Christian基督教

Jīdūjiào

General Information一般资料

Christian is the name given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to the followers of Jesus.基督教是由希腊人或罗马人给出的名字,可能是在责备,以耶稣的追随者。It was first used at Antioch.这是第一次使用在安提阿。The names by which the disciples were known among themselves were " brethren, " " the faithful, " " elect, " " saints, " " believers. "名字本身的弟子中,其中被称为是“ 兄弟”,“忠实”,“选”,“圣人”,“信徒”。But as distinguishing them from the multitude without, the name "Christian" came into use, and was universally accepted.但作为区别于他们没有众多,名称为“基督教”投入使用,并被普遍接受。This name occurs but three times in the New Testament (Acts 11:26; 26:28; 1 Pet. 4:16).此名称出现,但三次在新约圣经(使徒行传11:26; 26:28;彼前4:16。)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Christianity基督教

Editor's Comment编者的评论

It seems necessary to mention several things here.似乎有必要在这里提几件事情。In my 15 years as a Christian Minister, I have been amazed at how many Christians really do not understand basic things about our religion!在我15年作为基督教牧师,我一直惊讶于有多少基督徒真不明白我们的宗教的基本的东西!One is centrally important.其中一个极为重要。

Christians accept the much older Jewish beliefs of the Old Testament, which includes the Ten Commandments.基督徒接受旧约,其中包括十诫更古老的犹太信仰。The First of those Commandments is that there is ONE God.这些戒律首先是,有一位神。

When Jesus came to fame in the last few weeks of His life, and then even more after His Death on the Cross, His followers, who came to be known as Christians, came to believe that He Was and Is Divine, that is, God.当耶稣在他生命的最后几个星期的名声,然后更后,他在十字架上,他的追随者,谁后来被称为基督徒,死亡开始相信,他是和是神圣的,那就是上帝。 However, the First Commandment made clear that could not be possible.然而,第一诫明确,可能是不可能的。And so early Christians chose to describe Jesus as the Son of God, which seemed to make some sense as Mary was involved.所以早期的基督徒选择地描述为神的儿子,这似乎有点道理涉及耶稣和玛丽。

The problem is, whatever Name you choose to call Jesus by, IF He Was/Is Divine, then He IS a God, and there is a severe problem regarding the First Commandment.问题是,无论您选择的名称叫耶稣,如果他是/是神圣的,那么他是神,并有一个严重的问题就第一诫。

For the first two hundred years pf Christianity, there were endless arguments over dozens of subjects regarding Jesus.对于第一个两百年来pf的基督教,有超过几十个科目的有关耶稣的无休止的争论。 Was He Divine or was He Man?他是神还是他男人?The First Commandment forced such concerns.第一诫迫使这些顾虑。If Jesus WAS Divine, then that appeared to directly contradict the First Commandment by indicating that there was more than One God.如果耶稣是神,那似乎直接反驳时指出,该有一个以上的神的第一诫。The Bible itself seemed to add to this problem.圣经本身似乎并加入到这个问题。Whenever Jesus asked The Father to do a Miracle, that communication seemed to clearly indicate interaction between two distinct Beings who were each considered to be God.当耶稣问爸爸也做了奇迹,这封信似乎清楚地表明两个谁被认为是上帝的存有每个不同的互动。

These arguments were causing great doubt in many Christians, who didn't know what to believe.这些论点是造成许多基督徒,谁不知道该相信什么大疑问。Many dozens of groups arose who each believed their own different variations of such issues.数十名出现的许多团体谁相信自己的每一个这类问题有不同的变化。Christianity was becoming not one religion but dozens of different religions each based in one way or another on Jesus.基督教不是一个宗教,而是成为不同宗教的几十每个以某种方式对耶稣另一个。

This matter was being very destructive to Christianity.这个问题被非常具有破坏性基督教。Whichever group someone followed, all other groups were seen as heretics who believe in wrong beliefs.无论组有人跟着,其他各组分别为异端谁在错误的信念相信看到。So, instead of Christianity developing consistent beliefs, instead it was degrading into many dozens of arguing and even fighting groups.因此,发展中国家一致的,而不是基督教的信仰,而是被降解成争论很多,甚至几十个战斗小组。

This all came to a head around 312 AD when the Emperor Constantine suddenly became a Christian.所有这些成绩都是围绕公元312头,当皇帝君士坦丁突然变成了基督徒。It became extremely important to have all Christians believe the exact same things, because the entire Roman Empire was in the process of officially becoming Christian.它成为非常重要的是要有确切的所有基督徒相信同样的事情,因为整个罗马帝国在正式成为基督徒的过程中。So large numbers of the leaders of Christian communities met at Nicaea in 317 AD, to try to agree on a set of exact beliefs for all of Christianity.对基督教社区的领导人,以便大批会见了尼西亚在公元317,试图达成一个确切的信仰基督教的所有设置。 This included agreeing on a new idea.这包括一个新的想法达成共识。In order to confirm that Christianity believed in the First Commandment and therefore One True God, a concept called the Trinity was discussed and adopted.为了证实,基督教信奉的第一诫,因此一的真神,这一概念称为三位一体进行了讨论和通过。Initially, this was thought to simplify and solidify Christian beliefs, in saying that there IS only One True God, but that He had such unlimited powers and abilities that He was able to simultaneously appear to us as being Three different Persons, the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.最初,这被认为是简化和巩固基督教信仰中说,世界上只有一个真神,但他有这样的无限权力和能力,他能够同时显示为三个不同的人,父亲对我们来说,儿子(耶稣),和圣灵。

Many of the heresies continued after that, but most Christians adopted the Trinity concept, even while not actually understanding all the implications of it.许多的歪理邪说后继续,但是大多数基督徒通过三位一体的概念,即使不是真正了解它的全部含义。During the most recent hundred years or so, this lack of true understanding of the concepts of the Trinity have caused many distortions in Christian attitudes.在最近的一百多年来,这种三位一体的概念缺乏真正的理解,在基督教的态度造成了许多扭曲。It is common today that many Christians ONLY think about Jesus as being God, rarely even considering the Father, and other modern Christians think of the Three Persons of the Trinity as somehow working as a Team!这是今天许多基督徒共同只想到为耶稣是神,甚至很少考虑到父亲,基督徒和其他现代的三位一体的三人看作某种方式作为一个团队工作! Those attitudes are untrue and unhealthy, as they each greatly distort the basic reason why the Trinity concept had been devised, to confirm that there is One True God as the First Commandment made clear.这些态度是不真实的,不健康的,因为他们都大大扭曲的根本原因三位一体的概念已被设计,以确认有一个真正的上帝作为第一诫明确。

Interestingly, Christian scholars generally have far healthier views of this matter, but few feel that the millions of Christians could or would accept being told a more correct understanding.有趣的是,基督教学者普遍有这个问题更健康的看法,但很少有人认为,数以百万计的基督徒能够或愿意接受被告知一个更正确的认识。 One notable aspect of this distinction is that common Christians nearly all seem to believe that Jesus did NOT Exist until Mary gave Him Birth.这种区别的一个显着的方面是,几乎所有常见的基督徒相信,耶稣似乎并不存在,直到玛丽给了他的诞生。That situation would mean that the total number of Divine Beings would have increased by one at that time!这种情况将意味着天人总数会增加被一个当时!But virtually all Christian scholars agree that Jesus Pre-Existed Mary, and that Jesus was even present at the Creation.但几乎所有的基督教学者一致认为,耶稣预存在玛丽,耶稣甚至在创作中。This is a far more correct perspective, of confirming that both before and after the Birth, there was the same number of Divine Beings in Existence, but that concept greatly complicates the position of Mary in Christian beliefs.这是一个更为正确的角度,确认之前和之后的产生,有天人中的相同数目的存在,但这一概念非常复杂的玛丽在基督教信仰立场。 One can see why Christian scholars choose not to emphasize the Pre-Existence of Jesus for this reason, the great importance that Mary had developed in most modern Churches.人们可以看到,为什么不选择基督教学者强调,为此预耶稣的存在,具有重要意义,玛丽在最现代的教会发展。

But even Pre-Existence seems to have its own complications.但是,即使预先存在似乎有它自己的并发症。There seems to be an implied acceptance that there was "more than One" Divine Being, even at the Creation.似乎有一个隐含的接受,有“一个以上的”神灵,甚至在创作。In fact, some Christian scholars have examined the Ancient Hebrew words of Genesis to conclude that some Verses would appear to be in a grammatical case to imply referring to "we" rather than "I" during Creation.事实上,一些基督教学者探讨了古代希伯来话的成因作出结论,认为一些经文将似乎是在暗示语法案件提到“我们”而不是“我”在创建过程中。 This seems to try to create evidence that would directly contradict the First Commandment.这似乎尝试建立证据,将直接矛盾的第一戒律。I personally think that such Christian scholars have grasped at straws to try to prove a belief they already had!我个人认为,这样的基督教学者们在掌握秸秆来试图证明他们已经有了一个信念!The complications of studying a text, the Bible, which was first not written down at all, as Moses lived prior to any organized written language having yet been invented; which was therefore passed down through about 15 generations by Oral Tradition.因此,这是通过大约15代下来的口头传统;学习文字,圣经,这是首次在没有写下来,正如摩西住之前有任何有组织的文字尚未发明的并发症。 And then, when the Ancient Hebrew language was invented, words were written down without including any vowels, with only the consonants recorded.然后,当古代希伯来语言发明,话写下来,而不包括任何元音,辅音只有记录。In other words, later people have had to insert the CORRECT vowels where they are needed to create the Ancient Hebrew words that we now accept as being the Original text of the Bible.换句话说,后来人们不得不插入需要的地方创建古代希伯来文的话,我们现在,因为这是圣经的原文接受正确的元音。And then those words needed to be translated into English to create the modern Bibles we now rely on.然后,这些话需要翻译成英文以创建现代圣经,我们现在依靠的。Yes, the general accuracy of Bible Verses is very good, but whether we might assume that the tense of an original word of Moses is precisely known now, regarding whether a verb implied a reference to one or more actors during Genesis seems optimistic at best.是的,圣经诗篇一般精度非常好,但我们是否可以假设一个摩西原词恰恰是现在已知的紧张,关于是否在创世记动词隐含似乎乐观,最好的一个引用一个或多个参与者。 Especially when any such references to multiple participants during Genesis would seem to contradict the First Commandment.尤其是当任何这种提法在创世记到多个参与者似乎矛盾的第一戒律。

Christianity rightfully considered Jesus to be God (and actually NOT just the Son of God).基督教认为耶稣是正当神(实际上不仅是上帝的儿子)。But many beliefs have gradually been developed during the past two thousand years which were specifically generated in order to support and defend accepted claims and attitudes.但是,许多信念已逐渐被开发,在过去两千年的是专门为了支持和维护产生的索赔和接受的态度岁。An example has to do with Monophysitism.有一个例子是与基督一性。The Western interpretation of this belief is that Jesus IS fully Divine AND ALSO fully Human.这种信仰西方的解释是,耶稣是完全的神,也是完全的人。The Orthodox and the Eastern Orthodox Churches have different understandings of this word and this concept, indicating that even two thousand years later, we are still struggling to figure everything out.东正教和东正教教会有这个词和这个概念的不同理解,这表明即使两千年后,我们仍在努力把事情做好。

The fact that there are several major themes of modern Christian belief, based on Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant assumptions and conclusions, and within each, especially Protestant, many included groups (Denominations) which have different beliefs, again based on different initial assumptions and different conclusions, is evidence that we are still working at figuring out the details.事实上,也有现代基督教信仰在罗马天主教,东正教,东正教和新教的假设和结论的基础上,几大主题,在每个,尤其是基督教,有许多包括组(面值)有不同的信仰,再根据不同的最初的假设,不同的结论,证据表明,我们仍处在搞清楚细节。 We DO know that we can confidently believe and Teach the core aspects of Christianity, and that we can believe in the authority and accuracy of the Bible.我们知道,我们可以自信地相信并教导基督教的核心内容,而且我们可以相信的权威和圣经的准确性。However, disappointingly, nearly EVERY one of those different groups carries an amazing arrogance, where they each insist that ONLY THEY know the Truth and that everyone else is following wrong Teachings by all those other Churches.然而,令人失望,几乎所有这些不同的群体之一进行一个惊人的傲慢,他们每个坚持认为只有他们知道的真理,其他人都下了所有其他教会错误的教导。 If God is as Loving and Compassionate as we know Him to be (and He Is), then He cannot possibly be discarding far over 99% of His followers to only allow those who happened to attend one specific Church to have Salvation and enter Heaven!如果上帝是爱和同情,因为我们知道他是(他是),那么他不可能放弃远远超过99,他的追随者%,只允许那些谁正好参加一个特定的教会得救,进入天堂! Such attitudes, which seem frighteningly widespread, MUST be wrong!这种态度,这似乎令人震惊的普及,一定是错的!

However, even considering these matters, the core beliefs of Christianity are certainly rock solid and can totally be accepted as valid.然而,即使考虑到这些问题,基督教的核心理念是一定坚如磐石,可以完全被视为有效。Similarly, the validity and accuracy of each Lesson in the Bible can be confidently Learned and followed.同样,在圣经中的有效性和每课精度可以自信地学习和遵守。

It's just that IF you ever start developing arrogance regarding you knowing every single detail of Christian belief while having negative attitudes toward anyone who attends any other Church, you may have missed an important point that Jesus tried to Teach us!这只是说,如果你就开始开发的嚣张气焰你不知道每一个细节的基督教信仰,而不必向任何人谁参加任何其他教会的消极态度,你可能会错过一个重要的一点,耶稣曾试着教我们吧! Rather than feeling superiority over others, didn't Jesus try to Teach humility and compassion for others?与其说是比别人优越,没有耶稣试图教谦逊和对他人的同情?

