因为自从中洗礼的主要原因有其功效是三位一体,而工具的原因是谁赋予的部长圣礼外表,那么该法由部长行使表示,与调用的圣三一合计,圣礼是完善。 The minister of this sacrament is the priest, to whom it belongs to baptize, by reason of his office.此圣礼部长是牧师,向谁属于他的办公室施洗的理由。In case of necessity, however, not only a priest or deacon, but even a layman or woman, nay, even a pagan or heretic can baptize, provided he observes the form used by the Church, and intends to perform what the Church performs.在必要情况下,然而,不仅是一个牧师或执事,但即使是外行人或女人,不仅如此,即使是异教徒或异端可以洗,只要他遵守由教会使用的表格,并打算执行什么教会的执行。 The effect of this sacrament is the remission of all sin, original and actual; likewise of all punishment which is due for sin.这一圣事的效果是,所有的罪,原始和实际缓解;同样的,所有的处罚,对罪到期。As a consequence, no satisfaction for past sins is enjoined upon those who are baptized; and if they die before they commit any sin, they attain immediately to the kingdom of heaven and the vision of God.因此,没有对过去的罪孽满意是受命后,那些谁是受洗的,如果他们在死之前,他们犯任何罪,他们能达到立即向天国和上帝的视野。

(2) The Negative Document: "De Baptismo"(2)负文件:“德baptismo”

The negative document we call the canons on baptism decreed by the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, De Baptismo), in which the following doctrines are anathematized (declared heretical):负文件的洗礼,我们呼吁由安理会的遄达(sess.七,德baptismo),其中以下学说anathematized(声明邪教)下令大炮:

The baptism of John (the Precursor) had the same efficacy as the baptism of Christ, True and natural water is not necessary for baptism, and therefore the words of Our Lord Jesus Christ "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost" are metaphorical.约翰的(即前体)的洗礼具有与基督的洗礼,同样的疗效真实和自然的水是没有必要的洗礼,因此我们的主耶稣基督“字只有当一个人重生水和圣灵“的隐喻。 The true doctrine of the sacrament of baptism is not taught by the Roman Church, Baptism given by heretics in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost with the intention of performing what the Church performs, is not true baptism, Baptism is free, that is, not necessary for salvation.作者:圣事的洗礼,是不是真正的教义教由罗马教会,在父亲的姓名和儿子和执行与执行的意图是什么,教会异端圣灵给予的洗礼,是不正确的洗礼,洗礼是免费的,即没有必要的救赎。 A baptized person, even if he wishes it, can not lose grace, no matter how much he sins, unless he refuses to believe.一个受洗的人,即使他想它,不能失去风度,不管他是多么的罪过,除非他拒绝相信。Those who are baptized are obliged only to have faith, but not to observe the whole law of Christ.这些谁受洗有责任不仅要有信心,但不遵守基督的整个法律。Baptized persons are not obliged to observe all the precepts of the Church, written and traditional, unless of their own accord they wish to submit to them.受洗者不一定要遵守所有的书面和传统的教会,除非他们自己的协议,他们希望提交给他们的训词。

All vows made after baptism are void by reason of the promises made in baptism itself; because by these vows injury is done to the faith which has been professed in baptism and to the sacrament itself.所有的誓言洗礼后作出的洗礼是由本身的原因所作的承诺无效,因为这些誓言是为了伤害,目前已在洗礼和圣餐本身自称信仰。 All sins committed after baptism are either forgiven or rendered venial by the sole remembrance and faith of the baptism that has been received.洗礼后所犯的一切罪被赦免,或使之无论是唯一的纪念,并认为已收到洗礼信心可宽恕。Baptism although truly and properly administered, must be repeated in the case of a person who has denied the faith of Christ before infidels and has been brought again to repentance.虽然真正的洗礼和妥善管理,必须重复在一个谁也否认之前异教徒信仰基督,并已再次悔改的人带来如此。No one is to be baptized except at the age at which Christ was baptized or at the moment of death.任何人,除非是在位于基督受洗年龄,或在死亡的一刻受洗。

Infants, not being able to make an act of faith, are not to be reckoned among the faithful after their baptism, and therefore when they come to the age of discretion they are to be rebaptized; or it is better to omit their baptism entirely than to baptize them as believing on the sole faith of the Church, when they themselves can not make a proper act of faith.婴儿,不能够作出有根据的信仰,不被他们的洗礼后,在忠实的计算,因此当他们到了年龄,他们决定要rebaptized,或者最好是完全忽略他们的洗礼比为施洗于教会唯一的信仰,当他们自己不能作出正确行为的信心相信他们。 Those baptized as infants are to be asked when they have grown up, whether they wish to ratify what their sponsors had promised for them at their baptism, and if they reply that they do not wish to do so, they are to be left to their own will in the matter and not to be forced by penalties to lead a Christian life, except to be deprived of the reception of the Eucharist and of the other sacraments, until they reform.这些婴儿接受洗礼的时候要问他们都长大了,他们是否希望他们的赞助商是什么批准为他们答应他们的洗礼,如果他们回答说他们不希望这样做,他们是要留给自己自己的意志在这个问题上,不要被强迫处罚过基督徒的生活,除了是圣体接待剥夺和其他圣礼,直到他们的改革。

The doctrines here condemned by the Council of Trent, are those of various leaders among the early reformers.这里谴责安理会的遄达的教义,是各领导人的其中早期改革者。The contradictory of all these statements is to be held as the dogmatic teaching of the Church.所有这些矛盾的陈述被视为教会的教条式的教学举行。

II.二。ETYMOLOGY词源

The word Baptism is derived from the Greek word, bapto, or baptizo, to wash or to immerse.洗礼一词源于希腊字,bapto,或baptizo,清洗或浸泡。It signifies, therefore, that washing is of the essential idea of the sacrament.它标志着,因此,洗涤的圣餐基本思想是。 Scripture uses the term baptize both literally and figuratively.经文使用术语都名副其实地洗礼。It is employed in a metaphorical sense in Acts 1:5, where the abundance of the grace of the Holy Ghost is signified, and also in Luke 12:50, where the term is referred to the sufferings of Christ in His Passion.这是受雇于一个隐喻意义上的行为为1:5​​,其中对圣灵的恩典丰度所指,并在路加福音12:50,那里的任期是指在他受难的基督的苦难。 Otherwise in the New Testament, the root word from which baptism is derived is used to designate the laving with water, and it is employed, when speaking of Jewish lustrations, and of the baptism of John, as well as of the Christian Sacrament of Baptism (cf. Hebrews 6:2; Mark 7:4).否则,在新约中,字根衍生的洗礼,是从哪个是用来指定用清水朵的,它是就业,在谈到犹太lustrations,和约翰的洗礼,以及基督教的洗礼圣事(见希伯来书6:2,马可福音7:4)。 In ecclesiastical usage, however, when the terms Baptize, Baptism are employed without a qualifying word, they are intended to signify the sacramental washing by which the soul is cleansed from sin at the same time that water is poured upon the body.在教会的用法,但是,当条件洗礼,洗礼是没有修饰词雇用,也打算以示圣其中从洗涤罪恶的灵魂,是在同一时间,水是浇在尸体上洗。 Many other terms have been used as descriptive synonyms for baptism both in the Bible and Christian antiquity, as the washing of regeneration, illumination, the seal of God, the water of eternal life, the sacrament of the Trinity, and so on.其他许多条款已经用作洗礼无论是在古代描述圣经和基督教的同义词,作为再生,照明,上帝,永恒的生命之水,三位一体的圣餐密封,清洗等。 In English, the term christen is familiarly used for baptize.在英语中,克里森是长期亲密用于洗礼。As, however, the former word signifies only the effect of baptism, that is, to make one a Christian, but not the manner and the act, moralists hold that "I christen" could probably not be substituted validly for "I baptize" in conferring the sacrament.但是,由于前者只字标志着效果的洗礼,也就是使一个基督徒,但不是与行为方式,道德认为,“我克里森”都可能是不可替代有效地为“我洗”的授予圣餐。

III.三。DEFINITION定义

The Roman Catechism (Ad parochos, De bapt., 2, 2, 5) defines baptism thus: Baptism is the sacrament of regeneration by water in the word (per aquam in verbo).罗马问答(。广告parochos,德BAPT的,2,2,5)定义的洗礼,因此:洗礼是再生借字(每人verbo aquam)水圣礼。St. Thomas Aquinas (III:66:1) gives this definition: "Baptism is the external ablution of the body, performed with the prescribed form of words."圣托马斯阿奎那(三:66:1)为这个定义:“洗礼是身体外部的洗礼,用文字的形式进行规定。”Later theologians generally distinguish formally between the physical and the metaphysical defining of this sacrament.后来神学家一般的物理之间的区分正式和这圣餐形而上学定义。By the former they understand the formula expressing the action of ablution and the utterance of the invocation of the Trinity; by the latter, the definition: "Sacrament of regeneration" or that institution of Christ by which we are reborn to spiritual life.由前他们了解公式表达了沐浴和调用的三位一体话语行动;由后者的定义:“再生的圣事”或基督的机构,使我们有重生的精神生活。

The term "regeneration" distinguishes baptism from every other sacrament, for although penance revivifies men spiritually, yet this is rather a resuscitation, a bringing back from the dead, than a rebirth.所谓“再生”区别于其他所有圣事的洗礼,因为虽然忏悔revivifies男子精神上,但是这是相当一个复苏,一个把从死里复活,比重生。 Penance does not make us Christians; on the contrary, it presupposes that we have already been born of water and the Holy Ghost to the life of grace, while baptism on the other hand was instituted to confer upon men the very beginnings of the spiritual life, to transfer them from the state of enemies of God to the state of adoption, as sons of God.忏悔不会使我们基督徒,相反,它预示着我们已经出生的水和圣灵的恩典生命,而另一方面洗礼,是建立以人身上的精神赋予生命之初,转让从神的敌人状态他们领养的状态,因为神的儿子。

The definition of the Roman Catechism combines the physical and metaphysical definitions of baptism.罗马讲授相结合的洗礼定义的物理和形而上学的定义。"The sacrament of regeneration" is the metaphysical essence of the sacrament, while the physical essence is expressed by the second part of the definition, ie the washing with water (matter), accompanied by the invocation of the Holy Trinity (form).他说:“再生的圣事”是形而上学的圣餐的本质,而物理本质是由定义的第二部分表示,即用清水冲洗(物质),由圣三一(表)调用陪同。 Baptism is, therefore, the sacrament by which we are born again of water and the Holy Ghost, that is, by which we receive in a new and spiritual life, the dignity of adoption as sons of God and heirs of God's kingdom.洗礼,因此,其中的圣餐我们出生的水和圣灵,也就是使我们在一个新的精神生活得到再次,作为神的儿子和神的王国继承人收养的尊严。

IV.四。TYPES类型

Having considered the Christian meaning of the term "baptism", we now turn our attention to the various rites which were its forerunners before the New Dispensation.审议了对“洗礼”基督教的含义,我们现在把我们的注意,日前新的豁免其前身各种仪式。

Types of this sacrament are to be found among the Jews and Gentiles.这圣餐类型被犹太人和外邦人之间的发现。Its place in the sacramental system of the Old Law was taken by circumcision, which is called by some of the Fathers "the washing of blood" to distinguish it from "the washing of water".它在圣事的旧法系统地采取了由割礼,这是由父亲的“洗血”,以区别于“水洗”了一些所谓的。By the rite of circumcision, the recipient was incorporated into the people of God and made a partaker in the Messianic promises; a name was bestowed upon him and he was reckoned among the children of Abraham, the father of all believers.到了割礼仪式,收件人已被纳入神的人,并提出了在弥赛亚承诺有分,一个名字是赐予他,他一直是亚伯拉罕,父亲对所有信徒的孩子计算。

Other forerunners of baptism were the numerous purifications prescribed in the Mosaic dispensation for legal uncleannesses.先行者的洗礼,是在其他法律规定的不洁马赛克省却许多净化。The symbolism of an outward washing to cleanse an invisible blemish was made very familiar to the Jews by their sacred ceremonies.一个向外象征洗涤清洁一种无形的缺陷作了非常熟悉的犹太人的神圣仪式。But in addition to these more direct types, both the New Testament writers and the Fathers of the Church find many mysterious foreshadowings of baptism.但除了这些直接的类型,无论是新约作家,父亲教会发现许多神秘的洗礼预兆。Thus St. Paul (1 Corinthians 10) adduces the passage of Israel through the Red Sea, and St. Peter (1 Peter 3) the Deluge, as types of the purification to be found in Christian baptism.因此,圣保罗(哥林多前书10),以色列引证过红海的推移,和圣彼得(彼得3)大洪水,作为净化类型被发现在基督教的洗礼。 Other foreshadowings of the sacrament are found by the Fathers in the bathing of Naaman in the Jordan, in the brooding of the Spirit of God over the waters, in the rivers of Paradise, in the blood of the Paschal Lamb, during Old Testament times, and in the pool of Bethsaida, and in the healing of the dumb and blind in the New Testament.其他预兆的圣餐发现的乃缦在约旦河中沐浴的父亲,在上帝的灵运行在水面沉思,在天堂的河流,在逾越节羔羊的血,在旧约时代,并在伯赛大池,并在哑巴和盲人在新约愈合。 How natural and expressive the symbolism of exterior washing to indicate interior purification was recognized to be, is plain from the practice also of the heathen systems of religion.多么自然和表现的洗涤指示室内净化被确认为,外部象征是平原也从宗教的异教徒系统的做法。The use of lustral water is found among the Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Hindus, and others.该lustral用水发现其中巴比伦人,亚述人,埃及人,希腊人,罗马人,印度人等。A closer resemblance to Christian baptism is found in a form of Jewish baptism, to be bestowed on proselytes, given in the Babylonian Talmud (Döllinger, First Age of the Church).再仔细相似,以基督教的洗礼,是发现在犹太洗礼的形式,将根据赋予的proselytes在巴比伦塔木德(多林格,首先教会年龄)给出。

But above all must be considered the baptism of St. John the Precursor.但首先必须被认为是圣约翰洗礼的前兆。John baptized with water (Mark 1) and it was a baptism of penance for the remission of sins (Luke 3).约翰是用水施洗(马克1),它是一个忏悔的罪孽(路加福音3)缓解洗礼。While, then, the symbolism of the sacrament instituted by Christ was not new, the efficacy which He joined to the rite is that which differentiates it from all its types.虽然,届时,由基督圣餐的象征意义是不是新的,疗效是他参加的​​仪式是,其中所有类型的不同之处了。John's baptism did not produce grace, as he himself testifies (Matthew 3) when he declares that he is not the Messias whose baptism is to confer the Holy Ghost.约翰的洗礼,并没有产生优雅,正如他自己证明(马太3)当他宣称,他不是弥赛亚的洗礼,是赋予圣灵。Moreover, it was not John's baptism that remitted sin, but the penance that accompanied it; and hence St. Augustine calls it (De Bapt. contra Donat., V) "a remission of sins in hope".此外,它不是约翰的洗礼汇款罪,但伴随它的忏悔,并因此称之为圣奥古斯丁(德BAPT的禁忌多纳特,五。。)“在希望的罪得赦”。 As to the nature of the Precursor's baptism, St. Thomas (III:38:1) declares: The baptism of John was not a sacrament of itself, but a certain sacramental as it were, preparing the way (disponens) for the baptism of Christ." Durandus calls it a sacrament, indeed, but of the Old Law, and St. Bonaventure places it as a medium between the Old and New Dispensations. It is of Catholic faith that the Precursor's baptism was essentially different in its effects from the baptism of Christ, It is also to be noted that those who had previously received John's baptism had to receive later the Christian baptism (Acts 19).至于对易制毒化学的洗礼,圣托马斯(三:38:1)自然宣称:约翰的洗礼是不是圣礼本身,而是因为它被某些圣礼,准备洗礼的方式(disponens)基督。“Durandus称之为一种圣礼,的确,但在旧法,和圣文德一个地方作为新老之间的特许媒介。它的天主教信仰,前驱体的洗礼是从本质上不同的影响基督的洗礼,也应该指出,那些谁曾收到约翰的洗礼后,不得不接受基督教的洗礼(使徒19)。

V. INSTITUTION OF THE SACRAMENT五,各级机构的圣礼

That Christ instituted the Sacrament of Baptism is unquestionable.基督提起的洗礼是毋庸置疑的。Rationalists, like Harnack (Dogmengeschichte, I, 68), dispute it, only by arbitrarily ruling out the texts which prove it.理性,像哈纳克(Dogmengeschichte,我68),纠纷的,只有通过任意排除文本,其中证明这一点。Christ not only commands His Disciples (Matthew 28:19) to baptize and gives them the form to be used, but He also declares explicitly the absolute necessity of baptism (John 3): "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he can not enter into the Kingdom of God."基督不仅命令他的门​​徒(马太28:19)为施洗,使他们所要使用的形式,但他也明确地宣称绝对必要的洗礼(约翰福音3):“只有当一个人出生的水和圣灵再次鬼,他不能进神的国。“ Moreover, from the general doctrine of the Church on the sacraments, we know that the efficacy attached to them is derivable only from the institution of the Redeemer.此外,从教会的圣礼一般学说,我们知道,重视他们的疗效是可导只是从救世主机构。

When, however, we come to the question as to when precisely Christ instituted baptism, we find that ecclesiastical writers are not agreed.但是,当我们来到以这个问题时,正是基督提起的洗礼,我们发现教会作家不同意。The Scriptures themselves are silent upon the subject.圣经本身就是对这个问题保持沉默。Various occasions have been pointed out as the probable time of institution, as when Christ was Himself baptized in the Jordan, when He declared the necessity of the rebirth to Nicodemus, when He sent His Apostles and Disciples to preach and baptize.不同场合已指出,由于体制的大概时间,因为当基督自己在约旦,当他宣布重生必要性尼哥底母,当他派他的使徒和门徒宣讲和施洗受洗。

The first opinion was quite a favorite with many of the Fathers and Schoolmen, and they are fond of referring to the sanctification of the baptismal water by contact with the flesh of the God-man.第一种观点是相当与父亲和院学派的很多的最爱,他们是指水的洗礼与神人血肉联系成圣情有独钟。 Others, as St. Jerome and St. Maximus, appear to assume that Christ baptized John on this occasion and thus instituted the sacrament.作为圣杰罗姆和圣鲆,其他人,似乎认定,基督受洗的,因此这一次约翰提起圣礼。There is nothing, however, in the Gospels to indicate that Christ baptized the Precursor at the time of His own baptism.没有什么,但是,在福音书,以表明基督受洗,他自己的洗礼时的先导。As to the opinion that it was in the colloquy with Nicodemus that the sacrament was instituted, it is not surprising that it has found few adherents.至于认为它与该圣礼被提起尼哥底母讨论会的时候,这并不奇怪,它已经发现一些追随者。Christ's words indeed declare the necessity of such an institution, but no more.基督的话确实宣布这一机构的必要性,但没有更多。It seems also very unlikely that Christ would have instituted the sacrament in a secret conference with one who was not to be a herald of its institution.这似乎也不太可能,基督将在一个秘密的会议制定一个谁是不成为先驱,其机构的圣礼。

The more probable opinion seems to be that baptism, as a sacrament, had its origin when Christ commissioned His Apostles to baptize, as narrated in John 3 and 4.更可能的意见似乎是洗礼,作为一个圣餐,有其原产地委托他当基督使徒为施洗,如约翰3和4叙述。There is nothing directly in the text as to the institution, but as the Disciples acted evidently under the instruction of Christ, He must have taught them at the very outset the matter and form of the sacrament which they were to dispense.没有什么直接在文本中,以该机构,但作为弟子担任指导下的基督显然,他必须有教授在一开始的问题,其中的圣餐他们免除的形式。 It is true that St. John Chrysostom (Hom., xxviii in Joan.), Theophylactus (in cap. iii, Joan.), and Tertullian (De Bapt., c. ii) declare that the baptism given by the Disciples of Christ as narrated in these chapters of St. John was a baptism of water only and not of the Holy Ghost; but their reason is that the Holy Ghost was not given until after the Resurrection.这是事实,圣约翰金口(Hom.,琼二十八。)Theophylactus(戴帽。三,琼。)和良(德BAPT的。,长二)宣布由基督信徒的洗礼给出在这些章节的圣约翰讲述的是一个只有水的洗礼和圣灵没有,但他们的理由是,圣灵复活以后才考虑。 As theologians have pointed out, this is a confusion between the visible and the invisible manifestation of the Holy Spirit.正如神学家指出,这是一场有形和无形的圣灵表现混乱。The authority of St. Leo (Ep. xvi ad Episc. Sicil.) is also invoked for the same opinion, inasmuch as he seems to hold that Christ instituted the sacrament when, after His rising from the dead, He gave the command (Matthew 28): "Go and teach . . . baptizing"; but St. Leo's words can easily be explained otherwise, and in another part of the same epistle he refers to the sanction of regeneration given by Christ when the water of baptism flowed from His side on the Cross; consequently, before the Resurrection.圣里奥管理局(插曲十六广告Episc。Sicil。)也援引相同的看法,因为他似乎认为基督圣餐时提起后,他从死里复活,他给的命令(马太28):“你去教洗礼。。。”,但圣利奥的话,否则很容易被解释,而在另一个相同书信的一部分,他指的是由基督给予处罚时,再生水的流向,从他的洗礼一边在十字架上,因此,在复活。 All authorities agree that Matthew 28, contains the solemn promulgation of this sacrament, and St. Leo does not seem to intend more than this.所有当局同意,马修28日,包含此圣礼庄严颁布和圣利奥似乎不打算于此。We need not delay on the arguments of those who declare baptism to have been necessarily established after Christ's death, because the efficacy of the sacraments is derived from His Passion.我们没有必要对这些延误的论点谁宣布的洗礼后,已经建立了一定基督的死,因为圣礼功效是从他的激情而得。This would prove also that the Holy Eucharist was not instituted before His death, which is untenable.这将证明还没有圣体圣事之前,他的死亡,这是站不住脚的制度化。As to the frequent statement of the Fathers that the sacraments flowed from the side of Christ upon the Cross, it is enough to say that beyond the symbolism found therein, their words can be explained as referring to the death of Christ, as the meritorious cause or perfection of the sacraments, but not necessarily as their time of institution.至于父亲的圣礼由基督在十字架侧流频繁的声明,这是不够地说,发现其中的象征之外,他们的话可以解释为是指基督的死为功的事业,或完美的圣礼,但不一定是他们的机构的时间。

All things considered, we can safely state, therefore, that Christ most probably instituted baptism before His Passion.所有的事情考虑,我们可以有把握地,因此,极有可能提起基督之前,他的激情洗礼。 For in the first place, as is evident from John 3 and 4, Christ certainly conferred baptism, at least by the hands of His Disciples, before His Passion.对于摆在首位,这是显而易见的约翰3和4,基督赋予一定的洗礼,至少由他的弟子的手之前,他的激情。That this was an essentially different rite from John the Precursor's baptism seems plain, because the baptism of Christ is always preferred to that of John, and the latter himself states the reason: "I baptize with water . . . [Christ] baptizeth with the Holy Ghost" (John 1).这是一个由约翰本质的不同仪式易制毒化学的洗礼,似乎简单,因为基督的洗礼,总是首选的约翰,后者自己状态的原因:。。。“我用水施洗[基督]施洗与圣灵“(约翰1)。 In the baptism given by the Disciples as narrated in these chapters we seem to have all the requisites of a sacrament of the New Law:作为在这些章节中,我们似乎都在一个新的法律圣餐用品叙述的弟子定的洗礼:

the external rite,外部的仪式,

the institution of Christ, for they baptized by His command and mission, and基督的机构,因为他们洗礼,他的命令和任务,

the conferring of grace, for they bestowed the Holy Ghost (John 1).获赋予的宽限期,因为他们赐予的圣灵(约翰1)。

In the second place, the Apostles received other sacraments from Christ, before His Passion, as the Holy Eucharist at the Last Supper, and Holy orders (Conc. Trid., Sess. XXVI, c. i).在第二位,从基督的使徒收到其他圣礼,在他的激情,为圣体圣事在最后的晚餐,和神圣的命令(Conc.论坛报。,阶段作业。十六,长一)。 Now as baptism has always been held as the door of the Church and the necessary condition for the reception of any other sacrament, it follows that the Apostles must have received Christian baptism before the Last Supper.现在,作为洗礼一直作为教会和任何其他圣事的必要条件接收门举行,因此,使徒们必须接受前的最后晚餐基督教的洗礼。 This argument is used by St. Augustine (Ep. clxiii, al. xliv) and certainly seems valid.这一说法是使用圣奥古斯丁(插曲clxiii,等。四十四),当然是有效的。To suppose that the first pastors of the Church received the other sacraments by dispensation, before they had received baptism, is an opinion with no foundation in Scripture or Tradition and devoid of verisimilitude.假定第一的教会牧师收到免除其他圣礼,在他们收到的洗礼,是一个没有基础的经文或传统和缺乏逼真的意见。 The Scriptures nowhere state that Christ Himself conferred baptism, but an ancient tradition (Niceph., Hist. eccl, II, iii; Clem. Alex. Strom., III) declares that He baptized the Apostle Peter only, and that the latter baptized Andrew, James, and John, and they the other Apostles.圣经说,基督自己无处国家赋予的洗礼,而是一个古老的传统(Niceph.,历史传道书,二,三;。。。。克莱姆亚历斯特罗姆,三)宣布,他受洗,使徒彼得只,而后者的洗礼安德鲁,詹姆斯和约翰,他们的其他使徒。

VI.六。MATTER AND FORM OF THE SACRAMENT物质与形式的圣餐

(1) Matter (1)物质

In all sacraments we treat of the matter and the form.在所有的圣礼,我们对待这个问题和形式。It is also usual to distinguish the remote matter and the proximate matter.这也是通常的区别远程物质和型材。In the case of baptism, the remote matter is natural and true water.在洗礼的情况下,远程问题是自然的,真实的水。We shall consider this aspect of the question first.我们会考虑这个问题的第一方面。

(a) Remote matter(一)远程问题

It is of faith (de fide) that true and natural water is the remote matter of baptism.这是信仰(德善意)的真实和自然的水是洗礼偏远的问题。In addition to the authorities already cited, we may also mention the Fourth Council of the Lateran (c. i).除了已经提到当局,我们也可以提到了拉特兰(长一)第四届理事会。

Some of the early Fathers, as Tertullian (De Bapt., i) and St. Augustine (Adv. Hær., xlvi and lix) enumerate heretics who rejected water entirely as a constituent of baptism.一些早期父亲为良,(德BAPT的。,i)和圣奥古斯丁(2002上海高考Hær。,四十六和LIX)号谁拒绝作为水的洗礼成分完全枚举异端。 Such were the Gaians, Manichians, Seleucians, and Hermians.这些是Gaians,Manichians,Seleucians和Hermians。 In the Middle Ages, the Waldensians are said to have held the same tenet (Ewald, Contra Walden., vi).在中世纪,韦尔据说持相同的宗旨(埃瓦尔德,魂斗罗瓦尔登湖。,六)。Some of the sixteenth century reformers, while accepting water as the ordinary matter of this sacrament, declared that when water could not be had, any liquid could be used in its place.十六世纪的改革者一些,而作为本次接受圣餐普通物质的水,当水宣布,不能有任何液体可以在其位置使用。So Luther (Tischr., xvii) and Beza (Ep., ii, ad Till.).因此,路德(Tischr.,十七)和Beza(插曲,二,广告为止。)。It was in consequence of this teaching that certain of the Tridentine canons were framed.正是在这种教学的结果,该律但丁大炮一定是诬陷。Calvin held that the water used in baptism was simply symbolic of the Blood of Christ (Instit., IV, xv).加尔文认为,洗礼用的水是单纯的基督的血(Instit.,四,十五)的象征。

As a rule, however, those sects which believe in baptism at the present time, recognize water as the necessary matter of the sacrament.作为一项规则,然而,这些教派的洗礼,相信这在目前的时间,承认的圣餐必要事项水。

Scripture is so positive in its statements as to the use of true and natural water for baptism that it is difficult to see why it should ever be called in question.圣经在其声明中如此积极,以真正的和用天然水的洗礼,这是很难理解为什么它应该永远在质疑。Not only have we the explicit words of Christ (John 3:5) "Unless a man be born again of water", etc., but also in the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles of St. Paul there are passages that preclude any metaphorical interpretation.我们不仅明确基督的话(约翰3:5)“只有当一个人获得新生水”等,也是在使徒和圣保禄书信的行为不存在任何的通道,但排除隐喻解释。 Thus (Acts 10:47) St. Peter says "Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized?"因此,(徒10:47)圣彼得说:“任何人可以禁止用水,这些不应该受洗?”In the eighth chapter of the Acts is narrated the episode of Philip and the eunuch of Ethiopia, and in verse 36 we read: "They came to a certain water; and the eunuch said: See, here is water: what doth hinder me from being baptized?"在第八章的行为,叙述了菲利普插曲和埃塞俄比亚太监,并在36节我们读到:“他们来到了有水,以及太监说:看,这里有水:我从什么妨碍受洗?“

