Bible圣经

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General Information一般资料

The word Bible is derived from the Greek biblia, meaning "books," and refers to the sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity.圣经一词源于希腊biblia,意思是“书”,指的是犹太教和基督教的神圣的著作。The Bible consists of two parts.圣经由两部分组成。The first part, called the Old Testament by Christians, consists of the sacred writings of the Jewish people and was written originally in Hebrew, except for some portions in Aramaic.第一部分,被称为旧约的基督徒,包括犹太人民的神圣的著作,并写在希伯来文,除了原本在阿拉姆语的某些部分。The second part, called the New Testament, was composed in Greek and records the story of Jesus and the beginnings of Christianity.第二部分,所谓的新约,是在希腊和记录的故事,耶稣和基督教的开端组成。 Translated in whole or in part into more than 1,500 languages, the Bible is the most widely distributed book in the world. Its influence on history and culture, including literature and the other arts, is incalculable.语言翻译的全部或部分成1500多个,圣经书是在世界上分布最广。其艺术影响力的历史和文化,包括文学和其他,是无法估量的。

The Old Testament旧约

Major Themes and Characteristics主要主题和特色

The Hebrew Bible, written over a period of more than 500 years, consists of many types of literature and reflects varying points of view.希伯来文圣经,在超过500年期间写的,包含多种类型的文学的角度,反映不同的观点。 It is essentially religious, but, unlike most ancient religious books, the Old Testament is characterized by a strong sense of history; even laws and exhortations are woven into the narratives.它本质上是宗教,但是,与最古老的宗教书籍,旧约是由强烈的历史感的特点,即使法律和嘱托,是织成的叙述。

The themes are the uniqueness and glory of God (Yahweh), the Covenants he made with Israel, the Law, God's control of history and Israel's special destiny, God's revelation through the Prophets, the nature of humanity, corporate and individual sin and its remedy, and the true worship of God. 的主题是独特性和以色列的荣耀的神(耶和华),这两项盟约与他,法律,上帝的控制的历史和以色列的特殊命运,上帝的先知启示通过,补救性质的人性,企业和个人的罪恶,其,和上帝的真正的崇拜。

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The Hebrews believed that their religion was founded on covenants that God offered them and that they had accepted. Yahweh had agreed to make them his specially chosen people and to protect them, but only if they obeyed his Law. 希伯来人认为,他们的宗教是建立在契约,神给他们,他们已经接受了。耶和华已同意让他们,他特意选择了人民,并保护他们,但只有当他们听从他的律师。 Covenants were made with Noah, which embraced all humankind, and with Abraham and his descendants; but the most important covenant was revealed to Moses.公约提出了与诺亚,这拥抱全人类,与亚伯拉罕和他的后裔,但最重要的公约是透露给摩西。Later, after the division of the Jews into two kingdoms - Judah and Israel - the people of Judah believed that a special covenant had also been made with King David and his royal descendants.后来,在犹太人的分裂成两个王国 - 犹大和以色列 - 犹大认为,一个特殊的契约也被大卫王和他的王室后裔,使人们。

Yahweh was different from all other deities. Israel was forbidden to worship any other god, and the Mosaic religion perhaps implied that no other existed, although this was not specifically emphasized until the time of the exile during the Babylonian Captivity (587 - 37 BC). 雅威不同于所有其他神明圈养以色列禁止崇拜任何其它的神和宗教马赛克也许暗示,没有其他存在的,虽然这不是巴比伦流亡期间特别强调,直到时间为(587 -公元前37年) 。Other gods personified natural forces or tribes and nations, but Yahweh was supreme over everything.其他神人格化的自然力量或部落和民族,但耶和华是高于一切的最高。Because he controlled history, he could use Assyria or Babylonia to punish a rebellious Israel.因为他控制的历史,他可以利用亚述或巴比伦惩罚一个叛逆以色列。Plentiful crops depended on his will alone and not on the magical rites by which the Baals of Canaan were worshiped. The concept of the Book of Leviticus was that the Hebrews were to be a holy people, separated from all defilement.丰富的农作物取决于他个人意志,而不是在魔法仪式是由巴力崇拜其中的迦南。 概念的利未记的书是希伯来人是一个神圣的人,脱离一切污秽。

Many laws in the Pentateuch, or Torah, the first five books, were not different from those of surrounding nations.在五,或诵读经文,第一个五年书籍,许多法律并没有从周边国家的不同。However, some unique commandments were given, without specific rewards and punishments; most important were the Ten Commandments, which have a high ethical content. The Torah (Law) was a complete religious and civil law for the whole nation. It prescribed sacrifices and festivals similar to those of other nations, but the emphasis was on morality. Yahweh was a God of justice. All sin and injustice was an offense against him; and repentance could bring forgiveness.然而,由于一些独特的诫命,没有具体的奖惩;重要的是十诫,其中有一个较高的道德内容。最律法(法律)是一个完整的宗教和民事法律为整个国家的节日它规定的牺牲,这些,其他国家,但更多的是强调。类似的道德雅威是正义之神;。一切罪恶和不公正是对他的罪行可能带来宽恕和忏悔。

In the Book of Joshua, Yahweh is a God of war who commands the slaughter of the Canaanites, but the Hebrew religion gradually outgrew such a concept, as can be seen in the books of Jeremiah and Jonah. The prophets saw history as an interaction between the living God and his people, and its outcome depended on their obedience. Israel was destined to be a light to the nations, but it always had a special place in God's purpose and love, and the Hebrews always struggled with the two concepts of God's impartial justice and his love toward Israel. Late in the biblical period, writers of Apocalyptic Literature, unlike the earlier prophets, despaired of the normal forces of history and believed that God would put an end to the present age, bringing in a miraculous reign of righteousness.在约书亚书,雅威是迦南人的战神谁指挥的屠杀,但希伯来宗教逐渐outgrew这样一个概念,因为可以看到乔纳耶利米和书籍。 先知们看到了历史之间的互动活着的上帝和他的人民,其结果取决于他们服从。以色列注定是一个国家的光的,但它始终有一个与爱特别 ​​的地方,在上帝的宗旨,和希伯来人始终的奋斗概念,神与两以色列司法公正和他的爱情走向。 晚些时候圣经时期,作家的世界末日文学,不像先前的先知,绝望的力量历史的正常,并认为上帝会结束到现在的年龄,带来了奇迹般的统治义。

These themes were not systematized into a theology but can be discerned from the literature as a whole, which expresses the hopes, fears, laments, thanksgivings, and even the doubts of the Hebrews. Thus the Book of Job criticizes the popular, facile doctrine of reward and punishment, and the Book of Ecclesiastes often approaches skepticism.这些主题并没有成为一个系统化的神学,但可以看出从希伯来文学作为一个整体,它体现了希望,恐惧,感叹,感恩节,以及甚至怀疑。 因此,约伯记的批评流行的,浅显的学说奖励和处罚,以及传道书书经常做法持怀疑态度。

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The Canon佳能

The canon, or officially accepted list of books in the Hebrew Bible, consists of 24 books according to Jewish reckoning and is divided into three parts: the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings. The Law (Torah), often called the Pentateuch, comprises five books, Genesis through Deuteronomy.佳能,或正式接受圣经希伯来文的书籍名单中,包括24种图书根据犹太历计算,并分为三个部分:法律,先知,和写作。的法律(圣经),通常被称为五,包括五本书,通过申命记成因。 The Prophets (Nevi im) are divided into three parts: the earlier prophets (Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings); the later prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel); and twelve books called the Minor Prophets because of their brevity. The 11 Writings (Ketuvim) include three poetic books (Psalms, Proverbs, and Job); the five scrolls (Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther); an apocalyptic work, Daniel; and Ezra - Nehemiah and 1 and 2 Chronicles. 先知(痣的IM)被分为三个部分:1和2国王队),后来先知(以赛亚书,耶利米,以西结书);早期2塞缪尔先知(约书亚,法官,1和,和12个图书被称为小。由于其简洁先知的11著作(Ketuvim)包括三个诗意的书籍(诗篇,箴言,和工作);五个卷轴(以斯帖雅歌,路得,耶利米哀歌,传道书,和);一种世界末日的工作,丹尼尔;及以斯拉 - 尼希米记1和2编年史。