Sorry if these paragraphs of this Editor's Comment might seem to come across as a sort of Sermon.很抱歉,如果这个编辑器的评论似乎这些段落来作为一种跨讲道排序。It is a side effect of being a Christian Minister that such things can appear in writings.它是作为一个基督徒部长,这样的事情可能出现在著作的副作用。And remember that the comments by this Editor are those of but a single Christian, and might justifiably be ignored after due consideration!并且记住了这个编辑器的评论是那些只是单一的基督徒,并有可能合理地考虑后始被忽略!


Christianity基督教

General Information一般资料

Christianity is the religion of about a billion people whose belief system centers on the person and teachings of Jesus Christ.基督教是约一亿人,他们的信仰系统中心的人,耶稣基督教导的宗教。 To Christians, Jesus of Nazareth was and is the Messiah or Christ promised by God in the prophecies of the Old Testament (the Hebrew Bible); by His life, death, and Resurrection He freed those who believe in Him from their sinful state and made them recipients of God's saving Grace. Many also await the Second Coming of Christ, which they believe will complete God's plan of salvation.对基督徒来说, 是和拿撒勒的耶稣的弥赛亚或基督是上帝承诺的圣经预言的旧约 (希伯来; 因他的生,死和复活他解救那些谁相信他的国家从他们的罪恶,并提出他们领取神的救恩。许多人还期待着第二次拯救未来的基督,他们认为将完成神的计划。 The Christian Bible, or Holy Scripture, includes the Old Testament and also the New Testament, a collection of early Christian writings proclaiming Jesus as lord and savior.基督教的圣经,或圣经,包括旧约和新约也,一个宣布为救主耶稣早期基督教的著作集。Arising in the Jewish milieu of 1st century Palestine, Christianity quickly spread through the Mediterranean world and in the 4th century became the official religion of the Roman Empire.在第一世纪巴勒斯坦的犹太环境所产生的基督教迅速蔓延通过地中海世界,在4世纪成为罗马帝国的官方宗教。

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Christians have tended to separate into rival groups, but the main body of the Christian Church was united under the Roman emperors.基督徒往往分成敌对集团,但其主体是基督教会在罗马帝王团结。During the Middle Ages, when all of Europe became Christianized, this main church was divided into a Latin (Western European) and a Greek (Byzantine or Orthodox) branch.在中世纪,当欧洲都成了基督教,这主教堂被分成一个拉丁(西欧)和希腊(拜占庭或正统)分公司。The Western church was in turn divided by the Reformation of the 16th century into the Roman Catholic church and a large number of smaller Protestant churches: Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist), Anglican, and sectarian.西方教会是由罗马天主教会进入16世纪的改造和规模较小的基督教大数量除以依次为:信义,改革(加尔文主义),英国圣公会,和宗派。 These divisions have continued and multiplied, but in the 20th century many Christians joined in the Ecumenical Movement to work for church unity.这些分歧继续并成倍增加,但在20世纪,许多基督徒在基督信仰合一运动加入教会合一工作。This resulted in the formation of the World Council of Churches.这导致了世界基督教协进会的产生。Christianity, a strongly proselytizing religion, exists in all parts of the world.基督教,强烈传教宗教,存在于世界各地。

Beliefs信仰

Certain basic doctrines drawn from Scripture (especially from the Gospels and the letters of Saint Paul), interpreted by the Fathers of the Church and the first four ecumenical councils, historically have been accepted by all three of the major traditions.某些基本教义来自圣经(尤其是来自福音和圣保罗的字母),由神父和教会的前四个合一议会解释,历史上已被所有主要的传统三接受。 According to this body of teaching, the original human beings rebelled against God, and from that time until the coming of Christ the world was ruled by Sin.根据这样的教学机构,原人类反抗神,从那个时候直到基督降临世界被裁定罪。The hope of a final reconciliation was kept alive by God's Covenant with the Jews, the chosen people from whom the savior sprang.最终和解的希望,保存了神的盟约,与犹太人活着,所选择的人从他们的救星扑去。This savior, Jesus Christ, partly vanquished sin and Satan.这救主,耶稣基督,部分战胜罪恶和撒旦。Jesus, born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit, preached the coming of God's Kingdom but was rejected by the Jewish leaders, who delivered Him to the Romans to be crucified.耶稣,圣母玛利亚出生的人受圣灵的力量,宣扬神的国度来,但被犹太领袖,谁送来的他给罗马人钉在十字架上被否决。 On the third day after His death God raised Him up again.第三天后,他的死再次提出了他的神。He appeared to His disciples, commanding them to spread the good news of salvation from sin and death to all people.他似乎是他的弟子,指挥他们宣扬救恩从罪恶和死亡的好消息,所有的人。This, according to Christian belief, is the mission of Christ's church.为此,根据基督教信仰,是基督的教会的使命。

Christians are monotheists (believers in one God).基督徒是一神论(在一个上帝的信徒)。The early church, however, developed the characteristic Christian doctrine of the Trinity, in which God is thought of as Creator (Father), Redeemer (Son), and Sustainer (Holy Spirit), but one God in essence.早期的教会,但是,开发了被认为是基督教教义特征的三位一体,在上帝作为造物主(父亲),救世主(儿子),和维持者(圣灵),但一个本质神英寸

Christianity inherited and modified the Jewish belief that the world would be transformed by the coming of the Reign of God.基督教继承并修改了犹太人的信仰,世界将是由神来统治转变。The Christians held that the bodies of those who had died would rise again, reanimated, and that the righteous would be triumphant, the wicked punished.基督徒认为,这些谁已经死亡会再次上升,复活,这将是正义的胜利,邪恶的惩罚的尸体。This belief, along with Jesus' promise of "eternal life," developed into a doctrine of eternal rewards (heaven) and punishments (hell) after death.这种信念,随着耶稣的“永生”,成为一种永恒的奖励(天)后死亡处罚(地狱)学说发展的承诺。A source of doctrinal uncertainty was whether salvation depended on God's election in advance of a believer's faith, or even in a decision of God before the disobedience and fall of the first man and woman (Predestination).一个不确定性的理论来源是得救取决于是否在一个信徒的信仰前进上帝的选举,甚至在神的面前不服从和第一个男人和女人(宿命)下降的决定。

Although Christians today tend to emphasize what unites them rather than what divides them, substantial differences in faith exist among the various churches.虽然今天的基督徒往往强调他们联合他们的分歧,而不是在信心之间存在重大分歧的各个教堂。Those in the Protestant tradition insist on Scripture as the sole source of God's Revelation. The Roman Catholics and Orthodox give greater importance to the tradition of the church in defining the content of faith, believing it to be divinely guided in its understanding of scriptural revelation.传统那些在新教坚持启示圣经作为上帝的唯一来源。罗马天主教和东正教给神圣的指导,启示理解圣经更加重视的传统教会在界定的内容是信心,相信它。 They stress the role of ecumenical councils in the formulation of doctrine, and in Roman Catholicism the pope, or bishop of Rome, is regarded as the final authority in matters of belief.他们强调合一议会制定的学说中的作用,在罗马天主教教皇,或罗马的主教,是在信仰问题视为最终权威。

Practice实践

Christian societies have exhibited great variety in ethos, from mutual love, acceptance, and pacifism on the one hand, to strict authoritarianism and forcible repression of dissent on the other.基督教社会呈现出种类繁多的精神,从互爱,接受,一方面和平主义,以严格的专制和镇压持不同政见者强迫另一方。Justification for all of these has been found in various passages in the Bible.对于所有这些理由已经在圣经中找到各种通道。A prominent feature of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches is Monasticism.是罗马天主教和东正教教堂突出的特点是修道。

Christians also vary widely in worship.基督徒也有很大差异的崇拜。Early Christian worship centered on two principal rites or Sacraments: Baptism, a ceremonial washing that initiated converts into the church; and the Eucharist, a sacred meal preceded by prayers, chants, and Scripture readings, in which the participants were mysteriously united with Christ.早期基督教主要集中在两个礼拜仪式或圣礼:洗礼,一洗的礼仪开始转换到教堂和圣体,一种神圣的膳食祈祷,呼喊,和圣经阅读之前,其中的参与者神秘与基督联合。 As time went on, the Eucharist, or Mass, became surrounded by an increasingly elaborate ritual in the Latin, the Greek, and other Eastern churches, and in the Middle Ages Christians came to venerate saints - especially the Virgin Mary - and holy images.随着时间的推移,圣体,或地铁去了,成了一个在拉丁美洲,希腊,和其他东欧教会,越来越细仪式,在中世纪的基督徒来到供奉圣人包围 - 尤其是圣母玛利亚 - 圣洁的形象。In the West, seven sacraments were recognized.在西方,七个圣礼被确认。The Protestant reformers retained 2 sacraments - baptism and the Eucharist - rejecting the others, along with devotion to saints and images, as unscriptural.新教改革者保留2圣礼 - 洗礼和圣体 - 驳回其他人,一起奉献给圣人和图像,unscriptural。They simplified worship and emphasized preaching.他们简化崇拜,并强调说教。

Since the 19th century there has been a certain amount of reconvergence in worship among ecumenically minded Protestants and Roman Catholics, with each side adopting some of the other's practices.自19世纪以来,在崇拜重新收敛志同道合的新教徒之间ecumenically和罗马天主教徒一定金额,每一方采取其他的一些做法。 For example, the Catholic Mass is now in the vernacular.例如,现在在天主教弥撒的白话。Among other groups in both traditions, however, the divergence remains great.两种传统之间的其他群体,然而,分歧仍然很大。In most Christian churches Sunday, the day of Christ's resurrection, is observed as a time of rest and worship.在大多数的基督教教堂礼拜,基督复活的日子,是观察到一个礼拜的时间休息和。The resurrection is more particularly commemorated at Easter, a festival in the early spring.复活是多,尤其是在复活节,在早春的节日纪念。Another major Christian festival is Christmas, which commemorates the birth of Jesus.另一个主要的基督教节日是圣诞节,纪念耶稣的诞生。

Polity政体

Most churches make a distinction between the clergy - those specially ordained to perform spiritual functions - and ordinary believers, or lay people.大多数教会神职人员之间作出区别 - 那些专门受戒履行职能的精神 - 与普通信徒,或裁员的人。The Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches have an all male threefold ministry of bishops, priests, deacons, and several minor orders.罗马天主教和东正教教堂的主教,司铎,执事全部为男性三倍部,和几个小订单。The Roman Catholic church is headed by the pope, who governs through a centralized bureaucracy (the Papacy) in consultation with his fellow bishops.罗马天主教会的负责人是教宗,谁通过一个集中的官僚作风与他的同胞主教咨询(教皇)规管。In the Orthodox churches and those of the Anglican Communion (which retain the threefold ministry) lay influence is somewhat greater; major decisions are made by the bishops acting as a group with lay consultation, sometimes with votes.在东正教教堂和英国圣公会(即保留的三个部门)的影响力奠定​​有点大;重大决策,作为一个组代理主教提出奠定协商,有时票。 Church government among Lutherans, Reformed, and other Protestants generally involves the laity even more fully, policy being determined either by local congregations or by regional assemblies composed of both clergy and lay people.在路德教会,改革,其他新教徒政府一般涉及俗人得更加充分,政策的决定,或由地方教会神职人员和教友都组成区域议会要么。 Most Protestant churches, including some provinces of the Anglican Communion, now permit the ordination of women.大多数新教教会,包括圣公会部分省,现在允许妇女协调。

During its early history the Christian church remained independent of any political regime.在其早期历史的基督教教堂仍然是任何政治制度无关。From the 4th century to the 18th century, however, churches accepted the protection of emperors, kings, and princes and became closely allied with secular governments.从4世纪到18世纪,然而,教堂接受了皇帝,国王,王子,成为保护与世俗政府密切相关。In some cases monarchs became the leaders of their own national churches.在某些情况下,君主成为他们自己的国家教会的领导人。 In the 19th and 20th centuries the trend has once again been in the direction of separation of Church and State, sometimes amicably achieved, sometimes otherwise.在19世纪和20世纪的趋势再次在教会与国家分离的方向是百年来,有时达到友好,有时并非如此。

History of the Early Church早期教会史

The age of Christian antiquity extends from the beginning of the Christian era (dated from the approximate time of Jesus' birth) through the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire in the 5th century.古代年龄的基督教延伸从公元通过西方的罗马帝国在公元5世纪的一半下降(从耶稣出生日期的大致时间)开始。

After Jesus was crucified, his followers, strengthened by the conviction that he had risen from the dead and that they were filled with the power of the Holy Spirit, formed the first Christian community in Jerusalem.耶稣被钉在十字架上后,他的追随者,表明他已经从死里复活,而他们对权力的圣灵充满信念加强,形成了在耶路撒冷的第一个基督教社区。 By the middle of the 1st century, missionaries were spreading the new religion among the peoples of Egypt, Syria, Anatolia, Greece, and Italy.到了1世纪中叶,传教士们传播之间的埃及,叙利亚,安纳托利亚,希腊和意大利人民的新的宗教。Chief among these was Saint Paul, who laid the foundations of Christian theology and played a key role in the transformation of Christianity from a Jewish sect to a world religion.其中最主要的是圣保罗,谁奠定了基督教神学的基础,起到从一个犹太节在基督教转型的关键作用,为世界宗教。The original Christians, being Jews, observed the dietary and ritualistic laws of the Torah and required non Jewish converts to do the same.最初的基督教徒,被犹太人,观察了托拉和所需的非犹太人皈依仪式的饮食和法律,做同样的。 Paul and others favored eliminating obligation, thus making Christianity more attractive to Gentiles.保罗和其他人主张取消义务,从而使基督教更吸引外邦人。The separation from Judaism was completed by the destruction of the church of Jerusalem by the Romans during the Jewish Revolt of 66 - 70 AD.从犹太教分离完成了对耶路撒冷的罗马教会遭破坏,在犹太人起义66 - 公元70年。