Equally positive is the testimony of Christian tradition.同样积极的是基督教传统的见证。Tertullian (op. cit.) begins his treatise: "The happy sacrament of our water".德尔图良(。同前)开始他的论文:“我们的水高兴圣事”。Justin Martyr (Apol., I) describes the ceremony of baptism and declares: Then they are led by us to where there is water .贾斯汀烈士(Apol.,我)描述了洗礼仪式,并宣布:然后,他们由我们领导有水的地方。..and then they are laved in the water". St. Augustine positively declares that there is no baptism without water (Tr. xv in Joan.). The remote matter of baptism, then, is water, and this taken in its usual meaning. Theologians tell us consequently that what men would ordinarily declare water is valid baptismal material, whether it be water of the sea, or fountain, or well, or marsh; whether it be clear or turbid; fresh or salty; hot or cold; colored or uncolored. Water derived from melted ice, snow, or hail is also valid. If, however, ice, snow, or hail be not melted, they do not come under the designation water. Dew, sulfur or mineral water, and that which is derived from steam are also valid matter for this sacrament. As to a mixture of water and some other material, it is held as proper matter, provided the water certainly predominates and the mixture would still be called water. Invalid matter is every liquid that is not usually designated true water. Such are oil, saliva, wine, tears, milk, sweat, beer, soup, the juice of fruits, and any mixture containing water which men would no longer call water. When it is doubtful whether a liquid could really be called water, it is not permissible to use it for baptism except in case of absolute necessity when no certainly valid matter can be obtained.然后他们laved在水“。圣奥古斯丁积极的声明,就没有水的洗礼(编辑部琼十五。)。远程事的洗礼,那么,是水,而这在通常的含义。神学家告诉我们说什么人会因此通常申报材料的水是有效的洗礼,无论是水的海洋,或喷泉,或好,或沼泽,无论是明确的或浑浊,新鲜或咸,热或冷;着色或无色。水来自融化的冰,雪或冰雹也是有效的。然而,如果冰,雪或冰雹是不熔化,不属于他们的指定用水。露水,硫或矿泉水,并认为这是由蒸汽产生的问题也有效这一圣礼。至于一水和一些其他物质的混合物,它的举行,包括正确的问题,提供一定的水为主,混合物仍然被称为水。无效的问题是每一个液体,通常不被指定真正的水。这些都是石油,唾液,酒,眼泪,乳汁,汗水,啤酒,汤,水果果汁,任何装有水的混合物,男人将不再称水。当它被怀疑是否能液体真的是所谓的水,它是不允许使用除绝对必要的情况下,它的洗礼,如果没有一定的问题可以得到有效的。

On the other hand, it is never allowable to baptize with an invalid liquid.另一方面,它永远不会允许以洗一个无效的液体。There is a response of Pope Gregory IX to the Archbishop of Trondhjem in Norway where beer (or mead) had been employed for baptism.有一个教皇格雷戈里九,响应挪威的Trondhjem大主教其中啤酒(或蜂蜜)已被聘用的洗礼。The pontiff says: "Since according to the Gospel teaching, a man must be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, those are not to be considered validly baptized who have been baptized with beer" (cervisia).教宗说:“因为根据教学的福音,一个人必须重生水和圣灵再次,这些都是不被视为有效受洗谁已受洗的啤酒”(cervisia)。 It is true that a statement declaring wine to be valid matter of baptism is attributed to Pope Stephen II, but the document is void of all authority (Labbe, Conc., VI).诚然,一个声明,宣布将葡萄酒的洗礼有效物质,是因为教皇斯蒂芬二世,但该文件是所有的权力(拉韦,浓。,六)无效。

Those who have held that "water" in the Gospel text is to be taken metaphorically, appeal to the words of the Precursor (Matthew 3), "He shall baptize you in the Holy Ghost and fire".这些谁也认为,“水”,在福音的文字是将要采取比喻,呼吁前体(马太3),将“他要洗的圣灵和火你。”As "fire" must certainly be only a figure of speech here, so must "water" in the other texts.由于“火”是一定要在这里只是一个数字的言论,所以一定要“水”的其他文本。To this objection, it may be replied that the Christian Church, or at least the Apostles themselves, must have understood what was prescribed to be taken literally and what figuratively.对此有异议的,可以回答说,基督教教会,或至少是使徒自己,必须明白什么是明是从字面上看,什么比喻。 The New Testament and church history prove that they never looked on fire as a material for baptism, while they certainly did require water.新约圣经和教会历史证明,他们从来不火的洗礼,作为材料,而他们当然也需要水。 Outside of the insignificant sects of Seleucians and Hermians, not even heretics took the word "fire" in this text in its literal meaning.外面的Seleucians和Hermians的,无关紧要的异端教派甚至没有参加它的字面意思的单词在这个文本“火”。 We may remark, however, that some of the Fathers, as St. John Damascene (Orth. Fid., IV, ix), concede this statement of the Baptist to have a literal fulfillment in the Pentecostal fiery tongues.我们可能的话,但是,一些父亲为圣约翰大马士革(Orth. FID检测器。,四,九),浸会承认这个声明中有一个五旬节火热的舌头立即履行。They do not refer it, however, literally to baptism.他们没有提及它,但是,从字面上的洗礼。That water alone is the necessary matter of this sacrament depends of course on the will of Him Who instituted it, although theologians discover many reasons why it should have been chosen in preference to other liquids.那水单是这圣餐必要事项,当然取决于他的人提起会,虽然神学家发现为什么它应该是优先选择了与其他液体的原因很多。 The most obvious of these is that water cleanses and purifies more perfectly than the others, and hence the symbolism is more natural.其中最明显的是,水净化,净化比别人更完美,因此更自然的象征意义。

(b) Proximate matter(二)型材

The proximate matter of baptism is the ablution performed with water.型材的洗礼与水进行的洗礼。The very word "baptize", as we have seen, means a washing.这个词“洗礼”,正如我们所看到的,是指清洗。

Three forms of ablution have prevailed among Christians, and the Church holds them all to be valid because they fulfill the requisite signification of the baptismal laving.沐浴有三种形式之间普遍的基督徒,教会认为他们是有效的,因为他们完成的洗礼朵的,必要的意义。These forms are immersion, infusion, and aspersion.这些形式浸泡,输液,和诽谤。The most ancient form usually employed was unquestionably immersion.最古老的形式,通常采用无疑是浸泡。This is not only evident from the writings of the Fathers and the early rituals of both the Latin and Oriental Churches, but it can also be gathered from the Epistles of St. Paul, who speaks of baptism as a bath (Ephesians 5:26; Romans 6:4; Titus 3:5).这不仅是显而易见的,从的父亲和两个拉丁美洲和东方教会仪式的早期著作,但它也可以从书信的圣保罗,谁的洗礼说,作为一个澡(以弗所书5:26聚集;罗马书6:4;提多书3:5)。 In the Latin Church, immersion seems to have prevailed until the twelfth century.在拉丁美洲教会,似乎已经沉浸到十二世纪盛行。 After that time it is found in some places even as late as the sixteenth century.在该时间之后发现,有些地方甚至高达16世纪晚期。Infusion and aspersion, however, were growing common in the thirteenth century and gradually prevailed in the Western Church.输液和诽谤,但是,越来越常见于十三世纪,逐渐盛行于西方教会。The Oriental Churches have retained immersion, though not always in the sense of plunging the candidate's entire body below the water.东方教会保留浸泡,虽然不总是在暴跌候选人的整个身体下面的水感。Billuart (De Bapt., I, iii) says that commonly the catechumen is placed in the font, and then water is poured upon the head.Billuart(德BAPT的。,Ⅰ,Ⅲ)说,一般的初学者被放置在字体,然后水倒在头上。He cites the authority of Goar for this statement.他列举了戈尔这个发言的权力。

Although, as we have said, immersion was the form of baptism that generally prevailed in the early ages, it must not thereby be inferred that the other forms of infusion and aspersion were not also employed and held to be valid.虽然,我们已经说过,浸泡法形式的洗礼,在早期的年龄普遍盛行,绝不能因此而推断,输液和中伤其他形式的就业,也不能认为是有效的。 In the case of the sick or dying, immersion was impossible and the sacrament was then conferred by one of the other forms.在生病或死亡的情况下,浸泡是不可能的,当时的圣餐由其他形式的一所赋予的。This was so well recognized that infusion or aspersion received the name of the baptism of the sick (baptismus clinicorum).其所以如此,众所周知,输液或诽谤收到了对患病者(baptismus clinicorum)洗礼的名称。 St. Cyprian (Epistle 75) declares this form to be valid.圣塞浦路斯(书信75)声明本表格是有效的。From the canons of various early councils we know that candidates for Holy orders who had been baptized by this method seem to have been regarded as irregular, but this was on account of the culpable negligence supposed to be manifested in delaying baptism until sick or dying.从各种早期议会的大炮我们知道,圣谁用这种方法已受洗的订单候选人似乎已被视为不正常,但对应该在生病或死亡的时间推迟至洗礼体现了帐户,这是重大过失。 That such persons, however, were not to be rebaptized is an evidence that the Church held their baptism to be valid.然而,这并没有被这些人是rebaptized证据,教会举行了洗礼是有效的。It is also pointed out that the circumstances under which St. Paul (Acts 16) baptized his jailer and all his household seem to preclude the use of immersion.它还指出,在何种情况下圣保罗(使徒16)受洗狱卒和他的全家似乎排除浸泡使用。Moreover, the acts of the early martyrs frequently refer to baptizing in prisons where infusion or aspersion was certainly employed.此外,早期烈士的行为经常提到的地方当然是输液或受雇于监狱诽谤洗礼。

By the present authorized ritual of the Latin Church, baptism must be performed by a laving of the head of the candidate.到了目前的授权仪式拉丁美洲教会,洗礼必须由一个候选人的头朵的。Moralists, however, state that in case of necessity, the baptism would probably be valid if the water were applied to any other principal part of the body, as the breast or shoulder.道德家,但是,国家在必要的情况下,可能是有效的洗礼,如果水被应用到人体的任何其他主体的乳房或肩膀上。In this case, however, conditional baptism would have to be administered if the person survived (St. Alphonsus, no. 107).在这种情况下,然而,有条件的洗礼,就必须加以管理,如果幸存的人(圣阿方,没有。107)。In like manner they consider as probably valid the baptism of an infant in its mother's womb, provided the water, by means of an instrument, would actually flow upon the child.在这样的态度,他们认为可能是有效的,在母亲的子宫内婴儿的洗礼,所提供的水,通过一个文书的手段,实际上流后的孩子。 Such baptism is, however, later to be repeated conditionally, if the child survives its birth (Lehmkuhl, n. 61).这样的洗礼,但是,以后要反复有条件,如果孩子存活的出生(Lehmkuhl,注61)。

It is to be noted that it is not sufficient for the water to merely touch the candidate; it must also flow, otherwise there would seem to be no real ablution.这是必须指出,它不只是对水充分接触到的候选人,它也必须流动,否则就似乎没有真正的洗礼。At best, such a baptism would be considered doubtful.在最好的,这样的洗礼,将被视为可疑。If the water touches only the hair, the sacrament has probably been validly conferred, though in practice the safer course must be followed.如果只涉及水的头发,圣餐可能已经被有效赋予的,但在实践中更安全的过程中必须遵循的。 If only the clothes of the person have received the aspersion, the baptism is undoubtedly void.如果仅仅是人的衣服都收到了谗言,无疑是无效的洗礼。

The water to be employed in solemn baptism should also be consecrated for the purpose, but of this we shall treat in another section of this article.被聘用的水在庄严的洗礼,也应为宗旨神圣的,但是这一点,我们应当把这篇文章的另一部分。It is necessary in baptizing to make use of a threefold ablution in conferring this sacrament, by reason of the prescription of the Roman ritual.这是有必要的洗礼作出授予由罗马处方原因,这圣餐仪式,沐浴用的三倍。 This necessarily refers, however, to the liceity, not to the validity of the ceremony, as St. Thomas (III:66:8) and other theologians expressly state.这必然是指,但是,对于liceity,而不是向仪式有效期为圣托马斯(三:66:8),神学家和其他明确的状态。

The threefold immersion is unquestionably very ancient in the Church and apparently of Apostolic origin.毫无疑问的三重浸泡很古老的教会和使徒的起源明显。It is mentioned by Tertullian (De cor. milit., iii), St. Basil (De Sp. S., xxvii), St. Jerome (Dial. Contra Luc., viii), and many other early writers.这是所提到的戴尔都良(德肺心病。milit。,三),圣罗勒(德藻。学,二十七),圣杰罗姆(Dial.魂斗罗吕克。,八),以及许多其他早期的作家。 Its object is, of course, to honor the three Persons of the Holy Trinity in whose name it is conferred.其目的是,当然,在履行它的名字赋予的神圣三位一体的三人。That this threefold ablution was not considered necessary to the validity of the sacrament, however, is plain.这三方面的沐浴认为没有必要的圣餐的有效性,但是,是平原。In the seventh century the Fourth Council of Toledo (633) approved the use of a single ablution in baptism, as a protest against the false trinitarian theories of the Arians, who seem to have given to the threefold immersion a significance which made it imply three natures in the Holy Trinity.在第七世纪的第四届理事会托莱多(633)批准一个沐浴在洗礼的使用,作为对虚假三位一体理论的白羊座,谁似乎已经考虑到三倍浸泡一意义这使得它意味着3个示威天性在圣三位一体。 To insist on the unity and consubstantiality of the three Divine Persons, the Spanish Catholics adopted the single ablution and this method had the approval of Pope Gregory the Great (I, Ep. xliii).要坚持团结和三个神圣的人同体,西班牙天主教徒通过单沐浴,这种方法有教皇格里高利大(一,张EP。四十三)批准。 The Eunomian heretics used only one immersion and their baptism was held invalid by the First Council of Constantinople (can. vii); but this was not on account of the single ablution, but apparently because they baptized in the death of Christ.The Eunomian异端只用一浸泡和他们的洗礼举办了第一届理事会的君士坦丁堡(can.七)无效的,但这是在单洗礼帐户没有,但显然是因为他们在基督的死亡洗礼。 The authority of this canon is, moreover, doubtful at best.本佳能的权威,更是令人怀疑的最好的。

(2) Form (2)表格

The requisite and sole valid form of baptism is: "I baptize thee (or This person is baptized) in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."必要的和唯一的洗礼有效形式是:“我洗你的名字和父,子,圣灵(或此人是受洗)。”This was the form given by Christ to His Disciples in the twenty-eighth chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel, as far, at least, as there is question of the invocation of the separate Persons of the Trinity and the expression of the nature of the action performed.这是给予基督在圣马太福音第二十八届章他的弟子的形式,据,至少,因为是在三位一体的独立人士和调用的性质表达question执行的操作。 For the Latin usage: "I baptize thee", etc., we have the authority of the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, can. iv) and of the Council of Florence in the Decree of Union.为拉美地区的用法:“我洗你”等,我们有安理会的遄达权力和法令,在联盟理事会佛罗伦萨达(sess.七,可以四。)。 In addition we have the constant practice of the whole Western Church.此外,我们拥有了整个西方教会不断的实践。The Latins also recognize as valid the form used by the Greeks: "This servant of Christ is baptized", etc. The Florentine decree acknowledges the validity of this form and it is moreover recognized by the Bull of Leo X, "Accepimus nuper", and of Clement VII, "Provisionis nostrae."拉丁人也承认为有效的希腊人使用的形式:“这是基督的仆人洗礼”等佛罗伦萨法令确认了这种形式的有效性,而且它是由利奥X公牛,“Accepimus nuper”认可,和克莱门特七世,“Provisionis nostrae。”Substantially, the Latin and Greek forms are the same, and the Latin Church has never rebaptized Orientals on their return to unity.实质上,拉丁文和希腊文的形式是一样的,和拉丁美洲教会从未rebaptized在返回团结东方人。 At one time some Western theologians disputed the Greek form, because they doubted the validity of the imperative or deprecatory formula: "Let this person be baptized" (baptizetur).在一次有争议的一些西方神学家希腊的形式,因为他们怀疑祈使或贬低公式的有效性:“让这个人接受洗礼”(baptizetur)。 As a matter of fact, however, the Greeks use the indicative, or enuntiative, formula: "This person is baptized" (baptizetai, baptizetur).由于事实上,然而,希腊人使用的指示,或enuntiative,公式:“这人是受洗”(baptizetai,baptizetur)。 This is unquestionable from their Euchologies, and from the testimony of Arcudius (apud Cat., tit. ii, cap. i), of Goar (Rit. Græc. Illust.), of Martène (De Ant. Eccl. Rit., I) and of the theological compendium of the schismatical Russians (St. Petersburg, 1799).这是毫无疑问的,从他们的Euchologies,并从Arcudius证词(apud猫。,山雀。二,帽。i)项,戈尔(Rit. Græc。插画。)的Martène(德蚂蚁。传道书。丽特。,我)和对分裂的俄罗斯(圣彼得堡,1799年)神学汇编。It is true that in the decree for the Armenians, Pope Eugene IV uses baptizetur, according to the ordinary version of this decree, but Labbe, in his edition of the Council of Florence seems to consider it a corrupt reading, for in the margin he prints baptizatur.诚然,在对亚美尼亚人的法令,教皇尤金四,使用baptizetur,根据这项法令普通版本,但拉贝,在他对安理会的佛罗伦萨版似乎认为这是一种腐败的阅读中,他的保证金,打印baptizatur。 It has been suggested by Goar that the resemblance between baptizetai and baptizetur is responsible for the mistake.有人建议说,由戈尔和baptizetur之间baptizetai是相似的错误负责。The correct translation is, of course, baptizatur.正确的翻译,当然,baptizatur。

In administering this sacrament it is absolutely necessary to use the word "baptize" or its equivalent (Alex. VIII, Prop. damn., xxvii), otherwise the ceremony is invalid.在管理这圣餐是绝对有必要用“洗”或同等学历(Alex.第八号提案该死。,二十七),否则仪式是无效的。This had already been decreed by Alexander III (Cap. Si quis, I, x, De Bapt.), and it is confirmed by the Florentine decree.这已经由亚历山大三世颁布(第泗quis,我中,x,德BAPT的。),它证实了佛罗伦萨的法令。 It has been the constant practice of both the Latin and Greek Churches to make use of words expressing the act performed.一直以来,双方的拉丁文和希腊教会不断的实践,使该法的执行表达词的使用。St. Thomas (III:66:5) says that since an ablution may be employed for many purposes, it is necessary that in baptism the meaning of the ablution be determined by the words of the form.圣托马斯(三:66:5)说,自从一沐浴可用于多种用途就业,这是必要的洗礼,在洗礼的意义是由形式决定的话。However, the words: "In the name of the Father", etc., would not be sufficient by themselves to determine the sacramental nature of the ablution.不过,话:“在父亲的姓名”等,将不足以自行确定的洗礼圣事的性质。St. Paul (Colossians 3) exhorts us to do all things in the name of God, and consequently an ablution could be performed in the name of the Trinity to obtain restoration of health.圣保罗(歌罗西书3)劝告我们做的一切事情以真主的名义,因此可能是一个沐浴在三位一体的名称来获得健康的恢复。Therefore it is that in the form of this sacrament, the act of baptism must be expressed, and the matter and form be united to leave no doubt of the meaning of the ceremony.因此,它是在这个圣餐形式,洗礼的行为必须表示,事情并形成团结起来,没有留下任何的仪式意义产生怀疑。

In addition to the necessary word "baptize", or its equivalent, it is also obligatory to mention the separate Persons of the Holy Trinity.除了必要的字“洗礼”,或同等学历,也是义不容辞提到的圣三一独立人士。This is the command of Christ to His Disciples, and as the sacrament has its efficacy from Him Who instituted it, we can not omit anything that He has prescribed.这是基督的命令,他的弟子,并作为圣餐已经从他的人提起它的功效,我们不能忽略任何他有规定。Nothing is more certain than that this has been the general understanding and practice of the Church.没有什么比这更确定了一般的理解和实践的教会。Tertullian tells us (De Bapt., xiii): "The law of baptism (tingendi) has been imposed and the form prescribed: Go, teach the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost." Tertullian告诉我们(德BAPT的,十三。)说:“洗礼(tingendi)法已实施和形式prescribed:围棋,教各国,奉了父亲的姓名及子及圣灵them “。St. Justin Martyr (Apol., I) testifies to the practice in his time.圣贾斯汀烈士(Apol.,我)证明了在他的时间的做法。St. Ambrose (De Myst., IV) declares: "Unless a person has been baptized in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, he can not obtain the remission of his sins," St. Cyprian (Ad Jubaian.), rejecting the validity of baptism given in the name of Christ only, affirms that the naming of all the Persons of the Trinity was commanded by the Lord (in plena et adunata Trinitate).圣刘汉铨(。德神秘岛,四)宣称:“除非一个人已在父亲的姓名和儿子和圣灵的洗礼,他不能获得他的罪得赦,”圣塞浦路斯(广告Jubaian。),拒绝了在基督的名义给予的洗礼有效期限,申明,所有的三位一体的指挥者命名主(在重瓣等adunata Trinitate)。The same is declared by many other primitive writers, as St. Jerome (IV, in Matt.), Origen (De Princ., i, ii), St. Athanasius (Or. iv, Contr. Ar.), St. Augustine (De Bapt., vi, 25).同样是宣布许多其他原始作家,作为圣杰罗姆(在马特四。),奥利(德Princ。,一,二),圣亚他那修(Or.四,Contr。氩。),圣奥古斯丁(德BAPT的。,六,25)。 It is not, of course, absolutely necessary that the common names Father, Son, and Holy Ghost be used, provided the Persons be expressed by words that are equivalent or synonymous.这不是,当然,绝对必要的,父亲,儿子,和圣灵的通用名称使用,所提供的人士可根据以下词语是相同或同义表达。 But a distinct naming of the Divine Persons is required and the form: "I baptize thee in the name of the Holy Trinity", would be of more than doubtful validity.但不同的人的神圣命名是必要的,形式如下:“我洗你的圣三位一体的名字”,将是令人怀疑的有效性比多。

The singular form "In the name", not "names", is also to be employed, as it expresses the unity of the Divine nature.单数形式“之名”,而不是“名”,也是被聘用,因为它体现了神性的统一。When, through ignorance, an accidental, not substantial, change has been made in the form (as In nomine patriâ for Patris), the baptism is to be held valid.当,出于无知,一个偶然的,不是实质性的,改变已作出的形式(如为Patris nomine帕特里亚),洗礼是要持有有效。

The mind of the Church as to the necessity of serving the trinitarian formula in this sacrament has been clearly shown by her treatment of baptism conferred by heretics.作者:至于在这个圣餐服务三位一体公式的必要性教会心中一直清楚地表明了她的洗礼治疗异端授予的。Any ceremony that did not observe this form has been declared invalid.任何仪式,没有观察到这种形式已被宣布无效。The Montanists baptized in the name of the Father and the Son and Montanus and Priscilla (St. Basil, Ep. i, Ad Amphil.).受洗的montanists在父亲和儿子和蒙塔努斯和百基拉的名字(圣罗勒,环保。我,广告Amphil。)。 As a consequence, the Council of Laodicea ordered their rebaptism.因此,安理会的老底嘉下诏rebaptism。The Arians at the time of the Council of Nicæa do not seem to have tampered with the baptismal formula, for that Council does not order their rebaptism.在理事会的尼西亚时间白羊座似乎并不有公式的洗礼,因为这会不会令他们rebaptism篡改。When, then, St. Athanasius (Or. ii, Contr. Ar.) and St. Jerome (Contra Lucif.) declare the Arians to have baptized in the name of the Creator and creatures, they must either refer to their doctrine or to a later changing of the sacramental form.那么,什么时候,圣亚他那修(Or.二,Contr。氩。)和圣杰罗姆(魂斗罗Lucif。)宣布了在该动物的创造者和名受洗的白羊座,他们必须要么是指他们的教义或后来改变的圣事的形式。 It is well known that the latter was the case with the Spanish Arians and that consequently converts from the sect were rebaptized.众所周知,后者是与西班牙白羊座的情况的,因此从该教派被rebaptized转换。The Anomæans, a branch of the Arians, baptized with the formula: "In the name of the uncreated God and in the name of the created Son, and in the name of the Sanctifying Spirit, procreated by the created Son" (Epiphanius, Hær., lxxvii).The Anomæans,在白羊座的一个分支,与洗礼的公式:“在非受造神的名称和所创建的儿子的名字,在sanctifying的精神创造的育子之名”(埃皮法尼乌斯,Hær 。,lxxvii)。

Other Arian sects, such as the Eunomians and Aetians, baptized "in the death of Christ".阿里安其他教派,如Eunomians和Aetians,洗礼“在基督的死”。Converts from Sabellianism were ordered by the First Council of Constantinople (can. vii) to be rebaptized because the doctrine of Sabellius that there was but one person in the Trinity had infected their baptismal form.从Sabellianism转换奉命由第一届理事会君士坦丁堡(can.七)被rebaptized因为撒伯流理论,但有一个人已经感染了三位一体的洗礼的形式。 The two sects sprung from Paul of Samosata, who denied Christ's Divinity, likewise conferred invalid baptism.这两个从萨莫萨塔,谁否认基督的神性保罗教派兴起,同样赋予无效的洗礼。They were the Paulianists and Photinians.他们是Paulianists和Photinians。Pope Innocent I (Ad. Episc. Maced., vi) declares that these sectaries did not distinguish the Persons of the Trinity when baptizing.诺森我(Ad. Episc。Maced。,六)宣布,这些的sectaries没有区别的三位一体的人时洗礼。The Council of Nicæa (can. xix) ordered the rebaptism of Paulianists, and the Council of Arles (can. xvi and xvii) decreed the same for both Paulianists and Photinians.理事会的尼西亚(can​​.十九)下令Paulianists rebaptism,和阿尔勒会(can.十六和十七)颁布的两个Paulianists和Photinians相同。There has been a theological controversy over the question as to whether baptism in the name of Christ only was ever held valid.有一种对是否在基督的名受洗不仅是有效的问题举行过神学争论。Certain texts in the New Testament have given rise to this difficulty.在新约中的某些文本已引起了这一困难。Thus St. Paul (Acts 19) commands some disciples at Ephesus to be baptized in Christ's name: "They were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus."因此,圣保罗(使徒19)命令在以弗所一些在基督的名受洗弟子:“他们在主耶稣的名受洗。”In Acts 10, we read that St. Peter ordered others to be baptized "in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ".在使徒行传十,我们读到,圣彼得下令他人接受洗礼“,在主耶稣基督的名。”Those who were converted by Philip.这些谁被转换由菲利普。(Acts 8) "were baptized in the name of Jesus Christ", and above all we have the explicit command of the Prince of the Apostles: "Be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of your sins (Acts 2). (徒8)“是洗礼,在耶稣基督的名”,而最重要的我们拥有的使徒王子明确的命令:“你们各人受洗在耶稣基督的名,为你的罪得赦(使徒2)。

Owing to these texts some theologians have held that the Apostles baptized in the name of Christ only.由于其中一些神学家们认为,在基督的使徒唯一的名受洗文本。St. Thomas, St. Bonaventure, and Albertus Magnus are invoked as authorities for this opinion, they declaring that the Apostles so acted by special dispensation.圣托马斯,圣文德,并阿尔伯图斯思为当局援引此意见,他们宣称的使徒因此,通过特许行事。Other writers, as Peter Lombard and Hugh of St. Victor, hold also that such baptism would be valid, but say nothing of a dispensation for the Apostles.其他作家彼得Lombard和圣维克多休,还举办这样的洗礼,将是有效的,但表示为使徒的豁免什么。The most probable opinion, however, seems to be that the terms "in the name of Jesus", "in the name of Christ", either refer to baptism in the faith taught by Christ, or are employed to distinguish Christian baptism from that of John the Precursor.最有可能的意见,不过,似乎是“在耶稣的名”的条款,“在基督的名”,要么是指在基督的洗礼,教的信仰,或受聘从这个区分基督教的洗礼约翰的先导。 It seems altogether unlikely that immediately after Christ had solemnly promulgated the trinitarian formula of baptism, the Apostles themselves would have substituted another.这似乎完全不可能的基督后,立即颁布了郑重的洗礼三位一体公式,自己也会有取代另一个使徒。In fact, the words of St. Paul (Acts 19) imply quite plainly that they did not.事实上,圣保罗(使徒19)的话暗示很坦率地表明他们没有。For, when some Christians at Ephesus declared that they had never heard of the Holy Ghost, the Apostle asks: "In whom then were you baptized?"因为,当一些基督徒在以弗所宣布,他们从来没有听说过的圣灵,使徒问道:“那么谁是你在受洗?”This text certainly seems to declare that St. Paul took it for granted that the Ephesians must have heard the name of the Holy Ghost when the sacramental formula of baptism was pronounced over them.当然,这文字似乎宣布圣保禄把它理所当然地认为,以弗所书必须听到了圣灵的名字时圣事的洗礼公式,对他们的发音。

