General Information一般资料

Calvinism, the Protestant religious perspective associated with the work of John Calvin, includes both the teachings of Calvin and the later developments of his world view. Calvin's doctrine was catholic in its acceptance of the Trinity, human sinfulness, and the saving work of Jesus Christ.加尔文的新教宗教观卡尔文与约翰的作品,包括教义卡尔文都和他的世界观后来的事态发展。 卡尔文的教义是罪孽天主教的人它接受三位一体,以及耶稣基督拯救工作。It was Protestant in its commitment to the final authority of the Bible, justification by Grace through faith alone, and the bondage of the will for Salvation. 这是在拯救新教信仰的承诺,通过最后权威,圣经的理由由Grace单,并为束缚意志的。It was distinctly reformed in its stress on the omnipotent sovereignty of God, the need for discipline in the church, and the ethical seriousness of life. 这是明显的改革,其强调对生命万能的神的主权,纪律为教会的需要,道德的严重性和。

The so - called Five Points of Calvinism were formulated by Dutch Reformed theologians at the Synod of Dort (1618 - 19) in response to the teachings of Arminianism.所谓-所谓的五点加尔文是制定了主教的dort在改革由荷兰神学家(1618年至1619年)在回应亚米纽斯的教义。 The five points teach that教导五点

  1. humankind is spiritually incapacitated by Sin人类在精神上无行为能力的,由单
  2. God chooses (elects) unconditionally those who will be saved 上帝选择(选举)无条件的将被保存谁
  3. the saving work of Christ is limited to those elected ones 基督的拯救工作仅限于那些当选的人
  4. God's grace cannot be turned aside神的恩典不能转过身去
  5. those whom God elects in Christ are saved forever Predestination 那些人永远的宿命上帝在基督里选出保存

Early in the 20th century, the German sociologist Max Weber and the English economist RH Tawney put forth the much debated thesis that Calvinism promoted the rise of capitalism.早在20世纪,德国社会学家韦伯和相对湿度的英国经济学家托尼提出了备受争议的论点,即加尔文促进了资本主义的兴起。 Whether this is true or not, it cannot be denied that Calvinists have been deeply involved in political, social, educational, and economic developments.这是否是真还是假,但不能否认,加尔文教派已深深在政治,社会,教育与经济发展有关。Puritanism in England and America is a product, to one degree or another, of the Calvinistic spirit.在英国和美国清教是一个产品,一个学位或另一加尔文精神。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
Calvinism provides the basic doctrinal orientation of the Reformed Churches and Presbyterianism; branches of some other Protestant denominations, such as the Baptists, have also been influenced by Calvinism.加尔文的改革提供了基本教义长老教会和方向,其他一些新教教派分支,如浸信会,也受到加尔文的影响。

Mark A Noll标志着诺尔

Bibliography 参考书目
A Dakin, Calvinism (1940); JH Leith, Introduction to the Reformed Tradition (1977); JT McNeill, The History and Character of Calvinism, (1967); M Prestwich, ed., International Calvinism (1985); BB Warfield, Calvin and Calvinism (1931); M Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1950).阿戴金,加尔文(1940); Jh的雷斯,介绍了这一改革的传统(1977年);特鲁利麦克尼尔,历史和人物的加尔文(1967年);的。m普雷斯特威奇,教育署,国际加尔文(1985);沃菲尔德,卡尔文和加尔文(1931年)〔M韦伯,新教伦理与资本主义精神(1950年)。


Advanced Information先进的信息

John Calvin, often regarded as "the systematizer of the Reformation," was a second generation Protestant Reformer of the sixteenth century who brought together biblical doctrine systematically, in a way that no other Reformer before him had done.约翰卡尔文,常常被视为“的改造systematizer,”是第二代十六世纪谁系统地汇集了圣经的教义中,没有其他改革者曾在他面前所做的那样,新教改革者。 At the same time, he was not an ivory tower scholar but a pastor who thought and wrote his theological works always with an eye to the edification of the Christian church.与此同时,他不是象牙塔学者,但谁想到一个牧师,写有一对眼睛的基督教教堂熏陶他的神学作品始终。Although his views have not always been popular and have at times been grossly misrepresented, his system of theology has had a very wide influence down to the present time, as indicated by the fact that all Reformed and Presbyterian churches look back to him as the founder of their biblical - theological doctrinal position.虽然他的观点并不总是受欢迎,有时被严重歪曲,他的神学系统有一个非常广泛的影响力下降到目前的时间,这一事实表明,所有的改革和长老教会回头看他的创始人他们的圣经 - 神学教义的立场。


The formal principle and source of Calvin's theological system is embodied in the Latin phrase sola Scriptura (Scripture only).正式的原则和卡尔文的神学系统源是体现在拉丁文唯独圣经(圣经只)。In a strict sense Calvin was primarily a biblical theologian.从严格意义上卡尔文主要是一个圣经神学家。Trained in the techniques of historicogrammatical exegesis through his humanistic and legal studies, he went to the Scriptures to see what they clearly said.通过他的人文和法律研究的historicogrammatical注释技术的培训,他去念经,看看他们明确地表示。He rejected the medieval fourfold interpretation which allowed allegorizing, spiritualizing, and moralizing, insisting that the literal meaning of the words was to be taken in their historical context.他拒绝解释这使得中世纪的寓言四倍,spiritualizing,与道德理念,坚持说的话的字面意思是要在他们的历史背景下采取的。 On this basis he sought to develop a theology that would set forth in a systematic form the teaching of Scripture.在此基础上,他试图建立一个神学,将设置在一个系统的形式提出了教学中的经文。He was, however, no rationalist, for he constantly stressed the fact that while the Bible reveals God and his purposes to us, yet there is always the mystery of the divine Being and counsel which no human thought can penetrate.他是,但是,没有理性,因为他不断强调这一事实,虽然圣经揭示神,他的目的,对我们来说,尚未有始终是神圣的存在和律师这是任何人的思维可以穿透谜。 Deut.申。29:29 was a verse to which he referred many times.29:29诗句是他提到了很多次。

The stress which he laid upon the Scriptures was the result of his belief that they were the Word of God and therefore were the final authority for Christian belief and action.他的压力后,圣经是奠定了他的信念,他们是上帝的话,因此是对基督教信仰和行动的最终权威的结果。He did not believe in a doctrine of dictation, although he did on occasion refer to the writers as God's amanuenses, but held that the Holy Spirit in different and often mysterious ways revealed God's will and work and guided the writers in their recording of them.他不相信在一个听写的教义,尽管他有时也称之为上帝的amanuenses的作家,但认为在不同的圣灵,往往神秘的方式揭示上帝的旨意和工作,引导他们,他们录制的作家。 Thus, the Bible is authoritative in all matters with which it deals, but it does not deal with everything, such as astronomy.因此,圣经是权威的所有事项,其中涉及,但它不处理任何事情,如天文学。The individual comes to recognize the Bible as the Word of God not primarily because of logical, historical, or other arguments but by the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit's "internal testimony."个别渐渐认识到作为上帝的话,主要是因为不符合逻辑的,历史的,或其他的论点,而是从圣灵的启示圣经“内部的见证。”


This raises the question of how Calvin regarded the God who had so revealed himself.这就提出了如何卡尔文视为上帝究竟是谁透露了自己如此。In this he accepted the historic doctrine of the trinity of God, who is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, the same in substance and equal in power, and glory.在此,他接受了上帝,三位一体谁是父亲,儿子,和圣灵,在实质上相同,在权力平等的,光荣的历史学说。Further, he laid great stress upon the fact that God is sovereign.此外,他摊开在事实,即上帝是一个主权很大压力。This eternal and completely self sufficient.这永恒的和完全自给自足。Therefore, he is not subject either to time or to any other beings, nor is he reducible to spaciotemporal categories for human understanding and analysis.因此,他并不受任何时间或任何其他人,也不是他还原为人类了解和分析spaciotemporal类别。To his creatures God must always be mysterious, except insofar as he reveals himself to them.为了他的动物神必须始终神秘,但不由,因为他揭示了自己给他们。

This sovereign God is the source of all that is.这一主权的上帝是一切的源泉。But he is not the source because everything which exists apart from him is an emanation of the divine Being; he is the source of all things because he is their creator.但他不是源,因为一切事物的存在,除了他的存在是一个神圣的化身,他是万物的创造者,因为他是他们的源泉。He has brought everything into existence, including the creation from nothing of both time and space.他带来的一切开始存在,包括来自没有了时间和空间的创造。How he created everything neither Calvin nor his followers have attempted to explain, for that is in the realm of the mystery of God's action.他是如何创造了一切,既不卡尔文和他的追随者们试图解释,因为,在上帝的神秘境界是行动。Nor did God create because he was forced to do so by any necessity.上帝创造也没有,因为他是被迫做任何必要的。He freely created according to his own plan and purpose, which resulted in a universe that was good.他坦率地创造的,根据自己的计划和目的,这在宇宙中是好的结果。

To Calvin and his followers it is also important to realize that the triune God did not turn away from creation after it was formed, but continues to sustain and maintain its existence and operation.卡尔文和他的追随者同样重要的是要认识到三位一体上帝没有转身离开后,这是创造形成的,但继续维持和保持它的存在和运作。 The physical laws which govern the material universe are the result of the continual work and action of the Holy Spirit.建立统御的物质宇宙的物理规律是在不断的工作和圣灵作用的结果。Such a doctrine had an important influence on the development of physical science in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, being influential in the thinking of Pierre de la Ramee, Bernard Palissy, and Ambroise Pare in France; Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, and Isaac Newton in England; and other early physical scientists.这种理论曾在十六,十七世纪后期一个对体育科学发展产生重要影响,即在德拉皮埃尔拉米,伯纳德Palissy,在法国和Ambroise帕尔思想的影响力;培根,波义耳和牛顿在英格兰和其他早期的物理科学家。

As God sovereignly sustains all his creation, so in his providence he rules over and guides it to the accomplishment of his ultimate purposes that all things might be to the glory of God alone (soli Deo gloria).正如上帝sovereignly支撑他的所有创作,所以在他统治着他的普罗维登斯和引导到完成他的最终目的,所有的东西可能是神的荣耀单(索利索拉布迪奥凯莱)。 This rule included even the free actions of man, so that history might achieve the end which God has determined from all eternity.这条规则甚至包括人的自由行动,让历史有可能实现是上帝从所有永恒决心结束。Here again is a mystery which the Calvinist is prepared to accept, since he is prepared to accept the ultimate mystery of God's being and action.这里又是一所加尔文准备接受神秘,因为他是准备接受神的存在和行动的最终奥秘。


Human beings were created in the image of God, with true knowledge, righteousness, and holiness.人类创造了在上帝的形象,与真正的知识,义,和圣洁。Man saw himself as God's creation, placed in creation as the steward of God's handiwork.男子看到作为上帝的创造,创作放在作为上帝的杰作管家,他自己。Being in the image of God, he also had free will, which meant that he had the capacity freely to obey or disobey God's commands.在上帝的形像,他也有自由意志,这意味着他有能力自由地服从或不服从上帝的命令。In dealing with man God entered into a covenant relationship with him, promising his favor and blessing, in return for which man was to rule over and subdue nature, recognizing his office as the lord of creation under the sovereign authority of the triune God.在神与人打交道与他订立盟约关系,希望有利于他的回报和祝福,为这名男子是为了统治和征服自然,认识到作为创作下的主权权力三位一体神耶和华他的办公室。 This is known in Calvinistic theology as the covenant of works.这是已知的加尔文神学作为盟约的作品。