After that Christianity took on a predominantly Gentile character and began to develop in a number of different forms.之后,基督教发生在一个主要詹蒂莱性质和开始发展不同形式的数量。At first the Christian community looked forward to the imminent return of Christ in glory and the establishment of the Kingdom.起初,基督教社会期待着即将回归基督在荣耀和王国的建立。This hope carried on in the 2d century by Montanism, an ascetic movement emphasizing the action of the Holy Spirit.在此希望通过由孟他努,一个苦行运动强调圣灵的行动二维世纪。Gnosticism, which rose to prominence about the same time, also stressed the Spirit, but it disparaged the Old Testament and interpreted the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus in a spiritual sense.诺斯替主义,其股票上涨大约在同一时间,突出,还强调了精神,但它贬低和解释旧约的十字架,并在精神意义上的耶稣的复活。 The main body of the church condemned these movements as heretical and, when the Second Coming failed to occur, organized itself as a permanent institution under the leadership of its bishops.教会的主体谴责为异端邪说这些动作,当第二次来没有发生,组织对下作为一个常设机构,其本身主教领导。

Because of their refusal to recognize the divinity of the Roman emperor or pay homage to any god except their own, the Christians were subjected to a number of persecutions by the Roman authorities.因为他们拒绝承认神圣罗马皇帝或支付除了他们自己的敬意任何上帝,基督徒受到的迫害,由罗马当局的数目。 The most savage of these were the one under Emperor Decius (249 - 51) and that instigated by Diocletian (303 - 13).其中最野蛮的是下一个皇帝Decius(249 - 51),并挑起了戴克里先(303 - 13)。Many Christians welcomed martyrdom as an opportunity to share in the sufferings of Christ, and Christianity continued to grow despite all attempts to suppress it.许多基督徒表示欢迎,认为在基督的苦难机会分享殉道,基督教继续增长,尽管一切企图镇压。Out of the experience of persecution a controversy grew over whether those who had denied their faith under pressure could be readmitted to communion, and whether the sacraments could be administered validly by clerics who had apostacized.走出迫害经历了一场争论谁的增长超过了是否在压力下拒绝了他们的信仰可以被重新接纳共融,以及是否可管理的圣礼谁曾apostacized神职人员有效。 In opposition to the Novatianists and Donatists, the larger church replied affirmatively to both questions.在反对Novatianists和多纳徒,规模较大的教会了肯定的回答这两个问题。

The principal theme of early Christian theological development was the interpretation of the faith in terms of concepts drawn from Greek philosophical thought.早期基督教神学发展的主要主题是从希腊的哲学思想信仰画的概念来解释。This process was begun by Saint Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Origen, and other apologists of the 2d and 3d centuries.这个过程开始的圣贾斯汀烈士,良,渊源,以及二维和三维世纪其他辩护者。Following the recognition of Christianity by Emperor Constantine I in the early 4th century, it was continued in a lengthy controversy about the person of Christ.随着对基督教的皇帝君士坦丁一世识别技术在4世纪初,它是继续在一个关于基督的人长时间的争论。The problem was to defend Christian monotheism against the charge that the church also worshiped Christ as Lord and the Holy Spirit of God promised by Christ.问题是要抵御负责,教会也崇拜上帝和神的圣灵基督耶稣答应基督教一神教。In one solution, Monarchianism, God the creator was supreme but shared his power with Christ, the Logos or Word.在一个解决方案,神格,神的创造者是至高无上的,但共享与基督的标志或Word他的权力。Another, Modalism, held that the three persons of the Trinity were modes or aspects of the same God.另,模态论,认为三位一体的三人模式或同一神方面。A third, Arianism, like Monarchianism, taught that the Son was inferior to the Father.第三,阿里乌主义,像神格,教导子不如父。

These doctrines were rejected by the councils of Nicaea (325) and Constantinople (381), which, following the lead of Saint Athanasius, affirmed the equality of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, declaring them to be separate persons but of one substance.这些理论被拒绝了尼西亚(325)和君士坦丁堡(381),其中,继圣亚他那修铅,肯定了父亲,儿子,和圣灵平等的议会,宣布他们不过是一个人的物质分开。 The Council of Ephesus (431) condemned Nestorianism, which denied that Mary was the mother of God, and the Council of Chalcedon (451) repudiated Monophysitism, which emphasized the divinity of Christ over his humanity.安理会的以弗所(431)谴责景教,它否认,玛丽是上帝的母亲,安理会的chalcedon(451)否定基督一性,它强调了他的人性,基督的神性。

The condemnationof Monophysitism alienated the churches of Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, creating dissention in the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and lessening its ability to withstand the Islamic invasion in the 7th century.疏远的基督一谴责埃及,叙利亚,美索不达米亚和亚美尼亚教会,创造了东罗马(拜占庭)帝国的意见不一,减轻其承受能力,在公元7世纪伊斯兰教的入侵。 The empire, thereafter confined to Anatolia and the Balkans, remained the center of Orthodox Christianity until its demise in the 15th century.帝国,此后局限于安纳托利亚和巴尔干地区,一直到它在15世纪消亡的东正教中心。

In the West, where Roman rule was ended by the Germanic invasions of the 5th century, the church, strengthened by the guidance of such able leaders as Saint Augustine and Pope Gregory I, survived to become the main civilizing influence in Europe during the Middle Ages.在西方,罗马统治是由公元5世纪,教会能够通过这种圣奥古斯丁领导人和教皇格里高利一世指导加强,日耳曼入侵结束,幸存下来,成为主要的欧洲文明的影响力,在中世纪。

George H Williams乔治H威廉斯

Bibliography 参考书目
O Chadwick, ed., The Pelican History of the Church (1960 - 70); WHC Frend, The Earth Church (1966); KS Latourette, A History of Christianity (1975); J Pelikan, The Christian Tradition (1971 - 83).Ø查德威克,海关,鹈鹕的教会历史(1960 - 70);。西隧Frend,地球会(1966年);堪萨斯州拉图尔特,基督教的历史(1975年); Ĵ伯利坎,基督教传统(1971 - 83) 。


Christian基督教

Advanced Information先进的信息

"Christian," a word formed after the Roman style, signifying an adherent of Jesus, was first applied to such by the Gentiles and is found in Acts 11:26; 26:28; 1 Pet. “基督徒”,后字的罗马风格的形成,标志着一个基督信徒,是第一个适用于这类的外邦人,并在使徒行传11:26发现; 26:28; 1​​宠物。 4:16.4:16。Though the word rendered "were called" in Acts 11:26 might be used of a name adopted by oneself or given by others, the "Christians" do not seem to have adopted it for themselves in the times of the apostles.虽然呈现在使徒行传11:26“被称为”这个词可能被用于一个名字自行采取或由他人给予的“基督徒”似乎并不为自己采取了在使徒时代了。 In 1 Pet.在1宠物。4:16, the apostle is speaking from the point of view of the persecutor; cf.4:16,使徒是讲从视图中逼迫点;比照。"as a thief," "as a murderer." “作为一个贼,”作为一个杀人犯“。”Nor is it likely that the appellation was given by Jews.也不是可能的称谓是由犹太人给出。As applied by Gentiles there was no doubt an implication of scorn, as in Agrippa's statement in Acts 26:28.正如外邦人应用,毫无疑问的轻蔑含义,如阿格里帕的声明,在行为26:28。Tacitus, writing near the end of the first century, says, "The vulgar call them Christians. The author or origin of this denomination, Christus, had, in the reign of Tiberius, been executed by the procurator, Pontius Pilate" (Annals xv. 44).塔西佗,附近的一世纪末写,说,“庸俗称他们为基督徒。作者或这一教派,基督,产地有,在提比略统治时期,被检察执行,本丢彼拉多”(志十五。44)。 From the second century onward the term was accepted by believers as a title of honor.从公元二世纪起,接受了这个词作为一种荣誉称号的信徒。


Christianity in its Relation to Judaism基督教与犹太教的关系

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Christianity is the system of religious truth based upon the belief that Jesus of Nazareth was the expected Messiah, or Christ, and that in him all the hopes and prophecies of Israel concerning the future have been fulfilled.基督教是信仰的基础后,即拿撒勒的耶稣是弥赛亚的预期,或基督,宗教真理体系,而在他所有的希望和对未来的预言以色列已经履行。 While comprising creeds which differ widely from one another in doctrine and in practise, Christianity as a whole rests upon the belief in the God of Israel and in the Hebrew Scriptures as the word of God; but it claims that these Scriptures, which it calls the Old Testament, receive their true meaning and interpretation from the New Testament, taken to be the written testimonies of the Apostles that Jesus appeared as the end and fulfilment of all Hebrew prophecy.虽然其中包括信条大相径庭从一个在理论和实践中的另一个,基督教作为一个整体休息后,在以色列的神,在希伯来文圣经为信仰的神的话,但它声称,这些经文,它调用旧约,新约收到采取的是书面证词的使徒,耶稣作为最终和所有希伯来预言的实现出现了,其真实含义和解释。 It furthermore claims that Jesus, its Christ, was and is a son of God in a higher and an essentially different sense than any other human being, sharing in His divine nature, a cosmic principle destined to counteract the principle of evil embodied in Satan; that, therefore, the death of the crucified Christ was designed by God to be the means of atonement for the sin inherited by the human race through the fall of Adam, the first man; and, consequently, that without belief in Jesus, in whom the Old Testament sacrifice is typified, there is no salvation.它还声称,耶稣,基督的,是和是在一个更高,一个基本上不同的感觉比任何其他的神的儿子的人,在他的神性,是宇宙的原则注定要抵消了撒旦邪恶的原则体现共享; ,因此,在基督钉在十字架上的死亡是由上帝设计是由人类继承了亚当的通过,秋天的第一人赎罪的手段;,因此,如果没有信仰的耶稣,在人旧约是典型的牺牲,就没有得救。 Finally, Christianity, as a world-power, claims that it represents the highest form of civilization, inasmuch as, having made its appearance when the nations of antiquity had run their course and mankind longed for a higher and deeper religious life, it regenerated the human race while uniting Hebrew and Greek to become the heir to both; and because it has since become the ruling power of history, influencing the life of all nations and races to such an extent that all other creeds and systems of thought must recede and pale before it.最后,基督教,作为世界权力,声称它代表着文明的最高形式,因为在作出时,其外观古代的国家那样把他们的课程,并为人类更高,更深的宗教生活的渴望,它的再生而人类团结希伯来文和希腊文,成为既继承者,并且因为它已经成为了历史的执政权力,影响了所有国家和种族的生活到这样的程度,所有其他信仰和思想的系统必须消退,脸色苍白从前的样子。

These three claims of Christianity, which have frequently been asserted in such a manner as directlyor implicitly to deny to Judaism, its mother religion, the purpose, if not the very right of its continued existence, will be examined from a historical point of view under three heads: (1) the New Testament claim as to the Christship of Jesus; (2) the Church's claim as to the dogmatic truths of Christianity, whether Trinitarian or Unitarian; and (3) the claim of Christianity to be the great power of civilization.基督教这三种说法,其中经常被这样的方式会直接间接断言否认作为犹太教,其母亲宗教,目的,如果不是非常的继续存在的权利,将审查从历史的角度来看下三头:(1)新,以耶稣的Christship约索赔;(2)教会的主张,以基督教的教条式的真理,无论是三位一体或寻道;及(3)基督教声称自己是大国的文明。 The attitude taken by Jews toward Christianity in public debates and in literary controversies will be treated under Polemics and Polemical Literature; while the New Testament as literature and the personality of Jesus of Nazareth will also be discussed in separate articles.对基督教的犹太人采取的公开辩论和文学论争的态度将被视为下论战和论辩文学,而新的文学与人格的拿撒勒的耶稣约也将在单独的文章中讨论。