Christian Bibles arrange the books differently.基督教圣经,安排不同的书籍。 The Law, or Pentateuch, comes first, then all the historical books.法,或五,至上,那么所有的历史书籍。These are followed by the poetical, or wisdom, books and finally the prophetic books. 这些都是其次是诗意的,或智慧,书籍,最后的预言书。Thus Ruth, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther appear in the second group and Daniel and Lamentations in the fourth.因此露丝,方志,以斯拉,尼希米记,以斯帖出现在第二组和第四悲叹和丹尼尔在。

[Editor's Note: Christian Bibles also generally divide apart all of the separate Books, so the Canon is described as being a total of 39 Books, but which are the same text as the 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible. [编者注:基督教圣经也普遍鸿沟外所有的单独的书籍,作为佳能的39本书作为一个整体描述,但它们是为希伯来文圣经的24个图书相同的文字。For example, where the Hebrew Bible counts the Twelve Minor Prophets as one Book, Christian Bibles almost universally count them as twelve Books.]例如,在希伯来文圣经算作一十二小先知书,基督教圣经几乎普遍算作十二书上。]

The Jews never ceased writing religious books. Several books composed in Hebrew or Greek after 300 BC are part of the Septuagint, or Old Greek version, and were regarded as Scripture by many Christians.犹太人从来没有停止过写作宗教书籍。 书籍或希腊的几个组成公元前300年后在希伯来文的译本的一部分,还是旧的希腊版本,并视为圣经许多基督徒。Roman Catholics and the Orthodox include these books, called Apocrypha or deuterocanonical books, in the Bible.罗马天主教和东正教包括这些书,被称为伪经或次经书,在圣经。Protestants omit them or print them as an appendix to the Bible.新教徒忽略它们或打印圣经作为他们的附录。

Divisions of the Old Testament司的旧约

[The following discussion uses the Christian classification of books.][下面的讨论使用基督教的书籍分类。]

Pentateuch

Genesis recounts the creation of the universe and the first human beings, the traditions of the Deluge, and the stories of the patriarchs down to the sojourn of the Hebrews in Egypt and the deaths of Jacob and Joseph. Exodus tells how Moses led the people from Egypt and received the covenant and Law on Mount Sinai. Leviticus is largely a legal code; Numbers continues the story of migration toward the Promised Land. Deuteronomy partly repeats the narrative, recording other laws, and concludes with the death of Moses. It teaches a strict doctrine of corporate reward and punishment. 成因讲述了人类对宇宙和创造了第一个人类,传统的大洪水,在埃及的故事希伯来人的始祖下所包括的逗留和约瑟夫雅各的死亡。 出埃及记讲述了从摩西带领人民埃及在西奈山接受法律和公约。 利未记主要是法律规范的故事申命记对移民的乐土。 数字部分重复的叙述,录音等法律,并得出结论与死亡。摩西继续它教一严格教义企业的奖励和惩罚。

The Pentateuch is based on four principal sources. The oldest, J, was perhaps written in Judah, the southern kingdom, about 950 BC. 在五是基于四个主要来源。最古老的强,也许是公元前写在犹大,南部,英国,大约有950项。Between 900 and 750, another version from Israel, the northern kingdom, was woven in; this is called Ephraim (E) .在900和750,另外,版本,从以色列,英国北部的编织,这是名叫以法莲(e)项In the 7th century BC, Deuteronomy, or most of it (D) , was compiled.在公元前7世纪,申命记,或者,最它(D)的编制。About 550 BC, during the exile, the final edition of the Torah added a priestly source (P) , some parts of which are very old.约公元前550年,在流放,最终版本的圣经添加的一个圣源(P)的部分,其中太旧。

Historical Books历史书

Joshua tells of a thorough conquest of Canaan, but Judges contains traditions of the Hebrew tribes in the period before the monarchy that reveal the conquest as partial. 约书亚讲述了一个彻底征服迦南,但法官包含希伯来君主制前部落在此期间传统的部分,可以发现作为征服。The books of Samuel are about the founding of the monarchy under Saul and David and contain a magnificent early source for the life of David, probably written about 961 - 22 BC. 撒母耳的书是关于大卫和君主政体建国扫罗和包含下一个宏伟的光源寿命约961早期的书面大概大卫- 22年。All the above books have been extensively edited by writers who shared the theology of the D source.所有上述书籍已被广泛编辑作家谁共享源神学 D。

Ezra and Nehemiah were composed after the exile, when these two leaders restored Judaism in Palestine, and Nehemiah's own memoirs make up much of the latter book. 以斯拉和尼希米人组成的流亡后,当这两位领导人在恢复巴勒斯坦犹太教,和尼希米记的自己的回忆录书中有很多弥补了后者。The two Books of Chronicles cover Hebrew history from Ezra's priestly point of view but contain some valuable earlier traditions. Ruth is the story of a foreign woman who became loyal to Israel and was the ancestor of David. Esther is a tale of a Jewish queen of Persia who saved her people from persecution.书籍记录了两个盖希伯来查看历史,从以斯拉点的祭司,而是包含了一些宝贵的较早的传统。 露丝是女人的故事,一个外国谁成为忠诚于以色列,并且是以斯帖祖先大卫。是一个故事,一个犹太王后波斯谁救她的人免受迫害。

Poetical, or Wisdom, Books诗意,或智慧,书籍

Job contains some of the finest poetry in the Bible.作业包含一些圣经中最优秀的诗歌。Its themes are the problems of suffering and of man's standing before God.它的主题是痛苦的问题和人的上帝面前站立。 The Psalms were essentially composed for temple worship, although some may be pieces of individual devotion.基本上的诗篇组成的寺庙崇拜,虽然有些可能是个人奉献件。Many are ascribed to David, but some come from an earlier period. Proverbs comprises several collections of ancient wisdom.许多人归因于大卫,但一段时间,来自较早。 箴言包括几个收藏的古代智慧。Parts of Ecclesiastes are skeptical, but other sections express conventional wisdom. 传道书零件都持怀疑态度,但其他部分表达传统智慧。The Song of Solomon is a collection of love poems.所罗门之歌是一个爱的诗集。

The Prophets先知

The great prophets of the 8th century BC were Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, and Micah. They proclaimed God's holiness and his judgment on the idol worship and moral abuses of the Hebrew kingdoms, and called the people back to loyalty to the covenant. Jeremiah, the greatest prophet of the 7th century BC, was unique in recording his inner spiritual struggles and in promising a new covenant.公元前8世纪伟大的先知的人阿摩司,何西阿,以赛亚书,弥迦。他们宣布了上帝的圣洁和他的王国的判断上的偶像崇拜的希伯来文和道德滥用的,并号召人民重新效忠的盟约。 耶利米在公元前7世纪最伟大的先知,是独特的,记录他的内在精神的斗争和发展前途的新约。Like Isaiah, he opposed military alliances with foreign nations and resistance to the Babylonian invasion. Zephaniah and perhaps Habakkuk belong to the same century. Nahum gloats over the destruction (612 BC) of Nineveh. 以赛亚一样他反对侵略巴比伦与外国之间的军事联盟和抵抗。哈巴谷西番雅 ,也许属于同一个世纪。 内厄姆尼尼微gloats在销毁(612 BC)的。The most significant prophets during the period of Babylonian exile were the Ezekiel and the unknown authors of chapters 40 - 55 and 56 - 66 of Isaiah, who encouraged the return of the Jews to the Holy Land and promised a glorious national life. Lamentations reflects the miseries of the exile.巴比伦流亡期间最显着先知以西结和过程是未知的40个章节的作者- 55和56 - ,以赛亚谁鼓励返回到犹太人的圣地,并承诺光荣国民生活。 悲叹反映66不幸的流亡。