The authority of Pope Stephen I has been alleged for the validity of baptism given in the name of Christ only.教皇斯蒂芬本人的权力已被指控为在基督的洗礼唯一的名字给定的有效性。St. Cyprian says (Ep. ad Jubaian.) that this pontiff declared all baptism valid provided it was given in the name of Jesus Christ.圣塞浦路斯说,(插曲广告Jubaian。)表示,教宗宣布所有的洗礼,有效提供它是在耶稣基督的名给。 It must be noted that the same explanation applies to Stephen's words as to the Scriptural texts above given.必须指出的是,同样的解释适用的反话,以上面给出的经文。Moreover, Firmilian, in his letter to St. Cyprian, implies that Pope Stephen required an explicit mention of the Trinity in baptism, for he quotes the pontiff as declaring that the sacramental grace is conferred because a person has been baptized "with the invocation of the names of the Trinity, Father and Son and Holy Ghost".此外,Firmilian,在他的信圣塞浦路斯,意味着教皇斯蒂芬需要一个三位一体的洗礼明确提及,因为他援引宣布授予圣事恩典是因为一个人已经受洗与调用的“教皇三位一体,父,子,圣灵“的名称。

A passage that is very difficult of explanation is found in the works of St. Ambrose (Lib. I, De Sp. S., iii), where he declares that if a person names one of the Trinity, he names all of them: "If you say Christ, you have designated God the Father, by whom the Son was anointed, and Him Who was anointed Son, and the Holy Ghost in whom He was anointed."一个通道,这是非常困难的解释是在圣刘汉铨的著作中找到(Lib.我,德藻学,三。),在那里他宣称,如果一个人的名字之一三位一体的,他的名字他们都: “如果你说基督,你必须指定父神,谁的儿子被选定,和那个被选定的儿子,并在人,他被选定圣灵。”This passage has been generally interpreted as referring to the faith of the catechumen, but not to the baptismal form.这段话已被普遍理解为是指对初学者的信心,而不是形式的洗礼。More difficult is the explanation of the response of Pope Nicholas I to the Bulgarians (cap. civ; Labbe, VIII), in which he states that a person is not to be rebaptized who has already been baptized "in the name of the Holy Trinity or in the name of Christ only, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles (for it is one and the same thing, as St. Ambrose has explained)".更困难的是,教皇尼古拉一世响应交代,保加利亚(第哀;拉韦,八),其中他指出,一个人是不能rebaptized谁已受洗的圣三位一体的名字“或在基督的名而已,因为我们在阅读行为的使徒(因为它是同一个东西,因为圣刘汉铨解释)“。 As in the passage to which the pope alludes, St. Ambrose was speaking of the faith of the recipient of baptism, as we have already stated, it has been held probable that this is also the meaning that Pope Nicholas intended his words to convey (see another explanation in Pesch, Prælect. Dogm., VI, no. 389).如通道,教宗暗示,圣刘汉铨发言的收件人信仰的洗礼,正如我们已经指出,它已举办,这也是可能的意义,教皇尼古拉打算转达他的话(看到另一个佩施,Prælect解释。Dogm。,六,没有。389)。 What seems to confirm this is the same pontiff's reply to the Bulgarians (Resp. 15) on another occasion when they consulted him on a practical case.什么似乎证实这是同一个教宗的答复时,他们在另一个实际案例征询他时向保加利亚(或者15)。They inquired whether certain persons are to be rebaptized on whom a man, pretending to be a Greek priest, had conferred baptism?他们询问是否要某些人对其中一人,假装是一个希腊祭司,赋予了洗礼rebaptized?Pope Nicholas replies that the baptism is to be held valid "if they were baptized, in the name of the supreme and undivided Trinity".教皇尼古拉回答说,洗礼是要持有有效“如果他们洗礼,在最高法院和不可分割的三位一体的名字”。 Here the pope does not give baptism in the name of Christ only as an alternative.在这里,不给教皇只作为替代在基督的名受洗。 Moralists raise the question of the validity of a baptism in whose administration something else had been added to the prescribed form as "and in the name of the Blessed Virgin Mary".道德提升中的一个洗礼,其管理别的东西已被添加为“并在圣母玛利亚的名字”,以订明表格的有效性问题。They reply that such baptism would be invalid, if the minister intended thereby to attribute the same efficacy to the added name as to the names of the Three Divine Persons.他们回答,这种洗礼将是无效的,如果部长打算从而属性,到三个神圣的人的姓名相同的功效添加的名称。If, however, it was done through a mistaken piety only, it would not interfere with the validity (S. Alph., n. 111).但是,如果它是通过一种错误的虔诚做而已,不会干预的有效性(南Alph。,注111)。

VII.七。CONDITIONAL BAPTISM有条件洗礼

From the foregoing it is evident that not all baptism administered by heretics or schismatics is invalid.从上述显而易见的是,并非所有异教徒或schismatics管理的洗礼,是无效的。 On the contrary, if the proper matter and form be used and the one conferring the sacrament really "intends to perform what the Church performs" the baptism is undoubtedly valid.相反,如果正确的问题和形式被使用,一个真正的圣餐授予“打算执行什么教会表演”的洗礼无疑是有效的。This is also authoritatively stated in the decree for the Armenians and the canons of the Council of Trent already given.这也是中指出权威性的亚美尼亚法令和安理会的遄达已经作出的大炮。The question becomes a practical one when converts to the Faith have to be dealt with.问题变成了一个实际的转换时的信念,必须处理。If there were one authorized mode of baptizing among the sects, and if the necessity and true significance of the sacrament were uniformly taught and put in practice among them, there would be little difficulty as to the status of converts from the sects.如果有一个洗礼教派之间的授权模式,如果的圣餐必要性和真正意义上的一律在教学和实践当中会有至于从教派转换状态有点困难。 But there is no such unity of teaching and practice among them, and consequently the particular case of each convert must be examined into when there is question of his reception into the Church.但是,没有它们之间的教学和实践这种团结,因此每一个具体案件的转换时,必须将是他进入教会接待问题研究。For not only are there religious denominations in which baptism is in all probability not validly administered, but there are those also which have a ritual sufficient indeed for validity, but in practice the likelihood of their members having received baptism validly is more than doubtful.不仅在其中有没有有效管理的洗礼,在所有的概率是宗教教派,不过还是有一些也确实有一种仪式的有效性不足,但在实践中收到了他们的洗礼成员的可能性比怀疑更有效。 As a consequence converts must be dealt with differently.因此必须处理转换成不同的。If it be certain that a convert was validly baptized in heresy, the sacrament is not repeated, but the ceremonies which had been omitted in such baptism are to be supplied, unless the bishop, for sufficient reasons, judges that they can be dispensed with.如果它是肯定,一个转换是有效的异端的洗礼,圣餐不重复,但它一直在这样的洗礼仪式将被省略提供,除非主教,足够的理由,法官,他们可以免除。 (For the United States, see Conc. Prov. Balt., I.) If it be uncertain whether the convert's baptism was valid or not, then he is to be baptized conditionally. (对于美国,见浓。箴言。巴尔特。,一)如果不能确定是否转换的洗礼是有效还是无效,那么他是要有条件受洗。In such cases the ritual is: "If thou art not yet baptized, then I baptize thee in the name", etc. The First Synod of Westminster, England, directs that adult converts are to be baptized not publicly but privately with holy water (ie not the consecrated baptismal water) and without the usual ceremonies (Decr. xvi).在这种情况下,仪式是:“如果你还没有受洗,我洗你的名义”等的威斯敏斯特,英国第一主教,指导,成人要转换圣水施洗没有公开,但私下(即不是神圣的洗礼水),没有通常的仪式(Decr.十六)。 Practically, converts in the United States are almost invariably baptized either absolutely or conditionally, not because the baptism administered by heretics is held to be invalid, but because it is generally impossible to discover whether they had ever been properly baptized.实际上,转换几乎总是无条件或有条件地接受洗礼,而不是因为异端管理的洗礼,被认定为无效,而是因为它是一般不可能发现他们是否曾经得到妥善洗礼,在美国。 Even in cases where a ceremony had certainly been performed, reasonable doubt of validity will generally remain, on account of either the intention of the administrator or the mode of administration.即使在一个仪式上肯定已经被执行的案件,有效合理怀疑通常会依然存在,无论是对意向的管理员或管理模式的帐户。 Still each case must be examined into (SC Inquis., 20 Nov., 1878) lest the sacrament be sacrilegiously repeated.每一种情况下仍然必须检查入(资深大律师Inquis。,1878年11月20日)圣餐是sacrilegiously以免重复。

As to the baptism of the various sects, Sabetti (no. 662) states that the Oriental Churches and the "Old Catholics" generally administer baptism accurately; the Socinians and Quakers do not baptize at all; the Baptists use the rite only for adults, and the efficacy of their baptism has been called in question owing to the separation of the matter and the form, for the latter is pronounced before the immersion takes place; the Congregationalists, Unitarians and Universalists deny the necessity of baptism, and hence the presumption is that they do not administer it accurately; the Methodists and Presbyterians baptize by aspersion or sprinkling, and it may be reasonably doubted whether the water has touched the body and flowed upon it; among the Episcopalians many consider baptism to have no true efficacy and to be merely an empty ceremony, and consequently there is a well-grounded fear that they are not sufficiently careful in its administration.至于各教派的洗礼,Sabetti(第662号)规定,东方教会和“老天主教徒”一般管理洗礼准确3苏西尼和谊不洗所有;浸信会只用于成人仪式,和他们的洗礼功效一直被质疑由于该事项和形式,后者是明显的浸泡前发生分离;的公理,神论和Universalists否认洗礼的必要性,并因此推定他们不管理它准确3卫和长老施洗的诽谤或喷灌,它可以合理怀疑水是否已经触及身体,并呼吁其流;其中圣公会的洗礼,有许多人认为没有真正的疗效,并有只是一个空洞的仪式,因此是有充分根据的担心,他们既没有充分参与其管理小心。 To this may be added, that Episcopalians often baptize by aspersion, and though such a method is undoubtedly valid if properly employed, yet in practice it is quite possible that the sprinkled water may not touch the skin.在这方面可能会增加,这圣公会施洗往往由中伤,尽管这种方法无疑是有效的,如果正式受雇,但在实际这是很可能是洒的水可能不接触皮肤。 Sabetti also notes that ministers of the same sect do not everywhere follow a uniform method of baptizing. Sabetti还指出,同一教派部长不要到处走一条洗礼的统一方法。

The practical method of reconciling heretics with the Church is as follows:-- If baptism be conferred absolutely, the convert is to make no abjuration or profession of faith, nor is he to make a confession of his sins and receive absolution, because the sacrament of regeneration washes away his past offences.该协调与教会异端实用方法如下: - 如果被赋予绝对的洗礼,转换是使不abjuration或职业的信念,也不是他,使他的罪孽忏悔和接受赦免,因为圣餐再生洗去自己过去的罪行。If his baptism is to be conditional, he must first make an abjuration of his errors, or a profession of faith, then receive the conditional baptism, and lastly make a sacramental confession followed by conditional absolution.如果他的洗礼,是要有条件的,他必须首先做一个自己的错误abjuration,或专业的信仰,然后收到有条件的洗礼,最后作出的有条件赦免忏悔圣事之后。 If the convert's former baptism was judged to be certainly valid, he is only to make the abjuration or the profession of faith and receive absolution from the censures he may have incurred (Excerpta Rit. Rom., 1878).如果在转换前的洗礼,被认为是肯定有效的,他只是为了abjuration或专业的信念和接受赦免的指责,他可能已经发生(文摘丽特。光盘。,1878年)。 The abjuration or profession of faith here prescribed is the Creed of Pius IV, translated into the vernacular.该abjuration或职业信仰在这里所规定的比约四信条,翻译成白话文。In the case of conditional baptism, the confession may precede the administration of the rite and the conditional absolution be imparted after the baptism.在有条件的洗礼的情况下,供认可能先礼的行政部门和有条件赦免的洗礼后传授。This is often done as a matter of fact, as the confession is an excellent preparation for the reception of the sacrament (De Herdt, VI, viii; Sabetti, no. 725).这通常是作为一个事实问题,因为供词是用于接待的圣餐出色的准备工作(德Herdt,六,八,Sabetti,没有725。)。

VIII.八。REBAPTISMREBAPTISM

To complete the consideration of the validity of baptism conferred by heretics, we must give some account of the celebrated controversy that raged around this point in the ancient Church.要完成的洗礼有效性审议异端赋予的,我们必须给一些著名的争议,围绕这一古老的教堂点肆虐帐户。In Africa and Asia Minor the custom had been introduced in the early part of the third century of rebaptizing all converts from heresy.在非洲和亚洲的未成年人的习俗已被引入的rebaptizing异端的皈依从公元三世纪初。 As far as can be now ascertained, the practice of rebaptism arose in Africa owing to decrees of a Synod of Carthage held probably between 218 and 222; while in Asia Minor it seems to have had its origin at the Synod of Iconium, celebrated between 230 and 235.至于现在能确定,实践中出现的rebaptism由于在非洲迦太基主教会议的法令218和222之间举行可能,在小亚细亚,而它似乎已经在其原产地的伊康主教,在230庆祝和235。 The controversy on rebaptism is especially connected with the names of Pope St. Stephen and of St. Cyprian of Carthage.对rebaptism争议,特别是联系在一起的教皇圣斯蒂芬和圣塞浦路斯的迦太基的名字。The latter was the main champion of the practice of rebaptizing.后者是对实践的主要rebaptizing冠军。The pope, however, absolutely condemned the practice, and commanded that heretics on entering the Church should receive only the imposition of hands in paenitentiam.教宗,不过,绝对谴责这种做法,又吩咐在进入教会异端应该只接收在paenitentiam实行手中。 In this celebrated controversy it is to noted that Pope Stephen declares that he is upholding the primitive custom when he declares for the validity of baptism conferred by heretics.在这个著名的争议是要指出,教皇斯蒂芬宣称,他是坚持原始习俗当他效力的洗礼声明赋予的异端。

Cyprian, on the contrary, implicitly admits that antiquity is against his own practice, but stoutly maintains that it is more in accordance with an enlightened study of the subject.塞浦路斯,相反,含蓄地承认,古代对自己的做法是,但坚决认为,它是按照一个更开明的课题研究。The tradition against him he declares to be "a human and unlawful tradition".他对他的传统宣布为“人类和非法的传统”。Neither Cyprian, however, nor his zealous abettor, Firmilian, could show that rebaptism was older than the century in which they were living.无论是塞浦路斯,不过,还是他的热心协助非法入境者,Firmilian,能证明rebaptism较世纪中,他们生活以上。 The contemporaneous but anonymous author of the book "De Rebaptismate" says that the ordinances of Pope Stephen, forbidding the rebaptism of converts, are in accordance with antiquity and ecclesiastical tradition, and are consecrated as an ancient, memorable, and solemn observance of all the saints and of all the faithful.该书的匿名作者同时代,但“德Rebaptismate”说,教皇斯蒂芬条例,禁止rebaptism的转换,是与古老的传统和教会的规定,并作为所有古老的,令人难忘的,神圣,庄严的纪念圣人和所有信徒。 St. Augustine believes that the custom of not rebaptizing is an Apostolic tradition, and St. Vincent of Lérins declares that the Synod of Carthage introduced rebaptism against the Divine Law (canonem), against the rule of the universal Church, and against the customs and institutions of the ancients.圣奥古斯丁认为,在不rebaptizing习俗是一个使徒传统,圣文森宣布,Lérins迦太​​基主教介绍了打击神圣法(canonem),反对教会的普遍规律rebaptism,以及对海关和古人机构。 By Pope Stephen's decision, he continues, antiquity was retained and novelty was destroyed (retenta est antiquitas, explosa novitas).由罗马教皇斯蒂芬的决定,他继续说,保留了古代和新颖性被破坏(美国东部时间antiquitas retenta,explosa novitas)。It is true that the so-called Apostolic Canons (xlv and xlvi) speak of the non-validity of baptism conferred by heretics, but Döllinger says that these canons are comparatively recent, and De Marca points out that St. Cyprian would have appealed to them had they been in existence before the controversy.诚然,所谓的使徒大炮(第四十五和四十六)说话的非异端的洗礼有效期赋予的,但多林格表示,这些大炮是比较近,和德马卡报指出,圣塞浦路斯将呼吁他们有他们之前一直存在争议。 Pope St. Stephen, therefore, upheld a doctrine already ancient in the third century when he declared against the rebaptism of heretics, and decided that the sacrament was not to be repeated because its first administration had been valid, This has been the law of the Church ever since.教宗圣斯蒂芬,因此,坚持一个原则已经在三世纪古当他宣布反对异端rebaptism,并决定圣餐并没有被重复,因为它的第一届政府一直有效,这一直是法律教会至今。

IX.九。NECESSITY OF BAPTISM洗礼的必要性

Theologians distinguish a twofold necessity, which they call a necessity of means (medii) and a necessity of precept (præcepti).神学家区分双重必要性,而他们所谓的手段(medii)的必要性和一个戒律(præcepti)的必要性。 The first (medii) indicates a thing to be so necessary that, if lacking (though inculpably), salvation can not be attained.第一个(medii)表示这事是如此必要,如果缺乏(虽然inculpably),拯救无法达到的。The second (præcepti) is had when a thing is indeed so necessary that it may not be omitted voluntarily without sin; yet, ignorance of the precept or inability to fulfill it, excuses one from its observance.第二个(præcepti)是有一件事情时,的确非常必要,它可能不会被省略自愿无罪,然而,对戒或不能履行它的无知,免收其遵守之一。 Baptism is held to be necessary both necessitate medii and præcepti.的洗礼,是有必要举行既必要medii和præcepti。This doctrine is rounded on the words of Christ.这一学说是四舍五入在基督的话。In John 3, He declares: "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he can not enter into the kingdom of God."在约翰3,他宣称:“只有当一个人重生水和圣灵,他不能进神的国。”Christ makes no exception to this law and it is therefore general in its application, embracing both adults and infants.基督使本法的任何例外,因此,一般在其应用,它包括成人和婴幼儿。It is consequently not merely a necessity of precept but also a necessity of means.因此它不仅是一个必要的信条,也是必要的手段。

This is the sense in which it has always been understood by the Church, and the Council of Trent (Sess, IV, cap, vi) teaches that justification can not be obtained, since the promulgation of the Gospel, without the washing of regeneration or the desire thereof (in voto).这是它一直受到教会的理解意识,安理会的遄达(阶段作业,四,帽,六)教导我们,理由不能得到的,因为福音颁布未经清洗或再生,其中的愿望(在博托)。 In the seventh session, it declares (can. v) anathema upon anyone who says that baptism is not necessary for salvation.在第七届会议上宣称(can.五)对任何人谁不说,洗礼是得救的必要的诅咒。We have rendered votum by "desire" for want of a better word.我们已经提供了“欲望”因为缺少一个更好的词votum。The council does not mean by votum a simple desire of receiving baptism or even a resolution to do so.安理会没有意思votum接受洗礼的简单的愿望,甚至一项决议这样做。It means by votum an act of perfect charity or contrition, including, at least implicitly, the will to do all things necessary for salvation and thus especially to receive baptism.是指由votum一个完美的慈善机构或悔悟,包括行为,至少含蓄,意志,采取一切必要的拯救,因此特别将接受洗礼。

The absolute necessity of this sacrament is often insisted on by the Fathers of the Church, especially when they speak of infant baptism.这一圣事是绝对必要的经常坚持由教会的父亲,尤其是当他们说,婴儿的洗礼。Thus St. Irenæus (II, xxii): "Christ came to save all who are reborn through Him to God - infants, children, and youths" (infantes et parvulos et pueros).因此,圣爱任纽(二,二十二):“基督通过他来拯救所有谁是神重生 - 婴儿,儿童和青年”(特斯等parvulos等pueros)。St. Augustine (III De Anima) says "If you wish to be a Catholic, do not believe, nor say, nor teach, that infants who die before baptism can obtain the remission of original sin."圣奥古斯丁(三阿妮玛)说:“如果你想成为一名天主教徒,不相信,也不能说,也没有教,谁之前,婴儿的洗礼,死可以得到缓解的原罪。” A still stronger passage from the same doctor (Ep. xxviii, Ad Hieron.) reads:"Whoever says that even infants are vivified in Christ when they depart this life without the participation of His Sacrament (Baptism), both opposes the Apostolic preaching and condemns the whole Church which hastens to baptize infants, because it unhesitatingly believes that otherwise they can not possibly be vivified in Christ," St. Ambrose (II De Abraham., c. xi) speaking of the necessity of baptism, says:" No one is excepted, not the infant, not the one hindered by any necessity."来自同一个医生更强的通道(。插曲二十八,广告神庙)记载:“凡说,即使婴儿在基督精彩的比喻,当他们离开没有他的圣(洗礼)参与这种生活,既反对使徒的说教和整个教会谴责这赶忙洗礼的婴儿,因为它毫不犹豫地认为,否则他们不可能在基督精彩的比喻,“圣刘汉铨(。第二代亚伯拉罕,长十一)有必要的洗礼来说,说:”不一个是例外,而不是婴儿,不受任何阻碍的必要性之一。“

In the Pelagian controversy we find similarly strong pronouncements on the part of the Councils of Carthage and Milevis, and of Pope Innocent I. It is owing to the Church's belief in this necessity of baptism as a means to salvation that, as was already noted by St. Augustine, she committed the power of baptism in certain contingencies even to laymen and women.在伯拉纠争论,我们找到了迦太基和Milevis局部分同样强烈的声明,以及诺森一,这是由于在这个洗礼作为救赎手段的必要性,以教会的信仰,正如已经指出的圣奥古斯丁,她致力于在某些突发事件的洗礼权力甚至外行和妇女。 When it is said that baptism is also necessary, by the necessity of precept (praecepti), it is of course understood that this applies only to such as are capable of receiving a precept, viz.当有人说,洗礼也是必要时的教训(praecepti),它的了解,这仅适用于如被接受一个信条,即有能力当然是必要。adults.成年人。

The necessity in this case is shown by the command of Christ to His Apostles (Matthew 28): "Go and teach all nations, baptizing them", etc. Since the Apostles are commanded to baptize, the nations are commanded to receive baptism.在这种情况下所表现出的必然是基督的命令,他的门徒(马太28):“你去教导所有国家,他们施洗”等自使徒吩咐洗礼,万民都吩咐将接受洗礼。 The necessity of baptism has been called in question by some of the Reformers or their immediate forerunners.必要性的洗礼,已被质疑由改革者或其直系前辈一些。It was denied by Wyclif, Bucer, and Zwingli.这是否认威克里夫,布策尔,和茨温利。According to Calvin it is necessary for adults as a precept but not as a means.据卡尔文它是作为一个成年人的必要条件,但不是戒律的一种手段。Hence he contends that the infants of believing parents are sanctified in the womb and thus freed from original sin without baptism.因此,他争辩说,相信家长是圣洁的婴儿在子宫内,因此从外面洗礼原罪中解放出来。The Socinians teach that baptism is merely an external profession of the Christian faith and a rite which each one is free to receive or neglect.该苏西尼教导洗礼仅仅是一个基督教信仰和仪式,每个人可以自由地接受或忽视外部专业。

An argument against the absolute necessity of baptism has been sought in the text of Scripture: "Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you" (John 6).针对该说法绝对必要的洗礼已设法在圣经文字:“除非你吃人子的肉,喝他的血,那就不应该在你的生命”(约翰6)。Here, they say, is a parallel to the text: "Unless a man be born again of water".在这里,他们说,是一个平行的文字:“只有当一个人出生的水一次。”Yet everyone admits that the Eucharist is not necessary as a means but only as a precept.然而每个人都承认,圣体是没有必要的一种手段,但只能作为一个教训。The reply to this is obvious.对这个答复是显而易见的。In the first instance, Christ addresses His words in the second person to adults; in the second, He speaks in the third person and without any distinction whatever.在第一个实例,基督地址以第二人称成人他的话;在第二,他在第三人,并没有任何区别什么说话。

Another favorite text is that of St. Paul (1 Corinthians 7): "The unbelieving husband is sanctified by the believing wife; and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the believing husband; otherwise your children should be unclean; but now they are holy."另一个喜欢的文本是,圣保罗(哥林多前书7):“不信的丈夫是圣洁由相信妻子,不信的妻子相信丈夫是圣洁的,否则你的孩子应该是不洁的,但现在他们是圣洁的。 “Unfortunately for the strength of this argument, the context shows that the Apostle in this passage is not treating of regenerating or sanctifying grace at all, but answering certain questions proposed to him by the Corinthians concerning the validity of marriages between heathens and believers.不幸的是,这个论点的力量,上下文表明,在这一段使徒不是治疗再生或sanctifying宽限期;但是,回答提出的关于异教徒和信徒之间的婚姻效力科林蒂安对他的某些问题。 The validity of such marriages is proved from the fact that children born of them are legitimate, not spurious.这种婚姻合法性的事实证明,他们所生的孩子是合法的,而不是虚假的。As far as the term "sanctified" is concerned, it can, at most, mean that the believing husband or wife may convert the unbelieving party and thus become an occasion of their sanctification.至于所谓“神圣化”而言,它可以最多,表示相信丈夫或妻子可转换不信党,从而成为他们的圣洁之际。 A certain statement in the funeral oration of St. Ambrose over the Emperor Valentinian II has been brought forward as a proof that the Church offered sacrifices and prayers for catechumens who died before baptism.一个在圣刘汉铨在皇帝瓦伦蒂安二世的葬礼祭文某些语句已提出作为证据提供的教会洗礼的慕道谁去世前的牺牲和祈祷。 There is not a vestige of such a custom to be found anywhere.没有一个这样的风俗的遗迹被发现的任何地方。St. Ambrose may have done so for the soul of the catechumen Valentinian, but this would be a solitary instance, and it was done apparently because he believed that the emperor had had the baptism of desire.圣刘汉铨这样做就可能对初学者瓦伦蒂安灵魂,而这将是一个孤立的实例,它是做显然是因为他认为,皇帝不得不欲望的洗礼。 The practice of the Church is more correctly shown in the canon (xvii) of the Second Council of Braga: "Neither the commemoration of Sacrifice [oblationis] nor the service of chanting [psallendi] is to be employed for catechumens who have died without the redemption of baptism."教会的做法是更正确地显示在第二届理事会的布拉加佳能(十七):“无论是祭祀纪念活动[oblationis]也不是诵经[psallendi]服务是用于谁无死有慕道就业赎回的洗礼。“ The arguments for a contrary usage sought in the Second Council of Arles (c. xii) and the Fourth Council of Carthage (c. lxxix) are not to the point, for these councils speak, not of catechumens, but of penitents who had died suddenly before their expiation was completed.对于一个使用的论点相反,在第二届理事会阿尔勒(约十二)寻求和第四届理事会的迦太基(约lxxix)没有重要的是,这些议会发言,而不是慕道者,但谁已经死亡忏悔者突然在他们赎罪已经完成。 It is true that some Catholic writers (as Cajetan, Durandus, Biel, Gerson, Toletus, Klee) have held that infants may be saved by an act of desire on the part of their parents, which is applied to them by some external sign, such as prayer or the invocation of the Holy Trinity; but Pius V, by expunging this opinion, as expressed by Cajetan, from that author's commentary on St. Thomas, manifested his judgment that such a theory was not agreeable to the Church's belief.诚然,一些(作为cajetan,Durandus,比尔,格尔森,Toletus,克利)都认为,婴儿可能是由对他们的父母,这是适用于一些外部标志,其中一部分保存法天主教作家的愿望,如祈祷或圣三位一体的调用,但比约五由expunging这个意见,如接cajetan表示从该撰文人的圣托马斯评注,,体现出他的判断,这样的理论是不认同教会的信仰。

X. SUBSTITUTES FOR THE SACRAMENT十,替代品的圣餐

The Fathers and theologians frequently divide baptism into three kinds: the baptism of water (aquæ or fluminis), the baptism of desire (flaminis), and the baptism of blood (sanguinis).父亲和神学家经常洗礼分为三种:水的洗礼(藻或fluminis),欲望的洗礼(flaminis)和血液(制)的洗礼。 However, only the first is a real sacrament.然而,只有第一个是真正的圣事。The latter two are denominated baptism only analogically, inasmuch as they supply the principal effect of baptism, namely, the grace which remits sins.后两种均以洗礼只是类比,因为它们提供的洗礼主要作用,即恩典,赦免罪孽。It is the teaching of the Catholic Church that when the baptism of water becomes a physical or moral impossibility, eternal life may be obtained by the baptism of desire or the baptism of blood.这是天主教教会的教学,当水的洗礼变成了身体或道德是不可能的,永恒的生命可能会得到洗礼的欲望或血的洗礼。