Despite this covenant relationship and God's manifest revelation of himself, man chose to think that he could declare his independence of the sovereign God.尽管这个公约的关系,上帝的启示,表现自己,人是决定怎样认为他可以宣布他对上帝的主权独立。Tempted by Satan, man asserted himself as an independent being worshipping the creature rather than the Creator and thus fell under the judgment of God.撒旦的诱惑下,男子声称自己是一个独立的人崇拜的动物,而不是创造者,因此在神的判断力。The outcome was God's condemnation of man, resulting in man's rejection by God, his total corruption, and his bequeathing of this corruption to his descendants throughout history.其结果是上帝的人的谴责,在人的神,他的总腐败,这是他的整个历史遗留给他的子孙,腐败造成的排斥反应。Only by the general or common grace of God man's corruption did not, and does not, work itself out fully or completely in this life.只有神人的腐败一般或普遍恩典没有,也不会对作品本身在这生活完全或完全。

The sovereign God, however, did not allow his plans and purposes to be frustrated.上帝的主权,但是,并没有让他的计划​​和目的是沮丧。Already in eternity as part of his secret counsel he had chosen a great number of his fallen creatures for himself, to be reconciled to him.早在永恒律师作为他的秘密部分,他选择了他为国牺牲自己的生物众多,希望同他。 Why he did so God never reveals, except to say that he chose to do this in his mercy, for he quite justly could have rejected the whole human race for its sins.他为什么这样做,上帝从来没有透露,只是说,他选择了做他的怜悯这一点,因为他完全可以理直气壮地拒绝了对整个人类的罪恶。 In pursuance of this plan and purpose of redemption the Father sent the Son, the second person of the Trinity, into the world to pay the penalty for the sin of the elect and to fulfill completely the righteousness of God's law on their behalf.此项计划的目的,依据和赎回父差到世间来支付的选举罪的处罚,并履行完全是神的义在律法上代表他们的儿子,第二人的三位一体。 In the OT the prophets and patriarchs looked forward to the coming of Christ, trusting in his promised redemption, while in the NT church, which continues down to today, Christians look back to what Christ accomplished for them in history在加时赛的先知和元老期待着在未来的基督,在他答应赎回信任,而在新台币教会,继续下降到今天,基督徒回头以基督为他们在​​历史上完成

To those who are God's chosen ones the Holy Spirit is sent, not only to enlighten them to understand the gospel set forth in the Scriptures but to enable them to accept God's promise of forgiveness.对于那些谁是上帝的圣灵选择了发送者,不仅要启发他们了解圣经中设置规定的福音,而是让他们接受神的宽恕的承诺。 By this "effectual calling" they come to faith in Christ as the one who has redeemed them, trusting in him alone as the one who has met all God's requirements on their behalf.通过这种“有效的呼唤”他们来在基督信仰作为一个谁也救赎他们,相信在他的谁会见了代表他们都是上帝的要求是一个人。 Thus it is by faith alone (sola fidei) that they are saved, through the regenerating power of the Holy Spirit.因此,它是由信仰,仅(索拉信),它们被保存下来,通过圣灵的再生能力。Thereafter, as God's people they are to live lives which, while never perfectly holy, should manifest the fact that they are his people, seeking always to glorify him in thought, word, and deed.此后,作为上帝的人,他们是居住生活的,但却从未完全圣洁的,要表现的事实,他们是他的人,总是寻求荣耀的思想,他的话,和行动。

The Church教会

The life which God's people now live they live as those who are God's covenant people.生命是上帝的人现在活着,他们为那些谁是上帝的盟约人们的生活。From all eternity the sovereign God purposed to make a covenant with his elect in and through their representative, the Son, who in history redeemed them by his spotless life and sacrifice on Calvary's cross.从所有永恒上帝的旨意的主权,使与他,并通过他们的代表,儿子,谁在历史赎回他一尘不染的生活和在加略山的十字架牺牲他们选出的约。 Therefore, as citizens of his kingdom they are now called to serve him in the world, which they do as the church.因此,作为公民,他的王国,现在担任他的世界,他们的教堂做。This obligation is laid upon both adult believers and their children, for the covenant is made with parents and children, as it was with Abraham and his descendants in the OT and with believers and their descendants in the NT.这种义务是奠定在成年的信徒和他们的孩子在该公约是由父母和孩子,因为它与亚伯拉罕和在加时赛与信徒和他们的后裔在新台币是他的后代。 Baptism signifies this entry into the membership of the visible body of Christ's people for both children and adults, although in both cases the baptismal vows taken by the adults may be later repudiated.洗礼标志着这个进入基督的​​人,可用于儿童和成人可见机构的成员进入,虽然在这两种情况下,洗礼誓言的成年人可后来推翻。

The Lord's Supper is the continuing sacrament of which Christ's people partake in remembrance of him and of his redemptive work for them.主的晚餐是持续圣餐的基督的人在他参加的纪念和他对他们的救赎工作。But again, it is only as the elements are received and partaken of in faith that the Holy Spirit blesses those who receive the bread and wine, by making them spiritual participants in the body and blood of the Lord.但同样,它只是作为元素收到并在信仰partaken的,圣灵谁收到的祝福面包和酒通过在身体和血的主他们的精神参加。

In the matter of the organization of the church Calvinists have generally agreed on the view that the church is to be governed by elders, those who teach and those who rule or supervise, elected by the church.在加尔文教派的教会组织的问题已普遍同意的看法,教会是由长老,那些谁教和那些谁监督规则或由教会选出管辖。Some, however, believe that an episcopal form of church government is the proper, or at least the allowable, form of organization.不过,有些人认为,一个主教的教会,政府的形式是正确的,或者至少允许,组织形式。But all agree that as far as possible the outward, visible unity of the church should be maintained, for all Christians are members of the one body of Christ.但是,所有同意,尽量向外,有形的教会应保持团结,为所有的基督徒都是基督的一个机构的成员。On the other hand, Calvinists have also allowed for the pluriformity of the church, recognizing that the church is not perfect, but have also insisted that there must be basic uniformity or congruence of doctrine.另一方面,也允许加尔文教派的教会pluriformity,认识到教会是不是十全十美,但也坚持认为,必须有一致或基本教义的一致性。

Calvinism in History加尔文历史

Although Calvin was the systematizer of the Reformation theology, since his day those who have accepted his structure of theology have continued to develop many of his ideas.虽然卡尔文是神学systematizer的改革,因为他每天那些谁也接受了他的神学结构继续发展他的许多思想。During his own lifetime he himself developed his thought in the successive editions of his Institutes of the Christian Religion.在他自己的一生,他在他自己开发的基督教宗教学院的连续版本他的思绪。With the writing of various Calvinistic confessions such as the Heidelberg Catechism (1563), the Canons of the Synod of Dort (1618), and the Westminster Confession and Catechisms (1647 - 48) additions to and further developments in theological thought have appeared.随着如海德堡问答(1563),在主教的dort(1618)的大炮,以及韦斯敏斯德和Catechisms书写各种加尔文自白(1647 - 48)的增补和神学思想出现了进一步的发展。Various theologians also during the succeeding years have elaborated various points which Calvin had raised but had not fully examined.各种神学家在此后的年份里也已经拟定卡尔文已经提出,但还没有充分研究各点。

The nineteenth century in particular saw a very considerable expansion of Calvinistic thought under the influence of Abraham Kuyper and Herman Bavinck in the Netherlands, Auguste Lecerf in France, and AA Hodge, Charles Hodge, and BB Warfield in the United States.尤其是在十九世纪看到了非常可观的扩展加尔文根据亚伯拉罕凯伯和Herman巴文克在荷兰,奥古斯特勒塞尔夫在法国,机管局Hodge的,查尔斯Hodge的,和BB沃菲尔德在美国思想的影响。 The tradition established by these men has been carried on in the present century by John Murray, J Gresham Machen, and Cornelius Van Til in the United States; Herman Dooyeweerd and DH Th Vollenhoven in the Netherlands; and many others in various countries around the world.这些人建立的传统,在已进行的由约翰穆雷,强格雷沙姆machen,并范泰尔在美国本世纪,在世界各地不同国家和许多其他人;赫尔曼Dooyeweerd在荷兰和DH钍Vollenhoven 。

Calvin's influence has by no means been limited to the theological sphere, however, for the implications of his beliefs even in his own day had a wide influence in other areas of thought.卡尔文的影响力绝不仅仅限于神学领域,不过,对自己的信仰所带来的影响甚至在他自己的一天有一个思想在其他领域广泛的影响。 His view of the state and the right of the subjects and subordinate magistrates to remove an oppressive ruler helped to lay the foundation for the development of democracy.他对国家和下属的科目和裁判有权删除暴虐的统治者查看帮助奠定了民主发展的基础。His views on art have also been important in giving a theological - philosophical foundation for the development of pictorial art in the Netherlands, England, Scotland, and France, to mention only a few countries.他对艺术的看法也一直给人一种神学重要的 - 对于绘画艺术在荷兰,英格兰,苏格兰和法国,只有少数几个国家提到发展的哲学基础。Much the same could be said of other fields of human endeavor such as science, economic activity, and social reform.许多同样可以说,人类努力的其他领域,如科学,经济活动和社会改革。Moreover his thought has spread beyond the confines of the Western world to exercise an influence in places such as Africa, where Calvinists have gone as missionaries.此外,他认为现在已经超越了西方世界的范围行使在诸如非洲,在那里去了加尔文教派的地方作为传教士的影响。 In all these ways Calvinism has wielded, and still does wield, an important influence in the world, seeking to set forth the biblical doctrine of God's sovereign grace.在所有这些方面加尔文已经挥起,至今没有运用,在世界上有重要影响,提出了寻求神的主权的恩典圣经的教义。

WS Reid里德是

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed.加尔文的基督教宗教院校,教育署。JT McNeill; JT McNeill, The History and Character of Calvinism; JH Bratt, ed., The Heritage of John Calvin; DE Holwerda, ed., Exploring the Heritage of John Calvin; BB Warfield, Calvin and Calvinism; W Niesel, The Theology of Calvin; JT Hoogstra, ed., John Calvin, Contemporary Prophet; A Kuyper, Lectures on Calvinism; A Lecerf, Etudes Calvinistes; H Clavier, Etudes sur Calvinisme; WH Neuser, ed., Calvinus Theologus; GE Duffield, ed., John Calvin.特鲁利麦克尼尔;特鲁利麦克尼尔,历史和人物的加尔文。Jh的布拉特,教育署,约翰卡尔文遗产;。德Holwerda,教育署,探索的约翰卡尔文遗产;沃菲尔德,卡尔文和加尔文;瓦特niesel,神学卡尔文。特鲁利Hoogstra,教育署,约翰卡尔文,当代先知,一个凯伯,加尔文讲座,一个勒塞尔夫,练习曲Calvinistes高h键盘,练习曲河畔Calvinisme。瓦Neuser,教育署,Calvinus Theologus,葛杜菲尔德,戴博拉。约翰卡尔文。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