The remaining prophets followed the exile. Obadiah is strongly nationalistic; Jonah expresses God's concern for Gentiles as well as Jews. Haggai and Zechariah 1 - 8 reflect the rebuilding of a small temple in Jerusalem. Joel, Zechariah 9 - 14, and Malachi combine the themes of judgment and restoration and have apocalyptic elements. Daniel is an apocalypse from the Maccabean period (c. 164 BC) and promises God's help to the Jews in time of persecution.其余的先知遵循的流亡;。 俄巴底是强烈的民族神的关心外邦人以及犹太人。 哈约拿和撒迦利亚1 - 8反映了重建9,撒迦利亚小庙表现在耶路撒冷。 乔尔- ​​14,和玛拉基结合恢复的主题,并判断和世界末日的元素。 丹尼尔是一个)的天启从maccabean期间(约公元前164,并承诺在时间的犹太人的迫害上帝的帮助。

The New Testament新约

Major Themes and Characteristics主要主题和特色

Covenant and law are central in the Old Testament, and Jesus Christ is central in the New Testament. The dominant theme is the interpretation of Jesus' nature as Christ or Messiah (the anointed one), Son of man, Son of God, Lord, and Prophet. This was a complete reinterpretation of the Jewish hope for an anointed king descended from David. 公约和法律是旧的中央在旧约,和耶稣基督是中央在新约。占主导地位的主题是主耶稣的解释,'性质,基督或弥赛亚(受膏者一),儿子的神人,儿子,和先知。受膏为王,这是犹太人的希望重新解释为一个完整的大卫的后裔。 Perhaps before Jesus' death, his disciples had already acclaimed him as Messiah, but they became convinced of this from experiences that proved to them he was again alive.也许之前,耶稣的死,他的弟子们已经一致拥戴他为救世主,但他们开始相信,从经验,也证明了他们这一点,他又被活着。 Thus the Resurrection is the second major theme. The Messiah now came to mean, not a conquering, successful king, but a crucified Lord whose unique relationship to God could be suggested only partially by the titles applied to him.因此复活是第二大的主题。弥赛亚已经亮了的意思,而不是征服,成功的国王,而是一个钉在十字架上的主其独特的关系,以上帝可以向他建议只适用于部分由标题。

In explaining and defending their faith, the disciples of Jesus found passages in the Old Testament that they believed were prophecies of his death, resurrection, and nature (for example, Psalm 110:1, Isaiah 53; Daniel 7:13 - 14). They also preserved Jesus' sayings and the stories of his life, which they interpreted in light of their faith. Jesus had proclaimed the gospel ("good news") of the coming reign, or kingdom, of God and carried on a ministry of teaching, forgiveness, and healing. Although much of his teaching agreed with that of other Jews, his more radical and prophetic sayings made enemies.在解释和捍卫自己的信仰,相信耶稣的门徒发现在旧约经文,他们复活的预言他的死亡,与自然的(例如,诗篇110:1,以赛亚书53;丹尼尔7:13 - 14)。他们还保存耶稣的说法和他们的信仰的故事,他的生命,其中光他们解释。 耶稣已宣布了福音(“好消息”)即将到来的统治,或王国的上帝,并进行了教学部,宽恕,和治疗。虽然大部分教学的同意他的说法与该预言的其他犹太人,他 ​​更激进,使敌人。The high priest and his associates feared Jesus as a threat to the established order, and the Roman governor Pontius Pilate was persuaded to have Jesus crucified.大祭司和他的同事担心,作为对耶稣建立秩序的威胁,而罗马总督彼拉多被说服有耶稣钉在十字架上。Thus, the gospel tradition contains both the message of Jesus and the proclamation of his divine nature.因此,传统,同时包含了福音的耶稣的消息和他的神性公告。

Other new experiences of ecstasy and prophecy were interpreted as gifts of the Holy Spirit. Indeed, most books of the New Testament ponder the relation of the old and the new. 摇头丸及其他新体验过的预言被解释为精神礼品的神圣。事实上,新约大多数书籍的思考,新的关系的老人和。Christians, and Jesus himself, believed in the same God as other Jews and recognized the authority of the Old Testament.基督徒,耶稣自己,信奉同一个上帝的犹太人和其他公认的旧约的权威。Yet Jesus had made radical statements that undermined the separateness of Judaism and led logically to the admission of Gentiles into the community.然而,耶稣曾提出,破坏了​​犹太教的独立性,并导致逻辑上的外邦人进入社区入场激进的声明。Thus, there emerged a Church embracing Jews and non Jews that was interpreted as based on a new covenant inaugurated by Jesus. Paul, the greatest apostle of the Gentile mission, defended his policies by teaching that the basis for acceptance by God is faith in Jesus Christ; yet Paul did not wish to break continuity with the old religion.因此, 出现了一所教堂拥抱犹太人和非犹太人,被解释为基于一个新的盟约使命宣誓就职,由耶稣。保罗,詹蒂莱最大的使徒,教他的政策辩护神的基础上通过验收的是耶稣的信仰基督,但保罗不希望打破宗教与旧的连续性。

The New Testament contains a strong apocalyptic element.新约包含一个强有力的世界末日的元素。Jesus' parables and sayings regarding the coming reign of God are enigmatic, and it is not certain that he expected the early end of the world; but many original Christians believed they were living in the last age.耶稣的比喻和谚语关于神来统治是神秘的,它是不能肯定,他预计世界早日结束,但许多原有的基督教徒相信,他们生活在过去的时代。 Nevertheless, much of the moral teaching of the New Testament is aimed at everyday life in this world, and Christian behavior is a constant theme. The New Testament reflects other concerns of community life, including public worship and church organization, but equal emphasis is placed on individual Prayer and communion with God.不过, 全书大部分的新时期德育教学的目的是这个世界的日常生活中,和基督教的行为是一个不变的主题。新约,反映社会生活的其他问题,包括公共崇拜和教会组织,而是平等的重点是放在个人祈祷和上帝的交流。

The New Testament covers a much shorter period of time than the Old Testament, and its interests are fewer and more intense.新约范围比旧约更短的时间内,它的利益更少,而且更激烈。This is partly because Christians had access to the Old Testament and other Jewish books.这部分是因为基督徒已进入旧约和其他犹太人的书籍。The New Testament was written concisely.新约写简明。Almost no attempt was made to imitate the fashionable literature of the time; yet the writings have great rhetorical power.几乎没有试图模仿时尚文学的时间,然而修辞学的著作有很大的权力。Natural science had little influence.自然科学的影响不大。The outlook is not unscientific but prescientific; these are writings of faith, not speculation.前景并不不科学的,但前科学,这些都是信仰的著作,而不是投机。