(1) The Baptism of Desire(1)欲望的洗礼

The baptism of desire (baptismus flaminis) is a perfect contrition of heart, and every act of perfect charity or pure love of God which contains, at least implicitly, a desire (votum) of baptism.欲望的洗礼(baptismus flaminis)是一个完美的痛悔的心,每一个完善的慈善机构或纯上帝的爱中包含的行为,至少含蓄,欲望的洗礼(votum)。The Latin word flamen is used because Flamen is a name for the Holy Ghost, Whose special office it is to move the heart to love God and to conceive penitence for sin.拉丁词flamen使用,因为Flamen是圣灵的名字,其特殊的办公室是移动的心,爱上帝和设想为罪忏悔。The "baptism of the Holy Ghost" is a term employed in the third century by the anonymous author of the book "De Rebaptismate".而“圣灵的洗礼”,是在受聘于三世纪的书“德Rebaptismate”匿名作者的术语。The efficacy of this baptism of desire to supply the place of the baptism of water, as to its principal effect, is proved from the words of Christ.这种欲望的洗礼功效供应水的洗礼的地方,以它的主要作用,是从基督的话证实。After He had declared the necessity of baptism (John 3), He promised justifying grace for acts of charity or perfect contrition (John 14): "He that loveth Me, shall be loved of my Father: and I will love him and will manifest myself to him."后,他已经宣布洗礼的必要性(约翰福音3),他答应为慈善理由或完美的悔悟(约14)行为的恩典:“他爱我的,不得被我父爱:我爱他,并且将体现我自己给他。“ And again: "If any one love me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him, and will make our abode with him."又说:“。如果有人爱我,就必遵守我的话,我父也必爱他,我们会来给他,使我们与他同住”Since these texts declare that justifying grace is bestowed on account of acts of perfect charity or contrition, it is evident that these acts supply the place of baptism as to its principal effect, the remission of sins.由于这些文本声明,理由是基于恩典完善慈善行为的帐户或忏悔的赐予,这是显而易见的,这些行为就其主要供应的影响,使罪得赦的洗礼的地方。 This doctrine is set forth clearly by the Council of Trent.这一学说是明确阐述了安理会的遄达。In the fourteenth session (cap. iv) the council teaches that contrition is sometimes perfected by charity, and reconciles man to God, before the Sacrament of Penance is received.在第十四届会议(第四章)理事会教导我们,痛悔有时完善,由慈善机构,并协调人与神,圣事的忏悔之前收到。In the fourth chapter of the sixth session, in speaking of the necessity of baptism, it says that men can not obtain original justice "except by the washing of regeneration or its desire" (voto).在第六届会议第四章,在必要的洗礼发言,它说,男人无法获得“除非由再生或洗涤的愿望”(博托)原始正义。The same doctrine is taught by Pope Innocent III (cap. Debitum, iv, De Bapt.), and the contrary propositions are condemned by Popes Pius V and Gregory XII, in proscribing the 31st and 33rd propositions of Baius.同样的学说是由教皇英诺森三世教(第Debitum,四,德BAPT的。)和相反的命题是由教皇庇护五世和格雷戈里十二,谴责禁制的Baius 31和33的命题。

We have already alluded to the funeral oration pronounced by St. Ambrose over the Emperor Valentinian II, a catechumen.我们已经提到了祭文,由圣刘汉铨明显超过皇帝瓦伦蒂安II是初学者。 The doctrine of the baptism of desire is here clearly set forth.该学说是欲望的洗礼,在这里明确规定。St. Ambrose asks: "Did he not obtain the grace which he desired? Did he not obtain what he asked for? Certainly he obtained it because he asked for it."圣刘汉铨问道:“难道他没有得到他想要的恩典,这难道他不能获得他所要求的当然是因为他得到了他来问的?”。St. Augustine (IV, De Bapt., xxii) and St. Bernard (Ep. lxxvii, ad H. de S. Victore) likewise discourse in the same sense concerning the baptism of desire.圣奥古斯丁(四,德BAPT的。,二十二)和圣伯纳(插曲lxxvii,广告阁下德第Victore)同样在同一个关于欲望的洗礼感的话语。 If it be said that this doctrine contradicts the universal law of baptism made by Christ (John 3), the answer is that the lawgiver has made an exception (John 14) in favor of those who have the baptism of desire.如果说,这一学说违背了基督(约翰福音3)条作出的洗礼普遍规律,答案是,立法者已经在那些谁拥有欲望的洗礼,为受益人的异常(约14)。 Neither would it be a consequence of this doctrine that a person justified by the baptism of desire would thereby be dispensed from seeking after the baptism of water when the latter became a possibility.它也不能成为这种学说的后果,一个人的欲望的洗礼将因此从水的洗礼后,当后者成为寻求一个合理的配发的可能性。 For, as has already been explained the baptismus flaminis contains the votum of receiving the baptismus aquæ.因为,正如已经解释了baptismus flaminis包含接收baptismus藻votum。It is true that some of the Fathers of the Church arraign severely those who content themselves with the desire of receiving the sacrament of regeneration, but they are speaking of catechumens who of their own accord delay the reception of baptism from unpraiseworthy motives.诚然,对一些教会的父亲严厉讯问内容与那些谁接受圣餐的再生自己的愿望,但他们是慕道谁自行延迟unpraiseworthy动机酒会上的洗礼。 Finally, it is to be noted that only adults are capable of receiving the baptism of desire.最后,这是必须指出,只有成年人接受洗礼的欲望的能力。

(2) The Baptism of Blood(2)血的洗礼

The baptism of blood (baptismus sanquinis) is the obtaining of the grace of justification by suffering martyrdom for the faith of Christ.血的洗礼(baptismus sanquinis)是痛苦的信仰基督殉难的宽限期的理由获得。The term "washing of blood" (lavacrum sanguinis) is used by Tertullian (De Bapt., xvi) to distinguish this species of regeneration from the "washing of water" (lavacrum aquæ).项(lavacrum血统)“洗血”是用于良(德BAPT的。,十六),以区别于“水洗涤”这一物种的再生(lavacrum藻)。 "We have a second washing", he says "which is one and the same [with the first], namely the washing of blood."“我们有一个第二洗”,他说:“这是一个和[与第一]相同的,即洗血。”St. Cyprian (Ep. lxxiii) speaks of "the most glorious and greatest baptism of blood" (sanguinis baptismus).圣塞浦路斯(插曲lxxiii)说的是“血的洗礼,最辉煌,最伟大”(血统baptismus)。St. Augustine (De Civ. Dei, XIII, vii) says: "When any die for the confession of Christ without having received the washing of regeneration, it avails as much for the remission of their sins as if they had been washed in the sacred font of baptism."圣奥古斯丁(。德棣哀,十三,七)说:“当为基督的忏悔,而无需获得了再生洗死了,就借此为他们的罪得赦多达如果他们已在洗神圣的字体的洗礼。“

The Church grounds her belief in the efficacy of the baptism of blood on the fact that Christ makes a general statement of the saving power of martyrdom in the tenth chapter of St. Matthew: "Every one therefore that shall confess me before men, I will also confess him before my Father who is in heaven" (verse 32); and: "He that shall lose his life for me shall find it" (verse 39).教会的理由她在血的事实使基督的殉道的圣马太在第十章一般性发言洗礼节电功效的信念:“每个人都因此,应在人面前认我,我会在我父亲也承认谁是他在天堂“(32节);和:”他说,他的生活将失去我会发现它“(诗39)。 It is pointed out that these texts are so broadly worded as to include even infants, especially the latter text.据指出,这些文字是如此广泛措辞甚至包括婴儿,特别是后者的文本。That the former text also applies to them, has been constantly maintained by the Fathers, who declare that if infants can not confess Christ with the mouth, they can by act.前者的文本也适用于他们,一直不断受到父亲,谁宣布,如果婴儿不能用口承认基督维护,他们的行为可以。Tertullian (Adv. Valent., ii) speaks of the infants slaughtered by Herod as martyrs, and this has been the constant teaching of the Church.戴尔都良(上海高考价。,二)讲的希律王屠宰为烈士的婴儿,这一直是教会不断教学。

Another evidence of the mind of the Church as to the efficacy of the baptism of blood is found in the fact that she never prays for martyrs.另一个教会至于血的洗礼的功效头脑的证据被发现在该事实,她从来没有烈士祈祷。Her opinion is well voiced by St. Augustine (Tr. lxxiv in Joan.): "He does an injury to a martyr who prays for him."她的意见是很好的圣奥古斯丁表示(编辑部琼lxxiv。)说:“他不伤害到谁烈士为他祈祷。”This shows that martyrdom is believed to remit all sin and all punishment due to sin.这表明,殉道是相信所有的罪恶和所有的汇款罪罚。Later theologians commonly maintain that the baptism of blood justifies adult martyrs independently of an act of charity or perfect contrition, and, as it were, ex opere operato, though, of course, they must have attrition for past sins.后来神学家普遍认为,血的洗礼证明的一种慈善行为像成人或完美的悔悟烈士独立,而且,因为它是,前opere operato,不过,当然,他们必须为过去的罪孽减员。The reason is that if perfect charity, or contrition, were required in martyrdom, the distinction between the baptism of blood and the baptism of desire would be a useless one.原因是,如果是完美的慈善机构,或忏悔,在殉难的要求,与血的洗礼和欲望洗礼的区别将是一个无用的人。Moreover, as it must be conceded that infant martyrs are justified without an act of charity, of which they are incapable, there is no solid reason for denying the same privilege to adults.此外,因为它必须承认,婴儿烈士是没有一件善事,是无能的,他们的行为合理的,也没有否认对成年人同样的特权坚实的理由。 (Cf. Francisco Suárez, De Bapt., disp. xxxix.)(参见弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,德BAPT的。,DISP键。三十九)。

XI.十一。UNBAPTIZED INFANTS未受洗礼的婴儿

The fate of infants who die without baptism must be briefly considered here.没有谁的婴儿的洗礼,死的命运必须是简单地考虑在这里。The Catholic teaching is uncompromising on this point, that all who depart this life without baptism, be it of water, or blood, or desire, are perpetually excluded from the vision of God.天主教教学在这一点上是毫不妥协的,即所有谁离开这个没有生命的洗礼,是从水,或血,或渴望,是永远从神的视野之外。This teaching is grounded, as we have seen, on Scripture and tradition, and the decrees of the Church.这种教学是基础,正如我们所看到的,经文和传统,和教会的法令。Moreover, that those who die in original sin, without ever having contracted any actual sin, are deprived of the happiness of heaven is stated explicitly in the Confession of Faith of the Eastern Emperor Michael Palæologus, which had been proposed to him by Pope Clement IV in 1267, and which he accepted in the presence of Gregory X at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274.此外,那些谁死无原罪曾经患上任何实际的罪恶,是被剥夺了幸福的天堂是明确表示在对东方皇帝迈克尔Palæologus,已被建议由教皇克莱门特四他信条于1267年,而他接受的格雷戈里X在第二届理事会的里昂在1274年的存在。 The same doctrine is found also in the Decree of Union of the Greeks, in the Bull "Lætentur Caeli" of Pope Eugene IV, in the Profession of Faith prescribed for the Greeks by Pope Gregory XIII, and in that authorized for the Orientals by Urban VIII and Benedict XIV.同样的原则也被发现在欧盟法令的希腊人,在牛市“Læten​​tur Caeli”教皇尤金四,在规定的希腊人信仰,由罗马教皇格雷戈里十三,专业,并在这东方人授权的城市第八条和本笃十四。Many Catholic theologians have declared that infants dying without baptism are excluded from the beatific vision; but as to the exact state of these souls in the next world they are not agreed.许多天主教神学家已宣布死亡的婴儿没有洗礼是从幸福的远景排除,但至于这些灵魂在未来世界的确切状态,他们不同意。

In speaking of souls who have failed to attain salvation, these theologians distinguish the pain of loss (paena damni), or privation of the beatific vision, and the pain of sense (paena sensus).在谁也未能达到拯救灵魂来说,这些神学家分清损失疼痛(paena失落的痛苦),或幸福的远景匮乏,而感觉疼痛(paena共通感)。 Though these theologians have thought it certain that unbaptized infants must endure the pain of loss, they have not been similarly certain that they are subject to the pain of sense.虽然这些神学家都认为有一定的未受洗礼的婴儿必须忍受痛苦的损失,他们没有得到同样肯定的是,他们是受感疼痛。St. Augustine (De Pecc. et Mer., I, xvi) held that they would not be exempt from the pain of sense, but at the same time he thought it would be of the mildest form.圣奥古斯丁(德议会。等Mer的。,我,十六)举行,他们将不会从免除疼痛感,但在同一时间,他认为这将是最温和的形式。 On the other hand, St. Gregory Nazianzen (Or. in S. Bapt.) expresses the belief that such infants would suffer only the pain of loss.另一方面,圣格雷戈里nazianzen(Or.在S BAPT的。)表示相信,只有这样的婴儿将遭受的损失的痛苦。Sfondrati (Nod. Prædest., I, i) declares that while they are certainly excluded from heaven, yet they are not deprived of natural happiness.Sfondrati(Nod. Prædest。,我,我)宣布,虽然他们肯定是从天上排除,但它们不是天然的幸福被剥夺。This opinion seemed so objectionable to some French bishops that they asked the judgment of the Holy See upon the matter.这种看法似乎很反感一些法国主教,他们要求见的圣判决后的事。Pope Innocent XI replied that he would have the opinion examined into by a commission of theologians, but no sentence seems ever to have been passed upon it.诺森十一回答说,他将审查委员会的神学家到的意见,但没有一句似乎以往任何时候都对它通过。Since the twelfth century, the opinion of the majority of theologians has been that unbaptized infants are immune from all pain of sense.十二世纪以来,在多数意见的神学家一直认为未受洗礼的婴儿都感觉疼痛,从免疫。This was taught by St. Thomas Aquinas, Scotus, St. Bonaventure, Peter Lombard, and others, and is now the common teaching in the schools.这是教导圣托马斯阿奎那,司各脱,圣文德,彼得隆巴德等人,现在是在学校常见的教学。 It accords with the wording of a decree of Pope Innocent III (III Decr., xlii, 3): "The punishment of original sin is the deprivation of the vision of God; of actual sin, the eternal pains of hell."它与一个符合教皇英诺森三世的法令措辞(三Decr,四十二,三。):“。原罪的惩罚是神的视觉剥夺;实际罪,永恒的地狱之痛” Infants, of course, can not be guilty of actual sin.婴儿,当然,不能实际有罪。

Other theologians have urged that, under the law of nature and the Mosaic dispensation, children could be saved by the act of their parents and that consequently the same should be even more easy of attainment under the law of grace, because the power of faith has not been diminished but increased.其他神学家们呼吁,根据自然和马赛克豁免法,可以挽救孩子由他们的父母行为的,因此同样应受到法律的宽限期,甚至更容易实现,因为信仰的力量已没有减少反而增加。 Common objections to this theory include the fact that infants are not said to be deprived of justification in the New Law through any decrease in the power of faith, but because of the promulgation by Christ of the precept of baptism which did not exist before the New Dispensation.这个理论的共同反对包括婴儿的事实,不说是在通过新税法的理由剥夺任何信仰的力量减少,但由于受基督的洗礼信条颁布之前,并不存在新天启。 Nor would this make the case of infants worse than it was before the Christian Church was instituted.本作也不会差的婴儿比以前的基督教教会是建立案件。While it works a hardship for some, it has undoubtedly improved the condition of most.它的工作虽然有些困难,这无疑提高了大部分的条件。Supernatural faith is now much more diffused than it was before the coming of Christ, and more infants are now saved by baptism than were justified formerly by the active faith of their parents.超自然的信仰现在是比它更为分散在基督的来临是,更多的婴儿比现在的洗礼保存有关的理由是他们的父母积极的信念前身。 Moreover, baptism can more readily be applied to infants than the rite of circumcision, and by the ancient law this ceremony had to be deferred till the eighth day after birth, while baptism can be bestowed upon infants immediately after they are born, and in case of necessity even in their mother's womb.此外,洗礼可以更容易被应用到比割礼仪式婴儿,被古老的法律,这仪式必须要到出生后第八天推迟,同时可根据洗礼后立即赋予婴儿出生,及在甚至在他们的必要性母亲的子宫里。 Finally it must be borne in mind that unbaptized infants, if deprived of heaven, would not be deprived unjustly.最后,我们必须铭记的是未受洗礼的婴儿,如果天堂被剥夺,也不会被剥夺不公正。The vision of God is not something to which human beings have a natural claim.神的目标是不是,一个人类有一种天然的索赔。 It is a free gift of the Creator who can make what conditions He chooses for imparting it or withholding it.它是造物主谁可以让他传授什么样的条件,或扣缴它选择免费的礼物。No injustice is involved when an undue privilege is not conferred upon a person.没有不公正时涉及不当特权,是不是对一人所赋予的。 Original sin deprived the human race of an unearned right to heaven.原罪剥夺了一个不劳而获的权利,人类的天堂。Through the Divine mercy this bar to the enjoyment of God is removed by baptism; but if baptism be not conferred, original sin remains, and the unregenerated soul, having no claim on heaven, is not unjustly excluded from it.通过这神圣慈悲的上帝的享受吧被删除的洗礼,但如果不赋予被洗礼,原罪仍然存在,并unregenerated灵魂,没有天堂的索赔,是不是不公正地被排除在外。

As to the question, whether in addition to freedom from the pain of sense, unbaptized infants enjoy any positive happiness in the next world, theologians are not agreed, nor is there any pronouncement of the Church on the subject.至于这个问题,除了是否从自由感疼痛,未受洗礼的婴儿享有在未来世界上的任何积极的幸福,神学家是不是同意,也没有任何关于这个问题,教会宣判。 Many, following St. Thomas (De Malo, Q. v, a. 3), declare that these infants are not saddened by the loss of the beatific vision, either because they have no knowledge of it, and hence are not sensible of their privation; or because, knowing it, their will is entirely conformed to God's will and they are conscious that they have missed an undue privilege through no fault of their own.许多人,下面的圣托马斯(德圣马洛,问:五,答:3)声明,这些婴儿是不是由幸福的远景的离去感到难过,要么是因为他们毫不知情,因此是不理智的穷困,或因为,因为我知道,他们的意愿是完全符合上帝的意志,他们意识到,他们错过了通过没有自己的过错不应有的特权。 In addition to this freedom from regret at the loss of heaven, these infants may also enjoy some positive happiness.除了这个从天上的损失在遗憾的自由,这些婴儿还可以享受一些积极的幸福。St. Thomas (In II Sent., dist. XXXIII, Q. ii, a. 5) says: "Although unbaptized infants are separated from God as far as glory is concerned, yet they are not separated from Him entirely. Rather are they joined to Him by a participation of natural goods; and so they may even rejoice in Him by natural consideration and love," Again (a. 2) he says: "They will rejoice in this, that they will share largely in the divine goodness and in natural perfections."圣托马斯(。。在二世派,区三十三,问:二,甲5)。说道:“虽然未受洗礼的婴儿与上帝隔绝至于荣耀而言,但他们并没有离开他完全相反他们加入到他通过自然的商品参与;,所以他们甚至会在他的欢乐和爱自然的考虑,“又(甲2)他说:”他们将在这欢乐,他们将分享神的善良大多和自然完善。“ While the opinion, then, that unbaptized infants may enjoy a natural knowledge and love of God and rejoice in it, is perfectly tenable, it has not the certainty that would arise from a unanimous consent of the Fathers of the Church, or from a favorable pronouncement of ecclesiastical authority.虽然该意见,那么,未受洗礼的婴儿可享受自然知识和上帝的爱和欢喜在里面,是完全站不住脚的,它已经不是肯定会出现从一个父亲的教会一致同意,或于有利宣言的宗教权威。

[Editor's note: On this subject, the 1992 Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "As regards children who have died without Baptism, the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God, as she does in her funeral rites for them. Indeed, the great mercy of God who desires that all men should be saved, and Jesus' tenderness toward children which caused him to say: "Let the children come to me, do not hinder them," allows us to hope that there is a way of salvation for children who have died without Baptism. All the more urgent is the Church's call not to prevent little children coming to Christ through the gift of holy Baptism."] [编者按:在这个问题上,天主教会1992问答状态:。“至于谁有无洗礼死亡的儿童,教会只能委托他们到神的怜悯,因为她在她的葬礼仪式,并为他们的确,神的大怜悯,谁的愿望,所有男人应该被保存,和耶稣对儿童造成他说温柔:“让孩子们到我这里来,不要禁止他们,”让我们希望有一种方法有没有对谁拯救儿童死亡的洗礼。更紧迫的是教会的呼吁不是为了防止未来通过神圣的洗礼基督小朋友的礼物。“]

We may add here some brief remarks on the discipline of the Church in regard to unbaptized persons.在这里我们可以补充方面的纪律,教会一些简短的言论,经洗礼的人。As baptism is the door of the Church, the unbaptized are entirely without its pale.洗礼是教会的门,未受洗礼的,是完全没有它的苍白。As a consequence:因此:

Such persons, by the ordinary law of the Church, may not receive Catholic funeral rites.这些人由普通法律的教会,可能不会收到天主教葬礼仪式。The reason of this regulation is given by Pope Innocent III (Decr., III, XXVIII, xii): "It has been decreed by the sacred canons that we are to have no communion with those who are dead, if we have not communicated with them while alive."本规例的原因是由于教皇英诺森三世(Decr.,三,二十八,第十二章):“它已经被认为我们要与那些没有谁是死的,如果我们没有把神圣的大炮颁布的共融他们活着时。“ According to Canon Law (CIC 1183), however, catechumens "are to be considered members of the Christian faithful" as regard funeral rites.据佳能法(议会1183),但是,慕道者“将被认为是基督教的教友”为把葬礼仪式。The Plenary Council of Baltimore also decrees (No. 389) that the custom of burying the unbaptized relatives of Catholics in the family sepulchers may be tolerated.美国巴尔的摩次全体会议,会议还法令(389号)表示,家庭sepulchers埋在不经洗礼的天主教徒的亲属的习惯可能会容忍的。 [Editor's note: The 1983 Code of Canon Law excepts an unbaptized child of Catholic parents, if the parents had intended to have him baptized.] [编者注:1983年佳能法码excepts一天主教家长未受洗礼的孩子,如果父母打算让他洗。]

A Catholic may not marry an unbaptized person without dispensation, under pain of nullity.天主教可能不会结婚没有免除一经洗礼的人,根据无效的痛苦。This impediment, as far as illiceity is concerned, is derived from the natural law, because in such unions the Catholic party and the offspring of the marriage would, in most cases, be exposed to the loss of faith.这个障碍,就illiceity而言,是来自于自然法则,因为在天主教党和婚姻的后代会,在大多数情况下,被暴露在这种婚姻失去信心。 The invalidity of such marriage, however, is a consequence only of positive law.这种婚姻无效,但是,是唯一的积极的法律后果。For, in the beginning of Christianity, unions between the baptized and unbaptized were frequent, and they were certainly held valid.因为,在基督教的开始,工会之间的洗礼和未受洗礼的频繁,和他们肯定持有有效。When, then, circumstances arise where the danger of perversion for the Catholic party is removed, the Church dispenses in her law of prohibition, but always requires guarantees from the non-Catholic party that there will be no interference with the spiritual rights of the partner of the union.那么,什么时候,那里的情况出现反常的天主教党的危险被删除,在她的禁酒令,教会dispenses但总是需要从非天主教一方担保,有将与合作伙伴的精神权利无干扰该联盟。 (See IMPEDIMENTS OF MATRIMONY.) (见婚姻的障碍。)

In general, we may state that the Church claims no authority over unbaptized persons, as they are entirely without her pale.一般来说,我们可以指出,教会对未受洗礼的人声称没有权威,因为他们是完全没有她的苍白。She makes laws concerning them only in so far as they hold relations with the subjects of the Church.她让他们有关的法律只有在迄今举行,因为他们与教会的主体关系。

XII.十二。EFFECTS OF BAPTISM影响的洗礼

This sacrament is the door of the Church of Christ and the entrance into a new life.这圣餐是基督的教会的门,到一个新的生命的起点。We are reborn from the state of slaves of sin into the freedom of the Sons of God.我们从罪的奴隶进入神的儿子的自由状态重生。 Baptism incorporates us with Christ's mystical body and makes us partakers of all the privileges flowing from the redemptive act of the Church's Divine Founder.结合洗礼与基督的奥体我们,使我们所有的教会的神圣救赎行为方正流动特权同伙。We shall now outline the principal effects of baptism.我们现在大纲主要影响的洗礼。(1) The Remission of All Sin, Original and Actual This is clearly contained in the Bible. (1)所有的罪,原和实际减免,这显然是在圣经中。Thus we read (Acts 2:38): "Be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of your sins; and you shall receive the Holy Ghost. For the promise is to you and to your children and to all that are far off, whomsoever the Lord our God shall call."因此,我们读(徒2:38):“受洗为你的罪得赦的每一个你在耶稣基督的名,而你要受圣灵因为这应许是给你们和你们的儿女和。一切在远方,何人,就是主我们神所召。“ We read also in the twenty-second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles (verse 16):我们也看到在对使徒(16节)的行为第二十二章:

Be baptized, and wash away thy sins." St. Paul in the fifth chapter of his Epistle to the Ephesians beautifully represents the whole Church as being baptized and purified (5:25 sq.): "Christ loved the Church, and delivered Himself up for it: that he might sanctify it, cleansing it by the washing of water in the word of life: that he might present it to Himself a glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.受洗,洗去你的罪恶。“在他的书信第五章圣保罗的以弗所表示与美丽的洗礼和净化(5:25平)全教会:”基督爱教会,并发表自己注册它:他可能成圣,洁净的水清洗的话,它的生活:他可以献给自己,作个荣耀的教会,没有斑点或皱纹,或任何这种东西,但它应该是圣洁,无污点。

The prophecy of Ezechiel (36:25) has also been understood of baptism: "I will pour upon you clean water, and you shall be cleansed from all your filthiness (inquinamentis), where the prophet is unquestionably speaking of moral defilements.本的Ezechiel(36:25)的预言,也被理解的洗礼:“我要将你身上干净的水,你必须从所有的污秽(inquinamentis),其中先知无疑是讲道德的污秽洁净。

This is also the solemn teaching of the Church.这也是教会庄严的教学。In the profession of faith prescribed by Pope Innocent III for the Waldensians in 1210, we read: We believe that all sins are remitted in baptism, both original sin and those sins which have been voluntarily committed." The Council of Trent (Sess. V., can. v) anathematizes whomsoever denies that the grace of Christ which is conferred in baptism does not remit the guilt of original sin; or asserts that everything which can truly and properly be called sin is not thereby taken away. The same is taught by the Fathers. St. Justin Martyr (Apol., I, Ixvi) declares that in baptism we are created anew, that is, consequently, free from all stain of sin. St. Ambrose (De Myst., iii) says of baptism: "This is the water in which the flesh is submerged that all carnal sin may be washed away.在订明的教皇英诺森三世在1210韦尔专业的信念,我们读到:我们认为,所有的罪过是汇款的洗礼,无论是原罪和那些已经自愿犯下的罪恶“安理会的遄达(sess.五。 。。,可以五)anathematizes何人否认基督的恩典,这是不洗礼汇有罪原罪授予,或声称可以真正和适当地被称为罪恶一切并不因此而带走了同样是教导。由父亲。圣贾斯汀烈士(Apol.,我Ixvi)宣布,在我们创造新的洗礼,也就是因此,从所有的罪恶。圣刘汉铨无污染(德神秘岛。,三)说的洗礼:“这是在其中的肉被淹没,所有肉体的罪可能被冲走的水。 Every transgression is there buried." Tertullian (De Bapt., vii) writes: "Baptism is a carnal act in as much as we are submerged in the water; but the effect is spiritual, for we are freed from our sins." The words of Origen (In Gen., xiii) are classic: "If you transgress, you write unto yourself the handwriting [chirographum] of sin. 。逢侵埋有“良(。德BAPT的,七)写道:”洗礼是尽可能多的肉体作为我们淹没在水中,但效果是精神的,因为我们是从我们的罪过解放“了。奥利字(在将军,十三)是经典的:“如果你犯罪,你写信给自己的笔迹罪[chirographum]。 But, behold, when you have once approached to the cross of Christ and to the grace of baptism, your handwriting is affixed to the cross and blotted out in the font of baptism." It is needless to multiply testimonies from the early ages of the Church. It is a point on which the Fathers are unanimous, and telling quotations might also be made from St. Cyprian, Clement of Alexandria, St. Hilary, St. Cyril of Jerusalem, St. Basil, St. Gregory Nazianzen, and others.但是,你看,当你一旦接触到基督的十字架和优雅的​​洗礼,你的笔迹是贴在十字架和抹杀的洗礼字体了。“这是不用乘从早期时代的见证教堂。这是一个点上是一致的父亲,并告诉报价也可能是从圣塞浦路斯,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,圣希拉蕊,圣西里尔耶路撒冷,圣罗勒,圣格雷戈里nazianzen,和其他一些人。