No better account of this remarkable (though now largely obsolete) system has been drawn out than Möhler's in his "Symbolism or Doctrinal Differences."没有更好地考虑到这个了不起的(虽然现在基本上已经过时)系统已经绘就比莫赫勒在他的了“象征主义或教义差异。” The "Institutes of the Christian Religion," in which Calvin depicted his own mind, were never superseded by creed or formulary, though the writer subscribed, in 1540, at Worms to the Confession of Augsburg, ie the second revised edition.而“基督宗教研究所”,其中描绘了自己心中卡尔文,从来没有信仰或处方所取代,但在1540年签署的作家,在蠕虫的奥格斯堡供述,即第二次修订版。 To take his bearings in theology we must remember that he succeeded Luther in point of time and was committed to a struggle with Zwingli's disciples at Zurich and elsewhere, known as Sacramentarians, but who tended more and more towards a Christianity without mysteries.参加神学了方向,我们必须记住,他成功地在路德的时间点,并致力于同在苏黎世和世界各地的Sacramentarians众所周知,茨温利的弟子的斗争,但谁对越来越多的趋势没有基督教的奥秘。 In 1549 he and Farel entered with Bullinger into a moderate view as regarded the Eucharist, the "Consensus Tigurinus," or compact of Zurich, which Bucer also accepted.在1549年,他和法惹勒进入布凌格到被誉为圣体,温和观点的一个“共识Tigurinus”,或苏黎世,其中布策尔也接受紧凑。 Another compact, of the "pastors of Geneva" strengthened his hands, in 1552, on the subjects of predestination, against Jerome Bolsec, whom he refuted and cast into prison.另一个“日内瓦牧师”紧凑,加强在1552年他的双手上,在宿命的主体,对杰罗姆Bolsec,其中他反驳,并在监里了。 Bolsec finally returned to the Catholic Church.Bolsec终于回到了天主教会。In 1553 a controversy between the German Lutherans about the Lord's Supper led Calvin to declare his agreement with Melanchthon (the Philippists), but Melanchthon kept silence. 1553年德国lutherans之间关于主的晚餐争议导致卡尔文宣布他与梅兰希(即Philippists)协议,但梅兰希保持沉默。Further complications ensued when Beza, softening the real doctrine of Geneva, drew nearer still to the Lutheran belief on this head.随后进一步的并发症时Beza,软化日内瓦真正的教义,仍接近提请的关于这头路德信念。Bullinger and Peter Martyr cried down Beza's unauthorized glosses; but Calvin supported his favourite.布凌格和彼得哭了Beza烈士的未经授权的粉饰,但卡尔文支持他的最爱。Nevertheless, that "declaration" was dropped by Beza when, in company with Farel, he put together a "Confession of the French Church," and fell back on the creed of Augsburg issued in 1530, while not assenting to its 10th article.不过,这“宣言”是由Beza下降时,按照惹勒公司,他放在一起“,法国教会供述,”A和落在后面的奥格斯堡信条发表于1530年,虽然不同意该项至第10条。 The Eucharist was to be more than a sign; Christ was truly present in it, and was received by Faith (compare the English Prayer Book, which reproduces his conception).圣体圣事是比一个迹象以上;基督是真正在它存在,并因信收到(比较英语祈祷书,抄录他的构想)。Beyond these, on the whole, abortive efforts toward a common understanding, Calvin never went.除了这些,就整体而言,朝着一个共同的认识流产的努力,卡尔文从来没有去了。His individual genius demanded its own expression; and he is always like himself, unlike any other.他的个人天才要求其自己的表达,而他总是喜欢自己不同于其他任何。The many creeds fell into olivion; but the "Institutes" were recognized more and more as the sum of Reformed Theology.的许多教义落入olivion,但是,“学院”被确认为越来越多的归正神学的总和。It was said after 1560, by the Jesuit St. Peter Canisius, that Calvin appeared to be taking Luther's place even among Germans.有人说,后1560年,由耶稣会圣彼得卡尼修斯,卡尔文看来,哪怕是德国路德的地方。Three currents have ever since held their course in this development of Protestantism:自从有三种电流在此举行了新教的发展历程:

the mystic, derived from Wittenberg; the logical-orthodox, from Geneva; and the heterodox-rationalist, from Zurich (Zwingli), this last being greatly increased, thanks to the Unitarians of Italy, Ochino, Fausto, and Lelio神秘的,从维滕贝格取得的所得;逻辑正统,从日内瓦以及异端,理性,从苏黎世(茨温利),这最后被大大增加,到意大利,Ochino,福斯托,感谢神论和Lelio

Socino. Socino。

To the modern world, however, Calvin stands peculiarly for the Reformation, his doctrine is supposed to contain the essence of the Gospel; and multitudes who reject Christianity mean merely the creed of Geneva.以现代的世界,然而,卡尔文站特有的改革,他的学说是应该包含了福音的本质,以及众多谁反对基督教的意思,只是在日内瓦的信条。

Why does this happen?为什么会这样?Because, we answer, Calvin gave himself out as following closely in the steps of St. Paul and St. Augustine.因为,我们的答案,让自己为卡尔文继圣保罗和圣奥古斯丁的步骤,密切合作。The Catholic teaching at Trent he judged to be Semi-Pelagian, a stigma which his disciples fix especially on the Jesuit schools, above all, on Molina.在特伦特天主教教学,他认为是半伯拉纠,一种耻辱,他的弟子解决,特别是对耶稣会学校,以上所有莫利纳。Hence the curious situation arises, that, while the Catholic consent of the East and West finds little or no acknowledgement as an historical fact among assailants of religion, the views which a single Reformer enunciated are taken as though representing the New Testament.因此,好奇的情况出现,即,而东方和西方天主教同意认定为行凶者之间的宗教历史事实很少或没有确认的意见,这是一个改革者,阐述作为代表,虽然新约。 In other words, a highly refined individual system, not traceable as a whole to any previous age, supplants the public teaching of centuries.换言之,一个高度精炼的个人系统,而不是作为一个整体可追溯以往任何时代,取代了数世纪公共教学。Calvin, who hated Scholasticism, comes before us, as Luther had already done, in the shape of a Scholastic.卡尔文,谁恨士林,摆在我们面前,因为路德已经做了,在学术上的形状。His "pure doctrine" is gained by appealing, not to tradition, the "deposit" of faith, but to argument in abstract terms exercised upon Scripture.他的“纯理论”是通过吸引获得,而不是传统的“存款”的信念,而是在根据圣经行使抽象争论。He is neither a critic nor a historian; he takes the Bible as something given; and he manipulates the Apostles' Creed in accordance with his own ideas.他既不是评论家,也不是历史学家,他把圣经看成是由于和他操纵自己的想法与他根据使徒们的信条。The "Institutes" are not a history of dogma, but a treatise, only not to be called an essay because of its peremptory tone.“机构”是不是教条的历史,但一篇论文,只是不要被所谓的语气,因为它的强制性的一篇文章。Calvin annihilates the entire space, with all its developments, which lies between the death of St. John and the sixteenth century.卡尔文被歼灭,整个空间,其所有的事态发展,圣约翰之间的死亡和十六世纪谎言。He does, indeed, quote St. Augustine, but he leaves out all that Catholic foundation on which the Doctor of Grace built.他这样做,实际上,报价圣奥古斯丁,但他留下的一切,天主教基础上,建立医生的恩典。The "Institutes of the Christian Religion" are divided into four books and exhibit a commentary on the Apostles' Creed.而“基督宗教研究所”共分为四个书籍和展览的使徒们的信条评论。

Book I considers God the Creator, the Trinity, revelation, man's first estate and original righteousness.书,我认为上帝的创造者,三位一体,启示,人的第一产业和原义。

Book II describes the Fall of Adam, and treats of Christ the Redeemer.第二册介绍了亚当的堕落,和基督救世主对待。

Book III enlarges on justifying faith, election, and reprobation.第三部加大对正当的信仰,选举,和非​​难。

Book IV gives the Presbyterian idea of the Church.第四册给教会的长老会的想法。

In form the work differs from the "Summa" of St. Thomas Aquinas by using exposition where the Angelic Doctor syllogizes; but the style is close, the language good Latin of the Renaissance, and the tone elevated, though often bitter.在形式上的工作不同于“总结”的圣托马斯阿奎那利用博览会在天使般的医生syllogizes,但风格相近,语言良好的文艺复兴时期拉丁语和音升高,但往往苦。 Arguments employed are always ostensibly grounded on Scripture, the authority of which rests not upon fallible human reasoning, but on the internal persuasion of the Holy Spirit.表面上总是参数采用接地的经文,其中的权威,不能靠人的推理后,会犯错误,但在圣灵的内部说服力。Yet Calvin is embarrassed at the outset by "unsteady men" who declare themselves enlightened of the same spirit and in no want of Scripture.然而卡尔文是尴尬,一开始就以“不稳定的人”谁宣布自己开明的同样的精神,在任何想要的经文。 He endeavours to refute them by the instance of St. Paul and other "primitive believers," ie after all, by Catholic tradition.他努力驳斥的圣保罗和其他实例“原始的信徒,”毕竟他们即由天主教的传统。It will be obvious, moreover, that where the "Institutes" affirm orthodox tenets they follow the Councils and the Fathers, while professing reliance on the Bible alone.这将是显而易见的,此外,这里的“研究院”肯定他们遵循正统信条议会和父亲,而自称仅依赖于圣经。Thus we need not rehearse those chapters which deal with the Nicene and Chalcedonian formulas.因此,我们不必再重复这些章节进行的尼西亚​​和迦克公式处理。

We shall best apprehend Calvin's master-thought if we liken it to modern systems of the Unconscious, or of physical predetermination, wherein all effects lie folded up, as it were, in one First Cause, and their development in time is necessitated.我们将最好逮捕Calvin的主想,如果我们把它比作现代系统的无意识,或预先确定的物理,其中所有的影响在于折叠起来,因为它是在一个第一个原因,是他们在时代发展的必要。 Effects are thus mere manifestations, not fresh acts, or in any way due to free will choosing its own course.因此影响只是表现形式,不新鲜的行为,或以任何方式将因自由选择自己的路。Nature, grace, revelation, Heaven, and Hell do but show us different aspects of the eternal energy which works in all things.自然,优雅,启示,天堂与地狱做,但我们展示了永恒的能源,在所有的事情作品的不同方面。There is no free will outside the Supreme.没有外来最高的自由意志。Zwingli argued that, since God was infinite being, He alone existed -- there could be no other being, and secondary or created causes were but instruments moved entirely by Divine power.茨温利认为,既然上帝是无限的存在,他独自存在 - 有可能是没有其他福利,或创建的原因和二次仪​​表感动人,但完全的神圣权力。Calvin did not go to this length.卡尔文没有去这个长度。But he denies freedom to creatures, fallen or unfallen, except it be libertas a coactione; in other words, God does not compel man to act by brute force, yet he determines irresistibly all we do, whether good or evil.但他否认自由的动物,下降或unfallen,若不是利伯塔斯一coactione;换句话说,上帝不强迫人用暴力行动,但他决定势不可挡我们所做的一切,无论是善或恶。 The Supreme is indeed self-conscious -- not a blind Fate or Stoic destiny; it is by "decree" of the sovereign Lawgiver that events come to pass.最高法院确实是自我意识 - 不是一个盲目的命运或斯多葛派的命运,它以“法令”的主权立法者的活动来传递的。But for such decrees no reason can be rendered.但对于这样的法令没有任何理由可以被渲染。There is not any cause of the Divine will save Itself.没有任何神圣的事业就会来临。If we ask why has the Almighty acted thus and thus, we are told, "Quia ipse voluit" -- it is His good pleasure.如果我们问,为什么有这样全能的行事,因此,我们被告知,“Quia ipse voluit” - 这是他的美意。 Beyond this, an explanation would be impossible, and to demand one is impiety.除此之外,一个解释是不可能的,要求之一是不虔诚。 From the human angle of sight, therefore God works as though without a reason.从人类的视线角度,所以神的作品,仿佛没有理由。And here we come upon the primal mystery to which in his argument Calvin recurs again and again.在这里,我们来后,原始的神秘,在他的论点卡尔文复发,一次又一次。This Supreme Will fixes an absolute order, physical, ethical, religious, never to be modified by anything we can attempt.这个最高意志修复的绝对命令,物理,伦理,宗教,从来没有被什么东西,我们可以尝试修改。For we cannot act upon God, else He would cease to be the First Cause.因为我们不能付诸行动的神,否则,他将不再是第一个原因。

