Christian Science基督教科学

Church of Christ, Scientist基督教会,科学家

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Christian Science is a religion emphasizing divine healing as practiced by Jesus Christ; its tenets were formulated by Mary Baker Eddy.基督教科学是一种宗教,强调神圣的耶稣基督愈合实行,其原理是由玛丽贝克埃迪制定。In 1879, Eddy founded the Church of Christ, Scientist, with its headquarters in Boston. 1879年,埃迪成立,其总部设在波士顿的基督科学教会。Today it has about 3,000 branch churches, societies, and college organizations in more than 50 countries.今天,它已在50多个国家的约3000支教会,社团,大学组织。While the branches are democratic in government, they all conform to the rules laid down in the Manual of The Mother Church (1895) by Eddy.虽然枝是民主政府,他们都符合规定的母亲的教堂(1895年)的涡手册下的规则。

Sunday services consist mainly of readings from the Bible and Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1906), the textbook of Christian Science written by Mary Baker Eddy.星期日服务主要包括从圣经和科学和健康的关键读数圣经(1906年),基督教科学教科书玛丽贝克艾迪写的。Wednesday meetings include testimonies of healing from the congregation.星期三的会议包括来自众愈合的证词。The church has no ordained clergy.教堂有没有受戒神职人员。Readers, both men and women, are elected from the membership to conduct the services.读者们,不论男女,都选出的成员进行服务。Practitioners, also both men and women, devote full time to the work of spiritual healing.从业者,也无论男女,投入充分的时间来了精神治疗工作。

Christian Science teaches that God and his spiritual creation are the only realities.基督教科学教导我们,上帝和他的精神创造是唯一的现实。God is regarded as infinite Life, Truth, Spirit, Mind, and Principle.上帝被视为是无限的人生,真理,精神,心灵和原则。The material world, with all its suffering, strife, and death, is considered to be a misconception or distorted view of the divine universe.物质世界,与所有的苦难,斗争和死亡,被认为是一种误解或神圣的宇宙扭曲的看法。 Christian Science claims to prove through the healing of disease and other difficulties that the understanding of God and his spiritual creation is as effective now as it was in Jesus' time.基督教科学的主张,证明通过病,上帝和他的精神创造的认识还是有效的,因为它现在在耶稣的时间为其他困难的愈合。Its adherents therefore rely on divine law in times of sickness instead of resorting to medical and other material means.因此,依靠其信徒在神圣的法律而不是诉诸疾病倍医疗和其他物质手段。The right of Christian Science parents to withhold medical treatment from their children has been challenged in court.基督教科学的父母有权拒绝向他们的孩子治病已在法庭上受到挑战。

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Publications of the Christian Science Publishing Society include the Christian Science Quarterly, containing Bible lessons for daily study; The Christian Science Journal, a monthly magazine; Christian Science Sentinel, a weekly magazine; The Christian Science Monitor, a daily newspaper; and The Herald of Christian Science in 12 languages and in Braille.基督教科学出版协会刊物,包括基督教科学季刊,包含日常学习圣经的教训;基督教科学杂志,每月杂志;基督教科学哨兵,一周刊;基督教科学箴言报,每日报纸和先驱基督教科学12种语言和盲文。 In the 1980s the group expanded into other media, producing both radio and television news programming.在20世纪80年代扩大到其他的媒体集团,生产无线电和电视新闻节目。

Bibliography 参考书目
JC Cort, Christian Scientism: An Informal History (1988); R Peel, Health and Medicine in the Christian Science Tradition (1988).赛马科特,基督教科学主义:一个非正式的历史(1988)与r果皮,卫生和基督教科学传统(1988年)医学。


Church of Christ, Scientist基督教会,科学家

General Information一般资料

Mary Baker Eddy, b.玛丽贝克埃迪湾Bow, NH, July 16, 1821, d.弓,新罕布什尔州,1821年7月16日,四Dec. 3, 1910, was an American religious leader and the founder of Christian Science.一九一零年十二月三号,是美国宗教领袖和基督教学的奠基人。She was also the author of the Christian Science textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.她也是基督教科学教科书,关键科学与健康的圣经的作者。Her delicate health prevented her from attending school regularly, but her family provided private tutoring.她身体虚弱她无法上学,定期,但她的家人提供的私人辅导。Her childhood was also strongly marked by prayer and Bible reading.她的童年也强烈标志着祈祷和阅读圣经。