(2) Remission of Temporal Punishment(2)减免颞处罚

Baptism not only washes away sin, it also remits the punishment of sin.洗礼不仅洗去罪恶,也赦免罪的处罚。This was the plain teaching of the primitive Church.这是原始教会平原教学。We read in Clement of Alexandria (Pædagog., i) of baptism: "It is called a washing because we are washed from our sins: it is called grace, because by it the punishments which are due to sin are remitted."我们读到在克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(Pædagog.,我)的洗礼:“这是所谓的洗衣机,因为我们是从我们的罪孽洗:。它是所谓的宽限期因为它的惩罚这是由于罪恶都汇” St. Jerome (Ep. lxix) writes: "After the pardon (indulgentiam) of baptism, the severity of the Judge is not to be feared."圣杰罗姆(插曲lxix)写道:“经过洗礼赦免(indulgentiam),法官的严重程度是没有什么可怕的。” And St. Augustine (De Pecc. et Mer., II, xxviii) says plainly: "If immediately [after baptism] there follows the departure from this life, there will be absolutely nothing that a man must answer for [quod obnoxium hominem teneat], for he will have been freed from everything that bound him."和圣奥古斯丁(。。德议会等Mer的,二,二十八)直说:“如果立即[洗礼后]有如下从此生活出发,将有绝对没有任何一个人必须回答[狴obnoxium人身攻击的teneat ],因为他已经从一切束缚释放他。“In perfect accord with the early doctrine, the Florentine decree states: "No satisfaction is to be enjoined upon the baptized for past sins; and if they die before any sin, they will immediately attain to the kingdom of heaven and to the vision of God."在与早期的教义完全吻合,佛罗伦萨法令规定:“没有满意的是要对过去的罪孽洗被禁止的;如果他们在任何罪死,他们将立即实现的天国和神的眼光“。 In like manner the Council of Trent (Sess. V) teaches: "There is no cause of damnation in those who have been truly buried with Christ by baptism . . . Nothing whatever will delay their entrance into heaven."在这样的态度,遄达(sess.五)理事会教导:“没有谁的诅咒那些已经真正与基督埋葬的洗礼事业没有什么东西会延迟到天堂的入口。。。。”

(3) Infusion of Supernatural Grace, Gifts, and Virtues(3)输注神灵的恩典,礼物和美德

Another effect of baptism is the infusion of sanctifying grace and supernatural gifts and virtues.另一种洗礼效应是圣洁的恩典和超自然的礼物和美德输液。It is this sanctifying grace which renders men the adopted sons of God and confers the right to heavenly glory.正是这种圣洁的恩典,这使得人们通过神的儿子,到天上的荣耀赋予的权利。The doctrine on this subject is found in the seventh chapter on justification in the sixth session of the Council of Trent.关于这个问题的学说中找到关于在安理会的遄达第七章第六届会议的理由。Many of the Fathers of the Church also enlarge upon this subject (as St. Cyprian, St. Jerome, Clement of Alexandria, and others), though not in the technical language of later ecclesiastical decrees.对教会的神父也有许多扩大对这个问题(如圣塞浦路斯,圣杰罗姆,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,和其他人),虽然没有在后来的宗教法令的技术语言。

(4) Conferral of the Right to Special Graces(4)授予权的特别青睐

Theologians likewise teach that baptism gives man the right to those special graces which are necessary for attaining the end for which the sacrament was instituted and for enabling him to fulfill the baptismal promises.神学家也教导洗礼赋予人的权利是实现那些对于该圣礼被提起结束,并且使他能够履行承诺的洗礼必要的特殊青睐。This doctrine of the schools, which claims for every sacrament those graces which are peculiar and diverse according to the end and object of the sacrament, was already enunciated by Tertullian (De Resurrect., viii).这种学说的学校,这对每一个特殊的青睐和多样化是根据最终和圣礼的对象,已经阐明了索赔圣良(德复活。,八)。It is treated and developed by St. Thomas Aquinas (III:62:2).它被视为和圣托马斯阿奎那(三:62:2)开发。Pope Eugene IV repeats this doctrine in the decree for the Armenians.教皇尤金四重复这一法令对亚美尼亚人的学说。In treating of the grace bestowed by baptism, we presume that the recipient of the sacrament puts no obstacle (obex) in the way of sacramental grace.在赐予的恩典的洗礼治疗,我方认为受援国提出的圣餐圣事恩宠的方式没有任何障碍(闩)。In an infant, of course, this would be impossible, and as a consequence, the infant receives at once all the baptismal grace.在一个婴儿,当然,这将是不可能的,作为结果,一旦所有的婴儿在接受洗礼的恩典。It is otherwise in the case of an adult, for in such a one it is necessary that the requisite dispositions of the soul be present.否则它是在一个成人的情况下,在这样的一个非常重要的是心灵的存在必要的处置。

The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, c. vii) states that each one receives grace according to his disposition and co-operation.安理会的遄达(sess.六,长七)项规定,每一个收到的宽限期根据他的性格和合作。We are not to confound an obstacle (obex) to the sacrament itself with an obstacle to the sacramental grace.我们不可混淆障碍(闩)自行配备一个优雅的圣礼圣礼本身的障碍。In the first case, there is implied a defect in the matter or form, or a lack of the requisite intention on the part of minister or recipient, and then the sacrament would be simply null.在第一种情况,有一个隐含的问题或形式,或打算在必要的部长或收件人,然后部分将被简单的圣餐空缺乏缺陷。But even if all these essential requisites for constituting the sacrament be present, there can still be an obstacle put in the way of the sacramental grace, inasmuch as an adult might receive baptism with improper motives or without real detestation for sin.但是,即使所有这些构成圣餐为出席一个重要前提,但仍然可以把在圣格雷斯路因为作为一个成年人不正当的动机可能收到或不为罪真正厌恶的洗礼,一个障碍。 In that case the person would indeed be validly baptized, but he would not participate in the sacramental grace.在这种情况下,人确实是有效的洗礼,但他不会参加圣礼恩典。If, however, at a later time he made amends for the past, the obstacle would be removed and he would obtain the grace which he had failed to receive when the sacrament was conferred upon him.但是,如果在以后的时间他在过去的修订,将取消的障碍,他将得到他未能圣餐时收到了授予他的恩典。In such a case the sacrament is said to revive and there could be no question of rebaptism.在这种情况下,圣礼是说有可能是恢复和不rebaptism问题。

(5) Impression of a Character on the Soul(5)印象一份关于灵魂人物

Finally, baptism, once validly conferred, can never be repeated.最后,洗礼,一次有效赋予的,决不能重演。 The Fathers (St. Ambrose, Chrysostom, and others) so understand the words of St. Paul (Hebrews 6:4), and this has been the constant teaching of the Church both Eastern and Western from the earliest times.父亲(圣刘汉铨,金口,和其他人),以便了解圣保罗(希伯来书6:4)的话来说,这已经从最早的时候,教会不论是东方和西方不断教学。 On this account, baptism is said to impress an ineffaceable character on the soul, which the Tridentine Fathers call a spiritual and indelible mark.在这个帐户,洗礼,是说打动一个灵魂,而父亲叫德律但丁精神和不可磨灭的印记不可磨灭的性格。That baptism (as well as Confirmation and Holy orders) really does imprint such a character, is defined explicitly by the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, can. ix).洗礼(以及确认和神圣的命令)确实印记这样的性格,是指由安理会的遄达明确达(sess.七,可以的。九)。St. Cyril (Præp. in Cat.) calls baptism a "holy and indelible seal", and Clement of Alexandria (De Div. Serv., xlii), "the seal of the Lord".圣西里尔(Præp.的猫。)调用洗礼一个“神圣的和不可磨灭的印章”,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(德分区。│。,四十二),“耶和华的印章”。 St. Augustine compares this character or mark imprinted upon the Christian soul with the character militaris impressed upon soldiers in the imperial service.圣奥古斯丁这个人物比较,或根据与蛹虫草士兵留下深刻印象后,在帝国服务性质基督教灵魂烙印标志。St. Thomas treats of the nature of this indelible seal, or character, in the Summa (III:63:2).圣托马斯对待这一不可磨灭的印章,或字符的性质,在总结(三:63:2)。

The early leaders of the so-called Reformation held very different doctrines from those of Christian antiquity on the effects of baptism.在所谓的改革的早期领导人举行基督教的洗礼那些古代的影响非常不同的学说。Luther (De Captiv. Bab.) and Calvin (Antid. C. Trid.) held that this sacrament made the baptized certain of the perpetual grace of adoption.路德(德Captiv。巴布。)和卡尔文(Antid.三论坛报。)认为,这圣餐作出了永久的采用一定的宽限期受洗。 Others declared that the calling to mind of one's baptism would free him from sins committed after it; others again, that transgressions of the Divine law, although sins in themselves, would not be imputed as sins to the baptized person provided he had faith.其他宣布调用想到一个人的洗礼后,将免费从他所犯的罪,其他人同样的,这神圣法律的越轨行为,虽然在自己的罪,就不会归咎于以人犯罪的洗礼只要他有信心。 The decrees of the Council of Trent, drawn up in opposition to the then prevailing errors, bear witness to the many strange and novel theories broached by various exponents of the nascent Protestant theology.安理会的遄达绘制反对当时的失误,该法令见证了许多陌生和新奇由新生的新教神学理论的各种指数开始讨论。

XIII.十三。MINISTER OF THE SACRAMENT部长的圣礼

The Church distinguishes between the ordinary and the extraordinary minister of baptism.教会区分普通和非凡的洗礼部长。A distinction is also made as to the mode of administration.还编有区别,以行政方式。Solemn baptism is that which is conferred with all the rites and ceremonies prescribed by the Church, and private baptism is that which may be administered at any time or place according to the exigencies of necessity.庄严的洗礼是,这是所有的仪式和典礼由教会规定的赋予,私人洗礼的是,这可能在任何时间和地点管理根据需要的迫切需要。 At one time solemn and public baptism was conferred in the Latin Church only during the paschal season and Whitsuntide.在一次庄严的洗礼和公众被授予在拉丁美洲教会只在逾越节的季节,Whitsuntide。The Orientals administered it likewise at the Epiphany.东方人同样有这个管理在顿悟。

(1) Ordinary Minister(1)普通部长

The ordinary minister of solemn baptism is first the bishop and second the priest.普通的庄严洗礼部长首先是主教和第二的祭司。By delegation, a deacon may confer the sacrament solemnly as an extraordinary minister.授权的,可以授予执事圣郑重作为一个非凡的部长。

Bishops are said to be ordinary ministers because they are the successors of the Apostles who received directly the Divine command: "Go and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."Priests are also ordinary ministers because by their office and sacred orders they are pastors of souls and administrators of the sacraments, and hence the Florentine decree declares: "The minister of this Sacrament is the priest, to whom it belongs to administer baptism by reason of his office."主教说是普通的部长,因为他们是直接的使徒谁收到接班人的神圣命令:“。去教导所有国家,奉父名和儿子和圣灵他们”牧师们“这个圣部长是牧师,它属于谁管理的洗礼,他的办公室的原因:因为他们的办公室和神圣的命令,他们是灵魂和管理者的圣礼牧师,因此该法令又宣布佛罗伦萨普通部长“。 As, however, bishops are superior to priests by the Divine law, the solemn administration of this sacrament was at one time reserved to the bishops, and a priest never administered this sacrament in the presence of a bishop unless commanded to do so.但是,由于主教均优于法律的神圣祭司,这个政府是在庄严的圣礼保留给主教一时间,从来没有管理和一名牧师在一本圣主教在场指挥,除非这样做。 How ancient this discipline was, may be seen from Tertullian (De Bapt., xvii):古这门学科是如何,可以看出从良(德BAPT的,十七。):

The right to confer baptism belongs to the chief priest who is the bishop, then to priests and deacons, but not without the authorization of the bishop.洗礼授予权属于行政牧师谁是主教,司铎和执事然后,但并非没有主教的授权。

Ignatius (Ep. ad Smyr., viii): "It is not lawful to baptize or celebrate the agape without the bishop."伊格(插曲广告Smyr,八。):“。这是不合法的洗礼,或未经主教庆祝爱德”St. Jerome (Contra Lucif., ix) witnesses to the same usage in his days: "Without chrism and the command of the bishop, neither priest nor deacon has the right of conferring baptism."圣杰罗姆(魂斗罗Lucif,九)。证人在他的天相同的使用:“没有圣油和主教的命令,也没有牧师执事具有洗礼赋予的权利。”

Deacons are only extraordinary ministers of solemn baptism, as by their office they are assistants to the priestly order.执事只有非凡的庄严洗礼部长,由他们的办公室,他们是祭司为了助理。 St. Isidore of Seville (De Eccl, Off., ii, 25) says: "It is plain that baptism is to be conferred by priests only, and it is not lawful even for deacons to administer it without permission of the bishop or priest."圣伊西多尔塞维利亚(。德传道书,关闭,二,25)说:“这是平原的洗礼,是由祭司只赋予的,也是不合法的,即使执事管理未经允许主教或神父它“。 That deacons were, however, ministers of this sacrament by delegation is evident from the quotations adduced.这执事,但是,这个代表团是显而易见的,从圣餐部长引用的报价。In the service of ordination of a deacon, the bishop says to the candidate: "It behooves a deacon to minister at the altar, to baptize and to preach."在协调服务的执事,主教问候选人:“这是一个执事,部长理应在祭坛上,为施洗,并讲道。”Philip the deacon is mentioned in the Bible (Acts 8) as conferring baptism, presumably by delegation of the Apostles.弘执事圣经中提到的(徒八)授予大概的使徒代表团洗礼。

It is to be noted that though every priest, in virtue of his ordination is the ordinary minister of baptism, yet by ecclesiastical decrees he can not use this power licitly unless he has jurisdiction.这是必须指出,虽然每一个牧师,在他的协调美德是普通部长的洗礼,但由教会法令他不能合法地使用这种权力,除非他拥有管辖权。 Hence the Roman Ritual declares: The legitimate minister of baptism is the parish priest, or any other priest delegated by the parish priest or the bishop of the place." The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore adds: "Priests are deserving of grave reprehension who rashly baptize infants of another parish or of another diocese." St. Alphonsus (n. 114) says that parents who bring their children for baptism without necessity to a priest other than their own pastor, are guilty of sin because they violate the rights of the parish priest. He adds, however, that other priests may baptize such children, if they have the permission, whether express, or tacit, or even reasonably presumed, of the proper pastor. Those who have no settled place of abode may be baptized by the pastor of any church they choose.因此,罗马的仪式宣布:合法的洗礼部长为教区牧师,或任何其他牧师的教区神父或主教授权的地方“第二次全体会议,会议的巴尔的摩补充道:”。司铎是谁贸然值得严重非难施洗另一教区或其他教区的婴儿。“圣阿方(注114)说,父母谁不必然带来洗礼的牧师牧师以外自己的孩子,是有罪,因为他们违反了权利教区神父。他补充说,不过,其他神职人员可能施洗这些儿童,如果他们有权限,不论是明示或默许,甚至合理地推定,在适当的牧师。那些谁没有居留权定居的地方,可洗礼在他们选择的任何教堂的牧师。

(2) Extraordinary Minister(2)特别部长

In case of necessity, baptism can be administered lawfully and validly by any person whatsoever who observes the essential conditions, whether this person be a Catholic layman or any other man or woman, heretic or schismatic, infidel or Jew.在必要的情况下,可管理的洗礼,合法和有效的任何人无论谁遵守了必要的条件,不论这个人是一个天主教门外汉或任何其他男人还是女人,异端或分裂的,异教徒和犹太人。

The essential conditions are that the person pour water upon the one to be baptized, at the same time pronouncing the words: "I baptize thee in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."的基本条件是,一个人倒在水中受洗在同一时间发音的话:“我在洗的名字父亲和儿子和圣灵你。”Moreover, he must thereby intend really to baptize the person, or technically, he must intend to perform what the Church performs when administering this sacrament.此外,他必须因此打算真的要洗的人,或从技术上讲,他必须要执行时执行什么教会管理这圣礼。

The Roman Ritual adds that, even in conferring baptism in cases of necessity, there is an order of preference to be followed as to the minister.罗马礼补充说,即使在必要的情况下授予的洗礼,有一个优先顺序应遵循以部长。This order is: if a priest be present, he is to be preferred to a deacon, a deacon to a subdeacon, a cleric to a layman, and a man to a woman, unless modesty should require (as in cases of childbirth) that no other than the female be the minister, or again, unless the female should understand better the method of baptizing.这个顺序是:如果一个牧师在场,他是被优先考虑的一个执事,一个到subdeacon,以一个门外汉神职人员,是对一个女人的男人执事,除非谦虚应要求(如在分娩例)没有其他比女性的部长,或再次,除非女性应该更好地理解洗礼的方法。 The Ritual also says that the father or mother should not baptize their own child, except in danger of death when no one else is at hand who could administer the sacrament.该仪式也说,父亲或母亲不应该施洗死亡的危险,除非他们自己的孩子,当没有人在手谁能够管理圣礼是。Pastors are also directed by the Ritual to teach the faithful, and especially midwives, the proper method of baptizing.牧师也执导的仪式,教信徒,特别是助产士,在洗礼的正确方法。When such private baptism is administered, the other ceremonies of the rite are supplied later by a priest, if the recipient of the sacrament survives.当这些私人洗礼,是管理,对仪式的其他仪式后提供由一名牧师,如果收件人的圣餐生存。

This right of any person whatsoever to baptize in case of necessity is in accord with the constant tradition and practice of the Church.这对任何人任何权利在必要时洗礼与不断的传统和教会的做法一致。Tertullian (De Bapt., vii) says, speaking of laymen who have an opportunity to administer baptism: "He will be guilty of the loss of a soul, if he neglects to confer what he freely can," St. Jerome (Adv. Lucif., ix): "In case of necessity, we know that it is also allowable for a layman [to baptize]; for as a person receives, so may he give," The Fourth Council of the Lateran (cap. Firmiter) decrees: "The Sacrament of Baptism . . . no matter by whom conferred is available to salvation," St. Isidore of Seville (can. Romanus de cons., iv) declares: "The Spirit of God administers the grace of baptism, although it be a pagan who does the baptizing," Pope Nicholas I teaches the Bulgarians (Resp, 104) that baptism by a Jew or a pagan is valid.德尔图良(。德BAPT的,七)说,对普通人有机会谁管理的洗礼,讲:“他将是有罪的灵魂的损失,如果他忽略了赋予他自由能,”圣杰罗姆(2002上海高考Lucif,九):。“在必要的情况下,我们知道,这也是一个门外汉[为施洗]允许的;作为一个人收到,因此可能给他,他说:”拉特兰(第Firmiter第四届理事会)法令:“。。。圣事的洗礼是谁赋予的问题没有可用来救赎,”圣伊西多尔塞维利亚(can​​.罗曼努斯德利弊,四。)宣称:“上帝的精神管理的洗礼的恩典,虽然它是一个异教徒谁做的洗礼,“教皇尼古拉一世教的犹太人的保加利亚人(品行端正,104),洗礼或异教徒是有效的。

Owing to the fact that women are barred from enjoying any species of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, the question necessarily arose concerning their ability to bestow valid baptism.由于这一事实,即妇女享有管辖权的任何种类的教会禁止,问题就出现了一定的能力,赋予有效的洗礼。Tertullian (De Bapt., xvii) strongly opposes the administration of this sacrament by women, but he does not declare it void.戴尔都良(德BAPT的。,十七)强烈反对这项由妇女圣餐管理,但他没有宣布其无效。In like manner, St. Epiphanius (Hær., lxxix) says of females: "Not even the power of baptizing has been granted to them", but he is speaking of solemn baptism, which is a function of the priesthood.在这样的方式,圣埃皮法尼乌斯(Hær.,lxxix)说,女性:“即使是施洗权力已授予他们”,但他却是庄严的洗礼,这是一个功能讲的神职人员。 Similar expressions may be found in the writings of other Fathers, but only when they are opposing the grotesque doctrine of some heretics, like the Marcionites, Pepuzians, and Cataphrygians, who wished to make Christian priestesses of women.类似的表述中可以找到其他父亲的著作,但只有当他们是反对像Marcionites,Pepuzians和Cataphrygians,谁愿意使基督教女祭司一些异端怪诞学说。 The authoritative decision of the Church, however, is plain.教会的权威的决定,但是,是平原。Pope Urban II (c. Super quibus, xxx, 4) writes, "It is true baptism if a woman in case of necessity baptizes a child in the name of the Trinity."教皇乌尔班二世(公元前超级quibus,三十,四)写道:“这是真正的洗礼,如果一个女人在必要情况下在施洗的三位一体名孩子。” The Florentine decree for the Armenians says explicitly: "In case of necessity, not only a priest or a deacon, but even a layman or woman, nay even a pagan or heretic may confer baptism."为亚美尼亚佛罗伦萨法令明确表示:“在必要的情况下,不仅是一个牧师或执事,但即使是外行人或女人,不然即使是异教徒或异端可赋予的洗礼。”

The main reason for this extension of power as to the administration of baptism is of course that the Church has understood from the beginning that this was the will of Christ.对于这种权力的洗礼,以行政管理扩大的主要原因是,教会从一开始就了解,这是基督的,当然。St. Thomas (III:62:3) says that owing to the absolute necessity of baptism for the salvation of souls, it is in accordance with the mercy of God, who wishes all to be saved, that the means of obtaining this sacrament should be put, as far as possible, within the reach of all; and as for that reason the matter of the sacrament was made of common water, which can most easily be had, so in like manner it was only proper that every man should be made its minister.圣托马斯(三:62:3)说,由于洗礼为拯救灵魂绝对必要的,它是与上帝,怜悯谁祝愿所有被保存根据,即获取本圣餐手段应放,尽可能,在所有的覆盖面,并为这个原因,在圣事是常见的水制成,其中最容易被过,因此在喜欢的方式是正确的,每个人只应作出了部长。 Finally, it is to be noted that, by the law of the Church, the person administering baptism, even in cases of necessity, contracts a spiritual relationship with the child and its parents.最后,这是必须指出的是,由教会,洗礼的人管理,法律,甚至在必要的情况下,合同与儿童及其父母的精神关系。This relationship constitutes an impediment that would make a subsequent marriage with any of them null and void unless a dispensation were obtained beforehand.这种关系构成了障碍,将自己与其中任何随后的婚姻无效,除非事先得到免除。See AFFINITY.见亲和力。

XIV.十四。RECIPIENT OF BAPTISM接受者的洗礼

Every living human being, not yet baptized, is the subject of this sacrament.每一个活着的人,还没有受洗,是这圣礼的主题。

(1) Baptism of Adults(1)成人洗礼

As regards adults there is no difficulty or controversy.至于成年人没有困难或争议。Christ's command excepts no one when He bids the Apostles teach all nations and baptize them.基督的命令excepts没有人时,他出价使徒教导所有国家和他们施洗。

(2) Baptism of Infants(2)婴儿洗礼

Infant baptism has, however, been the subject of much dispute.婴儿的洗礼了,但一直是备受争议的主题。 The Waldenses and Cathari and later the Anabaptists, rejected the doctrine that infants are capable of receiving valid baptism, and some sectarians at the present day hold the same opinion. The瓦勒和卡塔利和更高的anabaptists,拒绝理论,婴儿接受洗礼的有效能力,并在目前的一天,一些宗派主义者持相同意见。

The Catholic Church, however, maintains absolutely that the law of Christ applies as well to infants as to adults.天主教教会,但是,保持绝对是基督的法律适用以及为成人婴儿。When the Redeemer declares (John 3) that it is necessary to be born again of water and the Holy Ghost in order to enter the Kingdom of God, His words may be justly understood to mean that He includes all who are capable of having a right to this kingdom.当救世主声明(约3),它是必要的是天生的水和圣灵再次为了进入神的王国,他的话可以理直气壮地理解为他包括所有的人都是即能有一这个王国。 Now, He has asserted such a right even for those who are not adults, when He says (Matthew 19:14): "Suffer the little children, and forbid them not to come to me: for the kingdom of heaven is for such."现在,他宣称,即使对那些谁不成人时,他说,(马太19:14)这样的权利:“您爱孩子们,不要禁止他们来对我说:为天国的就是这样。 “It has been objected that this latter text does not refer to infants, inasmuch as Christ says "to come to me".有人反对,认为这后者的文本并没有提及婴儿,因为基督说:“到我这里来。”In the parallel passage in St. Luke (18:15), however, the text reads: "And they brought unto him also infants, that he might touch them"; and then follow the words cited from St. Matthew.在平行通道中的圣路加(18:15),但是,文字写着:“他们带来了对他的婴孩,他摸他们,”然后是按照字,从圣马太引用。 In the Greek text, the words brephe and prosepheron refer to infants in arms.在希腊文,字brephe和prosepheron参阅武器婴儿。

Moreover, St. Paul (Colossians 2) says that baptism in the New Law has taken the place of circumcision in the Old.此外,圣保罗(歌罗西书2)指出,在新税法的洗礼,已在旧割礼的地方。It was especially to infants that the rite of circumcision was applied by Divine precept.有人说,尤其是割礼仪式是由神圣戒律适用婴儿。If it be said that there is no example of the baptism of infants to be found in the Bible, we may answer that infants are included in such phrases as: "She was baptized and her household" (Acts 16:15); "Himself was baptized, and all his house immediately" (Acts 16:33); "I baptized the household of Stephanus" (1 Corinthians 1:16).如果说,有没有对婴儿洗礼的例子,在圣经中,我们可以回答这个婴儿列作这样的短语:“她和她的家庭受了洗”(徒16:15);“自命受洗,和他全家都立即“(徒16:33);”我受洗的Stephanus家庭“(林前1:16)。 The tradition of Christian antiquity as to the necessity of infant baptism is clear from the very beginning.经确定的必要性,婴儿的洗礼是基督教的古老传统,从一开始就清​​楚。We have given many striking quotations on this subject already, in dealing with the necessity of baptism.我们已就这个问题已经很多惊人的报价,与必要性的洗礼处理。A few, therefore, will suffice here.少数,因此,这里就足够了。

Origen (in cap. vi, Ep. ad Rom.) declares: "The Church received from the Apostles the tradition of giving baptism also to infants".奥利(。。。在第六,环保广告光盘)宣称:“教会从使徒领受了洗礼,也给传统的婴儿”。St. Augustine (Serm. xi, De Verb Apost.) says of infant baptism: "This the Church always had, always held; this she received from the faith of our ancestors; this she perseveringly guards even to the end."圣奥古斯丁(。Serm.十一,德动词Apost)说,婴儿的洗礼:“这教会总是,总是举行,这她从收到我们的祖先信仰,这她持之以恒guards甚至到了结束。” St. Cyprian (Ep. ad Fidum) writes: "From baptism and from grace . . . must not be kept the infant who, because recently born, has committed no sin, except, inasmuch as it was born carnally from Adam, it has contracted the contagion of the ancient death in its first nativity; and it comes to receive the remission of sins more easily on this very account that not its own, but another's sins are forgiven it."圣塞浦路斯(插曲广告Fidum)写道:。。。“的洗礼,从恩典不得存放谁,因为刚出生的,没有犯过罪,除婴儿,因为它从诞生亚当肉体,它已缩小了在耶稣诞生的第一个古代死刑蔓延,以及涉及到接受这个帐户,而不是自己的罪得赦更容易,但其他人的罪被赦免了它“。

St.Cyprian's letter to Fidus declares that the Council of Carthage in 253 reprobated the opinion that the baptism of infants should be delayed until the eighth day after birth. St.Cyprian的信Fidus宣布,在议会253迦太基reprobated认为,婴儿的洗礼,应该要到出生后第八天推迟的意见。

The Council of Milevis in 416 anathematizes whosoever says that infants lately born are not to be baptized.在416 anathematizes会Milevis凡说,最近出生的婴儿是不能接受洗礼。

The Council of Trent solemnly defines the doctrine of infant baptism (Sess. VII, can. xiii).安理会的遄达郑重定义婴儿洗礼的教义(可以。159 Sess.七)。It also condemns (can. xiv) the opinion of Erasmus that those who had been baptized in infancy, should be left free to ratify or reject the baptismal promises after they had become adult.安理会还谴责(can.十四),伊拉斯谟认为,这些谁一直在婴儿接受洗礼,应该自由地批准或拒绝承诺的洗礼后,他们已成为成年人。

Theologians also call attention to the fact that as God sincerely wishes all men to be saved, He does not exclude infants, for whom baptism of either water or blood is the only means possible.神学家们还提请注意一个事实,即上帝真诚地希望所有的人得救,他不排除婴儿,对他们来说,无论是水或血的洗礼是唯一可能的手段。 The doctrines also of the universality of original sin and of the all-comprehending atonement of Christ are stated so plainly and absolutely in Scripture as to leave no solid reason for denying that infants are included as well as adults.也是普遍性的原罪和基督的全面理解赎罪之道在圣经所述如此直率的和绝对的否认离开包括婴儿以及成人没有坚实的理由。

To the objection that baptism requires faith, theologians reply that adults must have faith, but infants receive habitual faith, which is infused into them in the sacrament of regeneration.要反对的洗礼,需要信仰,神学家答复,成年人必须有信心,但婴儿接受习惯性的信仰,这是注入到他们在再生​​圣礼。 As to actual faith, they believe on the faith of another; as St. Augustine (De Verb. Apost., xiv, xviii) beautifully says: "He believes by another, who has sinned by another."至于实际的信仰,他们对另一种信仰认为,正如圣奥古斯丁(。。德动词Apost,十四,十八)美丽的​​说:“他认为,另一个,谁犯了罪的一个。”