The Messianic Movement.救世主的运动。

I. It is a matter of extreme significance that the Talmudic literature, which is based on tradition at least a century older than Christianity, has not even a specific name for the Christian belief or doctrine, but mentions it only occasionally under the general category of "Minim" (literally, "distinctive species of belief"), heresies, or Gnostic sects.一,这是一个极端重要的问题,该塔木德文学,这是传统的基础上,至少比基督教一个世纪以上,甚至没有为基督教信仰或学说的具体名称,但提到根据一般类,只偶尔“微量”(字面上看,“信仰的独特物种”),异端邪说,或诺斯底教派。 As one of these it could only be regarded in the second century, when Christianity was in danger of being entirely absorbed by Gnosticism.作为其中之一,它只能被看作是第二个世纪时,基督教在被完全由诺斯替主义吸收的危险。At first it was viewed by the Jews simply as one of the numerous Messianic movements which, aimed against Roman rule, ended tragically for their instigators, and from which it differed only in one singular fact; viz., that the death of the leader, far from crushing the movement, gave, on the contrary, rise to a new faith which gradually, both in principle and in attitude, antagonized as none other the parent faith, and came to manifest the greatest hostility to it.起初,它被看成单纯的犹太人作为救世主的运动,众多的,旨在反对罗马统治结束他们的悲惨煽动者之一,并从其中它不同于只在一个奇异的事情。即,即领导者的死亡,离破碎的运动,给了,相反,上升到一个新的信心,渐渐地,无论在原则上和态度,因为没有其他拮抗父信念,来到体现出它最大的敌意。 There is no indication in Jewish literature that the appearance of Jesus, either as a teacher or as a social or political leader, made at the time a deep or lasting impression on the Jewish people in general.没有任何迹象表明,在犹太文学的耶稣的外貌,无论是作为一名教师或作为一个社会或政治领袖,在时间上一般的犹太人民作出深刻的和持久的印象。 Outside of Galilee he was scarcely known.加利利之外,他几乎是众所周知。This at least seems to be the only explanation of the fact that the Talmudic passages, some of which are old, confound Jesus, on the one hand, with Ben Sṭada, who was tried in Lydda-probably identical with Theudas "the magician," the pseudo-Messiah who appeared in 44 (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 5, § 1; Acts v. 36)-and, on the other, with the Egyptian "false prophet" who created a Messianic revolt a few years later ("Ant." xx. 8, § 6; idem, "BJ" ii. 13, § 5; Acts xxi. 38; see Tosef., Sanh. x. 11; Sanh. 67a, 107b; Shab. 104b; Soṭah 47a; compare Matt. xxiv. 11 and 24).这至少似乎是事实的唯一解释是塔木德通道,其中有些是旧的,混淆耶稣,一方面,与本sṭada,谁是试图在Lydda,可能等同采用塞乌达斯“魔术师”伪弥赛亚谁在44个出现了(约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”× × 5,§ 1。徒五36)和,另一方面,与埃及“假先知”,谁创造了一个救世主,几年后的反抗(“蚂蚁。”× × 8,§ 6。同上,“BJ的”二13 § 5。徒二十一38;。看到Tosef,葬身十11;。。葬身67A条,107b。沙巴的第104B条。Soṭah 47A条,比较马特二十四11和24)。。。As to Jesus ben Pandera, or Jesus the pupil of R. Joshua ben Peraḥyah, see Jesus in Jewish Legend.至于耶稣本潘特罗,或耶稣的河约书亚贲Peraḥyah瞳孔,看到耶稣在犹太传说。

The only reference to Jesus in contemporary Jewish literature is found in Josephus, "Antiquities" xviii.唯一的参考文献在当代犹太人耶稣被发现在约瑟夫,“古物”十八。3, § 3, a passage which has been interpolated by Christian copyists, but appears to have originally contained the following words (see Theodore Reinach, in "Rev. Etudes Juives," xxxv. 1-18; A. v. Gutschmid, "Kleine Schriften," 1893, iv. 352): "There was about that time [a certain] Jesus, a wise man; for he was a worker of miracles, a teacher of men eager to receive [new (revolutionary) tidings], and he drew over to him many Jews and also many of the Hellenic world. He was [proclaimed] Christ; and when, on denunciation by the principal men amongst us, Pilate condemned him to be crucified, those that were first [captivated] by him did not cease to adhere to him; and the tribe of Christians, so named after him, is not extinct at this day."3,§ 3,已插了基督教抄写员,但似乎原本载有下列词语(见西奥多莱纳赫,“牧师研究Juives,”三十五通道1-18。A.诉Gutschmid“克莱文集“。1893年,四352):”有这个话,时间[一定]耶稣,聪明的人,因为他是一个创造奇迹的工人,男人渴望得到[新的(革命)消息]老师, 。然后他又到他的许多犹太人,也是世界上许多他是希腊[宣布]基督,而当上了我们之间的主要人的谴责,谴责他是彼拉多钉在十字架上,那些被[着迷]先他也没有停止对他坚持和基督徒的部落,所以他的名字命名,是不是在这一天灭绝“。

John the Baptist.施洗约翰。

The Gospel records agree upon one essential point confirmed by Josephus (lc 5, § 2; compare Matt. iii. 1-13; Mark i. 2-9; Luke iii. 1-21; John iii. 22 et seq.; Acts xiii. 24); viz., that the main impulse to the Christian movement was given by John the Baptist, an Essene saint, who-among the many that, by penitence, fasting, and baptisms, prepared themselves for the coming of the Messiah (Luke ii. 25, 36 et seq.; Mark xv. 43; compare ib. ii. 18; Matt. ix. 14, xi. 18; compare Pesiḳ R. xxxiii., xxxiv.; Josephus, "Vita," § 2)-stood forth as the preacher of repentance and "good tidings," causing the people to flock to the Jordan to wash themselves clean of their sins in expectation of the Messianic kingdom.福音记录商定一个基本点确定由约瑟夫(立法会五,§ 2;比较马特三1-13;。。马克一2-9;路加福音三1-21。约翰三世22起。。行为十三24)。。即,即主要推动力,以基督教运动是施洗约翰,一个essene圣人,是谁在众多的,通过忏悔,斋戒,给予洗礼,准备在自己未来的救世主(路加福音二25,36起。。马克十五43;。比较兴业二18;。。。马特九14,十一18;。。比较Pesiḳ河三十三,三十四。。约瑟夫,“简历,”§ 2)-挺身为悔改的牧师和“好消息”,造成人们涌向约旦自己洗干净他们的罪孽在弥赛亚王国的期望。Some of his followers were known afterward as a class of Baptists under the name "Disciples of John" (Acts viii. 25; xix. 3, 4), and seem partly to have joined the Mandæaus (Brandt, "Die Mandäische Religion," pp. 137 et seq., 218 et seq., 228; see also Hemerobaptists).他的一些追随者后来被称为类作为一个浸信会的名义下“的约翰门徒”(徒八25;。十九3,4。),而且似乎部分地加入了Mandæaus(勃兰特,“模具Mandäische宗教”第137页起,218起,228。。又见Hemerobaptists)。 Jesus, however, being one of John's disciples, the moment the latter had been put in prison stepped to the front as a preacher of the "Kingdom of Heaven" in the very language of his master (Matt. iv. 12 et seq., xiv. 3-5; Mark i. 14).耶稣,但是,作为一个约翰的弟子,后者已经在加强对作为“天国”前牧师在他的主(太四十分语言收监的时刻。12起。,十四3-5;。马克一14)。 Still, to the very last he had to admit in his argument with the elders (Matt. xx. 26; Mark xi. 32; compare ib. viii. 28) that John was universally acknowledged prophet, while he was not.不过,到最后他不得不承认,在他与长老参数(太二十26;。马克十一32;。比较兴业八28。。),约翰是举世公认的先知,而他却没有。 Indeed, Herod Antipas, upon learning of Jesus' miraculous performances, expressed the belief that John the Baptist had risen from the dead (Matt. xiv. 2, xvi. 14; Mark vi. 14).事实上,希律安提帕,经耶稣的奇迹般的表演学习,表示施洗的约翰从死里复活的信仰(太十四二,十六14;。。马克六14。)。 Nor did Jesus himself, according to the older records, lay claim to any title other than that of a prophet or worker by the Holy Spirit, like any other Essene saint (Matt. xiii. 57; xxi. 11, 46; Luke vii. 16, 39; xiii. 33; xxiv. 19; John iv. 19, 44; compare Josephus, "BJ" i. 3, § 5; ii. 8, § 12; idem, "Ant." xiii. 10, § 7; Luke ii. 25, 36).耶稣自己也没有,根据旧纪录,宣称自己比任何头衔或工人的先知被圣灵像任何其他厄圣(太十三,其他57个;。。二十一,11,46;路加福音七。 16日,39岁;十三33;。。二十四19;约翰四世19日,44;。比较约瑟夫,“BJ的”岛3,§ 5;二8,§ 12。同上,“蚂蚁。”十三10,§。 7,路加福音二25,36)。。Gradually, however, the fame of Jesus as "healer" and "helper" of those stricken with disease so eclipsed that of John, at least in Galilean circles, that the latter was declared to have been only the forerunner of the one destined to subdue the whole kingdom of Satan-that is, the Elijah of the Messianic kingdom-and a declaration to this effect was finally put into the mouth of John as though made by him at the very start (Mark i. 2, ix. 13, xi. 2-19; Luke i. 17).渐渐地,然而,为“医治”和“帮手”的那些贫困与疾病耶稣的名声使黯然失色的约翰,在伽利略界至少,后者已被宣布只有一个注定要征服的先行者撒旦的,也就是救世主的王国,并声明,这种影响以利亚终于到嘴的约翰,仿佛他是在一开始(马克一,二,九把整个王国。13日,十一。2-19;​​路加福音一17)。

Jesus as a Man of the People.耶稣作为普通人。

Jesus, as a man of the people, deviated from the practise of the Essenes and Pharisees in not shunning contact with the sinners, the Publicans and the despised 'Amha-areẒ, as contaminating, and in endeavoring to elevate them; following the maxim, "They that are whole need not a physician, but they that are sick" (Matt. ix. 12, and parallels; compare Antisthenes, in Diogenes Laertius, vi. 6).耶稣,作为一介平民,背离了爱色尼​​和法利赛人的做法在不回避与罪人,税吏和鄙视'Amha - AREZ上空的污染,接触,在努力提升他们,下面的格言, “他们的人用不着医生,但他们认为生病”(太九12,和平行线。比较安提斯泰尼,在第欧根尼Laertius,六6。)。He felt the calling to preach the gospel to the poor (Luke iv. 16 et seq., after Isa. lxi. 1 et seq.), and truly became the redeemer of the lower classes, who were not slow to lift him to thestation of the Messiah.他觉得,呼吁传福音给穷人(路四16。起。后,伊萨。LXI的。1起。),真正成为低下阶层,谁也不慢解除他thestation救世主的弥赛亚。 Still, he apparently made no such claim before his entrance into Jerusalem, as is evidenced by the warning given to the disciples and to the spirits of the possessed not to disclose the secret of his being the Son of David (Matt. xii. 16, xvi. 20; Mark i. 24, iii. 12, viii. 30; Luke iv. 41).不过,他显然并没有在他进入耶路撒冷的入口等提出索赔,因为是给弟子和该拥有的精神的警告没有透露该证明他是大卫的儿子(太十二的秘密。16十六20;。马克一24,三12,八30;。。路四41)。。 His reference to himself as the "Son of man," after the manner of Dan.他提到自己为“人子”,后丹方式。vii.七。13, and Enoch, xlvi. 13,伊诺克,四十六。2 et seq., in Matt.2起。,在马特。xx.二十。18, and Mark x.18,和马克十 33, has no historical value; whereas in Mark ii.33,也没有历史价值;而在马克二。28 and Matt.28和马特。viii.八。20 "Son of man" stands for "man" or "myself."20“人子”代表“。自己”为“人”或While the eschatological predictions in Matt.而在马特的末世论的预言。xxiv., xxv.; Luke xvii.二十四,二十五。。路加福音十七。22 et seq., and elsewhere have been taken over literally from Jewish apocalypses and put into the mouth of Jesus, the teachings and doings of Jesus betray, on closer analysis, rather an intense longing after the Messianic time than joy and satisfaction over its arrival. 22起。,和其他地方已采取了犹太人的启示,并从字面上把耶稣,耶稣的教义和背叛行为,放入口中仔细分析,而是一个较后的喜悦和满足感弥赛亚在其到达时间强烈渴望。 And as the so-called "Lord's Prayer"-an exquisite compilation of Ḥasidic prayer formulas (Luke xi. 1-13; Matt. vi. 9-13; see Charles Taylor, "Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," 1901, p. 176)-is, like the Ḳaddish, a petition rather than a thanksgiving for the Messianic kingdom, so is the entire code of ethics laid down by Jesus for his disciples in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. v.-vii., x.; Luke vi. 20, xi.-xii., and elsewhere) not a law of conduct for a world rejoicing in a redeemer that has come, but a guide for a few of the elect and saintly ones who wait for the immediate downfall of this world and the rise of another (Matt. x. 23, xix. 28, xxiv. 34-37).而作为所谓的“主祷文”,一个精美的哈西德派祈祷公式汇编(路加福音十一1-13。。马特六9-13。见查尔斯泰勒,“熟语的犹太父亲”,1901年,第176),是一样的ḳaddish,一份请愿书,而不是一种救世主的王国感恩节,所以是奠定了他的门徒耶稣在山上(太五至七讲道伦理的全部代码。中,x 。。路加六20,xi. -第十二章,以及其他地方)不是为了在一个欢乐的世界已经到来救赎行为的法律,而是一个一个数的选举指导和圣洁的谁的等待立即下台。这个世界和另一个崛起(太十23,十九。28,二十四。34-37)。 Only later events caused the allusion to the "Son of man" in these sayings to be referred to Jesus.直到后来事件造成这些话的典故中的“人子”是指耶稣。As a matter of fact, a spirit of great anxiety and unrest permeates the sayings of Jesus and the entire New Testament epoch, as is indicated by such utterances as "Watch, therefore; for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come" (Matt. xxiv. 42, xxv. 13); "The kingdom of God cometh not with observation [that is, calculation], but suddenly, imperceptibly it is among you" (Luke xvii. 20, 21); compare the rabbinical saying: "The Messiah cometh [when least expected], like a thief in the night" (Sanh. 97a, b).由于事实上,一个伟大的焦虑和不安的精神贯穿于耶稣和整个新约时代的说法,因为是由上述言论正如“观看,因此,因你们不知道什么时候来,岂是你们的主”(太。。。42二十四,二十五13),“神的国降临没有观察[即计算],但突然之间,无形中是在你们中间”(路十七20,21);比较拉比说:。“弥赛亚降临[当至少预期]像夜间的贼“(Sanh. 97A条,乙)。See, further, Matt.另见马特。xxiv.二十四。43; I Thess.43,我帖。v. 2; II Peter iii.五,2;二彼得三世。10; Rev. iii.10,致三。 3.3。A number of sayings allude to the sword, to contention, and to violence, which do not altogether harmonize with the gentle and submissive character assigned generally to Jesus.数的说法暗示的剑,要争,和暴力,不完全协调与分配,一般以耶稣的温柔与顺从的性格。Such are the following: "Think not that I came to send peace on the earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword" (Matt. x. 34, RV); "Suppose ye that I am come to give peace on earth? I tell you, Nay; but rather division. . . . The father shall be divided against the son, and the son against the father," etc. (Luke xii. 51-53); "From the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force" (Matt. xi. 12)-words hardly reconcilable with the concluding sentences of the chapter: "Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden. . . . Take my yoke upon you . . . and ye shall find rest" (lc xi. 28-30).这样有以下几种:“不要想我来到地球上的和平派:我来并不是叫和平,而是剑”(太十34,RV)的,“假如说我是来叶给予的和平地球我告诉你们,不然?而是表决,父亲应划分对儿子,对父亲,儿子。。。。“等(路十二51-53。)”从约翰的日子浸会到现在,天国是努力和采取的暴力迫使它“(太十一12。)-单词很难符合本章的结论句调和的:”到我这里来,你们都要劳动担重担。。。。你们当我的轭。。。你们会发现休息“(立法会十一。28-30)。 The advice given by Jesus to his disciples to provide themselves each with a sword (Luke xxii. 36; compare ib. verse 49; John xix. 10, though disavowed in Matt. xxvi. 52, 53); the allusion by Simeon the saint to the sword and to the strife as resulting from Jesus' birth (Luke ii. 34, 35); and the disappointment voiced by Cleopas, "We trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel" (Luke xxiv. 21; compare Matt. i. 21, where Jesus is explained as , Joshua, who shall "save his people from sin")-all these point to some action which gave cause for his being handed over to Pontius Pilate as one who was "perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar" (Luke xxiii. 2); though the charge was refuted by the saying, "Render unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's" (Matt. xxii. 21; Mark xii. 17; Luke xx. 25, RV).耶稣的指示,向他的弟子们提供自己用剑每个(路加福音二十二36;。比较兴业诗49;。约翰十九10,虽然在马特否认二十六52,53。。。),由圣西缅的典故向剑,并与从耶稣的诞生产生冲突(。路加福音二34,35);和革流巴表示失望,“我们相信,它一直是他要赎以色列”(路加福音二十四21;。比较马特。一21,耶稣是,约书亚解释,谁应“拯救他的人民从罪恶”),所有这些点的一些行动,这使他被移交至一,本丢彼拉多谁是“​​妨碍民族的事业,禁止纳税给凯撒“(路加福音二十三2。);虽然收费是驳斥了说:”凯撒渲染的东西,是该撒的“(太二十二21;。。马克十二17;路加福音二十。 25,风疹病毒)。He was tried and crucified as "King of the Jews" or "Messiah"; and all the alleged charges of blasphemy, in that he called himself "Son of God" in the Messianic sense, or announced the destruction of the Temple, prove, in the light of the ancient Jewish law, to be later inventions (Matt. xxvi. 63-65; Mark xiv. 58; Luke xxii. 70).他被审判,是“犹太人的王”或“弥赛亚”钉在十字架上,而所有被指控罪名的亵渎,因为他自称“神的儿子”,在救世主的感觉,或是宣布寺,证明破坏,在古犹太法光,迟发明(太二十六63-65。马克十四58;。路加福音二十二70。)。 See Crucifixion of Jesus.见耶稣受难。

