Brethren, Dunkers, Dunkards弟兄 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

The term Brethren identifies several Christian groups of common origin, at an earlier date frequently called "Dunkers," of which the Church of the Brethren is today the largest.兄弟一词确定了共同的起源的几个基督教团体,在通常称为“泡这类”,其中的弟兄教会是当今最大的一个较早的日期。 The movement began in Germany in 1708 as part of the spiritual awakening called Pietism.该运动开始于1708年,作为精神的一部分觉醒所谓pietism在德国。In that year a small group led by Alexander Mack (1679 - 1735) baptized one another by immersion, facedown, three times in a flowing stream: this form of Baptism became a distinctive practice.在这一年一小领导小组,由麦克亚历山大(1679年至1735年)一洗浸泡,面朝下另一个,三流的一个流动的时代:这形式的洗礼,成为一个独特的做法。 Mack and his followers migrated to Pennsylvania from Germany in 1719.麦克和他的追随者从德国移民到美国宾夕法尼亚州在1719年。 Since then, small groups have broken away from the main body, either because it seemed too liberal or not liberal enough.从那时起,小团体脱离了主体,可能是因为它似乎太自由或不自由不够。Among all Brethren, trine immersion is practiced and a pacifist witness maintained.在所有的弟兄们,拱浸泡实行和维持一个和平的见证。The Church of the Brethren lists 161,824 members in 1,044 congregations (1986). 教会弟兄的名单1986)161824成员在1044毕业典礼(。The Brethren Church and the Old German Baptist Brethren are much smaller. 教会弟兄旧德国浸信会弟兄们小得多。

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Bibliography 参考书目
SL Bowman, Power and Polity among the Brethren (1987); VS Fisher, The Story of the Brethren (1957).sl的鲍曼,电力和政体之间的兄弟(1987);与稳的弟兄(1957)的故事。


General Information一般资料


The Church of the Brethren is one of the historic "peace churches" in the United States. 教会弟兄的是历史悠久的国家之一“和平教会”在美国。It is of German Pietistic-Anabaptist background and shares many Baptist characteristics.这是德国虔诚,再洗礼派的背景和股份许多浸信特点。Members of the church are known also as Dunkers or Dunkards (from German tunken,"to dip"), because of their baptismal ceremony.教会成员的是也称为泡这类或Dunkards(德国屯垦,“蘸”),因为他们的洗礼仪式。During this ceremony the believer is dipped three times, face forward, once at the mention of each name of the Trinity, according to the baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19.在这个仪式,信徒是浸三次,面对未来,在每一次的三位一体的名,根据马太福音28:19洗礼公式。


The Dunker movement was an offshoot of the German Pietist movement of the late 17th century.在扣篮运动,是德国的17世纪后期虔信运动衍生出来的。The first Dunker congregation was organized at Schwartzenau, Germany (now in North Rhine-Westphalia), in 1708.第一个扣篮聚集,举办Schwartzenau,德国(现在在北莱茵威斯特伐利亚),在1708年。Persecuted by the state church in Germany, the Dunkers immigrated to America from 1719 to 1729.由德国国家教会迫害,泡这类移民到美国,从1719年到1729年。Their first church in what is now the United States was organized in 1723.他们的第一个教会在现在美国是在1723年举办。The Dunkers are most numerous in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, and North Dakota.在泡这类最在宾夕法尼亚州,马里兰州,弗吉尼亚州,俄亥俄州,印第安纳州,伊利诺伊州,爱荷华州,密苏里州,内布拉斯加州,堪萨斯州和北达科他州多。 Many of them are farmers.其中许多是农民。In recent years the denomination has expanded to include many prosperous city churches.近年来,面额已扩大到包括许多繁荣的城市教堂。The denomination supports a number of colleges, notably Ashland College, at Ashland, Ohio.该教派支持高校,特别是亚什兰大学生,在阿什兰,俄亥俄号。

Doctrine and Organization教义和组织

In doctrine the Brethren adhere to the New Testament and accept no creeds.在坚持原则的弟兄到新约,不接受任何信条。They hold the Bible to be the inspired and infallible word of God and accept the New Testament as their only rule of faith and practice.他们认为圣经是神的灵感和犯错的单词和接受新的作为他们的信仰和实践中,只有约规则。They believe in the Trinity, in the divinity of Christ, in the Holy Spirit, and in future rewards and punishments.他们认为,在三一,在基督的神,在圣灵,并在未来的奖励和惩罚。Faith, repentance, and baptism are held to be the conditions of salvation.信仰,悔改,洗礼是,被认为是得救的条件。In practice the Brethren closely follow the teachings of the Bible and observe the primitive simplicity of the Apostolic church.在实践中,弟兄们紧跟圣经的教义和观察的使徒教堂古朴。