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The Canon佳能

The process by which the canon of the New Testament was formed began in the 2d century, probably with a collection of ten letters of Paul. Toward the end of that century, Irenaeus argued for the unique authority of the portion of the Canon called the Gospels. Acceptance of the other books came gradually.其中的过程, 形成了佳能的新约始于2世纪保罗,可能与一十个字母集合。走向世纪末的是,爱任纽佳能主张的独特部分权力被调用的福音。图书验收,其他已逐步。 The church in Egypt used more than the present 27 books, and the Syriac speaking churches fewer.在埃及教会使用超过目前的27本书,并说叙利亚教会少。The question of an official canon became urgent during the 4th century.一个官方的问题变得迫切佳能在第四世纪。It was mainly through the influence of Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, and because Jerome included the 27 books in his Latin version of the Bible called the Vulgate, that the present canon came to be accepted.它主要是通过影响亚他那修的亚历山大主教,因为圣经杰罗姆包括拉丁美洲版本的27个在他的书被称为武加大,当前的佳能逐渐被接受。

Divisions of the New Testament司的新约

The New Testament consists of four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, collections of Epistles, and the Book of Revelation.新约包括四福音,使徒的行为,书信集,和启示录。

The Gospels福音

Originally gospel meant "good news"(Greek evangelion). The term was later applied to books embodying this message.本来福音的意思是“好消息”(希腊福音)。一词后来被应用于书籍体现此消息。These are not biographies but proclamations of the good news in story form.这些都不是传记,但在故事的形式好消息宣言。 Although all dates for New Testament books are debated, prevailing opinion dates Mark AD 68 - 72, Luke and Matthew c.虽然新约圣经的书籍所有日期进行辩论,当时的舆论日期马克公元68 - 72,卢克和马修角85, and John 95 - 100.85,约翰95 - 100。The first three, called synoptic because they can be compared side by side, have a complicated literary relationship with each other.前三,所谓天气,因为它们可以并排比较,有一个复杂的相互文学的关系。Probably Matthew and Luke used Mark and a lost document called Q (German Quelle, "source"), consisting mainly of Jesus' sayings. The parables - short illustrative stories told by Jesus, usually reflecting daily life - are prominent in the synoptics. The Gospel of John differs from the others in structure and reflects the theological development of the first century, but it contains traditions independent of the synoptics.也许马修和卢克使用马克和丢失的文件称为Q(德文Quelle的,“源”),谚语为主的耶稣' - 。简短的比喻说明耶稣讲的,通常反映生活-突出。在天气学是约翰福音的结构不同于其他人,反映的第一个世纪的神学发展,但它包含了传统的天气学无关。

The Acts此法案

The Acts of the Apostles was evidently written by Luke as a sequel to his Gospel.在使徒行传显然是写的卢克作为他的福音续集。 It recounts the traditions of the earliest churches in Palestine and gives the details of Paul's missionary journeys.它叙述了在巴勒斯坦最早的教会的传统,并给出了保罗的传教行程的细节。

The Epistles书信

Two kinds of Epistles are attributed to St. Paul in the New Testament.两种类型的书信,是由于圣保罗的新约。Nine of them (ten, if Ephesians is included) are letters addressed by Paul to specific churches and deal mainly with problems of faith, morals, and community life.其中九(十,如以弗所书是包括在内)得到解决,主要是由保罗的信仰,道德和社会生活中的问题和处理的具体教会信。These letters disclose Paul's interpretation of Christianity and his methods of dealing with pastoral problems.这些信件透露保罗的解释基督教和与他的方法处理问题田园。The remainder are not actual letters; rather they are writings in letter form, intended for the whole church or large parts of it.其余的是不实际的信件,而是他们在信的形式著作,为整个教会或大部份意。Thus, the pastoral Epistles - 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus - written in Paul's name, contain directions for church leaders and warn against errors in doctrine and behavior.因此,田园书信 - 1和2提摩太和提多书 - 保罗的名字写的,包含了方向和对教会领袖在教义和行为的错误警告。Hebrews is a carefully constructed sermon by an unknown author and interprets Christ as high priest and urges fidelity in time of persecution.希伯来人是由一个不知名的作者精心构建的说教和解释为大祭司基督,并敦促当时的迫害的保真度。

The general, or catholic, Epistles are so called because they are directed to the church as a whole. The Epistle of James emphasizes the importance of good deeds against an empty type of belief that involves no right action. The first Epistle of Peter proclaims joy in the face of persecution and is addressed particularly to congregations with newly baptized members. The Epistles of John resemble the fourth Gospel.一般,或天主教,书信是所谓的,因为它们是针对整个教堂。 詹姆斯书信强调行动的重要性,对好人好事型空认为,不涉及权利。彼得的第一次书信宣布喜悦在面对迫害和处理,特别是受洗的教友与新成员。 约翰书信类似于第四个福音。St. John teaches the intimate relationship between love of the brotherhood and the true doctrine about Christ; he also attacks division within the church. 圣约翰教导对基督亲密关系的兄弟之间的爱和真正的教义,他还攻击教堂内的分工。

Revelation启示

The Book of Revelation was probably written to encourage Christians to be faithful during a persecution under Domitian (AD 81 - 96).启示录可能是书面鼓励基督徒将在迫害下多米田(公元81 - 96)忠诚。It portrays the future through many symbols, and the prophet expects God's judgment on the Roman Empire, a 1,000 year reign of Christ, and a new heaven and a new Earth.它通过许多符号描绘的未来,希望上帝和先知的对罗马帝国,是一个基督的千年统治,一个新的天堂和新地球的判断。

Versions of the Bible版本的圣经

Several Aramaic targums (free translations or paraphrases) of the Old Testament exist; some of them may be older than the Christian Era. 几个阿拉姆targums(免费翻译或意译)的旧约存在,他们中的一些可能会早于基督教时代。The Greek Septuagint, whose canon was not strictly defined, was gradually produced during the last three centuries BC.希腊译本,佳能并没有严格的界定,是逐步产生的,在过去三个世纪公元前。An Old Latin version of both Testaments was revised by Jerome, producing the Vulgate. 一个古老的拉丁文圣经版本都进行了修订,由Jerome,生产武加大。Ancient versions exist in Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, and other languages. 古老的版本存在于叙利亚,科普特人,亚美尼亚人,和其他语言。

During the Middle Ages, parts of the Bible were put into Anglo Saxon and Middle English.在中世纪,圣经零件被放进盎格鲁撒克逊和中古英语。The first English versions of the entire Bible were made (1380 - 93) by John Wycliffe and his associates who used the Latin text.整个圣经的第一个英文版本是(1380 - 93)由约翰威克里夫和他的同事谁使用拉丁文字。The Reformation gave further impulse to translations into modern languages, notably that of Martin Luther in German and William Tyndale in English.改革作了进一步的冲动翻译成现代语言,特别是在德国的马丁路德和威廉代尔英语。 Among later versions are the following: Miles Coverdale's Bible (1535), Matthew's Bible (1537), the Great Bible (1539), Geneva Bible (1560), Rheims - Douai Bible (1582, 1609), King James, or Authorized, Version (1611), English Revised Version (1881 - 85), American Standard Version (1946 - 57), New English Bible (1961 - 70), Jerusalem Bible (1966), New American Bible (1970), Today's English Version (1966 - 76), and the Revised Standard Version (1946 - 1971).在后来的版本有以下几方面:迈尔斯代尔的圣经(1535),马修的圣经(1537),大圣经(1539年),日内瓦圣经(1560年),兰斯-杜埃圣经(1582年,1609年), 国王詹姆斯,或授权版本(1611年),英文修订版(1881 - 85),美国标准版(1946 - 57),新英文圣经(1961 - 70),耶路撒冷圣经(1966年),新美国圣经(1970),今天的英国版(1966 - 76),及经修订的标准版(1946 - 1971)。