The Risen Christ.复活的基督。

That the movement did not end with the crucifixion, but gave birth to that belief in the risen Christ which brought the scattered adherents together and founded Christianity, is due to two psychic forces that never before had come so strongly into play: (1) the great personality of Jesus, which had so impressed itself upon the simple people of Galilee as to become a living power to them even after his death; and (2) the transcendentalism, or other-worldliness, in which those penance doing, saintly men and women of the common classes, in their longing for godliness, lived.该运动并没有结束的受难,但生下了,在复活的基督信仰所带来的分散的基督教信徒一起,创立,是由于两个以前从未出现过如此强烈地把精神力量的作用:(1)耶稣的伟大人格,其中有这么深刻的印象后,加利利简单的人,即使自己死后才能成为他们生活的权力,(2)超验,或其他,世俗,其中做的忏悔,和圣洁的人共同阶层的妇女渴望在他们的虔诚,生活。 In entranced visions they beheld their crucified Messiah expounding the Scriptures for them, or breaking the bread for them at their love-feasts, or even assisting them when they were out on the lake fishing (Luke xxiv. 15, 30, 31, 36; John xx. 19, xxi.).陶醉在他们的视野,他们看到弥赛亚钉在十字架上阐述了他们的圣经,或打破了他们在他们的爱情节日面包,甚至协助他们时,他们在湖上捕鱼(路加福音二十四出15,30,31,36。约翰二十。19,21。)。 In an atmosphere of such perfect naïveté the miracle of the Resurrection seemed as natural as had been the miracle of the healing of the sick.在一个如此完美天真的气氛中复活的奇迹似乎自然的,因为一直是在给病人奇迹。Memory and vision combined to weave the stories of Jesus walking on the water (compare Matt. xiv. 25, Mark vi. 49, and John vi. 19 with John xxi. 1-14), of the transfiguration on the Mount (compare Matt. xvii. 1-13, Mark ix. 2-13, and Luke ix. 29-36 with Matt. xxviii. 16 et seq.), and of his moving through the air to be near the divine throne, served by the angels and the holy (not "wild") beasts ("ḥayyot"), and holding Scriptural combats with Satan (Mark i. 12, 13; Matt. iv. 1-11; compare with Acts vii. 15, vii. 55).记忆与相结合,编织耶稣在水上行走的故事,视觉(比较马特。十四。25日,马克六。49,约翰六世。与约翰二十一19。1-14)关于山变形,(比较马特。十七。1-13,马克九。2-13,和卢克九。与Matt 29-36。二十八。16起。),和他的移动通过空气在接近神圣的宝座,由天使服务和圣(而不是“野生”)野兽(“活物”),并持有与撒旦圣经战斗(马克一12,13;马特四1-11。。比较徒七15,七55。。)。 The Messiahship of Jesus having once become an axiomatic truth to the "believers," as they called themselves, his whole life was reconstructed and woven together out of Messianic passages of the Scriptures.耶稣的弥赛亚已成为一个不言自明的真理一次的“信徒”,因为他们自称,他的整个生活重建和交织在一起出了圣经弥赛亚通道。 In him all the Testament prophecies had "to be fulfilled" (Matt. i. 22; ii. 5, 15, 17; iii. 3; iv. 14; viii. 17; xii. 17; xiii. 14, 35; xx. 14; xxvi. 56; xxvii. 19; John xii. 38; xiii. 18; xv. 25; xvii. 12; xviii. 9; xix. 24, 36).在他所有的圣经预言有“必须履行”(太一22;二第5,15,17;。三三。四14;。八17;。十二17;。159 14,35;。第XX 。14;二十六56;。二十七19;。约翰十二38;。159 18。第十五25;。十七12;。十八9;。十九24,36)。。Thus, according to the Jewish view, shared by many Christian theologians, there grew up, through a sort of Messianic Midrash, the myths of Jesus' birth from a virgin (after Isa. vii. 14), in Bethlehem, the city of David (after Micah v. 1 et seq.; there was a town of Bethlehem also in Galilee, which Grätz identifies with Nazareth; see "Monatsschrift," xxix. 481); the genealogies in Luke iii.因此,根据犹太人的观点,许多基督教神学家共享,有长大米德拉士通过某种弥赛亚,耶稣的诞生,从一个处女(后伊萨。七。14)在伯利恒,大卫城,神话(在米卡诉1起。有一个城市伯利恒在加利利海,格拉茨与拿撒勒标识也见“月刊,”二十九481。);在路加三族谱。 23-38 andin Matt.23-38 andin马特。i. 1-17, with the singular stress laid upon Tamar, Rahab, and Ruth, the converted sinners and heathens, as mothers of the elect one (compare Gen. R. ii.; Hor. 10b; Nazir 23b; Meg. 14b); likewise the story of Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem riding upon a young ass (after Zech. ix. 9), and of his being hailed by the people's "Hosanna" (after Ps. cxviii. 26; compare Midr. Teh. to the passage; also Matt. xxi. 1-11, and parallels). 1-17,与添马舰后,喇合,和露丝,转换后的罪人和异教徒奠定了奇异应力,作为选举一位母亲(比较将军河二。霍10B条。纳齐尔23B条;梅格14B条。);同样,进入耶路撒冷,耶稣的凯旋进入故事骑着一个年轻的驴,他被赞誉的人的“散那”(后诗cxviii 26(后撒加利亚九9。。)。。比较Midr到。。通过;也马特二十一1-11,和平行线)。。。

Similarly, his healing powers were made proofs of his Messiahship (after Isa. xxxv. 5, 6; compare Gen. R. xcv. and Midr. Teh. cxlviii.), also his death on the cross was taken, with reference to Isa.同样,他的恢复能力提出了他的弥赛亚证明(赛三十五后5,6;。。比较将军河xcv和Midr的cxlviii。。。。),也是他的死在十字架上被带走,参照伊萨。 liii.liii。and old Essene tradition of the suffering Messiah (Pesiḳ. R. xxxiv.-xxxvii.), to be the atoning sacrifice of the Lamb of God slain for man's sin (John i. 29; Acts viii. 32. Rev. xiii. 8; compare Enoch xc. 8), and his resurrection the beginning of a new life (after Zech. xiv. 5: I Chron. iii. 24; Sibyllines, ii. 242; Matt. xxiv. 30; I Thess. iv. 16).老厄传统的苦难弥赛亚(pesiḳ.二河xxxiv. -三十七。),是神的羔羊被杀献祭赎罪的人的罪(约一29;。。。徒八32第十三修订版8 ;比较伊诺克越野8),和他复活的新生活(5开头后撒加利亚十四:。。。。。。我专栏三24; Sibyllines,二242马特四条30,我帖前四16。。。。 )。Men held their love-feasts in his memory-turned into paschal feasts of the new covenant (Matt. xxvi. 28, and parallels; John xix. 33 et seq.)-and led lives of voluntary poverty and of partial celibacy (Acts ii. 44; Matt. xix. 12).男子担任他们的爱情盛宴在他的记忆,变成了新约逾越节的筵席(太二十六28,和平行线。约翰十九33起。。)和自愿贫困导致的生活和部分独身(行为二。44;马特十九12)。。。

Jesus' Teachings.耶稣的教导。

Out of these elements arose the life-picture of Jesus, shaped after later events and to a great extent reflecting the hostile sentiments entertained against the Jewish people by the new sect when, in the final struggle with Rome, the latter no longer shared the views and destinies of the former.这些元素产生出了耶稣的生活画面,在后来的事件,并在很大程度上反映了对犹太人民款待的新教派的敌对情绪形时,在与罗马,最后挣扎后不再共享的意见前和命运。 Many antinomistic views put into the mouth of Jesus have their origin in Pauline-ie, anti-Judean-circles.到耶稣的口使很多antinomistic意见,都在宝莲,即反朱迪亚-界的起源。Thus the saying, "Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man" (Matt. xv. 11, and parallels), is irreconcilable with Peter's action and vision in Acts xi.因此,说:“不要把进入污秽一个人的嘴就去但15:11的嘴,这污秽的人”(。太十五11和平行线),是彼得的行动和行为的不可调和的视觉十一。 1-10.1-10。What Jesus actually said and did is difficult to determine.耶稣居然说什么,也难以确定。Many of his teachings can be traced to rabbinical sayings current in the Pharisaic schools; and many sentences, if not entire chapters, have been taken over from Essene writings (see Didascalia; Essenes; Golden Rule; Jesus of Nazareth; Matthew).他的教导有许多可以追溯到犹太教的说法在当前的Pharisaic学校,以及许多句子,如果不是整个章节,已采取了从厄著作以上(见didascalia认为,爱色尼;黄金法则;拿撒勒的耶稣马太)。