At the basis of their belief is a commitment to peace.在他们信仰的基础是对和平的承诺。They enjoin plainness of dress, settle difficulties among themselves without civil law, affirm instead of taking oath, oppose secret societies, and advise against the use of tobacco and the manufacture, sale, and use of intoxicants.他们责成穿着朴素,无民事法律解决它们之间的困难,肯定而不采取宣誓,反对秘密会社,并建议对烟草和制造,销售,和麻醉品的使用。 As early as 1782 the Brethren prohibited slavery and vehemently denounced the slave trade.早在1782年的弟兄禁止奴役和奴隶贸易的强烈谴责。A traditional ban on participation in politics has been relaxed somewhat in recent years.一个关于参与政治的传统禁令有所放宽,近几年。The Eucharist is celebrated in the evening, after the serving of a simple common meal.庆祝圣体是在晚上,在一个简单的普通餐服务。Before this meal the ordinance of foot washing is observed, and afterward the members extend the right hand of fellowship and exchange the kiss of peace.在此之前,吃饭的脚洗条例遵守,以及后来的成员扩大奖学金和交换右手和平之吻。Bishops (or elders), ministers, and deacons are elected by the congregations.主教(或长者),部长和执事选出的教会。Congregations are organized into state districts; both units elect delegates to the annual conference.毕业典礼被组织为国家的地区;两个单位选出的年度会议代表。

Later History后来的历史

In 1881-83 the church lost about 8000 members by a division in its ranks; the split resulted in the secession of two parties, known as the Old-Order Brethren and Progressive Brethren. The former group objected to the attention the church was paying to educational, missionary, and Sunday school work, and the latter insisted that the church was too conservative.在1881年至1883年,教会失去了它的队伍大约由8000司成员;分裂,导致两兄弟在分裂国家的进步和政党,称为旧阶兄弟。前者反对教会正密切关注教育,传教士,和周日学校工作,而后者则坚持认为教会是过于​​保守。 After several years of contention these parties withdrew from the parent church and formed separate organizations.经过几年的争论这些政党退出了父母教会,并形成独立的组织。The parent church is known today as the Church of the Brethren (Conservative Dunkers) and according to recent statistics has 172,115 members in 1061 congregations.父教堂被称为今天的) 教会的弟兄 (保守泡这类,根据最近的统计,因1061年的毕业典礼172115成员英寸

The Progressive Brethren divided again in 1939. 进步兄弟又分为1939年。According to the latest available statistics, one group, the Brethren Church (Ashland, Ohio) has 15,082 members in 122 churches; the second group, the National Fellowship of Brethren churches, has 34,000 members in more than 275 churches.据最新统计数字,一组, 弟兄们教会(阿什兰,俄亥俄州)教会的成员有15082 122,第二组, 全国教会团契的弟兄们,教堂拥有275个成员超过34000。Another Dunker sect is composed of the Seventh Day Baptists (German) .另一个扣篮节是由最美丽第七天浸信会(德国)。

Tunkers Tunkers

Catholic Information天主教新闻

(German tunken, to dip)(德语屯垦,沾)

A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite.一个新教教派,故名其独特的洗礼仪式。 They are also called "Dunkards", "Dunkers", "Brethren", and "German Baptists".他们也被称为“Dunkards”,“泡这类”,“兄弟”,以及“德国浸信会”。This last appellation designates both their national origin and doctrinal relationship.最后这两个称谓指定其国家的起源和理论的关系。In addition to their admission of the teaching of the Baptists, they hold the following distinctive beliefs and practices.除了他们对教学的浸信会入场,他们持有以下鲜明的信仰和习俗。In the administration of baptism the candidate is required to kneel in the water and is dipped forward three times, in recognition of the three Persons of the Trinity.在政府的洗礼,该候选人须跪在水中浸泡,并提出三次的三位一体的三人承认。Communion after the manner of the primitive church is administered in the evening; it is preceded by the love-feast or agape, and followed by the kiss of charity.圣餐后的管理方式是原始的教会在晚上,它是由爱情节日或爱德之前,以及之后的慈善之吻。On certain occasions they also perform the rite of foot-washing.在某些场合,他们也履行了脚洗仪式。Their dress is characterized by unusual simplicity.他们的服装的特点是不寻常的简单。They refuse to take oaths, to bear arms, and, in so far as possible, to engage in lawsuits.他们拒绝宣誓,拿起武器,并且在这样尽可能远,从事诉讼。Their foundation was due to a desire of restoring primitive Christianity, and dates back to 1708.其基础是由于恢复原始基督教的愿望,可以追溯到1708年。In that year their founder Alexander Mack (1679-1735) received believers' baptism with seven companions at Schwarzenau, in Westphalia.在这一年他们的创始人亚历山大麦克(1679年至1735年)与七个同伴接受信徒的洗礼在Schwarzenau在威斯特伐利亚。 The little company rapidly made converts, and congregations were established in Germany, Holland, and Switzerland.小公司迅速作出转换,和教友在德国,荷兰和瑞士成立。As they were subjected to persecution, they all emigrated to America between the years 1719 and 1729.当他们受到迫害,他们都移民到美国之间的1719年和1729年。