As to the obligation imposed by baptism, the infant is obliged to fulfill them in proportion to its age and capacity, as is the case with all laws.至于由洗礼规定的义务,婴儿有责任履行其年龄的比例和能力他们,是所有法律案。Christ, it is true, prescribed instruction and actual faith for adults as necessary for baptism (Matthew 28; Mark 16), but in His general law on the necessity of the sacrament (John 3) He makes absolutely no restriction as to the subject of baptism; and consequently while infants are included in the law, they can not be required to fulfill conditions that are utterly impossible at their age.基督,这是事实,处方指导和必要的洗礼,作为成年人的实际信仰(马太28;马克16),但在他的的圣餐(约翰三)有必要的一般规律,他不会就这个问题完全没有限制的洗礼,并因此而婴儿在法律中,就不能满足要求的条件是完全在他们的年龄是不可能的。 While not denying the validity of infant baptism, Tertullian (De Bapt., xviii) desired that the sacrament be not conferred upon them until they have attained the use of reason, on account of the danger of profaning their baptism as youths amid the allurements of pagan vice.虽然不否认,婴儿的洗礼,良效度(德BAPT的。,十八)期望的圣礼是不是赋予他们,直到他们达到对青少年的亵渎他们作为洗礼危险帐户使用的原因,在一片诱惑的异教徒的恶习。 In like manner, St. Gregory Nazianzen (Or. xl, De Bapt.) thought that baptism, unless there was danger of death, should be deferred until the child was three years old, for then it could hear and respond at the ceremonies.同样,圣格雷戈里nazianzen(Or.四十,德BAPT的。)认为洗礼,除非有生命危险,应推迟,直到孩子三岁的时候,因为那样它就可以听到并回应在仪式。 Such opinions, however, were shared by few, and they contain no denial of the validity of infant baptism.这些意见,不过,也有同感很少,它们不包含任何对婴儿的洗礼有效性的否定。It is true that the Council of Neocæsarea (can. vi) declares that an infant can not be baptized in its mother's womb, but it was teaching only that neither the baptism of the mother nor her faith is common to her and the infant in her womb, but are acts peculiar to the mother alone.诚然,在Neocæsarea理事会(can.六)宣布,婴儿不能在母亲的子宫里受洗,但它是唯一教导,无论对母亲和她的信仰的洗礼,是常见的她和她的婴儿子宫,但作为母亲特有的孤独。

(3) Baptism of Unborn Infants(3)未出生婴儿的洗礼

This leads to the baptism of infants in cases of difficult delivery.这导致了婴儿的洗礼,在难产的情况。When the Roman Ritual declares that a child is not to be baptized while still enclosed (clausus) in its mother's womb, it supposes that the baptismal water can not reach the body of the child.当罗马仪式宣布,一个孩子是不被接受洗礼,同时仍然封闭(clausus)在母亲的子宫里,它假设的洗礼水不能达到孩子的身体。 When, however, this seems possible, even with the aid of an instrument, Benedict XIV (Syn. Diaec., vii, 5) declares that midwives should be instructed to confer conditional baptism.但是,当这似乎甚至有可能与一个仪器援助,本笃十四(又称Diaec。,七,五)宣布,应指示助产士赋予有条件的洗礼。 The Ritual further says that when the water can flow upon the head of the infant the sacrament is to be administered absolutely; but if it can be poured only on some other part of the body, baptism is indeed to be conferred, but it must be conditionally repeated in case the child survives its birth, It is to be noted that in these last two cases, the rubric of the Ritual supposes that the infant has partly emerged from the womb.的礼还指出,当水可以流动后,婴儿的圣礼是要管理绝对头,但如果它可以倒一些在身体的其他部分只,洗礼,是确实授予,但必须有条件的情况下,儿童生存的诞生重复,而是要指出的是,在这最后的两种情况下,这个仪式的专栏假设的婴儿有部分来自子宫出现。 For if the fetus was entirely enclosed, baptism is to be repeated conditionally in all cases (Lehmkuhl, n, 61).因为如果胎儿是完全封闭的,洗礼是要重复所有的情况(Lehmkuhl,氮,61)有条件。

In case of the death of the mother, the fetus is to be immediately extracted and baptized, should there be any life in it.在母亲的死亡,胎儿是要立即提取和洗礼,也应该有任何生命。Infants have been taken alive from the womb well after the mother's death.已采取婴儿从子宫里活着好后母亲去世。After the Cæsarean incision has been performed, the fetus may be conditionally baptized before extraction if possible; if the sacrament is administered after its removal from the womb the baptism is to be absolute, provided it is certain that life remains.剖腹产后,目前已进行切开,胎儿可能是有条件的洗礼提取前如果可能的话,如果圣礼是从子宫后的洗礼是要绝对的,它是去除管理提供一定的生活遗迹。 If after extraction it is doubtful whether it be still alive, it is to be baptized under the condition: "If thou art alive".如果在提取这是令人怀疑它是否仍能生存,这是必须的条件下接受洗礼:“如果你的艺术生命。”Physicians, mothers, and midwives ought to be reminded of the grave obligation of administering baptism under these circumstances.医生,母亲和助产士应该是对管理的洗礼,在这种情况下严重义务提醒。It is to be borne in mind that according to the prevailing opinion among the learned, the fetus is animated by a human soul from the very beginning of its conception.这是必须铭记,根据其中的经验教训,对胎儿是一个人的灵魂动画从一开始的概念流行的观点。In cases of delivery where the issue is a mass that is not certainly animated by human life, it is to be baptized conditionally: "If thou art a man."在交付其中的问题是一个不以人的生命的动画一定质量的情况下,它是有条件地接受洗礼:“。如果你是个男​​人”

(4) Baptism of Insane Persons(4)洗礼的精神病患者

The perpetually insane, who have never had the use of reason, are in the same category as infants in what relates to the conferring of baptism, and consequently the sacrament is valid if administered. 16不断疯狂,谁也从来没有使用的原因,是因为婴儿在同一类涉及到什么赋予的洗礼,因此圣礼是有效的,如果管理。

If at one time they had been sane, baptism bestowed upon them during their insanity would be probably invalid unless they had shown a desire for it before losing their reason.如果在同一时间,他们已清醒,在赋予他们的疯狂后,他们将可能无效,除非他们已经证明他们的理由就失去了它的愿望的洗礼。 Moralists teach that, in practice, this latter class may always be baptized conditionally, when it is uncertain whether or not they had ever asked for baptism (Sabetti, no. 661).道德教育,在实践中,这后一类可能总是有条件的洗礼,当它是不确定他们是否曾要求受洗(Sabetti,没有。661)。 In this connection it is to be remarked that, according to many writers, anyone who has a wish to receive all things necessary to salvation, has at the same time an implicit desire for baptism, and that a more specific desire is not absolutely necessary.在这方面,是要指出的是,根据许多作家,谁都有希望获得一切必要的救助,已在同一时间洗礼的一个隐含的愿望,而且更具体的愿望是完全没有必要。

(5) Foundlings(5)弃儿

Foundlings are to be baptized conditionally, if there is no means of finding out whether they have been validly baptized or not.弃儿是有条件地接受洗礼,如果没有查清他们是否已有效洗礼与否的手段。 If a note has been left with a foundling stating that it had already received baptism, the more common opinion is that it should nevertheless be given conditional baptism, unless circumstances should make it plain that baptism had undoubtedly been conferred.如果一注已与一说,它已经收到的洗礼弃儿左,较常见的看法是,它仍应是有条件的洗礼,除非情况应该清楚的洗礼无疑被赋予的。 O'Kane (no. 214) says that the same rule is to be followed when midwives or other lay persons have baptized infants in case of necessity.奥卡恩(第214号)说,同样的规则时,应遵循的助产士或其他非法律专业人士的洗礼,在必要情况下婴儿。

(6) Baptism of the Children of Jewish and Infidel Parents(六)犹太人和异教徒父母的孩子洗礼

The question is also discussed as to whether the infant children of Jews or infidels may be baptized against the will of their parents.问题是,是否还讨论了犹太人或异教徒的未成年子女,可对他们的父母会受洗。To the general query, the answer is a decided negative, because such a baptism would violate the natural rights of parents, and the infant would later be exposed to the danger of perversion.对一般查询,答案是否定一个决定,因为这样的洗礼,会违反父母的自然权利,婴儿后来被暴露在变态的危险。We say this, of course, only in regard to the liceity of such a baptism, for if it were actually administered it would undoubtedly be valid.我们这样说,当然,只有在考虑到这样的洗礼liceity,因为如果它是实际存在,将无疑是有效的。St. Thomas (III:68:10) is very express in denying the lawfulness of imparting such baptism, and this has been the constant judgment of the Holy See, as is evident from various decrees of the Sacred Congregations and of Pope Benedict XIV (II Bullarii).圣托马斯(三:68:10)是非常明确的否认传授这种洗礼的合法性,这一直是罗马教廷不断的判断,是显而易见的,从圣教会和教宗本笃十四各种法令(二Bullarii)。 We say the answer is negative to the general question, because particular circumstances may require a different response.我们说,答案是否定的一般问题,因为具体情况可能需要不同的反应。For it would undoubtedly be licit to impart such baptism if the children were in proximate danger of death; or if they had been removed from the parental care and there was no likelihood of their returning to it; or if they were perpetually insane; or if one of the parents were to consent to the baptism; or finally, if, after the death of the father, the paternal grandfather would be willing, even though the mother objected.因为这无疑是合法传授这样的洗礼,如果儿童的死亡危险是近因;或已被删除,如果他们离开父母的照顾,也没有他们返回到它的可能性,或者如果他们永远精神失常,或若的家长来说,一个人同意的洗礼,或最后,如果,后父亲去世,爷爷愿意,即使母亲反对。 If the children were, however, not infants, but had the use of reason and were sufficiently instructed, they should be baptized when prudence dictated such a course.如果孩子们,然而,并非婴儿,但使用的原因,并充分的指示,他们应该接受洗礼时,出于谨慎等课程。

In the celebrated case of the Jewish child, Edgar Mortara, Pius IX indeed ordered that he should be brought up as a Catholic, even against the will of his parents, but baptism had already been administered to him some years before when in danger of death.在著名的犹太儿童的情况下,埃德加Mortara,的确比约九下令他应该被提出来作为一个天主教徒,他甚至对父母,但管理的洗礼,已经几年前,当他在死亡的危险。

(7) Baptism of the Children of Protestant Parents(7)洗礼的新教父母的孩子

It is not licit to baptize children against the will of their Protestant parents; for their baptism would violate parental right, expose them to the danger of perversion, and be contrary to the practice of the Church.它不合法为施洗反对他们的父母将孩子新教,因为她们的洗礼将违反亲权,揭露他们的变态的危险,违背了教会的做法。Kenrick also strongly condemns nurses who baptize the children of Protestants unless they are in danger of death.肯里克还强烈谴责护士谁的孩子洗礼的新教徒,除非他们在死亡的危险。

(8) Baptism with the Consent of Non-Catholic Parents(8)洗礼与非天主教父母同意

Should a priest baptize the child of non-Catholic parents if they themselves desire it?如果一个牧师施洗的非天主教的父母的孩子,如果他们自己的愿望呢?He certainly can do so if there is reason to hope that the child will be brought up a Catholic (Conc. Prov, Balt., I, decr, x).他当然可以这样做,如果我们有理由希望,孩子会提出了一个天主教(Conc.省,巴尔特。,我decr,十)。 An even greater security for the Catholic education of such child would be the promise of one or both parents that they themselves will embrace the Faith.对于这些孩子天主教教育更大的安全将是一个承诺或双方父母,他们自己会接受的信仰。

(9) Baptism of the Dead(9)洗礼,死

Concerning baptism for the dead, a curious and difficult passage in St. Paul's Epistle has given rise to some controversy.关于为死者,在圣保罗的书信好奇和困难通过洗礼,已经引起了一些争议。 The Apostle says: "Otherwise what shall they do that are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not again at all? Why are they then baptized for them?"使徒说:“要不他们该怎么做是为死人受洗的,如果死都不会再上升,为什么他们那么他们受洗?”(1 Corinthians 15:29). (哥林多前书15:29)。There seems to be no question here of any such absurd custom as conferring baptism on corpses, as was practiced later by some heretical sects.人们似乎在这里没有任何问题,如赋予尸体洗礼荒谬的习俗,正如一些邪教实行以后。It has been conjectured that this otherwise unknown usage of the Corinthians consisted in some living person receiving a symbolic baptism as representing another who had died with the desire of becoming a Christian, but had been prevented from realizing his wish for baptism by an unforeseen death.据推测,这种未知的科林蒂安另有一些生活中的使用情况作为代表接受另一谁曾与渴望成为一个基督徒死去的人组成一个象征性的洗礼,但已实现了从一个意外死亡的洗礼,他希望阻止。 Those who give this explanation say that St. Paul merely refers to this custom of the Corinthians as an argumentum ad hominem, when discussing the resurrection of the dead, without approving the usage mentioned.这些谁给解释说,这仅仅是指圣保罗科林蒂安这种作为广告李林凤人身攻击,当讨论到死人复活的使用习惯没有提到审批。

Archbishop MacEvilly in his exposition of the Epistles of St. Paul, holds a different opinion.大主教在他的书信的圣保罗博览会MacEvilly,持有不同的看法。He paraphrases St. Paul's text as follows: "Another argument in favor of the resurrection. If the dead will not arise, what means the profession of faith in the resurrection of the dead, made at baptism? Why are we all baptized with a profession of our faith in their resurrection?"他释义圣保罗案文如下:“另一个论点支持的复活,如果死者会不会出现什么样的手段,在专业的死人复活的信仰,在洗礼提出为什么我们都是用专业的洗礼。?我们在他们的复活的信仰?“ The archbishop comments, as follows:大主教的评论如下:

It is almost impossible to glean anything like certainty as to the meaning of these very abstruse words, from the host of interpretations that have been hazarded regarding them (see Calmet's Dissertation on the matter).这几乎是不可能的,以收集从已胆子就他们的诠释主机(见对此事卡尔梅特的论文)喜欢以这些词的含义很深奥做出任何肯定。 In the first place, every interpretation referring the words 'baptized', or 'dead' to either erroneous or evil practices, which men might have employed to express their belief in the doctrine of the resurrection, should be rejected; as it appears by no means likely that the Apostle would ground an argument, even though it were what the logicians call an argumentum ad hominem, on either a vicious or erroneous practice.首先,每一个字的解释指的'洗礼',或'死'要么错误或邪恶的做法,其中男性有可能用来表达对他们的信仰主义的复活,应予以拒绝,因为它似乎并不意味着可能是使徒将地面参数,尽管它是美丽的逻辑学家呼吁无论是恶性或错误做法一:李林凤广告人身攻击。

Besides, such a system of reasoning would be quite inconclusive.此外,这样的推理系统将是非常明确的结论。Hence, the words should not be referred to either the Clinics, baptized at the hour of death, or to the vicarious baptisms in use among the Jews, for their departed friends who departed without baptism.因此,不应把任何提及的诊所,在临终洗礼,或在犹太人之间使用替代性的洗礼,他们离开的朋友谁是没有洗礼离去。

The interpretation adopted in the paraphrase makes the words refer to the Sacrament of Baptism, which all were obliged to approach with faith in the resurrection of the dead as a necessary condition.在通过的意译词的解释,使指的是洗礼,这都是必须的办法与死者复活的必要条件信仰的圣事。'Credo in resurrectionem mortuorum'.'信条在resurrectionem mortuorum'。This interpretation -- the one adopted by St. Chrysostom -- has the advantage of giving the words 'baptized' and 'dead' their literal signification.这种解释 - 由圣金口通过一个 - 拥有给予的话'洗礼'和'死'的字面意义的优势。

The only inconvenience in it is that the word resurrection is introduced.在它唯一不便的是,这个词复活介绍。But, it is understood from the entire context, and is warranted by a reference to other passages of Scripture.但是,据了解,从整个方面,并通过向其他通道的经文,值得参考。For, from the Epistle of the Hebrews (6:2) it appears that a knowledge of the faith of the resurrection was one of the elementary points of instruction required for adult baptism; and hence the Scriptures themselves furnish the ground for the introduction of the word.因为,从希伯来人(6:2)书信看来,一个复活的信仰知识的成人教学的基本要求洗礼点之一,因此经文本身提供了地面的引进字。 There is another probable interpretation, which understands the words 'baptism' and 'dead' in a metaphorical sense, and refers them to the sufferings which the Apostles and heralds of salvation underwent to preach the Gospel to the infidels, dead to grace and spiritual life, with the hope of making them sharers in the glory of a happy resurrection.还有另一种可能的解释,它理解的话'洗礼'和'死'在一个隐喻意义,是指他们的痛苦,其中使徒和救恩预示经历宣讲福音的异教徒,死的恩典和精神生活,共享者在一个幸福的复活的荣耀与使他们的希望。 The word 'baptism' is employed in this sense in Scripture, even by our divine Redeemer Himself -- 'I have a baptism wherewith to be baptized', etc. And the word 'dead' is employed in several parts of the New Testament to designate those spiritually dead to grace and justice.这个词'洗礼'是受雇于在这经文意义上说,就是从我们的神圣救赎自己 - '我有一个洗礼所受的要受洗'等,这个词'死'是受聘于新约圣经几个部分指定的灵性已死的恩典和正义。In the Greek, the words 'for the dead', uper ton nekron that is, on account of or, in behalf of the dead, would serve to confirm, in some degree, this latter interpretation.在希腊,'为死亡',uper吨nekron的话说就是,考虑到或在死者的名义,将有助于在一定程度上证实,这后者的解释。

These appear to be the most probable of the interpretations of this passage; each, no doubt, has its difficulties.这些似乎是这一段最可能的解释,每个,毫无疑问,有其困难。The meaning of the words was known to the Corinthians at the time of the Apostle.词语的意义是众所周知的科林蒂安在使徒的时间。 All that can be known of their meaning at this remote period, can not exceed the bounds of probable conjecture.一切可以知道它们的意义在这个偏远的期限,不能超过其可能猜想的界限。

(loc. cit., chap. xv; cf. also Cornely in Ep. I Cor.) (。如上,第十五章。比照也Cornely在EP我肺心病。。。)

XV.十五。ADJUNCTS OF BAPTISM附属物的洗礼

(1) Baptistery(1)洗礼

According to the canons of the Church, baptism except in case of necessity is to be administered in churches (Conc. Prov. Balt., I, Decree 16).据除非在必要时向大炮的教会,洗礼是要在教会管理(Conc.省。巴尔特。,我,令16)。The Roman Ritual says: "Churches in which there is a baptismal font, or where there is a baptistery close to the church".罗马礼说:“教堂,其中有一个洗礼,或有​​一个洗礼接近教会”。The term "baptistery" is commonly used for the space set aside for the conferring of baptism.术语“洗礼”,是常用的设置预留的洗礼赋予的空间。In like manner the Greeks use photisterion for the same purpose -- a word derived from St. Paul's designation of baptism as an "illumination".同样地,希腊人用于同样的目的photisterion - 来自圣保罗的洗礼指定衍生为“照明”一词。

The words of the Ritual just cited, however, mean by "baptistery", a separate building constructed for the purpose of administering baptism.这个仪式的话刚才提到,但是,“洗礼”,单独建立了管理的洗礼用途而建造的意思。Such buildings have been erected both in the East and West, as at Tyre, Padua, Pisa, Florence, and other places.有过这样的建筑物矗立在东方和西方,两者,截至轮胎,帕多瓦,比萨,佛罗伦萨等地。In such baptisteries, besides the font, altars were also built; and here the baptism was conferred.在这种baptisteries,除了字体,还修建了祭坛,并在这里被授予的洗礼。As a rule, however, the church itself contains a railed-off space containing the baptismal font.作为一项规则,但是,教会本身包含抱怨过空间包含洗礼。Anciently fonts were attached only to cathedral churches, but at the present day nearly every parish church has a font.昔者字体是只重视大教堂教堂,但在现今社会几乎每一个教区教堂有一种字体。This is the sense of the Baltimore decree above cited.这是上述列举巴尔的摩法令感。The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore declared, however, that if missionaries judge that the great difficulty of bringing an infant to church is a sufficient reason for baptizing in a private house, then they are to administer the sacrament with all the prescribed rites.第二次全体会议,会议的巴尔的摩宣布,但是,如果传教士法官认为,将一个婴儿教会是一个很大的困难施洗在私人的房子,那么他们是执行所有规定的仪式圣餐的充分理由。

The ordinary law of the Church is that when private baptism is conferred, the remaining ceremonies are to be supplied not in the house but in the church itself.教会的一般规律是,当私人洗礼是赋予的,其余的仪式是不是在房子,但在教会自己的。The Ritual also directs that the font be of solid material, so that the baptismal water may be safely kept in it.该仪式也指示在该字体是固体物质,使水的洗礼,可以安全地存放在里面。A railing is to surround the font, and a representation of St. John baptizing Christ should adorn it.栏杆是包围的字体,以及基督施洗圣约翰代表应佩戴它。The cover of the font usually contains the holy oils used in baptism, and this cover must be under lock and key, according to the Ritual.字体的封面通常包含在洗礼中使用的圣油,并必须在此盖锁和钥匙,根据仪式。

(2) Baptismal Water(2)洗礼水

In speaking of the matter of baptism, we stated that true, natural water is all that is required for its validity.鉴于此事发言的洗礼,我们指出,真正的,天然水是所有需要它的有效性。In administering solemn baptism, however the Church prescribes that the water used should have been consecrated on Holy Saturday or on the eve of Pentecost.在管理庄严的洗礼,但教会规定,水的使用应该是在圣周六或在五旬节前夕奉献。For the liceity (not validity) of the sacrament, therefore, the priest is obliged to use consecrated water.对于圣餐liceity(不效力),因此,不得不使用牧师神圣的水。This custom is so ancient that we can not discover its origin.这种习俗是如此古老,我们不能发现它的起源。It is found in the most ancient liturgies of the Latin and Greek Churches and is mentioned in the Apostolic Constitutions (VII, 43).它是存在于拉丁美洲和希腊教会的最古老的礼仪,是在使徒宪法(第七章,43条)提及。 The ceremony of its consecration is striking and symbolic.其奉献仪式是惊人的,具有代表性。After signing the water with the cross, the priest divides it with his hand and casts it to the four corners of the earth.签署后与跨水,牧师用手划分,并转换到地球的四个角落。This signifies the baptizing of all the nations.这意味着所有的国家洗礼。Then he breathes upon the water and immerses the paschal candle in it.然后,他呼吸时,水和沉浸其中的逾越节的蜡烛。

Next he pours into the water, first the oil of catechumens and then the sacred chrism, and lastly both holy oils together, pronouncing appropriate prayers.接着,他又倒入水中,首先慕道的油,然后神圣的圣油,最后圣油都在一起,发音适当的祈祷。But what if during the year, the supply of consecrated water should be insufficient?但是,如果在一年内,应圣供水不足? In that case, the Ritual declares that the priest may add common water to what remains, but only in less quantity.在这种情况下,仪式宣布,牧师可能新增常用水剩下的,只是数量较少。If the consecrated water appears putrid, the priest must examine whether or not it is really so, for the appearance may be caused only by the admixture of the sacred oils.如果神圣的水出现腐烂,牧师必须研究它是否真的如此,对于外观可能只有神圣的油混合引起的。If it has really become putrid, the font is to be renovated and fresh water to be blessed by a form given in the Ritual.如果它已真正成为腐烂,字体进行整修和新鲜的水可以通过在特定的形式祝福仪式。In the United States, the Holy See has sanctioned a short formula for the consecration of baptismal water (Conc. Plen. Balt., II).在美国,罗马教廷批准了神圣的洗礼水短式(Conc. Plen。巴尔特。,二)。

(3) Holy Oils(3)圣油

In baptism, the priest uses the oil of catechumens, which is olive oil, and chrism, the latter being a mixture of balsam and oil.在洗礼,神父使用了慕道石油,这是橄榄油,圣油,后者是一个苦瓜和油的混合物。The oils are consecrated by the bishop on Maundy Thursday.这些油奉献的关于濯足节主教。The anointing in baptism is recorded by St. Justin, St. John Chrysostom, and other ancient Fathers.在洗礼恩膏是记录圣贾斯汀,圣约翰金口,和其他古代的父亲。Pope Innocent I declares that the chrism is to be applied to the crown of the head, not to the forehead, for the latter is reserved to bishops.诺森我宣布,该chrism将被应用到头顶,而不是向前额,后者是保留给主教。The same may be found in the Sacramentaries of St. Gregory and St. Gelasius (Martene, I, i).同样可以发现,在圣格雷戈里和圣格拉西Sacramentaries(Martene,我,我)。In the Greek Rite the oil of catechumens is blessed by the priest during the baptismal ceremony.在希腊成年礼的慕道油很幸运,由牧师在洗礼仪式。

(4) Sponsors(4)赞助商

When infants are solemnly baptized, persons assist at the ceremony to make profession of the faith in the child's name.当婴儿隆重洗礼,协助人在仪式上作中的孩子的名字专业的信念。This practice comes from antiquity and is witnessed to by Tertullian, St. Basil, St. Augustine, and others.这种做法源于古代和良是有目共睹的,圣罗勒,圣奥古斯丁,和其他人。Such persons are designated sponsores, offerentes, susceptores, fidejussores, and patrini.这些人被指定sponsores,offerentes,susceptores,fidejussores和patrini。 The English term is godfather and godmother, or in Anglo-Saxon, gossip.英文术语是干爹干妈和,或在盎格鲁撒克逊,八卦。

These sponsors, in default of the child's parents, are obliged to instruct it concerning faith and morals.这些赞助商,​​在孩子的父母默认情况下,有责任指导它关于信仰和道德。One sponsor is sufficient and not more than two are allowed.一个赞助商是充足和不超过两个是允许的。In the latter case, one should be male and the other female.在后一种情况下,应该是男性和其他女性。The object of these restrictions is the fact that the sponsor contracts a spiritual relationship to the child and its parents which would be an impediment to marriage.这些限制的对象是事实,赞助合约的精神关系到孩子和其父母这将是一个对婚姻的障碍。Sponsors must themselves be baptized persons having the use of reason and they must have been designated as sponsors by the priest or parents.赞助商本身必须具有使用的原因受洗者,他们必须是由牧师或父母指定赞助商。During the baptism they must physically touch the child either personally or by proxy.在洗礼,他们必须亲自触摸或亲自或委派代表的孩子。They are required, moreover, to have the intention of really assuming the obligations of godparents.它们是必需的,而且,有真正的教父母承担的义务的意图。It is desirable that they should have been confirmed, but this is not absolutely necessary.这是可取的,他们应该被证实,但这不是绝对必要的。Certain persons are prohibited from acting as sponsors.禁止某些人作为赞助商的角色。They are: members of religious orders, married persons in respect to each other, or parents to their children, and in general those who are objectionable on such grounds as infidelity, heresy, excommunication, or who are members of condemned secret societies, or public sinners (Sabetti, no. 663).它们是:宗教界人士,已婚人士在尊重对方,或他们的子女的父母,和一般人谁是反感的作为不忠,异端,逐出教会等理由,或谁是秘密会社成员的谴责,或公共罪人(Sabetti,没有。663)。 Sponsors are also used in the solemn baptism of adults.赞助商也用于成人的庄严的洗礼。They are never necessary in private baptism.他们从来没有在私人洗礼必要的。

(5) Baptismal Name(5)的教名

From the earliest times names were given in baptism.从最早的时候名字分别获得洗礼。The priest is directed to see that obscene, fabulous, and ridiculous names, or those of heathen gods or of infidel men be not imposed.祭司是针对地看到,淫秽,神话般的,可笑的名字,或异教徒神或异教徒的男子是不是强加的。 On the contrary the priest is to recommend the names of saints.反之,祭司要推荐的圣人的名字。This rubric is not a rigorous precept, but it is an instruction to the priest to do what he can in the matter.这个专栏不是一个严格的戒律,但它是对牧师的指示去做他在这个问题上可以。If parents are unreasonably obstinate, the priest may add a saint's name to the one insisted upon.如果父母是不合理的固执,牧师可以增加一个圣人的名字来一个坚持。

(6) Baptismal Robe(6)洗礼长袍

In the primitive Church, a white robe was worn by the newly baptized for a certain period after the ceremony (St. Ambrose, De Myst., c. vii).在原始的教会,曾穿着白色长袍由新的仪式后一定时期(圣刘汉铨,德神秘岛。角七)受洗。As solemn baptisms usually took place on the eves of Easter or Pentecost, the white garments became associated with those festivals.随着庄严的洗礼,通常发生在复活节或圣灵降临节前夕的地方,成为与白色服装的节日。Thus, Sabbatum in Albis and Dominica in Albis received their names from the custom of putting off at that time the baptismal robe which had been worn since the previous vigil of Easter.因此,Sabbatum收到阿尔比斯和多米尼加阿尔比斯从当时把关闭的洗礼长袍已被自复活节守夜以前习惯穿自己的名字。 It is thought that the English name for Pentecost -- Whitsunday or Whitsuntide, also derived its appellation from the white garments of the newly baptized.据认为,英文名称为圣灵降临节 - 圣灵降临节或Whitsuntide,也源自新受洗白色服装的称谓。In our present ritual, a white veil is placed momentarily on the head of the catechumen as a substitute for the baptismal robe.在我国现行的仪式,放在一个白色的面纱暂时对作为替代初学者头洗礼长袍。