Holding this clue, it is comparatively simple to trace Calvin's footsteps along the paths of history and revelation.持有这条线索,它是相对简单的跟踪沿着历史和启示的路径卡尔文的脚步。Luther had written that man's will is enslaved either to God or to Satan, but it is never free.路德曾撰文指出,人的意志是被奴役或上帝或撒旦,但它绝不是免费的。Melanchthon declaimed against the "impious dogma of Free Will," adding that since all things happen by necessity according to Divine predestination, no room was left for it.梅兰希凛然对“自由意志不虔诚的教条,”他补充说,因为所有的事情发生了按照神的宿命的必要性,没有空间留给它。This was truly the article by which the Reformation should stand or fall.这是真正的文章,其中改造应该站或下降。God is sole agent.上帝是独家代理。Therefore creation, redemption, election, reprobation are in such sense His acts that man becomes merely their vehicle and himself does nothing.因此创造,救赎,选举,非难是在这样的感觉,他的行为人只是成为他们的车和自己什么都不做。Luther, contending with Erasmus, declares that "God by an unchangeable, eternal, infallible will, foresees purposes and effects all things. By this thunderbolt Free Will is utterly destroyed."路德与伊拉斯谟争,宣布“由一个不变的,永恒的,会犯错的神,预见的目的和效果万物通过这种自由意志,是完全摧毁晴天霹雳。。”那 Calvin shared Luther's doctrine of necessity to the full; but he embroiled the language by admitting in unfallen Adam a liberty of choice.卡尔文共享路德的学说的充分必要性,但他卷入在unfallen亚当承认一个自由选择的语言。He was likewise at pains to distinguish between his own teaching and the "nature bound fast in Fate" of the Stoics.他是在同样的痛苦来区分自己的教学和“性质的约束快速命运”的斯多葛学派。He meant by liberty, however, the absence of constraint; and the Divine wisdom which he invoked could never be made intelligible to our understanding.他的意思是由自由,但是,缺乏约束和神圣的智慧,他援引不可能作出理解到我们的理解。What he rejected was the Catholic notion of the self-determining second cause.他拒绝是什么的自我决定的第二个原因天主教的概念。Neither would he allow the doctrine laid down by the Fathers of Trent (Sess. VI Canon 16), that God permits evil deeds, but is not their author.他也不会允许奠定了父亲的遄达(sess.六佳能16),即上帝允许的恶行下来的学说,但不是他们的作者。The condemnation struck expressly at Melanchthon, who asserted that the betrayal by Judas was not less properly God's act than the vocation of St. Paul.明确的谴责发生在梅兰希顿,谁主张,由犹大背叛上帝不是减少正确的比圣保罗职业行为。But by parity of reasoning it falls upon Calvinism.但是,它的推理平价落在加尔文。For the "Institutes" affirm that "man by the righteous impulsion of God does that which is unlawful," and that "man falls, the Providence of God so ordaining" (IV, 18, 2; III, 23, 8).对于“学院”申明“,由神公义冲动人这样做,这是非法的”和“人下降时,神祝圣普罗维登斯”(四,18,2,三,23,8)。 Yet elsewhere Calvin denied this impulse as not in accordance with the known will of the Almighty.然而,在其他地方卡尔文否认这与已知的全能将冲动的不符合。Both he and Luther found a way of escape from the moral dilemma inflicted on them by distinguishing two wills in the Divine Nature, one public or apparent, which commanded good and forbade evil as the Scripture teaches, the other just, but secret and unsearchable, predetermining that Adam and all the reprobate should fall into sin and perish.他和路德发现对他们造成的,区别在神圣的性质,一个是公开的或明显的,这吩咐好,并禁止邪恶的圣经教导两个意志的道德困境的一条出路,而其他的人,但秘密和无法测度,预先决定,亚当和所有的坏人应该落入罪恶和灭亡。 At no time did Calvin grant that Adam's transgression was due to his own free will.卡尔文在任何时候都没有给予亚当的海侵,是因为他自己的自由意志。Beza traces it to a spontaneous, ie a natural and necessary, movement of the spirit, in which evil could not fail to spring up.Beza痕迹,它的一种自发的,即一个自然和必要的精神,运动,在这种邪恶不能不涌现。He justifies the means -- sin and its consequences -- by the holy purpose of the Creator who, if there were no one to punish, would be incapable of showing that he is a righteously vindictive God.他所持的手段 - 单及其后果 - 由造物主神圣的目的是谁,如果有任何人以惩罚,将是显示出他是一个正直斗气神能力。As, however, man's intent was evil, he becomes a sinner while his Creator remains holy.但是,由于人的意图是邪恶的,他成为罪人,而他的创造者仍然是神圣的。The Reformed confessions will not allow that God is the author of sin -- and Calvin shows deep indignation when charged with "this disgraceful falsehood."在改革的供述不会允许这种罪恶的上帝是作者 - 深愤慨和卡尔文显示,与被控“这一可耻的谎言。”He distinguishes, like Beza, the various intentions concurring to the same act on the part of different agents- but the difficulty cannot well be got over, that, in his view, the First Cause alone is a real agent, and the rest mere instruments.他区分,如Beza中,赞同对不同药物的一部分,同样的行为不同的意图,但困难不能很好地恢复过来,说,在他看来,第一个原因仅仅是一个真正的代理商,其余只是工具。 It was objected to him that he gave no convincing reasons for the position thus taken up, and that his followers were swayed by their master's authority rather than by the force of his logic.这是反对他,他找了因此采取了立场没有令人信服的理由,并认为他的追随者被其主人的权力,而不是由他的逻辑力量所左右。 Even an admirer, JA Froude, tells us:即使是一个崇拜者,茉莉弗劳德,告诉我们:

To represent man as sent into the world under a curse, as incurably wicked-wicked by the constitution of his nature and wicked by eternal decree-as doomed, unless exempted by special grace which he cannot merit, or by any effort of his own obtain, to live in sin while he remains on earth, and to be eternally miserable when he leaves it-to represent him as born unable to keep the commandments, yet as justly liable to everlasting punishment for breaking them, is alike repugnant to reason and conscience, and turns existence into a hideous nightmare.为代表送往融入世界受诅咒的人,作为治愈的恶人,恶人由他的本性宪法和邪恶的永恒的法令作为注定的,除非特殊的恩典,这是他不值得,或以任何自己获得的努力豁免,生活在地球上的罪恶,而他依然存在,并成为永远痛苦,当他离开它,以代表他的出生无法跟上的戒律,为公正地承担打破他们以永恒的惩罚却是一样令人厌恶的理性和良知,并将其转换成一个可怕的噩梦的存在。 (Short Studies, II, 3.) (短期研究,二,三。)

Another way to define the Reformed theology would be to contrast its view of God's eternal decrees with that taken in the Catholic Church, notably by Jesuit authors such as Molina.另一种方式来定义的归正神学,将是明显的对比,如耶稣会作家莫利纳其与在天主教教会采取的上帝的永恒的法令的看法。 To Calvin the ordinances of Deity seemed absolute, ie not in any way regardful of the creature's acts, which they predetermined either right or wrong; and thus reprobation -- the supreme issue between all parties -- followed upon God's unconditioned fiat, no account being had in the decree itself of man's merits or demerits.卡尔文神性的条例似乎是绝对的,即不以任何方式对动物的行为,这是他们预定的正确或错误表示敬意的;,从而非难 - 最高法院各方之间的问题 - 当上帝的无条件的菲亚特其次,没有考虑到正曾在人的优点或缺点法令本身。For God chose some to glory and others to shame everlasting as He willed, not upon foreknowledge how they would act.对于上帝选择了一些其他人的荣耀和永恒的耻辱,因为他的意志,不以预知他们将如何行事。The Jesuit school made foreknowledge of "future contingencies" or of what creatures would do in any possible juncture, the term of Divine vision "scientia media" which was logically antecedent (as a condition not a cause) to the scheme of salvation.耶稣会学校做出的“未来突发事件”或什么动物会不会在任何可能的时刻预知,在神圣的愿景“报ACTA媒体”,这是合乎逻辑前提(作为一个条件而不是原因)的拯救计划的期限。 Grace, said Catholic dogma, was offered to all men; none were excluded from it.格雷斯说,天主教的教义,是提供给所有的人,但没有一人被排除在外。Adam need not have transgressed, neither was his fall pre-ordained.亚当不必都犯了,也不是他的秋天前受戒。Christ died for the whole human race; and every one had such help from on high that the reprobate could never charge their ruin upon their Maker, since he permitted it only, without an absolute decree.基督的死为整个人类和每个人都已经从高这样的帮助是不可能的reprobate负责它们对造物主毁灭,因为他只允许没有一个绝对的法令。 Grace, then, was given freely; but eternal life came to the saints by merit, founded on correspondence to the Holy Spirit's impulse.恩,然后,被赋予自由,但永生来到圣徒的优点,建立在书信圣灵的冲动。All these statements Calvin rejected as Pelagian, except that he would maintain, though unable to justify, the- imputation of the sinner's lapse to human nature by itself.所有这些声明卡尔文为伯拉纠,只知道他会维持,虽然无法拒绝的理由,对罪人的失误给人类本身自然归责。

To be consistent, this doctrine requires that no prevision of Adam's Fall should affect the eternal choice which discriminates between the elect and the lost.是一致的,这个原则要求,没有亚当的秋季预知应该影响永恒的选择,这之间的选举权和丢失的歧视。A genuine Calvinist ought to be a supralapsarian; in other terms, the Fall was decreed as means to an end; it did not first appear in God's sight to be the sufficient cause why, if He chose, He might select some from the "massa damnata," leaving others to their decreed doom.一个真正的加尔文主义者应该是一个supralapsarian,在其他方面,秋季为目的的一种手段颁布的,它并没有事先在上帝的视线似乎是充分的理由,如果他愿意,他可能会选择从“马萨一些damnata,“离开别人的颁布厄运。 To this subject St. Augustine frequently returns in his anti-Pelagian treatises, and he lays great emphasis on the consequences to mankind as regards their final state, of God's dealing with them in fallen Adam.这一主题在圣奥古斯丁经常返回他的反伯拉纠论文,他注重的后果十分重视人类至于神与他们打交道在亚当堕落的最后状态。But his language, unlike that of Calvin, never implies absolute rejection divorced from foreknowledge of man's guilt.但他的语言,不像卡尔文说,从来意味着绝对排斥从人的有罪先见之明离婚。Thus even to the African Father, whose views in his latter works became increasingly severe (see "On the Predestination of the Saints" and "On Correction and Grace") there was always an element of scientia media, ie prevision in the relation of God with His creatures.因此,即使到非洲之父,他的观点在他的后期作品变得越来越严重(见“的圣人缘”和“关于修正和格雷斯”),总是有一个报ACTA媒体元素,在上帝的关系,即预知与他的生物。 But, to the Reformer who explained Redemption and its opposite by sheer omnipotence doing as it would, the idea that man could, even as a term of knowledge, by his free acts be considered in the Everlasting Will was not conceivable.但是,对改革者谁做解释纯粹的全能赎回及它的对立面,因为它会,那个男人的想法可能,甚至作为知识任期由他的自由的行为,将在永恒考虑的不可以想象的。 As the Arian said, "How can the Eternal be begotten?"由于阿里安说:“怎么能是永恒的造物主?”and straightway denied the generation of the Word, in like manner Calvin, "How can the contingent affect the First Cause on which it utterly depends?"并立刻否认了这个词的产生,在喜欢的方式卡尔文,“如何才能队伍的第一个原因的影响,它完全依赖?”In the old dilemma, "either God is not omnipotent or man is not self determined," the "Institutes" accept the conclusion adverse to liberty.在旧的困境,“要么上帝不是万能的或人为的不是自我决定”的“学院”接受的结论不利的自由。But it was, said Catholics, equally adverse to morals; and the system has always been criticised on that ground.但它说,天主教徒,同样不利的道德标准和制度一直是以此为由批评。In a word, it seemed to be antinomian.总之,这似乎是唯信仰论。