On the other hand, there are utterances of striking originality and wondrous power which denote great genius.另一方面,也有惊人的创意和奇妙的力量,伟大的天才的言论表示。He certainly had a message to bring to the forlorn, to "the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt. x. 6, xv. 24), to the outcast, to the lower classes, to the "'am ha-areẓ," to the sinners, and to the publicans.他肯定了以“对以色列家迷失的羊”的消息,因为在这个被遗弃的,(太十六,十五。24),到弃儿,到下层,以“'上午公顷AREZ上空盘旋,“以罪人,和税吏。 And whether the whole life-picture is reality or poetic imagination, in him the Essene ideal reached its culmination.以及是否整个生命诗意的画面是真实或想像中的他,厄达到理想的结果。But it is not correct to speak, as Christian theologians do, of a possible recognition or an actual rejection of Jesus' Christship by the Jews.但它是不正确的说话,作为基督教神学家做一个可能的承认或对耶稣的犹太人Christship实际拒绝。Whatever his greatness as teacher or as friend of the people, this could not establish his claim to the Messianic title; and whether his Galilean followers were justified in according it to him, or the authorities at Jerusalem in denying it and in denouncing him to the Roman prefect-probably more from fear than from spite (John xix. 15)-is not a matter that can be decided from the scanty records (compare Matt. xxvi. 5; Luke xiii. 31; xix. 47, 48; xx. 19; xxiii. 43 with Matt. xxvii. 25-28; Mark xv. 14; Luke xxiii. 23 (see Crucifixion). The vehement language of Jesus, in denouncing Sadducean misrule and the hypocrisy and narrowness of the Pharisaic leaders, was not altogether new and unheard of: it was the privilege of the Essene preachers, the popular Haggadists (See Pharisee and Sadducees). Most of his teachings, a great number of which echo rabbinical sayings, and have been misunderstood or misapplied altogether by the late Gospel compilers (see Gospels, The Four), were addressed to a circle of men who lived in a world of their own, far away from the centers of commerce and industry. His attitude toward Judaism is defined by the words: "Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil" (Matt. v. 17). The rejection of the Law by Christianity, therefore, was a departure from its Christ, all the New Testament statements to the contrary notwithstanding. He himself declined even the title of "good master," because he wanted to reserve this epithet for God alone ("Matt. xix. 17): Christianity, contrary to all his teaching, turned him into a God.不管他的伟大的教师或作为人民的朋友,这是无法树立自己的主张,以救世主的称号,是否在他的追随者根据伽利略给他,或否认它的理由,并在耶路撒冷当局在谴责他到罗马知府,可能更多的恐惧,尽管比(。约翰十九15),是不是一个可以从微薄的记录,决定的事项(比较马特二十六5;。。路加福音十三31;。十九47,48;。二十。 19;二十三与二十七,43月25-28马特。。。马克十五14;。。。路加福音二十三23条(见受难)耶稣的强烈谴责Sadducean语言暴政和虚伪和狭隘的Pharisaic领导人,并没有完全新的,前所未闻的:它是特权的essene牧师,(见法利赛人和撒都该人)流行Haggadists最使他的教诲,其中一个很大的数字回声犹太教俗语,被人误解或误用完全由已故的福音。 。编译器(见福音,四),是针对一个圈子谁住在一个属于自己的世界远离商业和工业中心,他对犹太教的态度是明确的话:“不要以为我我来要废掉律法和先知:。我来不是要废掉,乃是要成全“(太五17)基督教会法排斥反应,因此,是一个从它的基督出发,所有的新约。与此相反的陈述,尽管他本人甚至下降的称号“好主人”,因为他想保留这个词单独为神(“马特十九17。。):基督教,相反他所有的教学中,他变成了神。

Paul's Antinomistic and Gnostic Views.保罗的Antinomistic和诺斯底观。

II.二。This radical change was brought about by Saul of Tarsus or Paul, the real founder of the Christian Church, though Peter formed the first community of the risen Christ (Matt. xvi. 16; Acts i. 15; I Cor. xv. 5).这种激进的变化所带来的跗关节或保罗,基督教教会真正的创始人扫罗,虽然彼得形成了复活的基督的第一个社区(太十六16;。徒一15;。我肺心病十五5。) 。Having, under the influence of a vision, turned from an earnest persecutor of the new sect into its vigorous champion (Acts ix. 1-14, xxii. 3-16, xxvi. 9-18; I Cor. ix. 1, xv. 8 et seq.; Gal. i. 16), he construed the belief in the atoning death of Christ held by the rest into a system altogether antagonistic to Judaism and its Law, claiming to have received the apostleship to the heathen world from the Christ he beheld in his visions.有,在一个理想的影响,从认真的新教派的迫害者变成了积极的冠军(徒九1-14,二十二3-16,26 9-18。。。。我肺心病九一,十五。 。8日起。。半乳糖一16),他解释了在基督赎罪的休息日成为一个完全对立的制度和法律死亡犹太教信仰,声称已收到使徒的异教徒的世界他看到基督在他的视野。 Operating with certain Gnostic ideas, which rendered the Messiah as Son of God a cosmic power, like Philo's "logos," aiding in the world's creation and mediating between God and man, he saw both in the Crucifixion and in the Incarnation acts of divine self-humiliation suffered for the sake of redeeming a world polluted and doomed by sin since the fall of Adam.与某些诺斯底思想,也使作为神儿子的弥赛亚宇宙能力就像斐洛的“标志”,协助在世界的创造和神与人之间的调解工作,他看到了受难俩在化身行为神圣的自我,遭受屈辱,救赎世界的罪恶污染,注定因为亚当的堕落的缘故。 Faith alone in Christ should save man, baptism being the seal of the belief in God's redeeming love.仅在基督信仰的人应该保存,作为洗礼在神的救赎的爱的信念印章。It meant dying with Christ to sin which is inherited from Adam, and rising again with Christ to put on the new Adam (Rom. vi. 1-4; I Cor. xv.; Gal. iii.-iv.).这意味着与基督同死的罪是从亚当继承,并再次上升,基督把新的亚当(罗马书六1-4;。。我肺心病十五。。半乳糖iii.-iv.)。 See Baptism.见洗礼。

On the other hand, Paul taught, the law of Moses, the seal of which was Circumcision, failed to redeem man, because it made sin unavoidable.另一方面,保教,摩西的密封是割礼的法律,没有赎回的人,因为它使罪无可避免的。By a course of reasoning he discarded the Law as being under the curse (Gal. iii. 10 et seq.), declaring only those who believed in Christ as the Son of God to be free from all bondage (Gal. iv.).由废弃的推理过程,他正在根据法律的诅咒(加拉太书三。10起。)宣布只有那些谁相信,在基督作为上帝的儿子,从所有的束缚(加四。)。 In opposition to those who distinguished between full Proselytes and "proselytes of the gate," who only accepted the Noachidian laws (Acts xv. 20), he abrogated the whole Law; claiming God to be the god of the heathen as well as of the Jews (Rom. iii. 29). (。徒十五20)反对那些谁和谁之间充分的proselytes只接受Noachidian法“的门,的proselytes”尊敬,他废除了整个法律,声称上帝是上帝的异教徒,以及作为犹太人(罗马书三。29)。 Yet in enunciating this seemingly liberal doctrine he deprived faith, as typified by Abraham (Gen. xv. 6; Rom. iv. 3), of its naturalness, and forged theshackles of the Christian dogma, with its terrors of damnation and hell for the unbeliever.然而,在这个看似阐述他的学说被剥夺自由的信念,为典型的亚伯拉罕(创十五6;。罗四第3。。),它的自然性,及伪造的基督教教条theshackles,与诅咒和地狱的恐怖的不信。 God, as Father and the just Ruler, was pushed into the background; and the Christ-who in the Gospels as well as in the Jewish apocalyptic literature figured as judge of the souls under God's sovereignty (Matt. xvi. 27, xxv. 31-33; compare Enoch, iv. xiv. et seq.; II Esd. vii. 33 with Rom. xiv. 10; II Cor. v. 10)-was rendered the central figure, because he, as head and glory of the divine kingdom, has, like Bel of Babylonian mythology fighting with the dragon, to combat Satan and his kingdom of evil, sin, and death.神,作为父亲和刚刚的统治者,被推到了后台,以及基督在福音谁以及犹太世界末日的文学作为法官想通的灵魂在神的主权(太十六27,二十五31。。 -33,比较伊诺克,四十四起。。。二,公共服务电子化与ROM 33第七十四10;。。。。。二,肺心病10节),是提供的核心人物,因为他作为头的荣耀神圣的王国,也像贝尔巴比伦神话与龙战斗,打击撒旦和他的邪恶,罪恶的国度,和死亡。 While thus opening wide the door to admit the pagan world, Paul caused the influx of the entire pagan mythology in the guise of Gnostic and anti-Gnostic names and formulas.虽然这样敞开大门承认异教徒的世界,保罗造成了在诺斯底和反诺斯底名称和公式的幌子整个异教神话涌入。No wonder if he was frequently assailed and beaten by the officials of the synagogue: he used this very synagogue, which during many centuries had been made the center of Jewish propaganda also among the heathen for the pure monotheistic faith of Abraham and the law of Moses, as the starting-point of his antinomistic and anti-Judean agitations (Acts xiii. 14, xiv. 1, xvii. 1 et seq., xxi. 27).难怪,如果他经常抨击和官员的犹太教堂遭到殴打:他用这个会堂,这在许多世纪以来已经取得了在列国中的犹太人宣传中心还为单纯的一神教信仰亚伯拉罕和摩西的律法为出发,他的antinomistic和反朱迪亚风潮点(徒十三。14,14。1,十七。1起。,21。27)。

Early Christianity a Jewish Sect.早期基督教的一个犹太节。

For a long time Christianity regarded itself as part of Judaism.长期以来基督教视为犹太教的一部分本身。It had its center in Jerusalem (Irenæus, "Adversus Hæreses, i. 26); its first fifteen bishops were circumcised Jews, they observed the Law and were rather unfriendly to heathenism (Sulpicius Severus, "Historia Sacra," ii. 31; Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." iv. 5; compare Matt. xv. 26), while they held friendly intercourse with the leaders of the synagogue (see Grätz, "Gesch. der Juden," iv. 373 et seq.; and Ebionites, Minim, and Nazarenes). Many a halakic and haggadic discussion is recorded in the Talmud as having taken place between the Christians and the Rabbis (see Jacob the Gnostic). Probably the Christian Congregation, or Church of the Saints, did not distinguish itself in outward form from the "Ḳehala Ḳaddisha" at Jerusalem, under which name the Essene community survived the downfall of the Temple (Ber. 9b; compare Eccl. R. ix. 9: 'Edah Ḳedoshah). Of course, the destruction of the Temple and of the Judean state and the cessation of sacrifice could not but promote the cause of Christianity (see Justin, "Dial. cum Tryph." xi.); and under the impression of these important events the Gospels were written and accordingly colored. Still, Jew and Christian looked in common for the erection of the kingdom of heaven by the Messiah either soon to appear or to reappear (see Joël, "Blicke in die Religionsgesch." i. 32 et seq.). It was during the last struggle with Rome in the days of Bar Kokba and Akiba that, amidst denunciations on the part of the Christians and execrations on the part of the Jewish leaders, those hostilities began which separated Church and Synagogue forever, and made the former an ally of the arch-enemy. Pauline Christianity greatly aided in the Romanizing of the Church. It gravitated toward Rome as toward the great world-empire, and soon the Church became in the eyes of the Jew heir to Edom (Gen. xxvii. 40). The emperor Constantine completed what Paul had begun-a world hostile to the faith in which Jesus had lived and died. The Council of Nice in 325 determined that Church and Synagogue should have nothing in common, and that whatever smacked of the unity of God and of the freedom of man, or offered a Jewish aspect of worship, must be eliminated from Catholic Christendom.它有它的中心在耶路撒冷(爱任纽,“相反Hæreses,一26),其前15主教割礼的犹太人,他们观察法,并比较不友好的异教(Sulpicius西弗勒斯,”历史萨克拉,“二31;。尤西比乌斯“。。组织胺传道书”四5;。比较马特十五26),而他们的犹太教堂举行了领导人的友好交往(见格拉茨,的“Gesch德国犹太人。”四373起。。。。和以便尼派,微量,与拿撒勒)。halakic和阿haggadic很多讨论记录在塔木德如已采取的基督徒之间和拉比的地方(见雅各的诺斯底)。可能是基督教教会,或圣徒教会,本身没有区别向外形成了从“ḲehalaḲaddisha”在耶路撒冷,根据该名幸存下来的essene社区庙毁灭(Ber. 9B条,比较传道书河九9:'EdahḲedoshah。。)当然,在销毁。寺和犹太国家和奉献不能停止,但促进了基督教的原因(见贾斯汀,“拨号暨Tryph。。”十一。);根据这些写的福音,因此有色和重要事件的印象。尽管如此,犹太人和基督教共同的看着天上的弥赛亚王国的勃起或即将出现或重新出现(见乔尔,“在模具Religionsgesch Blicke。”岛32起。)。正是在最后是与罗马的斗争,并在棒材Kokba秋叶的日子,对基督徒和对犹太人的领袖谴责部分execrations中的一部分,这些敌对行动开始的教会和犹太教堂永远分离,使前一拱盟友的敌人。宝莲大大基督教教会romanizing的资助。深为它作为向伟大的罗马世界帝国,并很快成为教会的犹太人继承人的眼光以东(创二十七。40)。皇帝康斯坦丁完成保罗已经开始给世界敌视在耶稣曾经生活和死亡的信念。安理会决定在325尼斯教会和犹太教堂应该没有任何共同之处,那无论神的统一和砸到自由人,或提供一个犹太崇拜方面,必须从天主教基督教淘汰。

Paganism Predominant.异教为主。

Three causes seem to have been at work in making the Pauline system dominant in the Church.似乎有三个原因在工作中一直在使宝莲制度,在教会里占主导地位。First, the pagan world, particularly its lower classes, having lost faith in its old gods, yearned for a redeemer, a manlike god, and, on the other hand, was captivated by that work of redeeming love which the Christian communities practised, in the name of Jesus, in pursuance of the ancient Essene ideals (see Charity).首先,异教徒的世界,特别是低下阶层,失去了信心,老了神,对于一个救世主,一个manlike神向往,而且,另一方面,是由该爱的救赎工作,实行的基督教社区,在着迷耶稣的名字,在古厄理想(见慈善)的追求。 Secondly, the blending of Jewish, Oriental, and Hellenic thought created those strange mystic or Gnostic systems which fascinated and bewildered the minds of the more educated classes, and seemed to lend a deeper meaning to the old beliefs and superstitions.其次,混合犹太人,东方,和希腊思想创造这些奇怪神秘的或诺斯底的着迷和困惑的更多的教育类的思想,似乎借给更深意义的旧的信仰和迷信系统。