During her early adult years she was twice married and suffered increasing invalidism.在她早期的成人来,她曾两次结婚,并受到越来越多的invalidism。In 1866, however, her life took a radically new turn.1866年,然而,她的生活发生了一个全新的转机。After sustaining a severe injury through a fall, she asked for her Bible and read a Gospel account of one of Jesus' healings.通过持续下跌后严重受伤,她要求她的圣经,并宣读了耶稣医治一个一个福音帐户。While she was reading, she believed that she had an insight into the method by which Jesus Christ healed; at that moment she felt herself restored to health.虽然她读书,她相信,她已经把其中一个耶稣基督医治方法的洞察力;在那一刻,她觉得自己恢复了健康。

She made an intensive study of the Bible for 3 years after her cure and came to the belief that she was able not only to heal the sick herself but also to teach others to heal as well.她为她治疗后3年的深入研究的圣经,来到她的信念,即不仅能够医治病人自己也教别人也愈合。She held that all sickness was mental rather than physical and recorded the laws of God as she had discerned them in Science and Health (1875).她认为, 所有的疾病,是身体精神,而不是记录的)法律神,因为她看出了他们1875年在科学和医疗保健(。This book contains a full statement of what she called Christian Science.这本书包含了她所谓基督教科学完整声明。She later published 16 other books, including Retrospection and Introspection (1891), which tells of her own experience of discovering, practicing, and teaching the science of Christian healing.后来她出版了16其他包括回顾与反思(1891年),其中她的发现,实践和教学的基督教科学愈合自己的经验告诉书籍。

In 1877 she married Asa Gilbert Eddy, an active Christian Scientist. 1877年,她嫁给了埃迪吉尔伯特亚撒,积极基督教科学家。Two years later Mrs. Eddy founded the Church of Christ, Scientist, whose organization she oversaw closely until her death.两年后,创立了埃迪夫人基督,科学家,他们的组织监督,直到她去世,她紧紧堂。She also established (1908) the Christian Science Monitor.她还成立(1908年)基督教科学箴言报。Christian Scientists today continue to acknowledge her as their leader and founder.今日基督教科学家继续承认为他们的领袖和创始人她。

Bibliography 参考书目
E Dakin, Mrs. Eddy (1929); R Peel, Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery (1966), Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Trial (1971), and Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Authority (1977). é戴金,埃迪夫人(1929)与r果皮,玛丽贝克艾迪:就愉景年(1966年),玛丽贝克艾迪:审判历年(1971)和玛丽贝克艾迪:权威的年(1977年)。


Church of Christ, Scientist基督教会,科学家

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The Church of Christ, Scientist is an organization founded by Mary Baker Eddy in an effort to reinstate primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing.基督的教会,是由科学家创立玛丽贝克埃迪在努力恢复其失去的原始基督教和元素的愈合组织。In 1876 Eddy formed the Christian Scientists Association and three years later chartered the Church of Christ, Scientist.埃迪在1876年成立了协会,三年后的特许基督科学教会基督教科学家。The church was reorganized into its present form in 1892.这座教堂在1892年改组为现在的形式。The First Church of Christ, Scientist of Boston is known as the mother church, and other Christian Science churches are considered branches, although each is independently governed.基督的,波士顿教会是科学家首次被称为母亲的教堂,教堂及其他基督教科学被认为是分支机构,虽然每个都是独立的管辖。 The tenets and bylaws of the church were incorporated by Eddy into the church manual of 1895.的宗旨和章程,教会的涡被纳入到1895年的教堂手册。The church's fundamental theological teachings are presented in Eddy's Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.教会的基本神学教义载于Eddy的科学和健康的关键圣经。

Theologically, the Church of Christ, Scientist, does not concur with the basic tenets of historic orthodox Christianity.神学,基督,科学家,教会不同意历史正统基督教的基本原则。Although it uses the theological vocabulary of traditional Christianity, it assigns metaphysical meanings to the terms.虽然使用了传统的基督教神学的词汇,它赋予形而上意义的条款。The sources of authority for the church are the Bible and Eddy's writings.为教会权威的来源是圣经和埃迪的著作。Members accept Eddy's writings as divine revelation and interpret the Bible allegorically through her works.议员接受神的启示Eddy的著作,通过她的作品和解释圣经寓意。The most significant authority for the church is Science and Health, which was published in 1875 and regularly revised until Eddy's death in 1910.为教会最重要的职权,是科学,健康,这是发表在1875年之前,埃迪和定期的修订于1910年去世。Eddy referred to this volume as containing the perfect word of God, and thus was divine and infallible teaching.艾迪称此卷为包含神完美的话,因而是神圣和犯错的教学。