With Augustine the Geneva author professed to be at one.笔者在日内瓦与奥古斯丁宣称将在一。"If they have all been taken from a corrupt mass," he argued, "no marvel that they are subject to condemnation."“如果他们都被从一个腐败的群众采取”他说,“没有奇迹,他们受到谴责。”But, his critics replied, "were they not antecedently predestined to that corruption?"但是,他的批评者说,“他们是不是注定要先行腐败?”And "is not God unjust in treating His creatures with such cruel mystery?"而“是不是上帝在治疗他的这种残忍的动物之谜不公正?” To this Calvin answers, "I confess that all descendants of Adam fell by the Divine will," and that "we must return at last to God's sovereign determination, the cause of which is hidden" (Institutes, III, 23, 4).为此卡尔文回答说:“我承认亚当所有后裔的神的意志下降”,并说:“我们必须回到最后到神的主权的决心,其原因是隐藏的”(机构,三,23,4)。

"Therefore," he concludes, "some men are born devoted from the womb to certain death, that His name may be glorified in their destruction." “因此,”他总结道,“有些人是天生的专门从出生到必死无疑,他的名字可能在其销毁荣耀。”And the reason why such necessity is laid upon them?而之所以这样的必要性,奠定了他们?"Because," says Calvin "life and death are acts of God's will rather than of his foreknowledge," and "He foresees further events only in consequence of his decree that they shall happen." “因为,”卡尔文说:“生命和死亡是上帝的行为,而不是他的先见之明”和“他预计只在他的法令,他们将进一步发生后果的事件。”Finally, "it is an awful decree, I confess [horribile decretum, fateor], but none can deny that God foreknew the future final fate of man before He created him -- and that He did foreknow it because it was appointed by His own ordinance."最后,“这是一个可怕的法令,我承认[horribile教令,fateor],但没有人能够否认上帝预知未来的人类最终的命运之前,他创造了他 - 那他预见它,因为它是由他自己任命条例“。Calvin, then, is a supralapsarian; the Fall was necessary; and our first parents, like ourselves, could not have avoided sinning.卡尔文,那么,是一个supralapsarian;秋天是必要的,而我们的第一次家长,喜欢自己,不能避免犯罪。

So far, the scheme presents a cast-iron logic at whatever expense to justice and morality.到目前为止,该计划提出了不惜一切代价的铸铁逻辑正义和道德。When it comes to consider human nature, its terms sound more uncertain, it veers to each extreme in succession of Pelagius and Luther.当谈到要考虑人性,其条款声音更不明朗,每个浆糊在伯拉纠和路德继承极端。In St. Augustine, that nature is almost always viewed historically, not in the abstract hence as possessed by unfallen Adam it was endowed with supernatural gifts, while in his fallen children it bears the burden of concupiscence and sin.在圣奥古斯丁,那自然是历史上几乎始终认为,不是抽象的,因此由unfallen亚当拥有它被赋予了超自然的礼物,而在他死去的孩子它负有concupiscence和罪恶的负担。 But the French Reformer, not conceding a possible state of pure nature, attributes to the first man, with Luther (in Genesis 3), such perfection as would render God's actual grace unnecessary, thus tending to make Adam self-sufficient, as the Pelagians held all men to be.但是,法国改革者,不承认一个纯自然的可能状态,属性对第一个男人,与路德(创世记3),这种完美的会令神的实际的宽限期不必要的,因此倾向于让亚当自给自足为的pelagians,持有的所有男人的人。 On the other hand, when original sin took them once captive the image of God was entirety blotted out.另一方面,当原罪把他们俘虏了一次神的形象是完全抹杀。This article of "total depravity" also came from Luther, who expressed it in language of appalling power.这种“彻底堕落”的文章,也来自路德,谁表示在恶劣的权力语言。And so the "Institutes" announce that "in man all which bears reference to the blessed life of the soul is extinct."因此,“学院”宣布“的人都负有参考祝福生活的灵魂,是灭绝。”那And if it was "natural" in Adam to love God and do justice, or a part of his very essence, then by lapsing from grace he would have been plunged into an abyss below nature, where his true moral and religious being was altogether dissolved.而如果它是“自然”在亚当热爱上帝和伸张正义,或者他很精华的部分,从恩典lapsing然后他将被纳入低于性质深渊,在那里他真正的道德和宗教是完全被解散暴跌, 。So, at any rate, the German Protestants believed in their earlier period, nor was Calvin reluctant to echo them.所以,无论如何,德国新教徒相信他们前期,也不是卡尔文他们不愿呼应。

Catholics distinguish two kinds of beatitude: one corresponding to our nature as a rational species and to be acquired by virtuous acts; the other beyond all that man may do or seek when left to his own faculties, and in such wise God's free gift that it is due only to acts performed under the influence of a strictly supernatural movement.天主教徒区分两种乐的:​​一个对应,我们作为一个理性的物种的性质,并得到良性行为而获得;超越一切人,另一方可以做或seek时,留给他自己的能力,并在这种明智的上帝的恩赐,它是因为只有在一个严格超自然的运动影响的行为。 The confusion of grace with nature in Adam's essence was common to all the Reformed schools; it is peculiarly manifest in Jansenius, who strove to deduce it from St. Augustine.在与自然的恩典在亚当的​​本质混乱共同所有学校的改革,它是独有的Jansenius,谁力图从圣奥古斯丁推断它的体现。 And, granting the Fall, it leads by direct inference to man's utter corruption as the unregenerate child of Adam.而且,给予秋季,它导致的直接推论到人的彻底腐败的顽固不化的亚当的孩子。He is evil in all that he thinks, or wills, or does.他是一切罪恶,他认为,或遗嘱,或没有。Yet Calvin allows him reason and choice, though not true liberty.然而卡尔文让他的理由和选择,虽然不是真正的自由。The heart was poisoned by sin, but something remained of grace to hinder its worst excesses, or to justify God's vengeance on the reprobate (over and above their original fault inherited).心脏是被毒死的罪恶,但仍有一些宽限期阻碍其最恶劣的暴行,或证明上帝的对坏人(超出其原故障继承)报复。 On the whole, it must be said that the "Institutes" which now and then allow that God's image was not quite effaced in us, deny to mankind, so far as redemption has not touched them, any moral and religious powers whatsoever.整体而言,它必须指出,“学院”的现在,然后让神的形象在我们并不太抹去,否认人类,只要不触及他们赎回,任何道德和宗教权力可言。 With Calvin as with his predecessor of Wittenberg, heathen virtue is but apparent, and that of the non-Christian merely "political," or secular.与卡尔文与他在维滕贝格的前任,但明显的优点是异教徒,而在非基督教仅仅是“政治”,或世俗。Civilization, founded on our common nature, is in such a view external only, and its justice or benevolence may claim no intrinsic value.文明,在我们共同的性质成立,是在这种观点的外部只,其正义或善可能声称没有内在价值。 That it has no supernatural value Catholics have always asserted; but the Church condemns those who say, with Baius, "All the works of unbelievers are sinful and the virtues of the philosophers are vices."它没有任何超自然的价值天主教徒一直断言,但教会谴责那些谁与Baius说,“所有的作品是不信有罪和哲学家的美德都是恶习。” Propositions equivalent to these are as follows: "Free Will not aided by God's grace, avails only to commit sin," and "God could not have created man at the beginning such as he is now born" (Props. 25, 27, 55, censured by St. Pius V, Oct., 1567, and by Urban VIII, March, 1641).相当于这些命题如下:“自由意志而不是由上帝的恩典帮助下,援用只犯罪”和“上帝不会在一开始创建人,如他现在是诞生”(Props. 25,27,55 ,由圣比约五,10月,1567年,由市区八,三月,1641年谴责)。Catholic theology admits a twofold goodness and righteousness -- the one natural, as Aristotle defines it in his "Ethics," the other supernatural inspired by the Holy Ghost.天主教神学承认双重善良和正义 - 一个天然的,正如亚里士多德在他的定义是“道德”的其他超自然的圣灵的启发。Calvin throws aside every middle term between justifying faith and corrupt desire.卡尔文抛出一边腐败之间正当的信仰和希望每一个中项。The integrity of Adam's nature once violated, he falls under the dominion of lust, which reigns in him without hindrance, save by the external grace now and again preventing a deeper degradation.亚当的完整的本性一旦受到侵犯,他属于统治的欲望,这在他的统治没有障碍,节省了外部的恩典,现在又防止更深的退化。 But whatever he is or does savours of the Evil One.但是,不管他是或没有品味的邪恶。Accordingly the system maintained that faith (which here signifies trust in the Lutheran sense) was the first interior grace given and source of all others, as likewise that outside the Church no grace is ever bestowed.因此系统维护的信仰(这在这里意味着在路德信任感)是第一个室内恩典和所有其他来源,也没有教会以外的恩典是永远赐予的。

We come on these lines to the famous distinction which separates the true Church that of the predestined, from the seeming or visible, where all baptized persons meet.我们来对这些著名的区分隔开,真正的教会行的命中注定,从表面上或可见,所有受洗者见面。This falls in with Calvin's whole theory, but is never to be mistaken for the view held by Roman authorities, that some may pertain to the soul of the Church who are not members of its body.这是符合卡尔文的整个理论,但决不会是由罗马当局所持的观点,有些可能涉及到谁,教会不属于其机构成员的灵魂错了。Always pursuing his idea, the absolute predestinarian finds among Christians, all of whom have heard the Gospel and received the sacraments, only a few entitled to life everlasting.永远追求自己的想法,绝对的命定的基督徒认为,所有的人都听到了福音,并收到了圣礼,只有少数享有永生。 These obtain the grace which is in words offered to every one; the rest fill up the measure of their condemnation.这些获得的恩典,这在提供给每一个字的,其余的填补了他们的谴责措施。To the reprobate, Gospel ordinances serve as a means to compass the ruin intended for them.对于非难,福音条例作为一种手段,指南针的毁灭打算给他们。Hereby, also, an answer is made possible when Catholics demand where the Reformed Church was prior to the Reformation.在此,同时,一个答案是天主教徒的需求成为可能时,其中归正教会之前改造。Calvin replies that in every age the elect constituted the flock of Christ, and all besides were strangers, though invested with dignity and offices in the visible communion.卡尔文回答说,在每一个时代的选举构成了基督的羊群,和所有除了是陌生人,虽然与尊严,在可见的共融办事处投资。 The reprobate have only apparent faith.只有明显的堕落的信心。Yet they may feel as do the elect, experience similar fervours, and to the best of their judgment be accounted saints.然而,他们可能会觉得做选民,遇到类似的fervours,以及对他们的判断最好是占圣人。All that is mere delusion; they are hypocrites "into whose minds God insinuates Himself, so that, not having the adoption of sons, they may yet taste the goodness of the Spirit."一切只是幻想,他们是伪君子“影射了谁的心神自己,所以说,没有了儿子的名分,他们还可能品尝善良的精神。”Thus Calvin explained how in the Gospel many are called believers who did not persevere; and so the visible Church is made up of saints that can never lose their crown, and sinners that by no effort could attain to salvation.因此卡尔文解释如何在许多福音信徒被称为谁没有坚持,等等有形教会是由圣人永远不能失去王冠,罪人,通过努力可以达到无以救赎。