Interpretation andStudy of the Bible解读和圣经研究

Ancient Interpretations古老的诠释

Ancient Jews and Christians believed their Scriptures to be inspired by God and intended to guide all generations.古代犹太人和基督徒相信他们的圣经是神所默示旨在引导各代。The interpretative method called Midrash sought to make the biblical message relevant to the actual needs of the community, to remove obscurities and contradictions, to find fulfillments of prophecies, and to answer questions not raised in the Bible by discovering allegorical meanings.解释性方法称为米德拉士力求使圣经的消息有关社会的实际需要删除晦涩和矛盾,找到预言fulfillments,并回答圣经中没有发现寓意提出疑问。 This process is seen in the Dead Sea Scrolls, the paraphrases, or targums, of the Old Testament, and the writings of the philosopher Philo; and it has influenced New Testament theology.这个过程被认为是在死海古卷的释义,或targums,在旧约,和哲学家斐洛的著作,以及它影响新约神学。The Rabbis used midrash to settle legal problems; it appears in the Talmud as well as in the Midrashim, or homiletical commentaries.拉比用米德拉士解决法律问题,它出现在犹太法典以及米大示,或homiletical评论。

Christians were influenced both by Jewish tradition and by philosophers who explained Greek myths as allegories.基督徒都影响了犹太传统和哲学家谁解释为希腊神话的寓言。The Alexandrian scholar Origen distinguished literal and allegorical meanings in the Old Testament, and his followers found three or four ways to interpret a specific text. The school of Antioch, represented by commentators such as Theodore of Mopsuestia and the great preacher John Chrysostom, insisted on the natural and literal meaning of Scripture. During the Middle Ages the allegorical method largely prevailed.在亚历山大的学者奥利杰出的旧约文字和寓言的意义,以及他的追随者发现三或四种方式来解释一个特定的文本。 安提阿学派,金口约翰表示,如西奥多由评论家的Mopsuestia和伟大的布道者,坚持圣经的字面意思自然。在中世纪的寓言方法主要是占了上风。

Modern Study现代研究

During the Renaissance, a revival of the study of Greek and Latin classics occurred that led Christian scholars to study Hebrew.在文艺复兴时期,一对希腊和拉丁经典研究复兴的发生,导致基督教学者研究希伯来语。Literary and historical criticism, which had been carried on in ancient times, now received a new impetus.文学和历史的批评,这在古代曾进行倍,现在已经收到了新的动力。Although the allegorical method never died out in Catholicism and Protestantism, the new learning influenced the study of the Bible, and in the 18th century the techniques of classical studies began to be employed systematically.寓言方法虽然从来没有死在天主教和基督教的,新的学习影响的研究圣经,并在18世纪的古典研究的技术开始被采用系统。 Improved dictionaries and grammars were part of this process.改进的字典和语法是这一进程的一部分。

Textual Criticism考证

Textual criticism is an important part of biblical interpretation.考证是解释圣经的重要组成部分。This is the comparison of manuscripts of the Bible in the original languages and versions, including quotations by ancient authors, to determine as nearly as possible the original wording.这是圣经的手稿在原来的语言和版本,包括古代作家报价比较,以确定尽​​可能接近原来的措辞。Literary criticism is the study of the document itself in comparison with other books - biblical and nonbiblical - to disclose the method, style, and purpose of the author; the author's identity; the written and oral sources used by the author; and the date and place of the writing. This has led to theories regarding sources of the Pentateuch and the Gospels, the dating of Paul's letters, and the distinctions between parts of Isaiah.文学批评是在与其他书籍对比文件本身的研究 - 圣经和nonbiblical - 公开的方法,风格和作者的目的,作者的身份;的书面和口头的作者使用来源,日期和写作的地方。 这导致了理论关于以赛亚来源五和福音,的约会保信,零部件及它们之间的区别。

Form Criticism形式批评

Form criticism studies the oral tradition behind a document.形式批评研究的文件背后的口头传统。Every oral tradition is modified by the life situations in which it is transmitted, and the stages of change can often be discerned, as in the stories of Abraham and Sarah.每一个口头传统被修改的生活中,它是传播情况,变化的阶段,往往可以看出,如亚伯拉罕和莎拉的故事。One may classify the Psalms according to their probable uses in worship.人们可以按照分类的诗篇在崇拜及其可能的用途。In the parables of Jesus, the original purpose can be distinguished from the church's interpretations and modifications. Form critics believe that the elements in Jesus' teaching that do not match the interests of Judaism or of the early church reflect his specific point of view.在耶稣的比喻,原来的目的可区别于教会的解释和修改。 形式批评者认为,教学中的元素不匹配耶稣早期教会的利益,犹太教或反映其具体的角度来看。

Redaction Criticism节录批评

Redaction criticism, the study of editing, assumes that the authors of biblical books had a definite theology and purpose and were not mere collectors of traditions.节录批评,编辑学,假定圣经书籍的作者产生了一定的神学和目的,并没有单纯的传统收藏家。Thus the traits of the writer of a book or a source can be distinguished from those of the materials by observing style and editorial method.因此,出书或来源作家特征可以区别开来的材料通过观察这些风格和编辑的方法。Both form and redaction criticism involve the individual judgments of scholars; perfect agreement cannot be expected.节录形式和学者的批评,涉及个人的判断;完美的协议,不能指望。

Historical Criticism历史批判

Historical criticism, which is the method of all serious historians, applies all these disciplines to the Bible and takes into account all historical evidence available, in both written documents and archaeological discoveries.历史的批评,这是所有认真的历史学家方法,适用于所有这些学科的圣经,并考虑到所有的历史证据,可在书面文件和考古发现。 Thus Ugaritic, Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian, Persian, and other records used with the Bible, aid in reconstructing the course of Hebrew history.因此乌加里特文,巴比伦,亚述,埃及,波斯,与圣经中的希伯来历史重建过程中使用的其他援助的记录。New Testament history and the development of early Christian theology are illuminated by studying the documents of the Jewish and Greco Roman religions and Christian writings outside the New Testament.新约圣经的历史和早期基督教神学的发展,是照亮新约以外地方就读的犹太和希​​腊罗马的宗教和基​​督教的著作的文件。

Sherman E Johnson谢尔曼é约翰逊

Bibliography 参考书目
Old Testament旧约全书
BW Anderson, Understanding the Old Testament (1986); GW Coats and BO Long, eds., Canon and Authority (1977); JL McKenzie, The Two Edged Sword (1956); JA Sanders, Torah and Canon (1972); G Von Rad, Old Testament Theology (1962).体重安德森,了解旧约(1986年);。毛重大衣和BO龙编,佳能和权力(1977年); JL麦肯齐,这两个双刃剑(1956年);司法机构政务长桑德斯,律法和佳能(1972)100冯RAD数据通信公司,旧约神学(1962年)。

New Testament新约全书
RM Grant, The Formation of the New Testament (1966); HC Kee, Understanding the New Testament (1983); CFD Moule, The Birth of the New Testament (1981); JM Robinson and H Koester, Trajectories through Early Christianity (1971).室,在新约圣经(1966)平整补助;高等法院记,了解新约圣经(1983年);差价莫尔,出生新约(1981年); JM罗宾逊和H科伊斯特,通过早期基督教(1971年)轨迹。

History and Criticism历史与批评
R Alter and F Kermode, eds., The Literary Guide to the Bible (1987); FF Bruce, History of the Bible in English (1978); CH Dodd, The Bible Today (1946); RE Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible?ř阿尔特和F克莫德合编,圣经文学指南(1987年);。法郎布鲁斯,英文圣经(1978年)的历史; CH多德,圣经今天(1946年),重新弗里德曼,谁写的圣经吗?(1987); RM Grant and D Tracy, A Short History of the Interpretation of the Bible (1984); K Koch, The Growth of Biblical Tradition (1969); N Perrin, What Is Redaction Criticism? (1987年);产品格兰特和D特雷西,一个圣经(1984)诠释的简短历史,K表科赫,对圣经的传统(1969年)增长; ñ佩林,什么是Redaction批评?(1969).(1969年)。


