Church Government教会政府

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Basically there are three types of church government, the episcopal, the presbyterian, and the congregational, each of which takes on features from the others.基本上有三种类型的教会,政府, 主教,长老,和公理,每个人以对功能的。Episcopalianism, for example, finds a large place for presbyters in its synods and elsewhere, and its congregations have many functions of their own. Episcopalianism,例如,找到一个在其主教和其他地方的长老大的地方,它教会有自己的许多功能。Presbyterian congregations also play a large part, while the appearance of moderators attests a movement toward episcopal supervision.长老教会也发挥了很大一部分,而主持人的出现证明一对主教监督运动。The very existence of such groupings as Congregational and Baptist Unions with their presidents shows that churches with a basically congregational polity are yet alive to the value of other elements in the Christian tradition.经确定的公理,并与他们的总统浸会联盟等集团的存在表明,与基本的公理教会政体还活着的其他元素在基督教传统的价值。 Yet the general categories do apply.然而,不适用一般类别。


In this system the chief ministers of the church are bishops.在这个系统中的教会主教的首席部长。Other ministers are presbyters (or priests) and deacons.其他部长是长老(或牧师)和执事。All these are mentioned in the NT, although there bishops and presbyters seem to be identical.所有这些都提到了新台币,虽然有主教和长老似乎是相同的。Those who see an episcopal system in the NT point to the function of the apostles, which some think was passed on to bishops whom the apostles ordained.谁看到那些在新界点主教制度的使徒功能,一些人认为是通过向谁主教祝圣的使徒。They see as important the position of James of Jerusalem, which is not unlike that of the later bishop.他们认为重要的詹姆斯耶路撒冷,这是不是不像后来主教的立场。The functions of Timothy and Titus as revealed in the Pastoral Epistles show these men to have been something of a transition between the apostles and the bishops of later times.提摩太和提多的职能中透露牧区书信表明这些人已之间的一个使徒和稍后的时间主教过渡的东西。The apostles are said to have practiced ordination by the laying on of hands (Acts 6:6; 1 Tim. 4:14), and they appointed elders in the churches they founded (Acts 14:23), presumably with the laying on of hands.这十二门徒说,练所奠定的手(徒6:6。提前4:14)的协调,以及他们获委任为他们成立的教会(徒14:23)长老想必关于铺设,手。 On this view the apostles were the supreme ministers in the early church, and they took care that suitable men were ordained to the ministry.按照这种观点的使徒在早期教会的最高部长,他们采取适当的照顾,男子受戒部。 To some of them they entrusted the power to ordain and so provided for the continuance of the ministry in succeeding generations.对其中一些他们委托的权力,下令因此对于后代部在继续提供。

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It is further alleged that the organization of the church subsequent to NT days supports this view.另据称,该教堂后,至新台币日内组织支持这一观点。In the time of Ignatius the threefold ministry was clearly in existence in Asia Minor.在时间的伊格部明确了三倍,在​​小亚细亚的存在。By the end of the second century it is attested for Gaul and Africa by the writings of Irenaeus and Tertullian.到了第二个世纪,它是高卢和非洲证明由irenæus和戴尔都良的著作结束。Nowhere is there evidence of a violent struggle such as would be natural if a divinely ordained congregationalism or presbyterianism were overthrown.任何其他地方都存在的一个证据,如暴力斗争将是自然的,如果一个神灵保佑的公理或长老被推翻。The same threefold ministry is seen as universal throughout the early church as soon as there is sufficient evidence to show us the nature of the ministry.同样的三倍部被认为是整个早期教会只要有足够的证据向我们展示了该部的普遍性质。The conclusion is drawn that episcopacy is the primitive and rightful form of church government.得出的结论是主教是教会,政府和合法的原始形式。

But there are objections.但也有反对意见。There is no evidence that bishops differed from presbyters in NT days.毫无疑问,在NT天主教长老从不同的证据。It is going too far to say that all the ministry of these times was of apostolic origin.这是过分地说,所有这些时代的使徒的起源是部。There were churches not of apostolic foundation, like that in Colossae, which do not seem to have lacked a ministry.有没有基础的使徒教堂,喜欢在Colossae,这似乎并没有一直缺乏一个部。Again, some of the early church orders, including the Didache, are congregational in outlook.同样,早期教会的订单,其中包括十二使徒遗训,在Outlook中的一些公理。The case is far from proven.该病例是远远证明。