Faith, which means assurance of election, grace, and glory, is then the heritage of none but the predestined.信念,这保证选举的,恩典和荣耀的手段,是那么的没有遗产,但命中注定的。But, since no real secondary cause exists man remains passive throughout the temporal series of events by which he is shown to be an adopted son of God.但是,由于没有真正的次要原因依然存在,整个人由他的证明是神的养子事件的时间序列被动。He neither acts nor, in the Catholic sense co-operates with his Redeemer.他既不行为也不是,在天主教的合作意识与他的救赎工作。 A difference in the method of conversion between Luther and Calvin may here be noted.一个在路德和卡尔文之间的转换方法的不同可以在这里加以说明。The German mystic begins, as his own experience taught him, with the terrors of the law.德国神秘的开始,正如他自己的经验教与法律的恐惧他。The French divine who had never gone through that stage, gives the first place to the Gospel; and repentance, instead of preceding faith, comes after it.法国神圣谁从未通过那个阶段了,给人的福音第一名;和忏悔,而不是前面的信念,经过而来。He argued that by so disposing of the process, faith appeared manifestly alone, unaccompanied by repentance, which, otherwise, might claim some share of merit.他认为,如此处理的过程,信仰出现明显,仅由悔过书,其中,否则,可能会取得一些值得分享的举目无亲。The Lutherans, moreover, did not allow absolute predestination.路德会,而且,绝对不容许的宿命。And their confidence in being themselves justified, ie saved, was unequal to Calvin's requirements.而他们在被自己正当的信心,即保存,是不平等的卡尔文的要求。For he made assurance inevitable as was its object to the chosen soul.对于他的保证是其不可避免的对象所选择的灵魂。Nevertheless, he fancied that between himself and the sounder medieval scholastics no quarrel need arise touching the principle of justification -- namely, that "the sinner being delivered gratuitously from his doom becomes righteous."不过,他幻想着自己与健全中世纪经院哲学家有需要时接触没有异议的理由的原则 - “。无偿交付的罪人,从他的厄运成为正义”即Calvin overlooked in these statements the vital difference which accounts for his aberration from the ancient system.卡尔文忽略了这些语句的重要区别是,他从古代系统像差帐户。Catholics held that fallen man kept in some degree his moral and religious faculties, though much impaired, and did not lose his free will.堕落的人一直认为,在一定程度上,他的道德和宗教系,虽然还有许多障碍,并没有失去他的自由意志的天主教徒。But the newer doctrine affirmed man's total incompetence, he could neither freely consent nor ever resist, when grace was given, if he happened to be predestinate.但较新的学说肯定人的总无能,他既不能自由地同意从不曾抗拒,当给予的宽限期,如果他正好是注定。If not, justification lay beyond his grasp.如果不是,理由在于他无法掌握。However, the language of the "Institutes" is not so uncompromising as Luther's had been.然而,“研究所”语言不是那么强硬,因为路德的已经。God first heals the corrupt will, and the will follows His guidance; or, we may say, cooperates.神首先医治腐败的意志和毅力如下他的指导;或者,我们可以说,合作。

The one final position of Calvin is that omnipotent grace of itself substitutes a good for an evil will in the elect, who do nothing towards their own conversion but when converted are accounted just.卡尔文的最后一个位置就是一个很好的替代品本身的邪恶无所不能的恩典将在选出,谁对自己的转换,但转换时只是没有入账。 In all the original theology of the Reformation righteousness is something imputed, not indwelling in the soul.在所有的改革原有的神学,是正义的东西估算,而不是灵魂留置。It is a legal fiction when compared with what the Catholic Church believes, namely, that justice or sanctification involves a real gift, a quality bestowed on the spirit and inherent, whereby it becomes the thing it is called.它是一种法律拟制相比,有什么天主教会认为,那就是正义或成圣涉及真正的礼物,在精神和固有的,使其成为了它被称为东西赋予了质量。 Hence the Council of Trent declares (Sess. VI) that Christ died for all men, it condemns (Canon XVII) the main propositions of Geneva, that "the grace of justification comes only to the predestinate," and that "the others who are called receive an invitation but no grace, being doomed by the Divine power to evil."因此,安理会的遄达宣称(sess.六)基督为所有的人死后,它谴责(佳能十七)日内瓦的主要主张,即“宽限期的理由来,无非要的注定”,而“其他人谁是所谓收到邀请,但没有风度,被邪恶的神圣权力,注定要失败。“ So Innocent X proscribed in Jansenius the statement: "It is Semipelagian to affirm that Christ died for all men, or shed His blood in their behalf."因此,在Jansenius诺森十被禁的声明:“这是semipelagian申明,基督为所有的人死亡,或大棚在他们的代表他的血。” In like manner Trent rejected the definition of faith as "confidence in being justified without merit"; grace was not "the feeling of love," nor was justification the "forgiveness of sin," and apart from a special revelation no man could be infallibly sure that he was saved.在这样的方式特伦特驳回“理由是没有好处的信心”,作为信仰的定义,宽限期,是不是“爱的感觉,”也没有理由的“宽恕的罪恶”,从一个特殊的启示,除了没有人可以绝对无误相信他得救了。 According to Calvin the saint was made such by his faith, and the sinner by want of it stood condemned, but the Fathers of Trent distinguished a dead faith, which could never justify, from faith animated by charity -- and they attributed merit to all good works done through Divine inspiration.据卡尔文圣是由他作出这样的信念,并希望它的罪人站在了谴责,但是父亲的遄达辨别出死者的信仰,这不可能的理由,由慈善动画信心 - 他们所有的优点归因好的作品通过神的启示做。But in the Genevese doctrine faith itself is not holy.但在Genevese主义信仰本身不是神圣的。This appears very singular; and no explanation has ever been vouchsafed of the power ascribed to an act or mean, itself destitute of intrinsic qualities, neither morally good nor in any way meritorious, the presence or absence of which nevertheless fixes our eternal destiny.这似乎非常奇怪,并没有解释过的归因于一行为或权力赐予的意思是,本身贫困的内在品质,无论是道义上的好,也不以任何方式有功,存在或没有该修复但我们永恒的命运。

But since Christ alone is our righteousness, Luther concluded that the just man is never just in himself; that concupiscence, though resisted, makes him sin damnably in all he does, and that he remains a sinner until his last breath.但是,由于基督仅是我们的义,路德的结论是公正的人决不只是在自己,这concupiscence,虽然抵制,使他的罪厉害地在他所做的一切,他仍然是一个罪人,直到他的最后一口气。 Thus even the "Solid Declaration" teaches, though in many respects toning down the Reformer's truculence.因此,即使“固体宣言”的教导,在许多方面虽然淡化了改革者的好战。Such guilt, however, God overlooks where faith is found -- the one unpardonable sin is want of faith.这种内疚,然而,上帝的信仰是在俯瞰发现 - 一个不可饶恕的罪过是要信仰。"Pecca fortiter sed crede fortius" -- this Lutheran epigram, "Sin as you like provided you believe," expresses in a paradox the contrast between corrupt human nature, filthy still in the very highest saints, and the shadow of Christ, as, falling upon them, it hides their shame before God.“Pecca fortiter桑达克雷德更强” - 这路德警句:“罪过,因为你喜欢只要你相信,”在一个腐败之间的矛盾,表达了人性的对比,在非常高的圣人仍旧污秽,和基督的影子,因为,坠落在他们身上,它会隐藏自己的上帝面前的耻辱。 Here again the Catholic refuses to consider man responsible except where his will consents; the Protestant regards impulse and enticement as constituting all the will that we have.这里再次拒绝考虑天主教负责人同意,除非他的意志;新教方面的冲动和诱惑,作为组成所有的意愿,我们有。These observations apply to Calvin -- but he avoids extravagant speech while not differing from Luther in fact.这些意见适用于卡尔文 - 但他避免奢侈的讲话虽然没有从路德不同的事实。He grants that St. Augustine would not term involuntary desires sin; then he adds, "We, on the contrary, deem it to be sin whenever a man feels any desires forbidden by Divine law -- and we assert the depravity to be sin which produces them" (Institutes, III, 2, 10).他赠款,圣奥古斯丁不会长期罪非自愿的欲望,然后他补充说,“相反我们,认为它是罪恶当一个人感觉受到神圣的法律禁止任何欲望 - 我们断言成为罪而堕落他们生产的“(机构,三,二,10)。On the hypothesis of determinism, held by every school of the Reformers, this logic is unimpeachable.在决定论假说的每校举行的改革者,这种逻辑是无可指责的。But it leads to strange consequences.但它会导致奇怪的后果。The sinner commits actions which the saint may also indulge in; but one is saved the other is lost; and so the entire moral contents of Christianity are emptied out.千古罪人犯的行动,也可以沉醉在圣但一个是保存的另一种失去;,所以整个基督教道德的内容清空了。Luther denominated the saint's liberty freedom from the law.路德计价圣人的从法律自由的自由。And Calvin, "The question is not how we can be righteous, but how, though unworthy and unrighteous, we may be considered righteous."和Calvin,“问题不在于我们如何能够受到正义的,但是现在,虽然不值得和不义的,我们可以认为正义的。” The law may instruct and exhort, but "it has no place in the conscience before God's tribunal."法律可以指导和劝告,但“它没有在上帝面前的法庭良心的地方。”And if Christians advert to the law, "they see that every work they attempt or meditate is accursed" (Institutes, III, 19, 2, 4).如果基督徒广告的法律,“他们看到每一个工作,他们企图或打坐是诅咒”(机构,三,19,2,4)。 Leo X had condemned Luther's thesis, "In every good work the just man sins."里奥十谴责了路德的论文“在每一个好工作的公正的人的罪过。”Baius fell under censure for asserting (Props. 74, 75) that "concupiscence in the baptized is a sin, though not imputed."Baius下跌指责下断言(Props. 74,75),“在洗礼concupiscence是一种罪过,但不是输入的。”And, viewing the whole theory, Catholics have asked whether a sinfulness which exists quite independent of the will is not something substantial, like the darkness of the Manichæans, or essential to us who are finite beings.而且,观看整个理论,天主教徒们询问罪孽其中存在着相当的意志为转移的,不是实质性喜欢的摩尼教,或对我们至关重要谁是有限的人类黑暗。

At all events Calvin seems entangled in perplexities on the subject, for he declares expressly that the regenerate are "liable every moment at God's judgment-seat to sentence of death" (Instit., III, 2, 11); yet elsewhere he tempers his language with a "so to speak," and explains it as meaning that all human virtue is imperfect.卡尔文在所有的事件似乎在这个问题上纠缠困惑,因为他宣布明确规定,再生是“负责每天在上帝的判决,被判处死刑的座位时刻”(Instit.,三,二,11);但他在其他地方,他的脾气语言与一个“可以这么说”,并解释为意味着所有的人类美德是不完善的。 He would certainly have subscribed to the "Solid Declaration," that the good works of the pious are not necessary to salvation.他当然会签署了“固体宣言”,该虔诚的好作品是没有必要的救助。With Luther, he affirms the least transgression to be a mortal sin, even involuntary concupiscence -- and as this abides in every man while he lives, all that we do is worthy of punishment (Instit., II, 8, 68, 59).路德,他肯定是最不侵是弥天大罪,甚至不由自主concupiscence - 在每一个男人,而他此遵守和生活,所有我们要做的就是值得的处罚(Instit.,二,8,68,59) 。And again, "There never yet was any work of a religious man which, examined by God's severe standard would not be condemnable" (Ibid., III, 14,11).又一次,“从来就没有任何一个宗教的人其中,由神的更为严格的审查工作将不会受到谴责”(同上,三,14,11)。 The Council of Trent had already censured these axioms by asserting that God does not command impossibilities, and that His children keep His word.安理会的遄达已经通过声明指责上帝并不命令不可能,而且,他的孩子履行诺言的这些公理。Innocent X did the like when he proscribed as heretical the fifth proposition of Jansenius, "Some commandments of God are impossible to the just who will and endeavour; nor is the grace by which they should become possible given to them."诺森十时没有像他作为异端的Jansenius第五命题被禁,“上帝的诫命,是不可能有的只是谁的意志和努力,也不是恩典,使他们应该给予他们成为可能。”