The first families settled at Germantown, Pennsylvania, where a church was organized in 1723.第一家庭定居在Germantown,宾夕法尼亚州,在那里一所教堂在1723年举办。Shortly after some members, led by Conrad Beissel who contended that the seventh day ought to be observed as the Sabbath, seceded and formed the "Seventh Day Baptists" (German; membership in 1911, 250).不久后,部分委员,由康拉德Beissel领导谁主张,第七天应该遵守的安息日分离出去,并形成了“九重天浸信会”(德语,在1911年,250个会员)。 The Tunkers, nevertheless, prospered and, in spite of set-backs caused by the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, spread from Pennsylvania to many other states of the Union, and to Canada.该Tunkers,然而,繁荣兴旺,在设定的革命和内战,从宾夕法尼亚州蔓延,造成尽管背到联盟的许多其他国家和加拿大。 Foreign missionary work and the foundation of educational institutions were inaugurated in the decade 1870-1880.外国传教士的工作和教育机构的基金会正式成立于1870至80年的十年。About the same time the demands for the adoption of a more progressive and liberal church policy became more and more insistent, and in 1881-82 led to division.大约在同一时间,一个更加进步的政策和宽松的教会通过的要求越来越坚持,并在1881年至1882年导致分裂。 Two extreme parties, "the Progressives" and the "Old Order Brethren", separated from the main body, which henceforth was known as the "Conservative Tunkers".两个极端的政党,“进步派”与“旧秩序的兄弟”,从主体,这为今后的“保守Tunkers”之称分开。These obey the annual conference as the central authority, and have a ministry composed of bishops or elders, ministers, and deacons.这些服从中央的权威作为年度会议,并有主教或长老,部长和执事组成的一个部。They maintain schools in various states, own a printing plant at Elgin, Illinois, and publish the "Gospel Messenger" as their official organ.这些人士在不同的州的学校,自己在伊利诺伊州埃尔金,印刷厂,并发布了“福音使者”作为自己的官方机构。(Membership, 3006 ministers, 880 churches, 100,000 communicants.) The Progressives hold that the decisions of the annual conference do not bind the individual conscience, that its regulations concerning plain attire need not be observed, and that each congregation shall independently administer its own affairs. (会籍,3006部长,880教堂,10万圣餐。)进步派认为,年度会议的决定不具约束力的个人良知,其法规平原装束不必遵守,每个教会应独立管理自己事务。 (Statistics, 186 ministers, 219 churches, 18,607 communicants.) The Old Order Brethren are unalterably attached to the old practices; they are opposed to high schools, Sunday schools, and missionary activity; they have still, according to the long prevalent custom of the sect, an unsalaried ministry and are extremely plain in dress. (。统计,186名部长,219个教堂,18607圣餐)旧秩序的弟兄们坚定不移地连接到旧的做法,他们是反对高中,周日学校,和传教活动,他们仍然按照长远普遍习俗该教派,一个不拿薪水部,而且是十分朴素的服饰。 (228 ministers; 75 churches; 4000 communicants.)(228个部长,75个教堂。4000圣餐)

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息写不适用韦伯。Transcribed by Herman F. Holbrook.转录由赫尔曼楼霍尔布鲁克。Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum.Confiteor在remissionem peccatorum unum baptisma。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.天主教百科全书,卷十五。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,12年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


The statistics throughout are those of CARROLL in Christian Advocate (New York, 26 Jan., 1911).这些统计数字是指在整个基督教主张的卡罗尔(纽约,1911年1月26日)。Beside the minutes of the Annual Meeting, consult on the doctrine: MACK, A Plain View of the Rites and Ordinances of the House of God (Mt. Morris, 1888), and MILLER, Doctrine of the Brethren Defended (Indianapolis, 1876); BRUMBAUGH, History of the German Baptist Brethren in Europe and America (Elgin, 1899); FALKENSTEIN, History of the German Baptist Brethren Church (Lancaster, 1901); HOLSINGER, History of the Tunkers and the Brethren Churches (Oakland, 1901); GILLEN, The Dunkers (New York, 1906).旁边的年会上,谘询学说分钟:可MACK,一个这些仪式和神府(山莫里斯,1888年)条例平原景观,和米勒辩护的弟兄(印第安纳波利斯,1876年)的理论;布伦博,历史的德国在欧洲和美国浸信会弟兄(埃尔金,1899年); FALKENSTEIN,历史的德国浸信教会的弟兄(兰开斯特,1901年),该Tunkers和弟兄教会(奥克兰,1901年)历史霍尔辛格;吉伦中,泡这类(纽约,1906年)。

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