Nevertheless, episcopacy is undoubtedly early and practically universal.不过,主教无疑是早,几乎普遍。In time divisions appeared, notably the great schism in 1054 when the Orthodox Church in the East and the Roman Catholic Church in the West separated.在时间的划分出现,特别是在1054年的大分裂时,在东方东正教和罗马天主教会在西方分开。Both continue to be episcopal and hold to the doctrine of apostolic succession.双方继续坚持的主教和使徒的继承原则。But there are differences.但也有差异。The Orthodox Church is a federation of self governing churches, each with its own patriarch.东正教教会是一个教会的自治,有自己的族长各协会制定的。The Roman Catholic church is more centralized, and its bishops are appointed by the pope.罗马天主教会更加集中,其主教是由教宗任命。There are doctrinal differences, such as different views of the filioque clause in the Nicene Creed.有理论上的分歧,如在尼西亚信条filioque条款不同的看法。

At the Reformation there were further separations.在改革进行了进一步的分离。The Church of England rejected Roman supremacy but retained the historic episcopate.英国教会的反对罗马至高无上,但保留了历史性的主教。Some of the Lutheran churches opted for an episcopal system but did not remain in the historic succession.在路德教会主教的一些选择了一种系统,但没有留在历史的继承。In more recent times other churches have decided to have bishops, e., some Methodist churches, and these too have rejected the historic succession.在更近的时候已经决定其他教会有主教,大肠杆菌,一些循道卫理教会,而这些也已经拒绝了历史性的继承。There have been other divisions, such as the separation of the Old Catholics when the dogma of papal infallibility was proclaimed.曾有如旧的天主教徒其他部门分离,当教皇犯错误的教条宣告成立。More Christians accept episcopacy than any other form of church government, but episcopal churches are for the most part not in communion with one another.更多的基督徒接受政府比任何其他形式的主教教堂,但教堂的主教不符合彼此的交流大部分是。


This system emphasizes the importance of elders, or presbyters.该系统强调了长老,或长老的重要性。Its adherents do not usually hold that this polity is the only one in the NT.它的信徒通常不认为这政体是在新台币唯一的一个。 At the Reformation the Presbyterian leaders thought that they were restoring the original form of church government, but this would not be vigorously defended by many Presbyterians today.在改革长老会的领导人认为,他们的教会,政府恢复原来的形式,但这并不很多长老大力捍卫今天。It is recognized that there has been much development, but it is held that this took place under the guidance of the Holy Spirit and that in any case the essentials of the presbyterian system are scriptural.人们认识到,已经有很多的发展,但它认为,这是发生在圣灵引导的地方,在任何情况下的长老制度的要点圣经。 It is beyond question that in the NT presbyters occupy an important place.毫无疑问,在新台币长老占有重要的一席之地。They are identical with the bishops and form the principal local ministry.他们与主教一致,形成了当地主要的事工。In each place there appears to have been a group of presbyters who formed a kind of college or committee which was in charge of local church affairs.每到一地似乎一直是长老谁形成了大专或委员会的一种在当地教会事务掌管集团。That is the natural conclusion to which exhortations like Heb.这是自然的结论,像希伯来书规劝。13:17 and 1 Thess. 13:17和1帖。5:12 - 13 point.5:12 - 13点。From the account of the Council of Jerusalem in Acts 15 we see that the presbyters occupied an important place at the very highest levels of the early church.从耶路撒冷理事会行为15帐户时,我们看到,在被占领长老教会初期最高级别的重要场所。

In the subapostolic age the bishop developed at the expense of the presbyters.在subapostolic时代发展的主教在长老费用。This was due to such circumstances as the need for a strong leader in times of persecution and in the controversies against heretics and perhaps also to the prestige attaching to the minister who regularly conducted the service of Holy Communion.这是因为作为一个在迫害和对异教徒的争议,时代需要这样的情况下,强有力的领导者,甚至还以信誉附加到谁部长定期进行的圣餐服务。

There is much that is convincing in this case.有许多是在这种情况下,令人信服。But we must also bear in mind the considerations urged by upholders of the other ways of viewing church government.但我们也必须牢记的考虑通过观看教会,政府的其他方式李家催促道。What is beyond doubt is that from the Reformation onward the presbyterian form of church government has been of very great importance.什么是毫无疑问的是,从改革以后的长老教会,政府已经形成了非常重视。John Calvin organized the four churches in Geneva on the basis of his understanding of the NT ministry as four fold: the pastor, the doctor (or teacher), the deacon, and the presbyter (or elder).约翰加尔文在日内瓦举办关于他的NT部作为认识的基础上的四个教堂四个方面:牧师,医生(或教师),执事和长老(或长辈)。 It was the pastor who had the care of the congregation.这是谁的牧师会众的照顾。This was not the full presbyterian system, but it laid the foundation for it, and presbyterianism developed in Switzerland, Germany, France, the Netherlands, and elsewhere.这是不是完整的长老会制度,但它奠定了它的基础,长老会在瑞士,德国,法国,荷兰,和其他地方的发展。On the continent the name "Reformed" is used for these churches.在欧洲大陆的名字“改革”是用于这些教堂。