XVI.十六。CEREMONIES OF BAPTISM洗礼仪式

The rites that accompany the baptismal ablution are as ancient as they are beautiful.伴随仪式的洗礼沐浴为古老的,因为他们是美丽的。The writings of the early Fathers and the antique liturgies show that most of them are derived from Apostolic times.早期的古董父亲和礼仪的著作表明,他们大多是从使徒时代而得。

The infant is brought to the door of the church by the sponsors, where it is met by the priest.婴儿被带到了教堂的赞助商,它是由牧师会见了门。After the godparents have asked faith from the Church of God in the child's name, the priest breathes upon its face and exorcises the evil spirit.之后,教父母要求从上帝的教会在孩子的名字信念,在其面对牧师的呼吸与驱邪魔。St. Augustine (Ep. cxciv, Ad Sixtum) makes use of this Apostolic practice of exorcising to prove the existence of original sin.圣奥古斯丁(插曲cxciv,广告Sixtum)使这种傩证明存在原罪使徒的实际应用。Then the infant's forehead and breast are signed with the cross, the symbol of redemption.然后,婴儿的额头和胸部签署了十字架,救赎的象征。Next follows the imposition of hands, a custom certainly as old as the Apostles.接下来是实行手中,自定义当然像使徒老。Some blessed salt is now placed in the mouth of the child.现在有些幸运盐放在孩子的嘴里。"When salt", says the Catechism of the Council of Trent "is put into the mouth of person to be baptized, it evidently imports that, by the doctrine of faith and the gift of grace, he should be delivered from the corruption of sin, experience a relish for good works, and be delighted with the food of divine wisdom." “当盐”,说,安理会的遄达问答“分为放入口中的人要受洗,它显然,通过学说的信仰和恩典的礼物,他应该从贪污罪交付进口,遇到一个好作品津津乐道,并与神的智慧食物高兴。“

Placing his stole over the child the priest introduces it into the church, and on the way to the font the sponsors make a profession of faith for the infant.配售了他对儿童的神父介绍到它偷走了教堂,并在赞助商的字体做一个专业的信念对婴儿的方式。The priest now touches the ears and nostrils of the child with spittle.神父现在触及耳朵和鼻孔与唾沫孩子。The symbolic meaning is thus explained (Cat. C. Trid.) "His nostrils and ears are next touched with spittle and he is immediately sent to the baptismal font, that, as sight was restored to the blind man mentioned in the Gospel, whom the Lord, after having spread clay over his eyes, commanded to wash them in the waters of Siloe; so also he may understand that the efficacy of the sacred ablution is such as to bring light to the mind to discern heavenly truth."象征性意义是这样解释(目录三论坛报)。“他的鼻孔和耳朵是下染上了唾沫,他立即送到洗礼,,由于视力恢复到盲人的福音,其中提到主,在他的吩咐后,眼睛蔓延粘土,洗在Siloe的水域,所以也可以理解,他认为,神圣的洗礼功效是如来之于心灵带来光明天上辨别真理“。 The catechumen now makes the triple renunciation of Satan, his works and his pomps, and he is anointed with the oil of catechumens on the breast and between the shoulders: "On the breast, that by the gift of the Holy Ghost, he may cast off error and ignorance and may receive the true faith, 'for the just man liveth by faith' (Galatians 3:11); on the shoulders, that by the grace of the Holy Spirit, he may shake off negligence and torpor and engage in the performance of good works; 'faith without works is dead' (James 2:26)", says the Catechism. The初学者现在使得撒旦,他的作品和他的泵组三重放弃,他是与对乳房和肩膀之间的慕道抹油:“在乳房上,即由圣灵的恩赐,他可投关闭错误和无知,并可能获得真正的信仰,'人活着的正义的信仰'(加拉太书3:11);在肩上,即由圣灵的恩典,他可能摆脱疏忽和麻木,搞表现的优秀作品;'没有行为的信心是死'(詹姆斯2:26)“,说的理。 The infant now, through its sponsors, makes a declaration of faith and asks for baptism.婴儿现在,通过其赞助商,使一个信仰宣言和洗礼问。The priest, having meantime changed his violet stole for a white one, then administers the threefold ablution, making the sign of the cross three times with the stream of water he pours on the head of the child, saying at the same time: "N___, I baptize thee in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."牧师,同时改变了他的紫罗兰有偷了白色的,那么管理的三个洗礼,使得两岸三流的水,他对儿童头部注入时代的标志,同时说:“N___我在施洗的名字父亲和儿子和圣灵你。“ The sponsors during the ablution either hold the child or at least touch it.沐浴期间举行的提案国之一的儿童或至少触摸它。If the baptism be given by immersion, the priest dips the back part of the head three times into the water in the form of a cross, pronouncing the sacramental words.如果被浸泡给予洗礼,神父蘸了三次到在一个十字形水头发音圣事的话,后面的部分。The crown of the child's head is now anointed with chrism, "to give him to understand that from that day he is united as a member to Christ, his head, and engrafted on His body; and therefore he is called a Christian from Christ, but Christ from chrism" (Catech.).在孩子的头顶正膏与chrism,“给他明白,从那​​天起,他是美国作为基督的成员,他的头,并在他的身体嫁接,因此他被称为基督的基督徒,但基督的圣油“(Catech.)。 A white veil is now put on the infant's head with the words: "Receive this white garment, which mayest thou carry without stain before the judgment seat of Our Lord Jesus Christ, that thou mayest have eternal life. Amen."一个白色的面纱现在把婴儿的头部上写着:“收到此白色服装,这mayest你没有进行染色前,我们的主耶稣基督的审判台前,你也可以有永生阿门。”。 Then a lighted candle is placed in the catechumen's hand, the priest saying: "Receive this burning light, and keep thy baptism so as to be without blame. Observe the commandments of God; that, when Our Lord shall come to His nuptials, thou mayest meet Him together with all the Saints and mayest have life everlasting, and live for ever and ever. Amen."然后,一个点燃的蜡烛在初学者的手放在,牧师说:“收到此燃烧轻,并保持你的洗礼,使没有责怪是观察神的诫命,当我们的主必到他的婚礼,你。 mayest满足他连同所有的圣人和mayest有生命永恒的,就永远和万岁。阿门。“The new Christian is then bidden to go in peace.新的基督徒,然后bidden去和平。

In the baptism of adults, all the essential ceremonies are the same as for infants.在成人的洗礼,所有重要的仪式是为婴儿一样。There are, however, some impressive additions.但也有一些令人印象深刻的补充。The priest wears the cope over his other vestments, and he should be attended by a number of clerics or at least by two.戴牧师对他应付其他法衣,他应该由神职人员数目至少参加两个。While the catechumen waits outside the church door, the priest recites some prayers at the altar.虽然初学者外教堂门口等候,神父在祭坛背诵一些祈祷。Then he proceeds to the place where the candidate is, and asks him the questions and performs the exorcisms almost as prescribed in the ritual for infants.然后,他去到地方候选人,并询问他的问题和执行驱魔几乎如婴儿礼仪规定。Before administering the blessed salt, however, he requires the catechumen to make an explicit renunciation of the form of error to which he had formerly adhered, and he is then signed with the cross on the brow, ears, eyes, nostrils, mouth, breast, and between the shoulders.管理前的祝福盐,但是,他要求初学者作出了错误的形式明确放弃对他以前的坚持,而他的额头上,然后签署的十字架,耳朵,眼睛,鼻孔,口腔,乳房之间,以及在肩上。 Afterwards, the candidate, on bended knees, recites three several times the Lord's Prayer, and a cross is made on his forehead, first by the godfather and then by the priest.此后,在弯曲膝盖候选人,朗诵几次三主的祷文,并提出一个十​​字架是他的额头上,首先由教父然后由牧师。After this, taking him by the hand, the priest leads him into the church, where he adores prostrate and then rising he recites the Apostles' Creed and the Lord's Prayer.在此之后,以他的手,牧师带领进入教堂,在那里他顶礼膜拜,然后上升崇拜他背诵使徒信经和主祷文他。The other ceremonies are practically the same as for infants.其他仪式实际上是为婴儿一样。It is to be noted that owing to the difficulty of carrying out with proper splendor the ritual for baptizing adults, the bishops of the United States obtained permission from the Holy See to make use of the ceremonial of infant baptism instead.这是必须指出,由于携带适当的辉煌了成人仪式的洗礼困难,对美国的主教获得教廷许可作出的,婴儿的洗礼仪式,而不是使用。 This general dispensation lasted until 1857, when the ordinary law of the Church went into force.这是一般的豁免持续到1857年,当普通的教会法生效了。(See COUNCILS OF BALTIMORE.) Some American dioceses, however, obtained individual permissions to continue the use of the ritual for infants when administering adult baptism. (见巴尔的摩议会。)美国一些教区,然而,获得单独的权限,继续对婴儿的仪式时使用的管理成人洗礼。

XVII.十七。METAPHORICAL BAPTISM比喻洗礼

The name "baptism" is sometimes applied improperly to other ceremonies.这个名字“洗礼”,有时应用不当给其他仪式。

(1) Baptism of Bells(1)洗礼编钟

This name has been given to the blessing of bells, at least in France, since the eleventh century.这个名字已经被赋予的钟声祝福,在法国至少从十一世纪。It is derived from the washing of the bell with holy water by the bishop, before he anoints it with the oil of the infirm without and with chrism within.这是源自同由主教钟圣水洗涤之前,他恩膏与体弱者没有和机油与chrism内。A fuming censer is then placed under it.阿烟香炉,然后放置其下。The bishop prays that these sacramentals of the Church may, at the sound of the bell, put the demons to flight, protect from storms, and call the faithful to prayer.主教祈祷,该教会这些sacramentals可在钟声,把恶魔飞行,防止风暴,并呼吁信徒们祷告。

(2) Baptism of Ships(二)船舶的洗礼

At least since the time of the Crusades, rituals have contained a blessing for ships.至少从十字军东征时,仪式已经包含了船舶的祝福。The priest begs God to bless the vessel and protect those who sail in it, as He did the ark of Noah, and Peter, when the Apostle was sinking in the sea.牧师求上帝保佑船只和保护那些谁也帆,像他那样的诺亚方舟,彼得,当使徒在海上沉没。The ship is then sprinkled with holy water.该船然后洒上圣水。

Publication information Written by William HW Fanning.出版信息撰稿威廉硬件范宁。Transcribed by Charles Sweeney, SJ.转录由查尔斯斯威尼,律政司司长。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Baptism洗礼

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

A religious ablution signifying purification or consecration.沐浴标志着一个宗教净化或奉献。 The natural method of cleansing the body by washing and bathing in water was always customary in Israel (see Ablution, Bathing).通过对洗涤和清洁水洗澡身体自然的方法总是习惯在以色列(见沐浴,洗澡)。The washing of their clothes was an important means of sanctification enjoined on the Israelites before the Revelation on Mt.他们的衣服洗涤是成圣前的一个启示,以色列人责成山的重要手段。Sinai (Ex. xix. 10).西奈(出十九。10)。The Rabbis connect with this the duty of bathing by complete immersion ("ṭebilah," Yeb. 46b; Mek., Baḥodesh, iii.); and since sprinkling with blood was always accompanied by immersion, tradition connects with this immersion the blood lustration mentioned as having also taken place immediately before the Revelation (Ex. xxiv. 8), these three acts being the initiatory rites always performed upon proselytes, "to bring them under the wings of the Shekinah" (Yeb. lc).拉比与此连接被完全浸没洗澡的责任(“ṭebilah,”Yeb 560 17。。丁酮,Baḥodesh,三。)和鲜血洒以来总是被浸泡的陪同下,传统与此相连的血洁净提到浸泡为有也发生前夕的启示(出埃及记二十四。8),这三个行为作为入会的仪式后,一直表现的proselytes,“使下的Shekinah的翅膀”(Yeb.立法会)。

With reference to Ezek.参考以西结书。xxxvi.三十六。25, "Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean," R. Akiba, in the second century, made the utterance: "Blessed art thou, O Israel! Before whom dost thou cleanse thyself? and who cleanses thee? Thy Father in heaven!" 25日,“那时,我用清水洒在你们身上,你们是干净的,”河秋叶,在第二世纪,取得了一句话:“祝福阿,以色列在洁净的人难道你自己和谁洁净!?你呢?你父亲在天堂!“ (Yoma viii. 9).(山脉八。9)。 Accordingly, Baptism is not merely for the purpose of expiating a special transgression, as is the case chiefly in the violation of the so-called Levitical laws of purity; but it is to form a part of holy living and to prepare for the attainment of a closer communion with God.因此,洗礼不仅是对于一个特殊来赎侵的目的,是在纯洁的所谓利的违法案件主要是,但它是形成一个圣洁的生活的一部分,并准备素养与神亲密地交流。 This thought is expressed in the well-known passage in Josephus in which he speaks of John the Baptist ("Ant." xviii. 5, § 2): "The washing would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away of some sins, but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness."这种思想表现在在约瑟夫著名的通道中,他施洗约翰的说话(“蚂蚁。”十八五,§ 2。)说:“洗会接受他,如果他们在使用它,而不是为了在收拾一些罪孽,而是为了净化身体;。假设仍然是,灵魂被彻底净化事先由义“

John symbolized the call to repentance by Baptism in the Jordan (Matt. iii. 6 and parallel passages); and the same measure for attaining to holiness was employed by the Essenes, whose ways of life John also observed in all other respects.约翰象征悔改的呼吁在约旦河的洗礼(太三6和平行通道。)以及为实现成圣同样的措施是由爱色尼,其生活方式也约翰在所有其他方面遵守就业。 Josephus says of his instructor Banus, an Essene, that he "bathed himself in cold water frequently, both by night and by day" ("Vita," § 2), and that the same practise was observed by all the Essenes ("BJ" ii. 8, § 5).约瑟夫说,他的导师巴努斯,一厄,他“沉浸在自己经常冷水,还是夜晚和白天”(“简历,”§ 2),而同样的做法是遵守所有的爱色尼(“北京“二。8,§ 5)。The only conception of Baptism at variance with Jewish ideas is displayed in the declaration of John, that the one who would come after him would not baptize with water, but with the Holy Ghost (Mark i. 8; John i. 27).在的洗礼与犹太思想观念差异只显示在约翰声明,一个谁后,他会不会来用水施洗的,但与圣灵(马克一8;约翰一27)。Yet a faint resemblance to the notion is displayed in the belief expressed in the Talmud that the Holy Spirit could be drawn upon as water is drawn from a well (based upon Isa. xii. 3; Yer. Suk. v. 1, 55a of Joshua b. Levi).然而,一个微弱的相似性的概念是显示在信仰中的塔木德表示,可以得出圣灵水后,从一个良好的基础后,伊萨(画十二3;。。。也门里亚尔淑诉1,55A条的。约书亚乙利维)。 And there is a somewhat Jewish tinge even to the prophecy of the evangelists Matthew (iii. 11) and Luke (iii. 16), who declare that Jesus will baptize with fire as well as with the Holy Ghost; for, according to Abbahu, true Baptism is performed with fire (Sanh. 39a).还有一种色彩甚至有些犹太人的福音预言马修(iii. 11)和卢克(iii. 16),谁宣布耶稣会用火,以及与圣灵施洗,因为,根据Abbahu,真正的洗礼,是执行用火(Sanh. 39A条)。Both the statement of Abbahu and of the Evangelists must of course be taken metaphorically.无论是Abbahu和声明的福音当然必须采取的比喻。The expression that the person baptized is illuminated (φωτισθείς, Justin, "Apologiæ," i. 65) has the same significance as is implied in telling a proselyte to Judaism, after his bath, that he now belongs to Israel, the people beloved of God (Yeb. 47a; Gerim i.).该人受洗亮起(φωτισθείς,贾斯汀,“Apologiæ,”岛65)的表达具有相同的意义,因为是在讲述一个proselyte犹太教暗示,在他洗澡,他现在属于以色列,心爱的人神(Yeb. 47A条;热林岛)。

According to rabbinical teachings, which dominated even during the existence of the Temple (Pes. viii. 8), Baptism, next to circumcision and sacrifice, was an absolutely necessary condition to be fulfilled by a proselyte to Judaism (Yeb. 46b, 47b; Ker. 9a; 'Ab. Zarah 57a; Shab. 135a; Yer. Kid. iii. 14, 64d). (。Pes.八8)根据犹太教教义,主导了该庙的存在,甚至,洗礼,旁边的割礼和牺牲,是一个绝对必要条件,以履行了犹太教(Yeb. 560 17,47B条proselyte; ker的第9A条。'抗体Zarah 57A条。沙巴135a。也门里亚尔小子三十四,64D型)。。。。 Circumcision, however, was much more important, and, like baptism, was called a "seal" (Schlatter, "Die Kirche Jerusalems," 1898, p. 70).割礼,然而,更重要的了,如洗礼,被称为“密封”(施拉特,“模具耶路撒冷的教堂,”1898年,第70页)。But as circumcision was discarded by Christianity, and the sacrifices had ceased, Baptism remained the sole condition for initiation into religious life.但随着割礼是丢弃的基督教,牺牲已经停止,仍然洗礼的宗教生活的开始唯一的条件。The next ceremony, adopted shortly after the others, was the imposition of hands, which, it is known, was the usage of the Jews at the ordination of a rabbi.接下来的仪式后不久,公司所采用,是手,这是已知的实行,是犹太人的拉比在一个协调使用。Anointing with oil, which at first also accompanied the act of Baptism, and was analogous to the anointment of priests among the Jews, was not a necessary condition.恩膏油,这是在第一也伴随着行为的洗礼,并类似于祭司的犹太人之间的钦点,是不是一个必要条件。The new significance that Christianity read into the word "Baptism," and the new purpose with which it executed the act of Baptism, as well as the conception of its magical effect, are all in the line of the natural development of Christianity.新的意义,把字读基督教“洗礼”,而新的目标与它执行的行为的洗礼,以及其神奇效果的概念,都是在基督教的自然发展路线。 The original form of Baptism-frequent bathing in cold water-remained in use later among the sects that had a somewhat Jewish character, such as the Ebionites, Baptists, and Hemerobaptists (compare Ber. iii. 6); and at the present day the Sabeans and Mandeans deem frequent bathing a duty (compare Sibyllines, iv. 164, in which, even in Christian times, the heathens are invited to bathe in streams).洗礼频繁冷水洗澡,仍然在使用后,民政事务总署各教派有点犹太特性,如以便尼派,浸信会,并Hemerobaptists原来的形式(比较误码率三六。。),并在目前的一天萨比教徒和Mandeans认为经常洗澡的责任(比较Sibyllines,四。164,其中,即使是在基督教时代,异教徒被邀请沐浴在流)。

Baptism was practised in ancient (Ḥasidic or Essene) Judaism, first as a means of penitence, as is learned from the story of Adam and Eve, who, in order to atone for their sin, stood up to the neck in the water, fasting and doing penance-Adam in the Jordan for forty days, Eve in the Tigris for thirty-seven days (Vita Adæ et Evæ, i. 5-8).洗礼是实行古(哈西德派或厄)犹太教,悔罪的一种手段的第一,因为是从亚当与夏娃的故事谁,为了赎罪,他们的罪恶的经验教训,在水中站了起来到颈部,空腹在约旦,做忏悔,四十天亚当,夏娃的三十七天(维塔Adæ等Evæ岛5-8)在底格里斯河。 According to Pirḳe R. El.据pirḳe传译下午。xx., Adam stood for forty-nine days up to his neck in the River Gihon.二十。亚当主张四九天到他在河基红脖子。Likewise is the passage, "They drew water and poured it out before the Lord and fasted on that day, and said, 'We have sinned against the Lord'" (I Sam. vii. 6), explained (see Targ. Yer. and Midrash Samuel, eodem; also Yer. Ta'anit ii. 7, 65d) as meaning that Israel poured out their hearts in repentance; using the water as a symbol according to Lam.同样是这篇文章,“他们打水,倒在耶和华面前出来,当日禁食,说:'我们有得罪耶和华了'”(我心。七。6),解释(见塔尔格。也门里亚尔。和米德拉士萨穆埃尔,eodem。也是也门里亚尔Ta'anit二第7,65D条的意思,以色列倾注了他们的心在忏悔)。用作根据林的象征水。 ii.二。19, "Pour out thine heart like water before the Lord."19,“你的心像浇灌在主面前的水。”Of striking resemblance to the story in Matt.在惊人的相似之处,在马特的故事。iii.三。1-17 and in Luke iii. 1-17和在路加三。3, 22, is the haggadic interpretation of Gen. i.3,22,是将军阿haggadic释义岛2 in Gen. R. ii.2,在将军河二。 and Tan., Buber's Introduction, p.谭。,布伯的导言,第153: "The spirit of God (hovering like a bird with outstretched wings), manifested in the spirit of the Messiah, will come [or "the Holy One, blessed be He! 153:“上帝的精神(像鸟张开翅膀盘旋),在弥赛亚精神的体现,会来[”圣地之一,被祝福他!will spread His wings and bestow His grace"] upon Israel," owing to Israel's repentance symbolized by the water in accordance with Lam.将展开翅膀并赐给他的恩典“当以色列],”由于以色列的悔改经与林按照水象征。ii.二。19.19。To receive the spirit of God, or to be permitted to stand in the presence of God (His Shekinah), man must undergo Baptism (Tan., Meẓora', 6, ed. Buber, p. 46), wherefore in the Messianic time God will Himself pour water of purification upon Israel in accordance with Ezek.要获得上帝的精神,或将允许站在神的面前(他希金),人必须接受洗礼(Tan.,Meẓora',6,教育署。布伯,第46页),因此在救世主的时间神将自己倒在以西结书后,按照以色列的净化水。 xxxvi.三十六。25 (Tan., Meẓora', 9-17, 18, ed. Buber, pp. 43, 53).25(Tan.,Meẓora',9-17,18,教育署。布伯,第43,53)。In order to pronounce the name of God in prayer in perfect purity,the Essenes () underwent Baptism every morning (Tosef., Yad. ii. 20; Simon of Sens to Yad. iv. 9; and Ber. 22a; compare with Ḳid. 70a, "The Name must be guarded with purity").为了完美发音纯度在祈祷上帝的名义,在爱色尼()每天早上接受洗礼(Tosef.,亚得二20。。。的灵敏度到亚德瓦西蒙四9;。和Ber 22A条。比较孩子。70A条,“名称必须加以防护,纯度”)。Philo frequently refers to these acts of purification in preparation for the holy mysteries to be received by the initiated ("De Somniis," xiv.; "De Profugis," vii.; "Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit?" xviii. xxiii.; "Quod Deus Sit Immutabilis," ii.; "De Posteritate Caini," xiv., xxviii.).斐洛经常是指在准备这些行为净化神圣的奥秘,是由发起(收到“德Somniis,”十四。“德Profugis,”七。“?Quis Rerum Divinarum下面有坐”十八二十三。。; “狴杀出坐Immutabilis,”二。“德Posteritate彩妮,”十四,二十八)。。。

The Baptism of the proselyte has for its purpose his cleansing from the impurity of idolatry, and the restoration to the purity of a new-born man.作者的proselyte洗礼已经为它的目的他从杂质的偶像崇拜,以及对新出生的男子纯度恢复洁净。This may be learned from the Talmud (Soṭah 12b) in regard to Pharaoh's daughter, whose bathing in the Nile is explained by Simon b.这可能是记者从塔木德(Soṭah12B条)对于法老的女儿,他沐浴在尼罗河是由西蒙解释湾 Yoḥai to have been for that purpose.Yoḥai已被用于这一目的。The bathing in the water is to constitute a rebirth, wherefore "the ger is like a child just born" (Yeb. 48b); and he must bathe "in the name of God"-"leshem shamayim"-that is, assume the yoke of Gcd's kingdom imposed upon him by the one who leads him to Baptism ("maṭbil"), or else he is not admitted into Judaism (Gerim. vii. 8).在水中洗澡是构成一个重生,何故(Yeb. 48B条)“的德国就像刚刚出生的孩子”,他就必须洗澡“在上帝的名义” - “leshem shamayim”,也就是说,假设的GCD的王国枷锁强加给他的一个谁使他的洗礼(“maṭbil”),否则将不承认他是犹太教(Gerim.七。8)。 For this very reason the Israelites before the acceptance of the Law had, according to Philo on the Decalogue ("De Decalogo," ii., xi.), as well as according to rabbinical tradition, to undergo the rite of baptismal purification (compare I Cor. x. 2, "They were baptized unto Moses [the Law] in the clouds and in the sea").对于此之前,以色列人接受法律的原因有很,根据对十诫(“德Decalogo,”二。,十一。)斐洛,以及根据犹太教的传统,经过净化的洗礼仪式(比较我肺心病。十2,“他们受洗摩西[法律]在云和海”)。

The real significance of the rite of Baptism can not be derived from the Levitical law; but it appears to have had its origin in Babylonian or ancient Semitic practise.该仪式的洗礼的真正意义不能来自利未的法律;但它似乎有在巴比伦,古犹太人的做法起源。As it was the special service administered by Elisha, as prophetic disciple to Elijah his master, to "pour out water upon his hands" (II Kings iii. 11), so did Elisha tell Naaman to bathe seven times in the Jordan, in order to recover from his leprosy (II Kings v. 10).因为这是特殊服务以利沙管理,作为对以利亚先知弟子他的主人,以“倒在他的手水”(二国王三。11),所以没有以利沙告诉乃缦在约旦河沐浴七次,为了恢复从他的大麻疯(二国王诉10)。 The powers ascribed to the waters of the Jordan are expressly stated to be that they restore the unclean man to the original state of a new-born "little child."归因于约旦河的水的权力是明确表示,他们将不洁净的人恢复到一个新出生的原始状态“小的孩子。”This idea underlies the prophetic hope of the fountain of purity, which is to cleanse Israel from the spirit of impurity (Zech. xiii. 1; Ezek. xxxvi. 25; compare Isa. iv. 4).这种思想构成了这一纯洁的喷泉,这是洗净的杂质精神预言以色列希望(亚十三1;。。以西结书三十六25;。比较伊萨四四。。)。 Thus it is expressed in unmistakable terms in the Mandean writings and teachings (Brandt, "Mandäische Religion," pp. 99 et seq., 204 et seq.) that the living water in which man bathes is to cause his regeneration.因此,它是表现在Mandean著作和教导无误条款(勃兰特,“Mandäische宗教”,第99起。,204起。)表示,人在其中生活用水沐浴是使他的再生。 For this reason does the writer of the fourth of the Sibylline Oracles, lines 160-166, appeal to the heathen world, saying, "Ye miserable mortals, repent; wash in living streams your entire frame with its burden of sin; lift to heaven your hands in prayer for forgiveness and cure yourselves of impiety by fear of God!"出于这个原因是否由该知未来的甲骨文第四,线160-166,呼吁异教徒世界的作家,他说:“你们惨了,凡人,有悔改表现;流洗你的生活与整个画面罪的重担,电梯到天堂通过你的手,敬畏神!在为自己不虔诚祈祷宽恕与医治“ This is what John the Baptist preached to the sinners that gathered around him on the Jordan; and herein lies the significance of the bath of every proselyte.这是施洗约翰鼓吹的罪人,在他周围聚集在约旦河,这才是每一个proselyte浴意义。He was to be made "a new creature" (Gen. R. xxxix).他是会转变为“一个新的动物”(将军河三十九)。For the term φωτιςθεῖς (illuminated), compare Philo on Repentance ("De Pœnitentia," i.), "The proselyte comes from darkness to light."对于长期φωτιςθεῖς(照明),比较上忏悔斐洛(“德Pœnitentia,”岛)“的proselyte来。从黑暗走向光明” It is quite possible that, like the initiates in the Orphic mysteries, the proselytes were, by way of symbolism, suddenly brought from darkness into light.这是很可能的是,像在奥尔弗斯奥秘发起,改教者的,以象征的方式,突然从黑暗带入光。For the rites of immersion, anointing, and the like, which the proselyte has or had to undergo, see Proselyte, Ablution, and Anointing.对于浸泡,恩膏仪式,等等,其中的proselyte已经或不得不接受,看到Proselyte,沐浴,和恩膏。 K.