Bible圣经

Advanced Information先进的信息

The English word "Bible" is derived from the Greek biblion, "roll" or "book."英语单词“圣经”是来自希腊biblion,“滚动”或“一书。”(While biblion is really a diminutive of biblos, it has lost this sense in the NT. See Rev. 10:2 where biblaridion is used for a "little scroll.") More exactly, a biblion was a roll of papyrus or byblus, a reedlike plant whose inner bark was dried and fashioned into a writing material widely used in the ancient world. (虽然biblion确实是一个biblos矮小,它已经失去了这种在新台币。参见牧师10时02分在biblaridion意义是为使用“小书卷。”),更确切地说,是一个biblion的纸莎草纸或byblus辊,一芦苇状植物,其树皮内层是干燥并在古代世界广泛使用的书写材料过时。

The word as we use it today, however, has a far more significant connotation than the Greek biblion.按照我们的使用这个词,今天,然而,有一个比希腊biblion更​​为重要的内涵。While biblion was somewhat neutral, it could be used to designate books of magic (Acts 19:19) or a bill of divorcement (Mark 10:4) as well as sacred books, the word "Bible" refers to the Book par excellence, the recognized record of divine revelation.虽然biblion有点中性的,它可以用于指定的魔术(徒19:19)或离婚(马可福音10:4),以及神圣的书籍法案的书籍中,“圣经”,是指图书出色,公认的神圣启示的记录。

Although this meaning is ecclesiastical in origin, its roots go back into the OT.虽然这意思是起源于教会,其根源可追溯到进入加时赛。In Dan.在丹。9:2 (LXX) ta biblia refers to the prophetic writings.9:2(LXX的)电讯局长biblia指的是先知的著作。In the Prologue to Sirach it refers generally to the OT Scriptures.在的序幕西拉奇它是指通常在圣经旧约。This usage passed into the Christian church (II Clem. 14:2) and about the turn of the fifth century was extended to include the entire body of canonical writings as we now have them.到基督教教会(二克莱姆。14:2),大约在第五世纪之交通过这种用法是扩大到包括整个身体的典型著作,因为我们现在拥有他。 The expression ta biblia passed into the vocabulary of the Western church and in the thirteenth century, by what Westcott calls a "happy solecism," the neuter plural came to be regarded as a feminine singular, and in this form the term passed into the languages of modern Europe.电讯局长的表达到的词汇和西方教会在十三世纪由什么韦斯科特调用,通过biblia“快乐谬误”的中性复数后来被认为是女性奇异,并在此形成学期中的语言传递现代欧洲。 This significant change from plural to singular reflected the growing conception of the Bible as one utterance of God rather than a multitude of voices speaking for him.这从复数奇异重大变化反映了作为一个神的话语,而不是为他说话的声音越来越众多的圣经观。

The process by which the various books in the Bible were brought together and their value as sacred Scripture recognized is referred to as the history of the canon.由这在圣经的各种书籍被带到一起,他们作为神圣的经文认可价值的过程被称为作为佳能的历史。Contrary to prevailing critical opinion, there existed, prior to the Exile, a large body of sacred literature.相反,当时的批评意见,存在之前,流放,一个神圣的大量文献。Moses wrote "all the words of the Lord" in the "book of the covenant" (Exod. 21-23; 24:4, 7).摩西写在“圣约书”“主所有的话”(出21-23; 24:4,7)。Joshua's farewell address was written "in the book of the law of God" (Josh. 24:26). Joshua的告别演说写着“在神的律法书”(Josh. 24:26)。Samuel spoke concerning the manner of the kingdom and "wrote it in a book" (I Sam. 10:25).塞缪尔谈到关于天国的方式,“在书上写道:”(我心。10:25)。"Thus saith the Lord" was the common preface to the utterances of the prophets.“耶和华如此说:”是共同的序言先知的话语。

This revelatory literature, although not reaching a fixed form until late in the second century BC, was nevertheless regarded from the very first as the revealed will of God and therefore binding upon the people.这启示文学,虽然没有达到,直到公元前二世纪中后期,一但被视为固定的形式从最初的为神的意志,因此发现后,人具有约束力。 The "oracles of God" were held in highest esteem, and this attitude toward the Scriptures was quite naturally carried over into the early church. “神的圣言”举行了最高的尊重,这对圣经的态度是很自然延续到早期教会了。Few will deny that Jesus regarded the OT as an inspired record of God's self-revelation in history.很少人会否认耶稣看作是上帝的自我启示的灵感记录在历史上的催产素。He repeatedly appealed to the Scriptures as authoritative (Matt. 19:4; 22:29).他一再呼吁圣经的权威性(太19:4; 22:29)。The early church maintained this same attitude toward the OT, but alongside of it they began to place the words of the Lord.早期教会认为这对催产素同样的态度,但它同时他们开始把主的话。While the OT canon had been formally closed, the coming of Christ had, in a sense, opened it again.虽然加时赛佳能已经正式关闭,未来的基督曾在某种意义上说,它打开了。God was once again speaking.上帝再次发言。Since the cross was the central redemptive act of God in history, the NT became a logical necessity.由于十字架的中央神救赎的行为在历史上,新台币成为逻辑的必然。Thus the voice of the apostles, and later their writings, were accepted as the divine commentary on the Christ event.因此,使徒们的声音,后来他们的著作,被接纳为神圣的基督事件的评论。

Viewed as a historical process, the formation of the NT canon occupied some 350 years.作为一个历史过程来看,佳能的新台币350年形成占领了一些。In the first century the various books were written and began to be circulated through the churches.在第一世纪的各种书籍的写作,并开始通过教会分发。The rise of heresy in the second century, especially in the form of Gnosticism with its outstanding spokesman, Marcion was a powerful impulse toward the formation of a definite canon.在第二个世纪兴起的异端,尤其是在其优秀的发言人诺斯替主义的形式,马吉安是朝着一个明确的佳能形成强大的冲击。A sifting process began in which valid Scripture distinguished itself from Christian literature in general on the basis of such criteria as apostolic authorship, reception by the churches, and consistency of doctrine with what the church already possessed.一开始筛选过程中,普遍有效的经文本身杰出的基督教文学的著作权为使徒,由教会接待,以及与教会已经拥有什么学说根据这​​些标准的一致性。 The canon was ultimately certified at the Council of Carthage (397).佳能送往最终安理会的迦太基(397)。

The claim of the Bible to divine origin is amply justified by its historical influence.圣经的要求,以神圣的起源是有充分理由支持其历史​​影响。Its manuscripts are numbered in the thousands.其手稿的编号数千。The NT had barely been put together before we find translations in Latin, Syriac, and Egyptian.新台币刚刚被放在一起,才发现在拉丁美洲,叙利亚和埃及的翻译。Today there is not a language in the civilized world that does not have the word of God.今天还没有一个在文明世界的语言,没有上帝的话。No other book has been so carefully studied or had so much written on it.没有其他书籍已如此仔细研究或有那么多的纸条。Its spiritual influence cannot be estimated.其精神的影响无法估计。It is preeminently the Book God's word in man's language.这是坦白,勇敢书神在人的语言文字。