Another important development in Geneva took place in a congregation of exiles from Queen Mary's England.另一个重要的发展在日内瓦参加了一个由玛丽的英国流亡者聚集的地方。They met under their elected pastors, John Knox and Christopher Goodman, and developed along presbyterian lines.他们会见了他们所选出的牧师,诺克斯和克里斯托弗约翰古德曼,沿着长老线发展。After the accession of Elizabeth, Knox returned to Scotland, and his work led in time to the full emergence of the Presbyterian Church in that country, from where it spread to northern Ireland.入世后,伊丽莎白,诺克斯回到苏格兰,他的工作时间对长老教会在该国全部的出现,导致从那里蔓延到北爱尔兰。England for a number of reasons did not accept presbyterianism as wholeheartedly as did Scotland, but a presbyterian church emerged there also.对于一些原因没有接受英国长老会也为竭诚为苏格兰,但出现的长老教会,也有。 From this church Welsh presbyterianism took its origin.从这个威尔士长老教会了它的起源。From Europe, more particularly from Britain, the church spread to America, where it became one of the most significant groups of Christians.从欧洲,特别是来自英国多,蔓延到美国,在那里成为了基督徒最重要的群体之一教堂。In the great missionary movement of modern times missionaries carried the presbyterian form of the church far and wide, and national presbyterian churches were formed in many parts of the world.在近代伟大的传教士进行传教运动的教会长老会的形式和加深,长老教会和国家在世界许多地方形成。

Presbyterian churches are independent of one another, but they have in common that they accept such standards as the Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, or the Westminister Confession and that they practice a presbyterial form of church government.长老教会是彼此独立,但他们的共同点是,他们接受了Belgic供述,海德堡问答,或威斯敏斯特信条这种标准,他们实行政府长老教会形式。 The local congregation elects its "session," which governs its affairs.选举产生的地方聚集的“会议”而制定的事务。It is led by the minister, the "teaching elder," who is chosen and called by the congregation.它是由部长率领的“教学的长老,”谁是选择,由众调用。He is, however, ordained by the presbytery, which consists of the teaching and ruling elders from a group of congregations over which it exercises jurisdiction.他是,但是,由长老,其中的教学水平和执政长老教会组成的小组从它在行使管辖权受戒。Above it is a General Assembly.它的上方是一个大会。In all courts parity between teaching and ruling elders is important.在所有的长辈之间的教学水平和执政法院平等是重要的。There has been a tendency for smaller bodies of presbyterians to appear among those who are dissatisfied with the laxity (as they see it) in the way some of the larger churches hold to classic presbyterianism.出现了一个小团体倾向的长老出现在那些与谁在路上较大的教堂有些人以经典的长老松弛(因为他们看到它)不满。


As the name implies, this puts the emphasis on the place of the congregation.正如其名称所暗示的,这给了众地方的重视。Perhaps it would not be unfair to say that the chief scriptural buttresses of this position are the facts that Christ is the head of his church (Col. 1:18, etc.) and that there is a priesthood of all believers (1 Pet. 2:9). It is fundamental to NT teaching that Christ has not left his church.也许它不会被不公平地说,行政圣经的立场助长了这是事实, 基督是教会的头,他(上校1:18,等等),并且有一个所有信徒神职人员(1宠物。 2:9)。这是根本,以新台币教学,基督并没有离开他的教会。He is the living Lord among his people.他是在他的人民的生活主。Where but two or three are gathered in his name, he is in the midst. Nor is it any less fundamental that the way into the very holiest of all presences is open to the humblest believer (Heb. 10:19 - 20). Other religions of the first century required the interposition of a priestly caste if anyone wished to approach God, but the Christians would have none of this.凡但两个或三个人的名字聚集在他的,他是在中间)。也不是任何减少的根本,所有的方式进入非常神圣的存在是开放的最卑微的信徒(希伯来书10点19分- 20。其他第一世纪的宗教需要有一个祭司种姓干预,如果有人想接近上帝,但基督徒有这事。Christ's priestly work has done away with the necessity for any earthly priest as the mediator of access to God.基督的司铎的工作做了取消的任何作为调解人尘世获得上帝祭司的必要性。

Added to this is the emphasis on the local congregation in the NT.新增的,这是在NT上的地方聚集的重点。There, it is maintained, we see autonomous congregations, not subject to episcopal or presbyterial control.在那里,它是维持,我们看到教会自治,不受主教或长老控制。The apostles, it is true, exercise a certain authority, but it is the authority of founders of churches and of the Lord's own apostles.使徒,这是真的,行使一定的权力,但它是对教堂和上帝的使徒创办自己的权威。After their death there was no divinely instituted apostolate to take their place.死后没有神提起使徒来取代他们的位置。Instead the local congregations were still self governing, as we see from local church orders like the Didache.相反,地方教会仍然自治,正如我们从当地的教堂像十二使徒遗训订单看到的。Appeal is also made to the democratic principle.号召力也向民主原则。The NT makes it clear that Christians are all one in Christ and there is no room for any absolute human authority.新台币清楚地表明,基督徒都在基督里并没有对任何人的绝对权威的余地。