Woman's Part in the Early Church.女人的第二部分,在早期教会。

Thirdly, woman appeared on the scene as a new factor of Church life.第三,女人出现在教会生活中作为一个新的因素场景。While the women of Syria and of Rome were on the whole attracted by the brightness and purity of Jewish home life, women in the New Testament, and most of all in Paul's life and letters, are prominent in other directions.尽管叙利亚和罗马的妇女在光亮度和犹太人的家庭生活,纯洁吸引妇女在新约中的整体,在保罗的生命和信件最重要的是,在其他方向上突出。 Aside from those visions of Mary Magdalene which lent support to the belief in the Resurrection (Matt. xxviii. 1, and parallels), there was an undisguised tendency on the part of some women of these circles, such as Salome; Thecla, the friend of Paul; and others (see "Gospel of the Egyptians," in Clement, "Stromata," iii. 964; Conybeare, "Apology and Acts of Apollonius and Other Monuments of Early Christianity," pp. 24, 183, 284), to free themselves from the trammels of those principles upon which the sanctity of home rested (see Eccl. R. vii. 26). (。太二十八1,平行线)除了玛丽抹大拉的愿景是借给支持在复活的信仰,有一对莎乐美等这些圈子,有些妇女的一部分赤裸裸的趋势; Thecla,朋友保罗和其他人(见“埃及人福音”,在克莱门特,“基质,”三964。科尼比尔,“道歉和阿波罗纽斯行为与早期基督教,其他古迹的”页24,183,284)摆脱这些原则赖以回家休息的束缚自己的神圣(见传道书。河七。26)。 A morbid emotionalism, prizing love as "the greatest of all things" in place of truth and justice, and a pagan view of holiness which tended to make life oscillate between austere asceticism (demanding virginity and eunuchism) on the one side, and licentiousness on the other (see Matt. xix. 12; Sulpicius Severus, "Dialogi Duo," i. 9, 13, 15; Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." vi. 8; Clement, lc iii. 4; Cyprian, Ep. iv.; Rev. ii. 14), went hand in hand with Gnosticism.一种病态的感情,珍视为真理和正义,圣洁的异教徒的看法,往往会作出严厉的禁欲主义生活之间(要求贞操和eunuchism)振荡的一侧,放荡的地方为“所有的东西最伟大的”爱在其他(见太十九12;。。Sulpicius西弗勒斯,“Dialogi铎,”一,9,13,15;尤西比乌斯,“历史传道书。。”六8;。克莱门特,立法会三4;。塞浦路斯,环保四。 。。启示录II第14条),后与诺斯替主义携手共进。Against this exaggeration of the divine attribute of love and the neglect of that of justice, the Rabbis in the ancient Mishnah seem to utter their warning (Meg. iv. 9; Yer. Ber. i. 3).在这种爱的神圣属性的夸张和忽视正义,在古老的米示拿的拉比似乎发出的警告(Meg.四9;。。也门里亚尔误码率一3。)。 When, finally, the reaction set in, and Gnosticism both as an intellectual and as a sexual degeneracy (compare Sifre on Num. xv. 39) was checked by a strong counter-movement in favor of positive Christianity, two principles of extraordinary character were laid down by the framers of the Church: (1) the Trinitarian dogma with all its corollaries; and (2) a double code of morality, one for the world-fleeing monks and nuns and the clergy-called the really religious ones-and another for the laity, the men of the world.当最后,集反应,并同时诺斯替主义作为一个知识分子,作为性退化(比较上序号。第十五Sifre。39)是由一个强大的反方向变动,检查了积极的基督教的青睐,两个特别性质,原则所订定的教会的制定者:(1)与所有的推论三位一体的教条;及(2)道德,为世界逃离僧侣和尼姑和神职人员一个双代号所谓的真正的宗教和另一种为俗人,世界的男人。

Trinitarianism.三位一体。

The Trinitarian formula first occurs in Matthew (xxviii. 19, RV) in the words spoken by the risen Christ to the disciples in Galilee: "Go ye therefore,and make disciples of all the [heathen] nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost"; but it appears to have been still unknown to Paul (I Cor. vi. 11; Acts ii. 38).三位一体的公式的第一个发生在马修(xxviii. 19,RV)的口语由复活的基督在加利利门徒的话:“所以你们要去,使万的[异教徒]的门徒,奉他们的名称的,和儿子的父亲,和圣灵“,但它似乎已对保罗仍未知(我肺心病六11;。。行为二38。)。

It is quite significant for the historian to observe that, while in the older Gospel (Mark xii. 29) Jesus began reciting the first commandment with the Jewish confession, "Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God, the Lord is one," this verse is omitted in Matt.这是很重要的历史学家观察到,而在老福音耶稣与犹太开始背诵供认的​​第一诫,(马克十二29。)“听啊,以色列,耶和华我们的神,上帝是一个”这诗句是省略在马特。 xxii.二十二。37.37。Christ, the preexistent Messiah (Gen. R. i.), being either identified with the Shekinah or divine glory (Rom. ix. 4; Col. i. 27; see Mayor, "Epistle of James," p. 75, notes), or with the "Memra" or "Logos," Philo's second god ("Fragments," ed. Mangey, ii. 625; compare "De Somniis," i. 39-41, ed. Mangey, i. 655 et seq.), was raised by Paul to the rank of a god and placed alongside of God the Father (I Cor. viii. 6, xii. 3; Titus ii. 13; compare I John v. 20); and in II Cor.基督,是先在弥赛亚(创传译一),即无论是认同的Shekinah或神的荣耀(罗马书九4;。上校一27;见市长,“书信的詹姆斯,”第75页,笔记),或与“为门拉”或“商标,”哲学的第二个神(“片段,”海关Mangey,二625。。比较“德Somniis,”一,39 - 41,海关Mangey岛655起。 。。。),是由保罗提出了一个神和神的父亲一起(我肺心病放在第八等级6,十二3;。提多二13;。比较约翰五20);和二肺心病。xiii.十三。14 the Trinity is almost complete.14三位一体已接近完成。In vain did the early Christians protest against the deification of Jesus ("Clementine Homilies," xvi. 15).徒然做了对耶稣的神化早期基督徒抗议(“克莱门汀讲道词,”十六。15)。He is in Paul's system the image of God the Father (II Cor. iv. 4; compare I Cor. viii. 6); and, being opposed "to Satan, the god of this world," his title "God of the world to come" is assured.他是在保罗的系统的形象,上帝的父亲(二肺心病四四。。比较林前八6。。),以及被反对“撒旦,这个世界的神”,他的头衔“神的世界来“是有保证的。 However repugnant expressions such as "the blood," "the suffering," and "the death of God" (Ignatius, "Ad Romanos," iii., v. 13; idem, "Ad Ephesios," i. 1; Tertullian, "Ad Praxeam") must have been to the still monotheistic sentiment of many, the opponents of Jesus' deification were defeated as Jewish heretics (Tertullian, lc 30; see Arianism and Monarchians).然而令人憎恶的表现形式,如“血”,“痛苦”和“上帝之死”(依纳,“广告罗曼诺斯,”三,五13。同上,“广告Ephesios,”岛1;良, “广告Praxeam”)必须到过的许多人仍一神教的感情,对耶稣的神化被击败的对手为犹太异教徒(良,立法会30个;看到阿里乌主义和Monarchians)。 The idea of a Trinity, which, since the Council of Nice, and especially through Basil the Great (370), had become the Catholic dogma, is of course regarded by Jews as antagonistic to their monotheistic faith and as due to the paganistic tendency of the Church; God the Father and God the Son, together with "the Holy Ghost ["Ruaḥ ha-Ḳodesh"] conceived of as a female being," having their parallels in all the heathen mythologies, as has been shown by many Christian scholars, such as Zimmern, in his "Vater, Sohn, und Fürsprecher," 1896, and in Schrader's "KAT" 1902, p.一个三位一体,其中,尼斯会议以来,特别是通过罗勒大(370),已成为天主教的教条,由犹太人视为对立的,他们的一神信仰和由于paganistic趋势当然是观念教会,神的父亲和上帝的儿子,连同“圣灵[”Ruaḥ公顷Ḳodesh“]有在所有异教徒神话的相似之处被设想为一女性,对”,因为已经证明,许多基督教学者如施文,在他的“十二指肠,孙,Fürsprecher有限公司”,1896年,在施拉德的“吉”1902年,第 377; Ebers, in his "Sinnbildliches: die Koptische Kunst," 1892, p. 377,埃伯斯,在他的“Sinnbildliches:模具Koptische孔斯特,”1892年,第10; and others.10,和其他人。

Persecution of Unitarians.迫害神论。

There was a time when the Demiurgos, as a second god, threatened to becloud Jewish monotheism (see Gnosticism and Elisha ben Abuyah): but this was at once checked, and the absolute unity of God became the impregnable bulwark of Judaism.曾经有一段时间,当Demiurgos,作为第二个神,扬言要蒙蔽犹太一神教(见诺斯替主义和以利沙本Abuyah):但是这是一次检查,与神的绝对统一,成为坚不可摧的堡垒的犹太教。 "If a man says: 'I am God,' he lies, and if 'Son of man,' he will repent," was the bold interpretation of Num. “如果一个人说:'我是神,'他的谎言,如果'人子来,他必思悔改,”是num的大胆诠释。xxiii.二十三。18, given by R. Abbahu with reference to Christianity (Yer. Ta'an. ii. 1, 65b).18,由于参考了基督教的R. Abbahu(Yer. Ta'an。二。1 65B条)。"When Nebuchadnezzar spoke of the 'Son of God' (Dan. iii. 25), an angel came and smote him on the face," saying: "Hath God a son?"“(。Dan.三25)当尼布甲尼撒的'上帝的儿子'说着,一个天使来到击打他的脸,”他说:“人的神的儿子?” (Yer. Shab. vi. 8d). (yer.沙巴。六。8D条)。In the Church, Unitarianism was suppressed and persecuted whenever it endeavored to assert its birthright to reason; and it is owing chiefly to Justinian's fanatic persecution of the Syrian Unitarians that Islam, with its insistence on pure monotheism, triumphed over the Eastern Church.在教会里,单一制被镇压和迫害每当努力维护其与生俱来的权利的理由;而且主要地是由于查士丁尼对叙利亚神格一位狂热的迫害,伊斯兰教,其纯一神教的坚持下,在东部教会胜利。 Henceforth Moslem and Jewish philosophy stood together for the absolute unity of God, not allowing any predicate of the Deity which might endanger this principle (see Attributes); whereas Christian philosophers, from Augustine to Hegel successively, attempted to overcome the metaphysical difficulties involved in the conception of a Trinity (see David Friedrich Strauss, "Glaubenslehre," i. 425-490).此后穆斯林和犹太哲学站在一起为神的绝对统一,不允许任何可能危及神谓词这一原则(见属性),而基督教哲学家,先后从奥古斯丁到黑格尔,试图克服困难所涉及的形而上学一个三位一体的概念(见大卫弗里德里希施特劳斯,“Glaubenslehre,”一425-490)。

The next radical deviation from Judaism was the worship of the Virgin Mary as the mother of God; the canonical and, still more, the apocryphal writings of the New Testament offering the welcome points of support to justify such a cult.接下来从犹太教激进偏差为上帝之母圣母玛利亚的崇拜;规范和,更在新约发售未经著作的支持点来证明欢迎这样的邪教组织。 The Jew could only abhor the medieval adoration of Mary, which seemed to differ little from the worship of Isis and her son Horus, Isthar and Tammuz, Frig and Balder.犹太人只能厌恶中世纪圣母的崇拜,这似乎不同于伊希斯和她的儿子荷鲁斯,Isthar和塔穆兹,Frig和巴尔德崇拜不大。 Yet this was but part of the humanization of the Deity and deification of man instituted in the Church in the shape of image-worship, despite synods and imperial decrees, prohibitions and iconoclasm.然而,这只不过是对神和在中的形象塑造教会崇拜神化的人提起的人性化,尽管主教和帝国法令,禁令和反传统的一部分。 The cross, the lamb, and the fish, as symbols of the new faith, failed to satisfy the heathen minds; in the terms of John of Damascus, they demanded "to see the image of God, while God the Father was hidden from sight"; and consequently the second commandment had to give way (see "Image-Worship," in Schaff-Herzog, "Encyc.").十字架上,羊肉,鱼,作为新的信仰符号,未能满足异教徒头脑,在大马士革的约翰的条款,他们要求“看到神的形象,而上帝的父亲是从视线中隐藏“,并因此第二诫不得不让路(见”形象崇拜“,在沙夫-赫尔佐格,”Encyc“。)。 It is no wonder, then, that the Jews beheld idolatry in all this, and felt constrained to apply the law, "Make no mention of the name of other gods" (Ex. xxiii. 13; Mek. to the passage and Sanh. 63b), also to Jesus; so that the name of one of the best and truest of Jewish teachers was shunned by the medieval Jew.这也难怪,那么,犹太人看到在这一切偶像崇拜,并认为适用法律的约束,“让没有其他神的名”(出埃及记二十三13;。人民圣战者组织的通道,葬身。。 63B条),也以耶稣,所以说,最好的和最真诚的犹太教师是一个名字的中世纪的犹太人回避。Still, the Jewish code of law offered some toleration to the Christian Trinity, in that it permitted semi-proselytes ("ger toshab") to worship other divine powers together with the One God (Tosef., Sanh. 63b; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 156, Moses Isserles' note).尽管如此,法律犹太代码提供了一些宽容的基督教三位一体的,因为它允许半的proselytes(“德国toshab”),以其他神圣权力崇拜与一个神(Tosef.,一起葬身63B条。Shulḥan'Aruk, OraḥḤayyim,156,摩西伊塞莱斯'注)。