RH Mounce相对湿度芒斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
FF Bruce, The Books and the Parchments; BF Westcott, The Bible in the Church; PR Ackroyd et al., eds., The Cambridge History of the Bible, 3 vols.; DE Nineham, ed., The Church's Use of the Bible; A. Harnack, Bible Reading in the Early Church; NO Hatch and MA Noll, The Bible in America; B. Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages; A. Richardson, The Bible in the Age of Science; J. Barr, The Bible in the Modern World.法郎布鲁斯,书籍和羊皮纸,高炉Westcott,在教会的圣经。公关阿克罗伊德等人合编,圣经,3卷剑桥史;。。。德Nineham,海关,教会的圣经使用的A.哈纳克,读经,在早期教会,没有哈奇和MA诺尔,在美国圣经乙斯莫利,对在中世纪圣经研究;甲理查森,在科学时代的圣经; Ĵ 。巴尔,在现代世界的圣经。


The Bible圣经

Catholic Information天主教新闻

A collection of writings which the Church of God has solemnly recognized as inspired.其中一个神的教会已郑重承认作品集的启发。

The name is derived from the Greek expression biblia (the books), which came into use in the early centuries of Christianity to designate the whole sacred volume.这个名字是来自希腊的表达biblia(书),这将在基督教的早期百年来指定整个神圣的体积来了。In the Latin of the Middle Ages, the neuter plural for Biblia (gen. bibliorum) gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun (biblia, gen. bibliae, in which singular form the word has passed into the languages of the Western world. It means "The Book", by way of eminence, and therefore well sets forth the sacred character of our inspired literature. Its most important equivalents are: "The Divine Library" (Bibliotheca Divina), which was employed by St. Jerome in the fourth century; "the Scriptures", "the Holy Scripture" -- terms which are derived from expressions found in the Bible itself; and "the Old and New Testament", in which collective title, "the Old Testament" designates the sacred books written before the coming of Our Lord, and "the New Testament" denotes the inspired writings composed since the coming of Christ.在中世纪,拉丁语为Biblia中性复数(创bibliorum)逐渐被视为是女性的单数名词(biblia,将军认为。bibliae,其中单数形式的词已经成为西方世界的语言传递。意思是“书”,由卓越的方式,因此也阐述了我们的灵感文学的神圣性,其最重要的等值是:。“神库”(书目迪维纳),这是由圣杰罗姆受雇于第四个世纪,“圣经”,“圣经” - 这是源自于圣经本身找到的表达式的条件;和“旧约和新约”,在这种集体称号,“旧约”指定的神圣书上之前,我们的主来了,“新约”,是指由于未来的基督组成的启发的著作。

It is a fact of history that in the time of Christ the Jews were in possession of sacred books, which differed widely from one another in subject, style, origin and scope, and it is also a fact that they regarded all such writings as invested with a character which distinguished them from all other books.这是一个历史事实,在当时的犹太人在基督神圣的书籍,这从一个不同的主题,风格,起源和范围广泛的另一个藏有,这也是事实,他们认为所有这些著作作为投资用字符而区别于其他所有的书上。 This was the Divine authority of every one of these books and of every part of each book.这是每一个这些书籍,每本书的每一部分神圣的权力。This belief of the Jews was confirmed by Our Lord and His Apostles; for they supposed its truth in their teaching, used it as a foundation of their doctrine, and intimately connected with it the religious system of which they were the founders.这是犹太人的信仰是我们的主,证实了他的门徒,因为他们应该在他们的教学它的真理,用来作为其学说的基础它,与它紧密相连的宗教体系,而他俩的创始人。 The books thus approved were handed down to the Christian Church as the written record of Divine revelation before the coming of Christ.因此,这些书被批准为流传的神的启示在基督的书面记录来的基督教堂。The truths of Christian revelation were made known to the Apostles either by Christ Himself or by the Holy Ghost.基督教启示的真理提出了著名的使徒无论是基督本人或由圣灵。They constitute what is called the Deposit of Faith, to which nothing has been added since the Apostolic Age.它们构成了所谓存款的信心,对此什么也没有说,因为使徒时代。Some of the truths were committed to writing under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost and have been handed down to us in the books of the New Testament.有些人的真理承诺下的圣灵灵感写作和流传下来的新约中的书给我们。 Written originally to individual Churches or persons, to meet particular necessities, and accommodated as they all were to particular and existing circumstances, these books were gradually received by the universal Church as inspired, and with the sacred books of the Jews constitute the Bible.书面原本个别教会或个人,以满足特定的必需品,因为他们都被安置到特定的和现有的情况下,这些人逐渐接受了普世教会的启发,并与犹太人的神圣的书籍书籍构成的圣经。

In one respect, therefore, the Bible is a twofold literature, made up of two distinct collections which correspond with two successive and unequal periods of time in the history of man.在一个方面,因此,圣经是一个双重的文学,由两个不同的集合,它们对应连续两次和不平等,在人类历史时期了。The older of these collection, mostly written in Hebrew, corresponds with the many centuries during which the Jewish people enjoyed a national existence, and forms the Hebrew, or Old Testament, literature; the more recent collection, begun not long after Our Lord's ascension, and made up of Greek writings, is the Early Christian, or New Testament, literature.作者主要是在希伯来文写这些集合,年纪较大的对应于在此期间,犹太人民享有民族存在许多世纪以来,形成了希伯来文,或旧约,文学,更近的集合,开始不经过我们的主升天长,并提出了对希腊的著作,是早期基督教,或新约,文学。 Yet, in another and deeper respect, the Biblical literature is pre-eminently one.然而,在另一个更深的尊重,圣经文学是前突出的一个。 Its two sets of writings are most closely connected with regard to doctrines revealed, facts recorded, customs described, and even expressions used.它的两个作品集最密切透露,事实记录,海关介绍,甚至表达式中使用连接方面的学说。Above all, both collection have one and the same religious purpose, one and the same inspired character.总之,既收集有一个和相同的宗教目的,是同一个的品格。They form the two parts of a great organic whole the centre of which is the person and mission of Christ.它们构成了一个伟大的有机整体中心的两部分人,这是基督的使命。The same Spirit exercised His mysterious hidden influence on the writings of both Testaments, and made of the works of those who lived before Our Lord an active and steady preparation for the New Testament dispensation which he was to introduce, and of the works of those who wrote after Him a real continuation and striking fulfilment of the old Covenant.本着同样的精神行使双方圣经的著作他的神秘隐藏的影响,以及对那些在我们的主是谁的新约省却介绍,他是积极稳妥的准备工作取得的生活,和那些谁的作品他写出了一个真实的继续和老公约引人注目的实现。

The Bible, as the inspired recorded of revelation, contains the word of God; that is, it contains those revealed truths which the Holy Ghost wishes to be transmitted in writing.圣经,作为灵感的启示录,包含了上帝的话,那就是,它包含那些揭示的真理,而圣灵要以书面形式传送。However, all revealed truths are not contained in the Bible (see TRADITION); neither is every truth in the Bible revealed, if by revelation is meant the manifestation of hidden truths which could not other be known.然而,所有发现的真理是不包含在圣经(见​​传统),也不是每一个在圣经真理透露,如果启示,指的是隐藏的真理,而不是其他的表现可能是众所周知的。 Much of the Scripture came to its writers through the channels of ordinary knowledge, but its sacred character and Divine authority are not limited to those parts which contain revelation strictly so termed.大部分的经文来的作家,通过普通知识的渠道,但其神圣的性质和神圣的权力并不限于那些部分,包含的启示严格,所以被称为。 The Bible not only contains the word of God; it is the word of God.圣经不仅包含了上帝的话,这是神的话。The primary author is the Holy Ghost, or, as it is commonly expressed, the human authors wrote under the influence of Divine inspiration.主要作者是圣灵,或者,因为它是普遍表示,人的作家下,神圣的灵感影响写道。It was declared by the Vatican Council (Sess. III, c. ii) that the sacred and canonical character of Scripture would not be sufficiently explained by saying that the books were composed by human diligence and then approved by the Church, or that they contained revelation without error.它被宣布由梵蒂冈会达(sess.三,长二)表示,神圣的经文和典型性格将无法充分,说这书是由人组成的尽职调查,再由教会批准的,或者说他们中解释启示录没有错误。 They are sacred and canonical "because, having been written by inspiration of the Holy Ghost, that have God for their author, and as such have been handed down to the Church".他们是神圣的,规范的“,因为有被圣灵的启示,这对他们的作者写神,因此流传下来的教会”。The inerrancy of the Bible follows as a consequence of this Divine authorship.圣经的无误如下由于这一神圣的著作权的后果。Wherever the sacred writer makes a statement as his own, that statement is the word of God and infallibly true, whatever be the subject-matter of the statement.无论在何处,使神圣的作家,作为他自己的声明,该声明是上帝的话和infallibly属实,无论是主题的声明的问题。