Congregationalism as a system appeared after the Reformation.作为一个系统的改革后出现的公理。Some among the Reformed decisively rejected the idea of a state church and saw believers as forming a "gathered church," those who have heard the call of Christ and have responded.改革中一些果断地拒绝了国家教会的想法,看到为形成一个“聚集的教堂,”谁听到了基督信徒响应号召,有。An Englishman, Robert Browne, published in Holland a famous treatise, "Reformation Without Tarrying for Any" (1582), in which he affirmed the principle of the gathered church, its independence of bishops and magistrates, and its right to ordain its ministers.一个英国人罗伯特布朗,在荷兰出版了著名的论文,(1582)“没有任何耽搁的改革”,他在肯定了所收集的教堂,它的主教和地方法官的独立性,并有权向阿拉维其部长的原则。 Denied the freedom to put all this into practice in England, many crossed into Holland.剥夺了自由付诸实践这一切在英国,许多越过边界进入荷兰。It was from the church at Leiden that the Pilgrims fathers sailed for America in 1620 and established congregationalism in the new world, where it became very important.它是在莱顿航行的朝圣者父亲为美国在1620年,确立了新的世界,在那里成为非常重要的公理从教堂。

Congregationalism is much wider than the church that bears the name.公理是比教会承担更广泛的名称。 Baptists, for example, usually have congregational polity.浸信会,例如,通常有公理的政体。They see the local congregation as independent and not subject to any outside authority.他们看到的地方聚集作为独立的,不受任何外界的权威。So it is with several other denominations.因此,与其他几个教派。In addition there are Christians who from time to time set up their own congregations with no links with anyone. Congregationalists generally oppose creedal tests. This leads to an admirable toleration.此外,还有基督徒谁不时有人设定时间没有联系,最多教会自己。 公理普遍反对教义测试。这就导致了一个令人钦佩的宽容。But it also opens up the way to a distortion of NT Christianity, and some congregationalists have passed over into unitarianism.但它也开辟了一个扭曲的NT基督教的方式,通过把一些公理单一制了。Nevertheless, congregationalism remains a widely held form of Christianity, and it undeniably points to important NT values.尽管如此,仍然是一个基督教公理普遍持有的形式,它不可否认点重要新台币值。


A consideration of all the evidence leaves us with the conclusion that it is impossible to read back any of our modern systems into the apostolic age.一个考虑所有证据叶的结论,那是不可能读回到使徒时代,我们现代系统通知我们。If we are determined to shut our eyes to all that conflicts with our own system we may find it there, but scarcely otherwise.如果我们有决心闭上眼一切与我们自己的系统冲突,我们可能会发现它在那里,但几乎没有其他。It is better to recognize that in the NT church there were elements that were capable of being developed into the episcopal, presbyterian, and congregational systems and which in point of fact have so developed.这是更好地认识到,在新台币教会有元素都是被纳入主教,长老开发能力,和公理系统,这点其实有这么发达。But while there is no reason that any modern Christian should not hold fast to his particular church polity and rejoice in the values it secures to him, that does not give him license to unchurch others whose reading of the evidence is different.但是,尽管没有任何理由,任何现代基督教不应该紧紧抓住他的特殊教会政体和固定在它的价值给他庆幸,这并没有给他的执照unchurch他人所了解的事实是不同的。

L Morris L莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
RW Dale, Manual of Congregational Principles; E Hatch, The Organization of the Early Christian Churches; KE Kirk, ed., The Apostolic Ministry; JB Lightfoot, "The Christian Ministry," Commentary on Philippians; TW Mason, The Church's Ministry; J Moffatt, The Presbyterian Church; JN Ogilvie, The Presbyterian Churches of Christendom; BH Streeter, The Primitive Church; HB Swete, ed., Essays on the Early History of the Church and Ministry; W Telfer, The Office of a Bishop.刻录戴尔,对公理的原则手册,电子商务孵化,在早期基督教教会组织。柯柯克,教育署,使徒部;巴顿娜莱,“基督教部”关于腓评论;荃湾梅森,教会的部; Ĵ莫法特,长老教会;若奥格尔维,基督教长老教会;波黑斯特里特,原始的教会;。正面Swete,教育署,对教会和内政部早期历史散文; W特尔弗,一个主教办公室。

Also, see:此外,见:
Authority in Church管理局在教堂

Congregationalism 公理
Presbyterianism presbyterianism
Episcopal Church圣公会

Belgic Confessionbelgic自白
Heidelberg Confession海德堡自白
Westminster Confession西敏寺自白

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