Kaufmann Kohler, Samuel Krauss考夫曼科勒,塞缪尔克劳斯
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography 参考书目

: EG Bengel, Ueber das Alter der Jüd.例如:本格尔,Ueber DAS的阿尔特明镜士。Proselytentaufe, Tübingen, 1814; M. Schneckenburger, Ueber das Alter der Jüd.Proselytentaufe,蒂宾根大学,1814年的M. Schneckenburger,Ueber DAS的阿尔特明镜士。Proselytentaufe, Berlin, 1828; E. Renan, Les Evangiles, 2d ed., p. Proselytentaufe,柏林,1828年;。大肠杆菌勒南,莱斯Evangiles,第2版,第167; idem, Les Apôtres, p. 167;同上,莱斯Apôtres,第96; idem, Marc-Aurèle, p. 96,同上,马克- Aurèle,第527; Schechter, in Jewish Quarterly Review, 1900, xii.527;谢克特,在犹太季刊,1900年,十二。421; Schürer, Gesch.421; Schürer,Gesch。3d ed., iii.三维版。,三。129; Edersheim, The Jewish Messiah, ii.129;爱德生,犹太人的弥赛亚,二。745.KS Kr.745.KS氪。


Baptism洗礼

Orthodox Viewpoint Information正统观资料

Prayers for the New Born祈祷新的出生

Upon the birth of a child, the parish priest should be invited to the home or hospital to offer prayers for the mother and child.当一个孩子的诞生,本堂司铎应该被邀请到家里或医院提供的母亲和孩子祈祷。It is the responsibility of the father or the grandparents to notify the priest at the time of birth.这是父亲或祖父母通知在出生时祭司的责任。Your parish priest depends upon your courtesy so that he may make the proper visitation.取决于你的教区神父的好意,使他可以作出适当的惩罚。On the fortieth day after birth, the mother brings the child to church where the priest conducts the service of "40-Day Blessing" or "Sarantismos" for the mother and child.在出生后的第四十天,妈妈带来了那里的孩子教会牧师举办的“40天的祝福”或服务“Sarantismos”为母亲和孩子。 "The ritual of the 'churching of women after childbirth has its origin in the Middle Ages. This was the time when the liturgical life of the Church was beginning to expand and develop in imitation of the Biblical patterns. The "Church" must not be understood in an antiquated way (from the Old Testament) in the sense of a legalistic practice. (For further Old Testament knowledge, read the Book of Leviticus, Chapter 12). Rather, the ceremony of churching marks the time when the mother, having recovered physically and emotionally from the birth of her child, and having re-ordered her life around the child's care, will resume her life in the community of the Church again. She comes to the church with her child (and accompanied by her husband) to offer her thanksgiving for her child, and coming to contact with the life-giving glory of God, she asks for the forgiveness of her sins, despite her human weakness, so that she may be 'worthy to partake, uncondemned, of the Holy Mysteries," (that is Holy Communion) once again.他说:“对妇女分娩后churching仪式有其起源于中世纪。这是当时的教会礼仪生活开始扩大和发展的圣经模式的模仿。”教会“不能在一个陈旧的理解方式(从旧约)在一个墨守成规的实践意义。(如需进一步旧约知识,多读的利未记第12章书)。确切地说,churching仪式标志着时间当母亲后,恢复身体和情感从她的孩子出生,并具有重新排序搂着孩子的照顾生活,将继续在教会团体她的生活。她来和她的孩子去教堂(和她的丈夫陪同)为她提供她的孩子感恩节,来接触神的生命,给的荣耀,她为她的罪孽赦免要求,尽管她人性的弱点,使她可能是'值得分享,uncondemned圣,之谜“(即圣餐)再次。

This ceremony, in imitation of the Old Testament ceremony to which the Mother of God submitted, was done on the fortieth day after the child's birth, but may also take place as close to the fortieth day as possible.这个仪式,仪式的旧约模仿其中的天主之母提交的报告于后,孩子的出生第四十天,但也可能以尽可能接近四十日进行。 Some request that this take place prematurely to facilitate their personal needs and desire to attend social engagements.有些地方的要求,这需要过早地促进他们的个人需求和愿望,参加社交活动。God in His wisdom ordained that a period of six weeks lapse following childbirth before the mother resumes her life.神命定他的智慧,在六个星期前失效期的母亲分娩后恢复她的生活。Good advice is not to hasten this process.良好的建议是不要加速这一进程。During the churching, the priest, in imitation of the elder Simeon (Luke, Chapter 2), takes the child up to the sanctuary, making the sign of the Cross with it and reciting the prayer of St. Simeon (Luke 2:28-32).在churching,在缅,老(路加福音第2章),仿牧师,到儿童到避难所,使得与它十字和背诵圣西缅(路加福音2:28祈祷 - 32)。Again, inspired by the example of Simeon's encounter with the infant Messiah, for each child has the potential to be great in the sight of the Lord, the act of churching recognizes this and also serves, as with the mother, to introduce the child to the community of faith."同样,由西蒙与婴儿弥赛亚遇到的例子启发,先后为每个孩子的潜力是在主,churching行为面前大认识到这一点,也是服务,如与母亲,介绍孩子社会的信念。“

On the day of churching, the parents and the child are invited to wait in the narthex of the church where they will be greeted by the priest.作者:churching一天,家长和孩子被邀请在等待,他们将受到欢迎教会牧师教堂前厅。This takes place after the antidoron has been distributed following the Divine Liturgy.这发生后,已分发antidoron以下神圣的礼仪。A call to the church office will help things run smoothly.到教会办公室电话将帮助事情顺利进行。

Baptisms洗礼

In the Sacrament of Holy Baptism, a person is incorporated into the crucified, resurrected, and glorified Christ and is reborn to participate in the divine life.在圣洗圣事,一个人是纳入钉在十字架上,复活,和歌颂基督和重生参加神圣的生命。Baptism is necessary for salvation (Mark 16:15-16) and in accordance with Holy Tradition must be performed by triple immersion in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:18-20), according to the rubrics in the Prayer Book.洗礼是必要的救赎(马可福音16:15-16),并以圣城按照传统必须由三重浸泡演出的父亲,儿子,和圣灵(马太28:18-20)的名字,根据在祈祷书的评鉴指标。 It is conferred only once.这是只授予一次。


Baptism洗礼

Orthodox Information东正教信息

(This information may not be of the scholastic quality of the other articles in BELIEVE. Since few Orthodox scholarly articles have been translated into English, we have had to rely on Orthodox Wiki as a source. Since the Wikipedia collections do not indicate the author's name for articles, and essentially anyone is free to edit or alter any of their articles (again, without any indication of what was changed or who changed it), we have concerns. However, in order to include an Orthodox perspective in some of our subject presentations, we have found it necessary to do this. At least until actual scholarly Orthodox texts are translated from the Greek originals!) (此信息未必是对的其他文章学术质量的相信。由于很少东正教学术文章被翻译成英文,我们不得不在东正教维基依靠一个来源。由于维基百科集合不注明作者的姓名的文章,而且基本上任何人都可以自由地编辑或改变他们的任何条款(同样没有任何改变或谁是什么改变了它指示),我们有所顾虑。然而,为了包括在我们的视野受到一些东正教介绍,我们发现有必要做到这一点。至少到目前为止实际的学术正统文本原件从希腊翻译!)

Christian Baptism is the mystery of starting anew, of dying to an old way of life and being born again into a new way of life, in Christ.基督教的洗礼是重新开始,死亡到生命诞生的老方法,并再次进入一个新的生活方式,在基督的奥秘,。In the Orthodox Church, baptism is "for the remission of sins" (cf. the Nicene Creed) and for entrance into the Church; the person being baptized is cleansed of all sins and is united to Christ; through the waters of baptism he or she is mysteriously crucified and buried with Christ, and is raised with him to newness of life, having "put on" Christ (that is, having been clothed in Christ).在东正教教堂,洗礼是“使罪得赦”(见尼西亚)和加入WTO的教会;正在受洗是洁净了所有的罪孽,是团结,以基督的人,通过他的洗礼水域或她神秘地钉在十字架上,与基督埋葬,并提出了他的新奇的生活,有“把”基督(即,曾在基督衣服)。 The cleansing of sins includes the washing away of the ancestral sin.包括清洗的罪孽洗祖罪了。

Orthodox teaching on baptism东正教教学上的洗礼

"We acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins."“我们承认一个洗礼,使罪得赦。”These words, found in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, simply and yet boldly declare Orthodox teaching on baptism.这些话,发现在尼西亚- Constantinopolitan信条,简单,却大胆地宣布东正教教学上的洗礼。 The baptismal experience is often considered the fundamental Christian experience.洗礼的经验,通常被认为是基督教的基本经验。

Immersion in water浸泡在水中

The word baptize derives from baptizo, the transliterated form of the Greek word βάπτειν or baptivzw.这个词源于baptizo洗礼,希腊字βάπτειν或baptivzw译音形式。In a historical context, it means "to dip, plunge, or immerse" something entirely, eg into water.在历史语境中,它的意思是“浸,水垫,或沉浸”的东西完全,如入水。Although commonly associated with Christian baptism, the word is known to have been used in other contexts.虽然通常与基督教的洗礼有关,这个词是知已在其他场合使用。For instance, a 2nd century author named Nicander wrote down a pickle recipe which illustrates the common use of the word.例如,一个名为Nicander二世纪的作家写下了泡菜食谱这说明这个词的普遍使用。He first says that the pickle should be dipped (bapto) into boiling water, followed by a complete submersion (baptizo) in a vinegar solution.他首先说,泡菜应浸入沸水中,一个完整的浸没(baptizo)在醋液中之后(bapto)。 The word was also used to explain the process of submerging cloth into a colored dye.这个词也被用来解释淹没成布色染料的过程。The Christian ritual of water baptism traces back to Saint John the Forerunner, who the Bible says baptized many, including Jesus.水的痕迹基督教的洗礼仪式回到圣约翰先导,谁是圣经说受洗很多人,包括耶稣。Certain forms of baptism were practiced in the Old Testament.某些形式的洗礼实行旧约。Additionally, baptism was practiced in some pagan religions as a sign of death and rebirth.此外,由于实行了洗礼的死亡和重生签署一些异教徒的宗教。

Baptism as a Mystery作为一名神秘的洗礼

In contrast to a common Protestant viewpoint, baptism is more than just a symbolic act of burial and resurrection, but an actual supernatural transformation.相反,一个共同的新教观点,洗礼不仅仅是一个埋葬和复活的象征性行动,而是一个更实际的超自然的转变。 Baptism is believed to impart cleansing (remission) of sins and union with Christ in his death, burial and resurrection (see Romans 6:3-5; Colossians 2:12, 3:1-4).洗礼,被认为是传授与基督在他死后,埋葬和复活清洗罪和工会(缓解)(见罗马书6:3-5;歌罗西书2:12,3:1-4)。

Full immersion is a hallmark of an Orthodox baptism. 全英语的学习是一个标志性的一个东正教洗礼。

Baptism is normally performed by the three-fold immersion of a person in the name of the Holy Trinity; in other words, a person is immersed "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," with one immersion at the mention of each person of the Holy Trinity.洗礼通常是由一个执行中的圣三一人的名字三倍浸泡;换句话说,一个人沉浸“在父亲的姓名,和儿子,和圣灵,”与一个沉浸在每个人的圣三一提。 Baptism by pouring of water, instead of by full immersion, is not the norm for baptism in the Orthodox Church as it is in the Roman Catholic and in some Protestant churches, except in cases of necessity, where no alternative exists (please see below).浇的水洗礼,而不是通过充分浸泡,是不是在东正教洗礼的规范,因为它在罗马天主教和新教教堂是在一些除非必须,如果没有其他存在的情况下,(请参见下文) 。Baptism is immediately followed by chrismation and Holy Communion at the next Divine Liturgy, regardless of age.洗礼是紧接着chrismation然后在下次神圣的圣餐礼仪,不分年龄。 Although baptism is a separate mystery (sacrament) from chrismation, normally when it is said that someone "has been baptized" this is understood to include not only baptism but chrismation as well.虽然洗礼是一个单独的奥秘(圣)由chrismation,通常当人们说,有人“已受洗”这被理解为不仅包括洗礼,但chrismation以及。 In some practices, first communion is also administered at once.在一些做法,也给予第一共融一次。

Catechumen初学者

Adults are baptized after they have completed their time as a catechumen.成人的洗礼后,他们已经完成其作为初学者的时间。

Infant Baptism婴儿洗礼

The Orthodox also practice infant baptism on the basis of various texts (eg Matthew 19:14) which are interpreted to condone full Church membership for children.东正教也实践了各种文本(如马太19:14)这是全教会解释为纵容儿童会员依据婴儿的洗礼。This is generally based on a confession of faith for a child by his or her godparents.这通常是基于对一个孩子的信念供认他或她的教父教母。The Orthodox Church baptizes infants for the same reasons and with the same results as she baptizes adults.东正教教会施洗出于同样的原因,并与相同的结果,她的婴儿施洗的成年人。

Validity of a baptism有效性的洗礼

Because the Mystery of Baptism has actual spiritual and salvific effects, certain criteria must be complied with for it to be valid (ie, to actually have those effects).因为神秘的洗礼和精神救赎有实际效果,必须遵守一定的标准与它是有效的(即那些真正有效果)。Baptism in water is assumed.水的洗礼,是假设。Violation of some rules regarding baptism render the baptism illicit (ie, a violation of the church's laws, and a sin for those who willingly and knowingly participate in it), and yet still valid.违反有关洗礼使一些非法的洗礼规则(即教会的违反法律,并为那些谁愿意和有意识地参与其中罪),但仍然有效。For example, if a priest introduces some unauthorized variation in the ceremony, the baptism is still valid so long as certain key criteria are still met, even though the priest has violated the church's law and thus sinned, and so have the other participants if they know the priest's behaviour is illict.例如,如果一个牧师介绍了一些在仪式上未经授权的变化,洗礼仍然是有效的,只要某些关键标准仍然是满足,即使牧师违背了教会的法律,因而犯了罪,等有其他参与者,如果他们知道神父的行为是illict。

Normally baptism is by triple immersion, and a licit baptism must be performed by a priest or a deacon.通常的洗礼,是三重浸泡,以及合法洗礼必须由神父或执事执行。But in case of necessity, as in clinical or other settings where there is a risk of imminent death and baptism by immersion is impractical, or where a deep pool of water is really unavailable, a person may properly be baptized by an Orthodox Christian clergyman or layman by pouring water three times on the head in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.但在案件的必要性在临床或其他设置那里是一个迫在眉睫的死亡和浸泡洗礼风险,不切实际,或深池的水真的是不可用,一个人可以适当地由一个或正统基督教牧师受洗外行浇论的父亲,儿子,和圣灵的名头水三次。 The proper formula must be recited: "The servant of God [Name] is baptized in the name of the Father [immerse, or pour]. Amen. And of the Son [immerse, or pour]. Amen. And of the Holy Spirit [immerse, or pour]. Amen"; other acceptable forms include "Let this servant of Christ be baptized..."正确的公式必须背诵:“上帝的[名称]仆人洗礼,在父亲的姓名[浸泡,或倒]阿门和儿子[浸泡,或倒]阿门和圣灵。。。。 [浸泡,或倒]阿门。“;其它可接受的形式包括”让这受洗基督的仆人...“or "This person is baptized by my hands..."或“这个人是我的手洗礼...”Roman Catholics use the form "I baptize you..."罗马天主教会的形式使用“我洗你...”However, neither church repeats baptisms performed by the other.然而,无论是教堂重复了其他演出洗礼。The Catholic Church teaches that the use of the verb "baptize" is essential.天主教教会教导我们的动词用“洗礼”是必不可少的。

Sprinkling, however, is not allowed under any circumstances.喷灌,但是,在任何情况下不得。 There is disagreement about this, however, with some theologians arguing that sprinkling -- even sprinking on a part of the body other than the head -- in an emergency would also be valid.对此有不同意见,但是,与一些人认为洒神学家 - 甚至sprinking对身体的其他部分比头 - 在紧急情况下也将有效。

It is also considered essential that the Trinitarian formula is used.它也被认为是至关重要的三位一体的计算公式为。Baptisms from non-Trinitarian churches, such as Oneness Pentecostal, are generally not considered valid.非三位一体教堂,如合一五旬,洗礼,一般都不会视为有效。There was an ancient controversy over baptism using the formula that Oneness Pentecostals use, with some ancient authorities holding it to be valid.有一个古老的争论过洗礼使用公式五旬合一拿着它使用一些古老的机关,是有效的。However, this was motivated by the apparent use of that formula at some places in scripture, not by anti-Trinitarian considerations (which might well invalidate the baptism even if that formula is valid).然而,这是出于对这个公式在一些地方明显经文使用,而不是由反三位一体的考虑(这很可能无效的洗礼,即使该公式是有效的)。 The most significant part, some theologians have argued, is not so much the Trinitarian wording, as the Trinitarian intention, and the recognition that the baptism involves all three Persons.最重要的一部分,一些神学家们认为,与其说是三位一体的字眼,作为三位一体的意图,并承认洗礼涉及所有三人。

A person, once baptized, cannot be baptized again.一个人一旦接受洗礼,不能再接受洗礼。There was an ancient practice in some areas of rebaptizing those who had returned to the church from heresy, but that practice has been universally rejected, except in cases where their previous "baptism" was deficient - for example, they were not baptized in the name of the Trinity.有一个在rebaptizing那些谁回到了教会的异端邪说,但这种做法已经得到普遍反对的情况下,除非他们以前的“洗礼”有缺陷,一些地区的古老方法 - 例如,他们不是在名称中受洗三位一体。

Baptism by non-Orthodox洗礼非东正教

The Orthodox Church makes no judgment concerning the efficacy or validity of baptisms performed by other denominations, as regards people who are members of those respective denominations.东正教教会不作任​​何判断疗效有关或由其他教派进行洗礼的有效性,至于谁是这些人各自教派的成员。 The precise status and significance of such baptisms has not been revealed by God to the Orthodox Church; however, as a practical matter, they are treated as non-efficacious unless and until the person joins the Orthodox Church.精确的地位和意义等洗礼尚未透露上帝东正教教会,但是,作为一个实际问题,他们被视为非有效的治疗,除非及直至该人加入东正教。 Persons coming to Orthodoxy from other denominations, and who had been baptized with water in the name of the Trinity, are generally not received by holy baptism, but instead through holy chrismation, after which their former baptism is deemed to be efficacious.正统的人来从其他教派,谁早已受洗水在三位一体的名称,一般都不会收到由神圣的洗礼,而是通过圣chrismation,他们以前的洗礼之后,被认为是有效的。 The final decision as to the mode of reception to be used in each case rests with the bishop.作为目的地的接待模式,最后决定用在每一种情况下的主教身上。When there is doubt as to whether or how the person was previously baptized, a conditional baptism is employed, in which the officiant says something of the form of "if you are not yet baptized, I baptize you..."如果有,是否或如何洗礼的人以前,有条件的洗礼,是就业,其中主祭说,一些疑问的形式:“如果你还没有洗,我洗你...” The need for conditional baptisms is motivated not only by factual uncertainties regarding the original baptism, but also by the uncertainty of some of the baptismal theology regarding the precise conditions for the validity of baptism.对于有条件的洗礼,不仅是出于需要通过对原洗礼事实的不确定性,但也由有关的洗礼洗礼的有效性确切条件神学一些不确定性。 (The Church holds that one cannot be certain that opinions which are offered by pious theologians, but on which the Church has not made an authoritative pronouncement, are correct, and even authoritative pronouncements can have multiple interpretations which the Church has neither definitively endorsed or rejected.) (教会认为,不能肯定,这是提供的虔诚的神学家,但该教会却没有一个权威的定论意见,是正确的,甚至是权威的言论可以有该教会既没有明确支持或反对的多种解释。)

Certain types of non-Orthodox (ie heretics, in the language of the Church Fathers) are received into the Orthodox Church through baptism; others through chrismation, and others through profession of faith.非东正教的某些类型(即异教徒在教父的语言)是接收到的东正教教会通过洗礼,通过专业的信念,通过chrismation别人,等等。 These provisions are spelled out in the canons of two of the Ecumenical Councils regarding the reception of heretics.这些规定中列明的普世关于异端接待议会两个大炮。

Jewish Background犹太背景

The ritual of baptism is prefigured in the purification rites of Jewish law and tradition.洗礼仪式预示在犹太法律和传统的净化仪式。In the Tanakh and tradition of the teachers of the Torah, a ritual bath for purification from uncleanness used to be required under specified circumstances in order to be restored to a condition of ritual purity.在塔纳赫及诵读经文,一个从过去是在特定情况下需要以污秽沐浴净身仪式的教师要恢复到传统的仪式的纯洁性条件。For example, women after menses, and after a number of blood-free days following child-birth, were washed in a ritual bath, called a mikvah.例如,在月经,经过血液以下儿童免费天数生育的妇女,在一个仪式洗洗澡,称为mikvah。 Those who became ritually defiled by contact with something infectious, would also use the mikveh as part of their healing.仪式由那些谁成为传染病接触污秽的东西,也将使用作为其愈合的一部分mikveh。Washing was also required for converts.洗衣机也需要转换。Through practices such as these, immersion in the mikveh came to represent purification and restoration, and qualification for full religious participation in the life of the community (Book of Numbers Chapter 19).通过这些做法,在mikveh浸泡来到代表在社区(书编号第19章)净化和恢复生活,宗教参与和充分的资格。Traditional conversion to Judaism also requires a mikvah, so for converts Jewish initiation is in some ways similar to Christian initiation, although the term baptism is not used to describe the Jewish conversion.传统转化为犹太教还需要一个mikvah,因此在转换犹太人开始在某些方面类似于基督教的启动是,尽管这个术语的洗礼,是不是用来形容犹太人转换。

Baptism in the Gospels在福音的洗礼

St. John the Forerunner圣约翰的先行者

A preliminary understanding of baptism starts with St. John the Forerunner, the cousin of Jesus.初步了解的洗礼开始圣约翰先导,耶稣的表兄。John spoke of a baptism of repentance in preparation for the coming of the Messiah.约翰以筹备未来的救世主的悔改的洗礼。

"And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins; As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth; And all flesh shall see the salvation of God." “他就来到约但河一带地方,宣讲为悔改的洗礼,使罪得赦,因为它是写在字的以赛亚先知的书,说,一个声音在旷野里呼喊,豫备主的方式,直他的路一切山洼都要填满,每一座山和丘陵应削平。弯弯曲曲的地方要改为正直,高高低低的道路要改为平坦,总有一天会看到神的救恩。“ (Luke 3:3-6 KJV, also see Matthew 3:1-6, Mark 1:1-5)(路加福音3:3-6新译,也见马太3:1-6,马可福音1:1-5)

In regards to his relationship to the coming Messiah, John also spoke of another kind of baptism.至于他的关系,在即将到来的弥赛亚,约翰还谈到了另一种洗礼。

"John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire: Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable." “约翰回答,对他们说,我的确用水给你们施洗,但有一位能力比我的要来,他的鞋子的天花乱坠,我不值得放开:他应洗与圣灵与火给你们:谁的风扇在他的手中,他会彻底清除他的地板上,将聚集在他的争取到小麦。,把糠用火焚烧,他将难以抑制“ (Luke 3:16-17 KJV, also see Matthew 3:7-12, Mark 1:6-8)(路加福音3:16-17新译,也见马太3:7-12,马可福音1:6-8)

Baptism of Christ (Theophany)基督的洗礼(的显现)

During John's earthly ministry Jesus came to receive baptism from John: "And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God."在约翰的地上部耶稣接受洗礼的约翰:“约翰又作见证说,我曾看见圣灵从天降下,仿佛鸽子,在他的身上居留权,我不认识他:。只是那差我来施洗与水,同样对我说,当你看见谁圣灵降下来,并在他身上剩下的,相同的就是用圣灵施洗的。我看见了,就证明这是神的儿子。“ (John 1:32-34 KJV, also see Matthew 3:13-17, Mark 1:9-11)(约翰福音1:32-34新译,也见马太3:13-17,马可福音1:9-11)

There also seems to be some reference to Jesus and/or his disciples baptizing individuals, before His death on the cross (see John 3:22-26, John 4:1-3).此外,还有一些似乎是耶稣的参考和/或他的门徒施洗个人之前,他在十字架上(见约翰3:22-26,约翰4:1-3)死亡。

The Great Commission大使命

After His resurrection, Jesus appeared to the disciples and spoke to them saying,之后,他的复活,耶稣显现给门徒,对他们说,

"...All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen." “...所有的权柄都赐给我的天堂和在地球上所以你们要去,并教导所有国家,奉父的名,给他们的儿子,和圣灵:。教导他们遵守所有凡我所吩咐的事你:和,看哪,我与你永远同在,直到世界的尽头阿门“。。 (Matthew 28:18-20 KJV, also see Mark 16:14-20, Acts 2:38)(马太福音28:18-20和合,也见马克16:14-20,徒2:38)

The commandment of the Lord to baptize "in the name of Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" was the practice of the early Church and is still the Orthodox method for baptizing today.耶和华的诫命,洗礼“,在父亲的名字,和儿子,和圣灵”是早期教会的做法,是今天仍然是东正教洗礼的方法。(see Acts 2:38; 8:16; 10:48; 19:5).(见使徒行传2:38; 8:16,10:48,19:5)。Church Fathers on Baptism教父的洗礼

"...Concerning the water, indeed, it is written, in reference to the Israelites, that they should not receive that baptism which leads to the remission of sins, but should procure another for themselves..." “...关于水,的确,这是写在参考了以色列人,他们不应该接受的洗礼而导致的罪得赦,而应该为自己购买另一个...”(The Epistle of Barnabas, Chapter 11, Roberts-Donaldson)(作者:巴拿巴书信,第11章,罗伯茨-唐纳森)

"Blessed are they who, placing their trust in the cross, have gone down into the water...we indeed descend into the water full of sins and defilement, but come up, bearing fruit in our heart, having the fear [of God] and trust in Jesus in our spirit." “有福的,他们谁,把他们在跨信任,去了下来,掉进水里...我们确实陷入水中,充满罪孽和污辱,不过来了,在我们的心中开花结果,有对上帝的敬畏[ ]在我们的精神和耶稣的信任。“(The Epistle of Barnabas, Chapter 11, Roberts-Donaldson) "He was born and baptized, that by His passion He might purify the water." (作者:巴拿巴书信,第11章,罗伯茨-唐纳森)“他出生和洗礼,由他的激情,他可能净化水。”(The Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians, Chapter 18, Roberts-Donaldson) (作者:伊格书信的以弗所,第18章,罗伯茨,唐纳森)

Protestants on Baptism新教徒的洗礼

Many protestants through the ages have de-emphasized the role of baptism in the Christian faith.古往今来,许多新教徒去强调了基督信仰的洗礼的作用。In reality, a number of the people involved in the Protestant Reformation came out of the Roman Catholic Church with a reverence for the holy mysteries and apostolic tradition.在现实中,在新教改革所涉及的人来到了罗马天主教教会了一个神圣奥秘的敬畏和使徒的传统。

Martin Luther placed a great importance on baptism.马丁路德放在一个非常重要的洗礼。Luther states in The Large Catechism of 1529 AD,在公元1529年大问答路德国,

"To put it most simply, the power, effect, benefit, fruit, and purpose of Baptism is to save. No one is baptized in order to become a prince, but as the words say, to 'be saved.'“说得最简单,功率,效果,效益,水果和洗礼的目的是为了保存。没有人受洗,才能成为一位王子,但说的话,以'得救。' To be saved, we know, is nothing else than to be delivered from sin, death, and the devil and to enter into the kingdom of Christ and live with him forever."被救活了,我们知道,没有别的比是从罪,死亡交付,和魔鬼,并进入基督的​​王国和他永远活着。“

External links外部链接

The Service of Holy Baptism (Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America)神圣的洗礼(希腊东正教大主教美国)服务
Baptism The Orthodox Faith by Fr.神父东正教洗礼的信仰。Thomas Hopko托马斯Hopko
The Baptism of Christ - Uncovering Bethany beyond the Jordan; includes interviews with various Eastern Orthodox representatives, incl.基督的洗礼 - 揭开超越乔丹伯达尼;包括各种东正教的代表,含面试。Greek Orthodox Bishop Vindictus of Jordan希腊东正教主教Vindictus约旦

Baptism and Ecumenism洗礼和普世

Becoming a Christian: The Ecumenical Implications of Our Common Baptism Archimandrite Ambrosius (Pogodin).成为基督徒:我们共同的洗礼修士安布罗(Pogodin)的普世意义。On the Question of the Order of Reception of Persons into the Orthodox Church, Coming to Her from Other Christian Churches.论人事接收订购的东正教会问到,正在向她从其他基督教会。Transl.译。from the Russian by Alvian N. Smirensky.引自Alvian北路Smirensky俄语。Vestnik Russkogo Khristianskogo Dvizheniya (Messenger of the Russian Christian Movement).Vestnik Russkogo Khristianskogo Dvizheniya(信使俄罗斯基督教运动)。Paris-New York-Moscow, Nos. 173 (I-1996) and 174 (II-1996/I-1997).巴黎,纽约,莫斯科,第173(一1996年)和174(II-1996/I-1997)。


Also, see:此外,见:
Re-Baptism 重新洗礼
Sacrament 圣餐
Confirmation 确认

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