It will be seen, therefore, that though the inspiration of any writer and the sacred character of his work be antecedent to its recognition by the Church yet we are dependent upon the Church for our knowledge of the existence of this inspiration.这可以看出,因此,虽然对任何作家和他的工作的神圣性的灵感是先行,以确认其由教会还教会我们依赖于我们对这种灵感存在的知识。 She is the appointed witness and guardian of revelation.她是委任监护人的见证和启示。From her alone we know what books belong to the Bible.从她独处时,我们知道什么书是圣经。At the Council of Trent she enumerated the books which must be considered "as sacred and canonical".在安理会的遄达,她列举了必须考虑“的神圣和规范”的书籍。They are the seventy-two books found in Catholic editions, forty-five in the Old Testament and twenty-seven in the New.他们是七十二个版本的书籍,在天主教发现,第四在旧约和二十七个在新的五年。Protestant copies usually lack the seven books (viz: Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, Baruch, and First and Second Maccabees) and parts of books (viz: Esther 10:4-16:24, and Daniel 3:24-90; 13:1-14:42) which are not found in the Jewish editions of the Old Testament.新教的七份通常缺乏图书(即:托比书,朱迪,智慧,西拉奇,巴鲁克,和第一,二马加比)和书籍(即部分:以斯帖10:4-16:24,丹尼尔3:24-90; 13:1-14:42)资料,发现在旧约的犹太版本。The Bible is plainly a literature, that is, an important collection of writings which were not composed at once and did not proceed from one hand, but rather were spread over a considerable period of time and are traceable to different authors of varying literary excellence.圣经是一宗不折不扣的文学,就是其中的一个组成不立刻没有从一只手,而是散布在一个相当长的时期,不同文学溯源到卓越不同作者的作品重要的收藏。 As a literature, too, the Bible bears throughout the distinct impress of the circumstances of place and time, methods of composition, etc., in which its various parts came into existence, and of these circumstances careful account must be taken, in the interests of accurate scriptural interpretation.作为文学也是如此,在整个圣经熊鲜明印记的地方和时间,组成方法等,其中它的各个部件开始存在的情况下,审慎考虑这些必须采取的利益,情况准确的圣经解释。 As a literature, our sacred books have been transcribed during many centuries by all manner of copyists to the ignorance and carelessness of many of whom they still bear witness in the shape of numerous textual errors, which, however, but seldom interfere seriously with the primitive reading of any important dogmatic or moral passage of Holy Writ.作为文学,我们神圣的书籍已被转录在许多世纪以来,所有向无知和对人,他们仍然承担了无数文字错误,其中,然而,却很少干扰证人的原始形状认真地抄写许多粗心大意读任何重要的教条或道德的神圣令状通过。 In respect of antiquity, the Biblical literature belongs to the same group of ancient literature as the literary collections of Greece, Rome, China, Persia, and India.在古代而言,圣经文学属于作为希腊,罗马,中国,波斯和印度古代文学,文学集同一组。Its second part, the New Testament, completed about AD 100, is indeed far more recent than the four last named literature, and is somewhat posterior to the Augustan age of the Latin language, but it is older by ten centuries than our earliest modern literature.第二部分,新约,约公元100完成,确实远远超过了四最后命名最近的文献,并且具有一定的后向奥古斯都时代的拉美语言,但它是由十个世纪以上我们最早的现代文学。 As regards the Old Testament, most of its contents were gradually written within the nine centuries which preceded the Christian era, so that its composition is generally regarded as contemporary with that of the great literary works of Greece, China, Persia, and India.至于旧约,其大部分内容也逐渐写在这之前的九基督教时代,使作为其组成一般认为与当代希腊,中国,波斯,印度伟大的文学作品,几百年。 The Bible resembles these various ancient literatures in another respect.在另一个类似的圣经尊重这些​​不同的古代文献。 Like them it is fragmentary, ie made up of the remains of a larger literature.像他们一样,它是零散的,即由一个更大的文学仍然注册。 Of this we have abundant proofs concerning the books of the Old Testament, since the Hebrew Scriptures themselves repeatedly refer us to more ancient and complete works as composed by Jewish annalists, prophets, wise men, poets, and so on (cf. Numbers 21:15; Joshua 10:13; 2 Samuel 1:18; 1 Chronicles 29:29; 1 Maccabees 16:24; etc.).这一点,我们有关于旧约书籍丰富的证据,因为在希伯来经文本身反复提到我们为犹太annalists,先知,智者,诗人组成,等等(见数21个古老而完整的作品: 15;约书亚10:13; 2塞缪尔1:18; 1方志29:29; 1马加比16:24,等等)。Statements tending to prove the same fragmentary character of the early Christian literature which has come down to us are indeed much less numerous, but not altogether wanting (cf. Luke 1:1-3; Colossians 4:16; 1 Corinthians 5:9).声明倾向于证明了早期基督教文献,其中已下降到我们的相同的零碎性格的确少得多很多,但并不是完全不想(参见路加福音1:1-3;歌罗西书4:16;林前5:9) 。But, however ancient and fragmentary, it is not to be supposed that the Biblical literature contains only few, and these rather imperfect, literary forms.但是,无论古代和零碎的,它不是可以这样认为,圣经文献中只有少数,而这些相当不完善,文学形式。In point of fact its contents exhibit nearly all the literary forms met with in our Western literatures together with other peculiarly Eastern, but none the less beautiful.就事实而言其内容表现出几乎所有的文学形式会见了在我们的西方文学与其他独有的东方在一起,但没有一个较低的美丽。 It is also a well-known fact that the Bible is so replete with pieces of transcendent literary beauty that the greatest orators and writers of the last four centuries have most willingly turned to our sacred books as pre-eminently worthy of admiration, study, and imitation.这也是一个众所周知的事实,圣经是如此的美丽超然的文学作品充斥,最大的演说家和作家们的最后四个世纪最愿意把作为预显然敬佩,值得学习我们的神圣的书籍,模仿。 Of course the widest and deepest influence that has ever been, and ever will be, exercised upon the minds and hearts of men remains due to the fact that, while all the other literatures are but man's productions, the Bible is indeed "inspired of God" and, as such, especially "profitable to teach, to reprove, to correct, to instruct in justice" (2 Timothy 3:16).当然,最广泛,最深刻的影响,曾经是,而且永远会后,头脑和心里行使,仍然由于这一事实,而所有其他文献资料,而人的作品,圣经的确是“上帝的灵感“和,因此,特别是”有利可图的教导,要谴责,要正确,指示在正义“(提后3:16)。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息写弗朗西斯大肠杆菌羊腿。Transcribed by Ernie Stefanik.转录的厄尼斯特凡尼克。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Also, see:此外,见:
Versions of the Bible, Septuagint不同版本的圣经, septuagint

Jesus 耶稣
Christ 基督
God 上帝
Christianity 基督教


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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