Christian Science's view of God is monistic.基督教科学的观点是一元论的上帝。God is divine principle, not a supreme being God is mind, and mind is all.上帝是神圣的原则,而不是一个至高无上的神是心,心就是一切。 Nothing possesses reality or exists which is not mind.没有具有现实或存在了一个并不介意。The characteristics and attributes of God become God.的特点和属性的上帝成为上帝。The Trinity is constituted by the threefold nature of divine principle (God): life, truth, and love.三位一体是由神圣的原则(神)三重性质构成:生命,真理和爱。

God, Christ, and Holy Spirit are not persons.上帝,基督,圣灵不是人。The Christology of Christian Science denies a physical incarnation of Christ and insists Mary conceived Christ only as a spiritual idea.基督的基督教科学否认基督的化身,并坚持物理玛丽设想只是作为一种精神理念基督。Since God is mind and spirit, and nothing exists which is not spirit, there can be no matter or flesh; these are only illusions.因为上帝是心灵和精神,这是不存在什么精神,就不可能有任何问题或肉,这些都只是幻想。Thus Christ did not possess a body and did not die on a cross.因此,基督不具备的一个机构,并没有死在十字架上。The need of an atonement is nullified since sin, evil, sickness, and death are delusions, not reality.一个赎罪的需要废止,因为罪恶,罪恶,疾病和死亡是妄想,不是事实。God is good, and nothing can exist which is not good.上帝是好的,没有什么可以存在这是不好的。Christian Science teaches man is created in God's image as spirit, mind, and good; thus man is incapable of sin, sickness, and death.基督教科学教人创造了上帝作为精神,心目中的形象,良好的,因此人是罪恶,疾病和死亡的能力。 Man is placed on a plane of equality with God in his origin, character, and eternity.人是放在一个平等与上帝在他的出身,性格和永恒的飞机。The metaphysical presuppositions of the church insist that heaven and hell are present states of man's thoughts, not real future dwelling places.教会的形而上学前提坚持天堂与地狱都存在国家人的想法,而不是真正的未来居住的地方。

Christian Science church services are simple and uniform worldwide.基督教科学教会服务的全球统一的简单。They focus upon the uniform lesson - sermons which are read aloud from the Bible and Science and Health by readers elected from the congregation.他们侧重于统一的教训 - 这是阅读圣经和科学健康大声由读者选出众讲道。 There is no clergy or priesthood.没有牧师或神职人员。The sacraments are not special rites.圣礼,是不是特别的仪式。Baptism means the spiritual purification of daily life and the Eucharist is silent spiritual communion with God.洗礼是指日常生活心灵得到净化和圣体是无声的精神与神的交流。No visible elements are used.不可见元素的使用。Salvation to the Christian Scientist is the gaining of the understanding that man's life is wholly derived from God the Spirit, and is not mortal and material.救恩是基督教的科学家获得的理解,人的生命是完全来自上帝的精神,是不是致命和材料。

PG Chappell编程器察佩尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
CS Braden, Christian Science Today; EM Ramsay, Christian Science and Its Discoverer; LP Powell, Christian Science, the Faith and Its Founder; R Peel, Christian Science: Its Encounter with American Culture; ES Bates and JV Dittemore, Mrs. Eddy, the Truth and the Tradition.政务司司长布拉登,基督教科学今天;电磁拉姆齐,基督教科学和它的发现者,唱片鲍威尔,基督教科学,信念及创办人与r果皮,基督教科学:它与美国文化的相遇;胚胎干Bates和合资Dittemore,埃迪夫人,真相与传统。


Mary Baker Eddy玛丽贝克埃迪

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(1821-1910)(1821年至1910年)

Mary Baker Eddy was founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist, and author of its famous textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.玛丽贝克艾迪的创始人基督,科学家,教会和其著名教科书,与主要科学和健康撰文圣经。Born Mary Morse Baker, she was reared in a devout Congregationalist home, but later rejected her parents' strict Calvinism.莫尔斯贝克出生玛丽,她是一个虔诚的公理饲养在家里,但后来拒绝了她父母的严格的加尔文。Although her formal education was limited due to chronic ill health, she studied such subjects as natural science, moral philosophy, logic, Greek, and Hebrew under the tutelage of her brother, a Dartmouth graduate.虽然她的正规教育是有限的,由于长期生病,她学习和自然科学,道德哲学,逻辑学,希腊等主题,和希伯来语下,她的哥哥,一个达特茅斯毕业监护。 In 1843 she married George W. Glover, who died before the birth of their first child. 1843年,她嫁给了乔治​​W格洛弗,谁之前,他们的第一个孩子出生时死亡。Her second marriage, to David Patterson (1853), ended in divorce.她的第二次婚姻,就是给大卫帕特森(1853),以离婚收场。In 1877 at age fifty-six she married one of her first Christian Science students, Asa Gilbert Eddy. 1877年在年龄五六她嫁给了她的第一个基督教科学专业的学生,​​亚撒吉尔伯特艾迪之一。