Two important practical consequences may be drawn from this entire view: first, that conversion takes place in a moment -- and so all evangelical Protestants believe; and, second, that baptism ought not to be administered to infants, seeing they cannot have the faith which justifies.两个重要的实际后果可能是从这一整个的看法:第一,转换发生在片刻的地方 - 因此所有福音派新教徒相信;第二,洗礼不应该加以管理的婴儿,看到他们不能有信心这是合理的。This latter inference produced the sect of Anabaptists against whom Calvin thunders as he does, against other "frenzied" persons, in vehement tones.这后一种推论产生了再洗礼派加尔文教派所针对雷像他那样,对其他的“疯狂”的人在激烈的口气。Infant baptism was admitted, but its value, as that of every ordinance, varied with the predestination to life or to death of the recipient.婴儿的洗礼被接纳,但它的价值,因为这对每一个条例,与生命或死亡的宿命的收件人各不相同。 To Calvinists the Church system was an outward life beneath which the Holy Spirit might be present or absent, not according to the dispositions brought by the faithful, but as grace was decreed.为了加尔文教会系统是一个外向的生活下面这圣灵可能存在或不存在,而不是根据的信徒带来的处分,但由于宽限期是命令。 For good works could not prepare a man to receive the sacraments worthily any more than to be justified in the beginning.好作品无法准备的人接受圣礼抱负任何以上将在开始有道理的。If so, the Quakers might well ask, what is the use of sacraments when we have the Spirit?如果是这样,贵格会可能会问,什么是圣礼的时候我们本着用呢?And especially did this reasoning affect the Eucharist.这样做的理由,特别是影响到圣体。Calvin employs the most painful terms in disowning the sacrifice of the Mass. No longer channels of grace, to Melanchthon the sacraments are "Memorials of the exercise of faith," or badges to be used by Christians.卡尔文公司在马萨诸塞州disowning了牺牲的宽限期不再渠道,梅兰希圣礼,是最痛苦的条款“行使信仰奏折”,或者徽章被基督徒使用。 From this point of view, Christ's real presence was superfluous, and the acute mind of Zwingli leaped at once to that conclusion, which has ever since prevailed among ordinary Protestants.从这个角度来看,基督的真实存在是多余的,和茨温利急性心一下子跃居这一结论,它自从在普通新教徒占了上风。 But Luther's adherence to the words of the Scripture forbade him to give up the reality, though he dealt with it in his peculiar fashion.但路德坚持对圣经的话不准他放弃现实,虽然他处理的,它在其独特的时尚。Bucer held an obscure doctrine, which attempted the middle way between Rome and Wittenberg.布策尔举行的一个不起眼的学说,它企图在罗马和维滕贝格之间的中间道路。To Luther the sacraments serve as tokens of God's love; Zwingli degrades them to covenants between the faithful.路德圣礼作为上帝的定情;茨温利降低他们之间的忠实公约。Calvin gives the old scholastic definition and agrees with Luther in commending their use, but he separates the visible element proffered to all from the grace which none save the elect may enjoy.卡尔文给老学术上的定义,并赞扬他们在路德同意使用,但他递上分开可见元素的宽限期,其中首屈一指的保存选出可以享受所有。 He admits only two sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's Supper.他承认,只有两个圣礼,洗礼和主的晚餐。Even these neither contain nor confer spiritual graces; they are signs, but not efficacious as regards that which is denoted by them.即使这些都不包含的精神,也赋予青睐,他们的迹象,但并没有什么效用的问候,这是由它们来表示。 For inward gifts, we must remember, do not belong to the system, whereas Catholics believe in ordinances as acts of the Man-God, producing the effects within the soul which He has promised, "He that eateth Me shall live by Me."对于外来的礼物,我们必须记住,不属于该系统,而天主教徒作为文相信神的行为的条例,生产内,而他亦答应灵魂的影响,“他说,不吃我的,因我活着。”

When the Church's tradition was thrown aside, differences touching the Holy Eucharist sprang up immediately among the Reformers which have never found a reconciliation.当教会的传统,被抛在一边,分歧接触圣体圣事摆出来,立即在目前已没有找到和解的改革者。To narrate their history would occupy a volume.讲述他们的历史将占有量。It is notable, however, that Calvin succeeded where Bucer had failed, in a sort of compromise, and the agreement of Zurich which he inspired was taken up by the Swiss Protestants.值得注意的是,然而,卡尔文在布策尔未能成功地在一个某种妥协,和苏黎世的协议,他的灵感是由瑞士新教了。 Elsewhere it led to quarrels, particularly among the Lutherans, who charged him with yielding too much.在其他地方它导致争吵,特别是在路德会,谁负责高产太多了。He taught that the Body of Christ is truly present in the Eucharist, and that the believer partakes of it that the elements are unchanged, and that the Catholic Mass was idolatry.他告诉我们,基督的身体是真正的圣体存在,而且它的信徒参与大,这些要素都不变,而天主教的弥撒是偶像崇拜。Yet his precise meaning is open to question.然而,他的确切意义是值得商榷的。That he did not hold a real objective presence seems clear from his arguing against Luther, as the "black rubric" of the Common Prayer Book argues -- Christ's body, he says, is in heaven.他没有举行真正的客观存在似乎很清楚他在反对路德的“黑色标题”的共同祈祷本书认为, - 基督的身体,他说,在天上。 Therefore, it cannot be on earth.因此,它不能在地球上。The reception was a spiritual one; and this perfectly orthodox phrase might be interpreted as denying a true corporal presence.这次招待会是一种精神的人,这句话完全可能被视为正统否认存在一个真正的下士解释。The Augsburg Confession, revised by its author Melanchthon, favoured ambiguous views -- at last he declared boldly for Calvin, which amounted to an acknowledgment that Luther's more decided language overshot the mark.奥格斯堡供述,其作者梅兰希修订,主张暧昧意见 - 最后他宣布卡尔文,这相当于一个承认路德的决定更大胆的标记语言的超越。The "Formula of Concord" was an attempt to rescue German Churches from this concession to the so-called Sacramentarians; it pronounced, as Calvin never would have done, that the unworthy communicant receives Our Lord's Body; and it met his objection by the strange device of "ubiquity" -- namely, that the glorified Christ was everywhere.而“协和式”是为了挽救这一让步德国教会的所谓Sacramentarians,它明显的,因为卡尔文决不会做,那卑微的沟通性接收我们的主的身体,并会见了由陌生,他反对对“无处不在”设备 - 即基督的荣耀是无处不在。But these quarrels lie outside our immediate scope.但这些争吵直接范围以外的谎言。

As Calvin would not grant the Mass to be a sacrifice, nor the ministers of the Lord's Supper to be priests, that conception of the Church which history traces back to the earliest Apostolic times underwent a corresponding change.正如卡尔文将不给予质量为一个牺牲者,也不是上帝的晚餐是祭司的部长,即教会的历史最早可以追溯到使徒时代的概念进行了相应的变化。 The clergy were now "Ministers of the Word," and the Word was not a tradition, comprising Scripture in its treasury, but the printed Bible, declared all-sufficient to the mind which the Spirit was guiding.现在的神职人员“字部长,”字是不是一个传统,包括在其财务圣经,但圣经的印刷,宣布所有自给自足的心,其中的精神,是指导。 Justification by faith alone, the Bible, and the Bible only, as the rule of faith -- such were the cardinal principles of the Reformation.因信称义单,圣经和圣经只,作为法治的信仰 - 比如都是改革的基本原则。 They worked at first destructively, by abolishing the Mass and setting up private judgment in opposition to pope and bishops.他们曾在第一次破坏性,取消了质量和反对设立教皇和主教的私人判断。Then the Anabaptists arose.然后再洗礼派产生。If God's word sufficed, what need of a clergy?如果上帝的话就足够,有什么需要一个牧师?The Reformers felt that they must restore creeds and enforce the power of the Church over dissidents.改革者认为,他们必须恢复执行的信条和对持不同政见者的权力,教会。Calvin, who possessed great constructive talent, built his presbytery on a democratic foundation -- the people were to choose, but the ministers chosen were to rule.卡尔文,谁拥有巨大的建设性的人才,建立在民主基础上的长老 - 人民的选择,但部长们选择了统治。Christian freedom consisted in throwing off the yoke of the Papacy, it did not allow the individual to stand aloof from the congregation.基督教自由包括在摆脱了罗马教皇的枷锁,它不容许个人置身于众之外。He must sign formulas, submit to discipline, be governed by a committee of elders.他必须赶快公式,服从纪律,由一个长老委员会管辖。A new sort of Catholic Church came into view, professing that the Bible was its teacher and judge, but never letting its members think otherwise than the articles drawn up should enjoin.天主教教会一个新的排序映入眼帘,自称是圣经是其老师和法官,但从来没有让大家认为其并非制定了条款应当责成。None were allowed in the pulpit who were not publicly called, and ordination, which Calvin regarded almost as a sacrament, was conferred by the presbytery.没有被允许在谁没有公开呼吁讲坛,并协调,卡尔文视为圣礼差不多,是由长老会授予的。

In his Fourth Book the great iconoclast, to whom in good logic only the Church invisible should have signified anything, makes the visible Church supreme over Christians, assigns to it the prerogatives claimed by Rome, enlarges on the guilt of schism, and upholds the principle, Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus.在他的第四本书伟大的叛逆者,向谁只有在良好的逻辑教会无形的东西应该有所指,使有形教会对基督徒至上,分配给它的特权被罗马声称,在扩大的分裂有罪,并坚持原则,额外Ecclesiam法无salus。 He will not allow that corrupt morals in the clergy, or a passing eclipse of doctrine by superstition, can excuse those who, on pretence of a purer Gospel, leave it.他不会允许有伤风化的神职人员,或路过日食用迷信学说,都不能原谅那些谁,对一个纯洁的幌子福音,离开它。The Church is described in equivalent terms as indefectible and infallible.教会是长盛不衰的描述和犯错的当量。All are bound to hear and obey what it teaches.所有肯定会听到和服从它的教导。Luther had spoken of it with contempt almost everywhere in his first writings; to him the individual guided by the Holy Spirit was autonomous.路德曾谈到它蔑视在他的第一著作几乎无处不在,由圣灵给他的个别指导是自主。 But Calvin taught his followers so imposing a conception of the body in which they were united as to bring back a hierarchy in effect if not in name.但加尔文教导他的信徒,使施加在其中,他们团结带回层次实际上,如果不是名义上的身体概念。"Where the ministry of Word and Sacraments is preserved," he concludes, "no moral delinquencies can take away the Church's title."“哪里的Word和圣礼部保存,”他总结道,“没有道德拖欠可以拿走了教会的冠军。” He had nevertheless, broken with the communion in which he was born.他曾然而,打破了他出生的共融。The Anabaptists retorted that they did not owe to his new-fashioned presbytery the allegiance he had cast away -- the Quakers, who held with him by the Inward Light, more consistently refused all jurisdiction to the visible Church.再洗礼派反驳说,他们不欠他的新派长老,他已摆脱效忠 - 贵格会,谁与他持有的内心之光,更一贯拒绝了所有的有形教会管辖。