Suffering poor health throughout most of her life, Mary was preoccupied with questions of health.整个苦难,她一生中最健康状况不佳,玛丽忙于与健康问题。In search of healing she submitted herself to the metaphysical teachings of Phineas P. Quimby and was healed.在她提交的愈合搜索自己的菲尼亚斯体育昆比形而上学的教义和愈合。Suffering a serious fall in 1866, she was healed by reading the Bible and practicing metaphysical principles.在1866年遭受严重的秋天,她已经好了所读的圣经和实践形而上学的原则。She regarded that incident as the discovery of Christian Science.她认为,由于基督教科学发现的事件。Her metaphysical system gradually evolved and was published as Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures in 1875.她的形而上学体系的逐步演变,并刊登于科学和健康的关键在1875年的圣经。Although her followers consider this work as divinely inspired, her critics contend that it is deeply indebted to the works of Francis Lieber and Quimby.虽然她的追随者认为这个神圣的工作,她的批评者争辩说,这是深深感谢弗朗西斯Lieber和昆比的作品。The following year she founded the Christian Scientist Association, which three years later became the Church of Christ, Scientist.次年,她创立了基督教科学协会,三年后成为基督科学教会。

Eddy's theological position has little in common with historic orthodox Christianity.Eddy的神学立场的共同点很少与历史正统基督教。It is entirely built upon a metaphysical base.这完全是建立在形而上学基础。She uses the theological vocabulary of traditional Christianity but substitutes metaphysical meanings for the terms.她使用的条款,但替代传统基督教神学形而上学的含义的词汇。For her, God is "All-in-All"; he is mind; he is the divine principle of all existence, not a person.对她来说,上帝是“全在所有”,他是心灵,他是所有的存在,不是一个人的神圣原则。As the only cause of existence, God is reality and nothing apart from him can be real.作为存在的唯一原因,上帝是现实,没有什么除了他能成为现实。Since God is Spirit and is All, matter cannot exist.因为上帝是精神,是所有的,物质就不能存在。Since all reality is divine and God is good, all reality is good.由于所有的现实是神圣的,上帝是好的,所有的现实是好的。There cannot exist evil, sin, sickness, or death.不能有存在邪恶,罪恶,疾病,甚至死亡。Imperfections of every sort are illusory and unreal, delusions of the carnal mind.每样缺陷是虚幻的,不真实的,体贴肉体的错觉。

The Trinity is defined by Eddy as the principles of life, truth, and love.三位一体的定义是埃迪作为人生,真理和爱的原则。The historic view of three persons in one Godhead is labeled heathen.三种人,在一个历史性的看法是神体标记异教徒。Christ is not considered a person but rather the true idea of God, and his death or resurrection could not have occurred since evil and sin have no existence.基督是不被视为一个人,而是神的真实想法,他的死或复活不可能发生,因为没有邪恶和罪恶的存在。

Eddy's major writings include The People's Idea of God (1886), her autobiography Retrospection and Introspection (1891), Unity of Good (1891), Manual of the Mother Church (1895), and Miscellaneous Writings (1896). Eddy的主要著作包括人民思想的神(1886年),她的自传回顾与反思(1891年),良好的统一(1891),教会的母亲手册(1895年),和(1896)杂述。

PG Chappell编程器察佩尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
S. Wilbur, Life of Mary Baker Eddy; R. Peel, Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery; EM Ramsey, Christian Science and Its Discoverer; C. Smith, Historical Sketches from the Life of Mary Baker Eddy; W. Martin, The Christian Science Myth; MF Bednarowski, "Outside the Mainstream: Women's Religion and Women Religious Leaders," JAAR 48:207-31.学威尔伯的玛丽贝克埃迪生命;河果皮,玛丽贝克艾迪:发现的年;电磁拉姆齐,基督教科学和它的发现者,C.史密斯,历史从玛丽贝克埃迪生命草图;马丁,基督教科学神话;中频Bednarowski,“非主流的:妇女的宗教和妇女的宗教领袖,”JAAR 48:207-31。


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