One sweeping consequence of the Reformation is yet to be noticed.改革的一个后果是尚未彻底被察觉。As it denied the merit of good works even in the regenerate, all those Catholic beliefs and ordinances which implied a Communion of Saints actively helping each other by prayer and self-sacrifice were flung aside.由于它甚至否认在再生,所有这些天主教的信仰和条例这就意味着积极帮助圣徒祈祷和自我牺牲精神,彼此共融的好作品的价值被扔在一边。 Thus Purgatory, Masses for the dead, invocation of the blessed in Heaven, and their intercession for us are scouted by Calvin as "Satan's devices."因此炼狱,为死者,在天上的祝福,他们替我们祷告是为卡尔文挖到援引大众“撒旦的设备。”A single argument gets rid of them all: do they not make void the Cross of Christ our only Redeemer?一个参数摆脱了全部:他们不作无效我们唯一的救世主基督的十字架?(Instit., III, 5, 6). (Instit.,三,五,六)。Beza declared that "prayer to the saints destroys the unity of God."Beza宣布,“祈祷的圣人破坏团结的上帝。”The Dutch Calvinists affirmed of them, as the Epicureans of their deities, that they knew nothing about what passes on earth.荷兰加尔文教派肯定了他们,因为他们的神伊壁鸠鲁,他们并不知道地球上没有通过。Wherever the Reformers triumphed, a wholesale destruction of shrines and relics took place.无论改革者的胜利,一个批发神龛和文物的破坏发生。Monasticism, being an ordered system of mortification on Catholic principles, offended all who thought such works needless or even dangerous -- it fell, and great was the fall thereof, in Protestant Europe.修道,作为一个屈辱下令对天主教的原则得罪了,谁想到这些作品都不用,甚至危险的系统 - 它下跌,其中伟大的秋天在新教欧洲。The Calendar had been framed as a yearly ritual, commemorating Our Lord's life and sufferings, with saints' days filling it up.历法已被诬陷为每年的仪式,纪念与圣人'天我们的主的生活和疾苦,填补它。Calvin would tolerate the Swiss of Berne who desired to keep the Gospel festivals; but his Puritan followers left the year blank, observing only the Sabbath, in a spirit of Jewish legalism.卡尔文会容忍瑞士伯尔尼谁需要保存福音节庆,但他的清教徒追随者离开一年空白,只观察一个犹太安息日法家精神。 After such a fashion the Church was divorced from the political order -- the living Christian ceased to have any distinct relation with his departed friends; the saints became mere memories, or were suspected of Popery; the churches served as houses of preaching, where the pulpit had abolished the altar; and Christian art was a thing of the past.经过这样一个时尚的教会是从政治秩序离婚 - 基督教的生活不再有任何与他的朋友离开不同的关系;圣人成为单纯的记忆,或者是怀疑的Popery;作为说教的房屋,其中担任教会讲坛已经取消了祭坛,以及基督教艺术是过去的事。 The Reformers, including Calvin, appealed so confidently to St. Augustine's volumes that it seems only fair to note the real difference which exists between his doctrine and theirs.改革者,其中包括卡尔文,呼吁自信圣奥古斯丁的卷,它似乎是唯一公平地注意到,真正的分歧是他的学说和他们之间存在。 Cardinal Newman sums it up as follows:红衣主教纽曼概括为以下几点:

The main point is whether the Moral Law can in its substance be obeyed and kept by the regenerate.主要的一点是,道德律,可以在它的实质是由再生服从和保管。Augustine says, that whereas we are by nature condemned by the Law, we are enabled by the grace of God to perform it unto our justification; Luther [and Calvin equally] that, whereas we are condemned by the law, Christ has Himself performed it unto our justification -- Augustine, that our righteousness is active; Luther, that it is passive; Augustine, that it is imparted, Luther that it is only imputed; Augustine, that it consists in a change of heart; Luther, in a change of state.奥古斯丁所说,而我们所通过的法律condemned性质,我们是由神的恩典使执行它告诉我们的理由,路德[和卡尔文同样]的,而我们受到法律的谴责,基督本人也完成它祂对我们的理由 - 奥古斯丁,我们的义是积极的,路德,它是被动的,奥古斯丁,它是传授,路德,这仅仅是估算,奥古斯丁,它在改变主意组成;路德,在变更国家元首。 Luther maintains that God's commandments are impossible to man Augustine adds, impossible without His grace; Luther that the Gospel consists of promises only Augustine, that it is also a law, Luther, that our highest wisdom is not to know the Law, Augustine says instead, to know and keep it -- Luther says, that the Law and Christ cannot dwell together in the heart.路德认为上帝的诫命,是不可能对人奥古斯丁补充说,没有他的恩典是不可能的;路德,福音的承诺只包括奥古斯丁,它也是一项法律,路德,我们的最高智慧,是不懂得法律,奥古斯丁说,而不是,要知道,保持它 - 路德说,该法与基督不能住在和衷共济。Augustine says that the Law is Christ; Luther denies and Augustine maintains that obedience is a matter of conscience.奥古斯丁说,该法基督路德否认和奥古斯丁认为,服从是一种良心的问题。Luther says that a man is made a Christian not by working but by hearing; Augustine excludes those works only which are done before grace is given; Luther, that our best deeds are sins; Augustine, that they are really pleasing to God (Lectures on Justification, ch. ii, 58).路德说,一个男人是没有工作,但通过听一个基督教;奥古斯丁排除这些作品不仅是给予宽限期之前完成,路德,我们最好的行为是罪,奥古斯丁,它们确实是令人高兴的上帝(讲座理由,你的。二,58)。

As, unlike the Lutheran, those Churches which looked up to Calvin as their teacher did not accept one uniform standard, they fell into particular groups and had each their formulary.由于不同的是,信义,那些教会它抬起头,卡尔文作为他们的老师并没有接受一个统一的标准,他们陷入了每一个特定群体和他们的处方。 The three Helvetic Confessions, the Tetrapolitan, that of Basle, and that composed by Bullinger belong respectively to 1530, 1532, 1536.这三个海尔维自白的Tetrapolitan,即巴塞尔,并组成由布凌格分别属于1530,1532,1536。The Anglican 42 Articles of 1553, composed by Cranmer and Ridley, were reduced to 39 under Elizabeth in 1562.英国圣公会42条的1553年,由克兰默和雷德利组成,分别降低到39下,伊丽莎白在1562年。They bear evident tokens of their Calvinistic origin, but are designedly ambiguous in terms and meaning.他们承担其加尔文来源明显标记,但特意和意义含糊的术语。The French Protestants, in a Synod at Paris, 1559, framed their own articles.法国新教徒,在一个主教在巴黎,1559年的框架,自己的文章。In 1562 those of the Netherlands accepted a profession drawn up by Guy de Bres and Saravia in French, which the Synod of Dort (1574) approved.在1562年荷兰的人所接受德BREs里制定的盖伊和Saravia在法国,而主教的dort(1574年)批准了一种职业。 A much more celebrated meeting was held at this place 1618-19, to adjudicate between the High Calvinists, or Supralapsarians, who held unflinchingly to the doctrine of the "Institutes" touching predestination and the Remonstrants who opposed them.一个更为著名的会议是在这个地方举行的1618年至1619,以裁定高加尔文教派之间,或Supralapsarians,谁举行坚定不移地以“研究所”触摸宿命和Remonstrants谁反对他们的教义。 Gomar led the former party; Arminius, though he died before the synod, in 1609, had communicated his milder views to Uytenbogart and Episcopius, hence called Arminians. Gomar领导的前党;亚米纽斯,尽管他去世前的主教,在1609年,他传达了温和意见Uytenbogart和Episcopius,因此称为阿敏念派。 They objected to the doctrine of election before merit, that it made the work of Christ superfluous and inexplicable.他们反对前的选举原则的优点,在于它使得基督的多余和莫名其妙的工作。The Five Articles which contained their theology turned on election, adoption, justification, sanctification, and sealing by the Spirit, all which Divine acts presuppose that man has been called, has obeyed, and is converted.五所载文章,打开他们的神学选举,收养,理由,成圣,和所体现的精神,所有这些神圣的先决条件,即行为人已被调用,有服从密封,并转换。 Redemption is universal, reprobation due to the sinner's fault and not to God's absolute decree.赎回是普遍的,非难由于罪人的错,不是上帝的绝对的法令。In these and the like particulars, we find the Arminians coming close to Tridentine formulas.在这些以及类似的资料,我们发现到阿敏念派德律但丁的公式来关闭。The "Remonstrance" of 1610 embodied their protest against the Manichaean errors, as they said, which Calvin had taken under his patronage.在“谏”的1610年对摩尼教的错误体现他们的抗议,因为他们说,这在他的赞助卡尔文已经采取的。But the Gomarists renewed his dogmas; and their belief met a favourable reception among the Dutch, French, and Swiss.但Gomarists延长了他的教条,他们的信仰在荷兰举行,法国一个良好的接待,和瑞士。In England the dispute underwent many vicissitudes.在英国经历了许多沧桑的争议。The Puritans, as afterwards their Nonconformist descendants, generally sided with Gomar; the High Church party became Arminian.清教徒,因为后来他们的后代一般与非国Gomar片面;高教会党成为阿民念主义。Wesley abandoned the severe views of Calvin; Whitefield adopted them as a revelation.韦斯利摒弃了加尔文的严重意见;怀特菲尔德通过他们的一个启示。The Westminster Assembly (1643-47) made an attempt to unite the Churches of Great Britain on a basis of Calvinism, but in vain.威斯敏斯特大会(1643年至1647年)条作出的努力团结在加尔文主义的基础上,英国教会,但不成功。Their Catechism -- the Larger and the Smaller -- enjoyed authority by Act of Parliament.他们讲授 - 规模较大和较小的 - 议会法案所享有的权力。John Knox had, in 1560 edited the "First Book of Discipline," which follows Geneva, but includes a permissive ritual.约翰诺克斯曾在1560年主编的“第一本书的纪律”,它遵循日内瓦,但包含了宽容的仪式。The "Second Book of Discipline" was sent out by a congregation under Andrew Melville's influence in 1572, and in 1592 the whole system received Parliamentary sanction.而“学科第二本书”发给了国家根据安德鲁梅尔维尔的影响力在1572年聚集,并在1592年全系统获得议会批准。 But James I rejected the doctrines of Dort.但詹姆斯本人拒绝了多特的学说。In Germany the strange idea was prevalent that civil rulers ought to fix the creed of their subjects, Cujus regio, ejus religio.在德国,奇怪的想法很普遍,民间统治者应该解决他们的臣民,Cujus雷乔,ejus的宗教信条。 Hence an alternation and confusion of formulas ensued down to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.因此一个混乱交替和公式随后下降到1648年的威斯特伐利亚和平。Frederick III, Count Palatine, put forward, in 1562, the Heidelberg Catechism, which is of Calvin's inspiration.腓特烈三世,计数腭,提出在1562年,海德堡问答,其中卡尔文的灵感。John George of Anhalt-Dessau laid down the same doctrine in 20 Articles (1597).约翰安哈尔特-德绍乔治奠定了在20​​篇文章(1597)相同的教义。Maurice of Hesse-Cassel patronized the Synod of Dort; and John Sigismund of Brandenburg, exchanging the Lutheran tenets for the Genevese, imposed on his Prussians the "Confession of the Marches."黑森州-卡塞尔莫里斯光顾主教的dort,勃兰登堡和约翰西吉斯蒙德,交换了对他的普鲁士人所施加的Genevese,路德教义“的游行自首。” In general, the reformed Protestants allowed dogmatic force to the revised Confession of Augsburg (1540) which Calvin himself had signed.在一般情况下,允许新教徒教条式的改革力量,修订后的奥格斯堡自白(1540)卡尔文本人曾签署。

Publication information Written by William Barry.出版信息的书面威廉巴里。Transcribed by Tomas Hancil.转录的托马斯汉奇尔。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.天主教百科全书,第三卷。Published 1908.1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat 11月1日1908年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

Also, see:此外,见:
John Calvin约翰卡尔文

Canons of Dort大炮的dort
Heidelberg Confession海德堡自白

Westminster Confession西敏寺自白

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语

Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源