Medieval Image-Worship.中世纪图像崇拜。

It was, indeed, no easy matter for the Jew to distinguish between pagan idolatry and Christian image-worship (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 141).这,的确是不容易的事情为犹太人区分异教偶像崇拜和基督教图像崇拜(Shulḥan'Aruk,Yoreh De'ah,141)。Moreover, image-worship went hand in hand with relic-worship and saint-worship; and so the door was opened wide to admit in the guise of saints the various deities of paganism, the policy of the medieval Church being to create a large pantheon of saints, apostles, and angels alongside of the Trinity in order to facilitate the conquest of heathen nations.此外,图像崇拜后与遗迹崇拜和圣人崇拜手的手,所以门开了广为承认,在圣人为名的各种异教神灵,对中世纪教会的政策是制造一个大神殿圣徒,使徒,和天使一起三位一体,以促进异教徒国家的征服。 In contrast to the uncompromising attitude of Judaism, the Church was ever ready for compromise to win the great multitudes.与此相反的犹太教不妥协的态度,教会她随时准备妥协赢得了极多的。It was this spirit of polytheism which led to all those abuses the opposition to which was the chief factor of the Reformation-whose aim and purpose were a return to Pauline Christianity and the New Testament with the help of a deeper study of the Old Testament at the hand of Jewish scholarship (see Luther; Reformation; Reuchlin).正是这种精神的多神教导致所有这些虐待的反对,这是改革,其目的和宗旨的主要因素是一个以基督教和新宝莲与一个更深的旧约全书返回学习帮助奖学金的犹太手(见路德;改革; Reuchlin)。

Mediatorship of Christ.Mediatorship基督。

But the Trinitarian dogma rested mainly upon Paul's conception of the mediatorship of Christ.但是,主要依靠三位一体的教条休息保罗的基督mediatorship概念。For no sooner was the idea of the atoning powerof the death of the righteous (Isa. liii. 4-10; see Atonement) applied to Jesus (Matt. xx. 28; Luke xxii. 37; Acts viii. 32) than Christ became the necessary mediator, "delivering man from the power of Satan and the last enemy-death" (I Tim. ii. 5; Col. i. 13; I Cor. xv. 26).对于刚是在赎罪powerof思想的正义死亡(以赛亚liii 4-10。见赎罪)适用于耶稣(太二十28;。路加福音二十二37;。。徒八32),比基督成为必要的调停人,“提供从撒旦的力量和最后的敌人死的人”(我添二5。。上校一13。我肺心病十五26。)。 While Judaism has no room for dualism, since God spoke through the seer, "I formed the light and created the darkness: I make peace and create evil" (Isa. xlv. 7); and while the divine attributes of justice and love, punitive wrath and forgiving mercy, are only contrasted (, Ber. 7a; Philo, "Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," xxxiv.; Siegfried, "Philo," pp. 213 et seq.), but never divided into separate powers, the world of Satan and the world of Christ are arrayed against each other, and an at-one-ment by the blood of the cross is necessitated in the Pauline system (Col. i. 20; Rom. iii. 25).而犹太教没有对二元论的空间,因为神借着先知说话了:“我成立了光,创造了黑暗:我实现和平,创造邪恶”,并在神圣的正义和爱的属性,(以赛亚书四十五7)。惩罚性的愤怒和宽恕怜悯,只有对比(,误码率7A条。斐洛,“Quis Rerum Divinarum下面有坐”三十四。。齐格弗里德,“哲学”,第213页起),但从来没有为单独的权力之分,世界撒旦与基督世界的相互排列,以及在一由十字架的血彪是必要的宝莲系统(上校一20;罗三25。。)。

God had to reconcile the world to Himself through the death of Jesus (II Cor. v. 18) and render "the children of wrath" children of His grace (Ephes. ii. 3; Rom. iii. 25, v. 10).神不得不调和通过耶稣的死,以自己的世界,使他的恩典儿童“愤怒的孩子”(二肺心病诉18。)(Ephes.二3;。。罗三25,五10。) 。"The love of God required the sacrifice of his own begotten Son" (John iii. 16). “上帝的爱需要自己独生子牺牲”(约翰三世。16)。This view is regarded as repugnant by the pure monotheistic sentiment of the Jew, itself grounded upon the spirituality and holiness of God, and was opposed by R. Akiba when he, with direct reference to the Christian doctrine, said: "Happy are ye, Israelites! Before whom do ye purify yourselves, and who is the one who purifieth you but your Father in heaven, for it is said: 'Israel's hope ["miḳweh," also interpreted as "source of purification"] is God'" (Jer. xvii. 13; Mishnah Yoma, end).这种观点认为是令人厌恶的由纯一神教的犹太人的感情,本身接地后,灵性和神的圣洁,是由河秋叶反对他时,直接提到了基督教的教义,说:“你们是幸福的, !以色列人在为谁你们净化自己,谁是一个谁洁净在天上你,但你的父亲,因为它是说:'以色列的希望[“miḳweh”又称为“净化源”解释]是上帝'“(耶十七13。。米示拿山脉,结束)。 But the whole dogma of Jesus' incarnation and crucifixion has for its background a world of sin and death ruled by Satan and his hosts of demons (II Cor. iv. 4; Ephes. ii. 1, vi. 12 et seq.; II Tim. ii. 26).但是,耶稣的化身和受难整个教条已为其背景的罪恶和死亡的世界和他的主人撒旦恶魔(二肺心病统治四四。。Ephes二,一,第六章12起。。。。二蒂姆。二。26)。 In fact, the whole coming of Christ is viewed in the New Testament as a battle with Satan (see Matt. iv. 1 et seq., xii. 29; Luke x. 18; John xii. 31; John iii. 8).事实上,整个基督的来临是在新约视为与撒旦战斗(见太四1起,十二29;。。。。路加福音十18;。约翰十二31;约翰三世8。)。 The story of Adam's fall, which caused the Book of Wisdom to say (ii. 24) that "through the envy of the devil death came into the world" (compare Ecclus. [Sirach] xxv. 24), was made by Paul (compare II Esdras iii. 7, 21, and Apoc. Baruch, xvii. 3) the keynote of the entire human history (Rom. v. 12).亚当的下降,这引起了智慧书说(白介素24)表示,“通过魔鬼死亡羡慕来到人世”的故事(比较Ecclus。[西拉奇]二十五。24),是由保罗所作(比较二埃斯德拉斯三。7,21,和载脂蛋白C。巴鲁克,十七。3)对整个人类历史(罗五12)的基调。 For those of the Rabbis who accepted this view the Law was an antidote against "the venom of the Serpent"-that is, the germ or the inclination to sin ('Ab. Zarah, 22b; Shab. 146a); to Paul, who antagonized the Law, the "breath of the serpent" became a power of sin and everlasting doom of such a nature that none but God Himself, through Christ His son, could overcome it.对于拉比们谁接受这个观点的人的法律是针对“蛇的毒液”解药,也就是说,病菌或罪的倾向('抗体Zarah,22B条。。沙巴146A条),保罗,谁拮抗法,“蛇的呼吸”成为罪的权势和这种性质永恒的厄运是没有,但上帝通过基督,他的儿子,可以克服它。

The Doctrine of Original Sin.原罪的教义。

In adopting this view as the doctrine of Original Sin the Church deprived man of both his moral and his intellectual birthright as the child of God (Tertullian, "De Anima," xvi., xl.; Augustine, "De Nuptiis et Concupiscentiis," i. 24, ii. 34; Strauss, "Glaubenslehre," ii. 43 et seq.), and declared all the generations of man to have been born in sin-a belief accepted also by the Lutherans in the Augsburg Confession and by Calvin ("Institutes," II. i. 6-8; Strauss, lc ii. 49).在通过这个原罪的教义的教会观点的人都被剥夺他的道德和他的智慧与生俱来的权利作为神的儿女(良,“德阿尼玛”十六,加大码。。奥古斯丁,“德Nuptiis等Concupiscentiis”一24,二34;。。。施特劳斯,“Glaubenslehre,”二43起),并宣布所有的人世世代代都出生在赎罪的信念接受,也由在奥格斯堡供认路德和卡尔文(“研究所,”二一6-8。施特劳斯,立法会二49。)。 In vain did Pelagius, Socinus, and the Arminians protest against a view which deprived man of his prerogative as a free, responsible person (Strauss, lcp 53).在没有白费伯拉纠,Socinus和看法,对一个被剥夺自由,负责人(施特劳斯,LCP的53)他的特权的人阿敏念派的抗议。 No longer could the Christian recite the ancient prayer of the Synagogue: "My God, the soul which Thou gavest unto me is pure" (Ber. 60b).再也不能基督教朗诵古老的犹太教堂祷告:“我的上帝,灵魂,你赐给我的是纯粹的”(Ber.第60B)。And while, in all Hellenistic or pre-Christian writings, Enoch, Methuselah, Job, and other Gentiles of old were viewed as prototypes of humanity, the prevailing opinion of the Rabbis being that "the righteous among the heathen have a share in the world to come" (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 2; Sanh. 105a; see all the passages and the views of a dissenting minority in Zunz, "ZG" pp. 373-385), the Church, Catholic and Protestant alike, consigns without exception all those who do not believe in Jesus to the eternal doom of hell (Strauss, lc ii. 686, 687).虽然,在所有的希腊或预基督教的著作,以诺,玛土撒拉,工作,和其他老外邦人被视为人类的原型,对被认为“义人在列国中,在全世界分享拉比的主流意见来“(Tosef.,葬身十三2;。。葬身105A号。看到所有的通道和一个聪茨持异议的少数的意见,”ZG的“页373-385),教会,天主教和基督教一样,托付无不那些谁不相信耶稣永恒的地狱厄运(施特劳斯,立法会二。686,687)。 Christ's descent into hell to liberate his own soul from the pangs of eternal doom became, therefore, one of the fundamentals of the Apostolic creed, after I Peter iii.基督的后裔入地狱中解放出来,从他的永恒的厄运自己的灵魂变得痛苦,因此,使徒教义的基础之一,当我彼得三世。18, iv.18日,四。6 (see Schaff-Herzog, "Encyc." art. "Hell, Christ's Descent into"). 6(见沙夫-赫尔佐格,“Encyc。”艺术。“地狱,基督的后裔成为”)。It is obvious that this view of God could not well inculcate kindly feelings toward Jews and heretics; and the tragic fate of the medieval Jew, the persecutions he suffered, and the hatred he experienced, must be chiefly attributed to this doctrine.很显然,这种观点不能很好神对犹太人和异教徒灌输亲切的感情,以及中世纪的犹太人的悲惨命运,他遭受迫害,以及他所经历的仇恨,都必须主要归因于这一原则。

Faith and Reason.信仰与理性。

Paul's depreciation of the Law and his laudation of faith (in Christ) as the only saving power for Jew and Gentile (Rom. iii. 28, x. 4; Gal. iii. 7 et seq.) had, in the Middle Ages, an injurious effect upon the mental progress of man.保罗的折旧法和他的赞美是唯一的信仰省电的犹太人和詹蒂莱(在基督)(罗马书三28,十4。。。。半乳糖三7起)曾在中世纪,一对人类进步的精神损害作用。 Faith, as exhibited by Abraham and as demanded of the people in the Old Testament and rabbinical writings, is a simple, childlike trust in God; and accordingly "littleness of faith"-that is, want of perfect confidence in the divine goodness-is declared by Jesus as well as by the Rabbis in the Talmud as unworthy of the true servant and son of God (Gen. xv. 6; Ex. xiv. 31; Num. xiv. 11, xx. 12; Hab. ii. 4; II Chron. xx. 20; Mek. to Ex. xiv. 31; Matt. vi. 30; Soṭah 48b).信仰,作为展出亚伯拉罕和人民要求在旧约和犹太教的著作,是一个简单的,在神稚气的信任,以及相应的“信仰的渺小”,也就是说,在神的善良完美的信心,希望,是耶稣宣布,以及由作为真正的仆人,上帝的儿子(创十五不配当在犹太法典拉比6;。前十四31;。。编号十四11,二十12。。。哈二4。。 ;二慢性二十20;。。人民圣战者组织给前十四31;。。。马特六30;。。Soṭah48B条)。Paul's theology made faith a meritorious act of saving quality (Rom. i. 16); and the more meritorious it is the less is it in harmony with the wisdom of the wise, appearing rather as "foolishness" (I Cor. i. 18-31).保罗的神学信仰作出的节能质量(罗马书一16)立功行为,而且是越少功勋是在和谐与智者的智慧,而不是作为“愚蠢”出现(我肺心病岛18。 -31)。From this it was but one step to Tertullian's perfect surrender of reason, as expressed in, "Credo quia absurdum," or, more correctly, "Credibile quia ineptum; certum est quia impossibile est" (To be believed because it is foolish; certain because impossible"; "De Carne Christi," v.). Blind faith, which renders the impossible possible (Mark ix. 23, 24), produced a credulity throughout Christendom which became indifferent to the laws of nature and which deprecated learning, as was shown by Draper ("History of the Conflict between Science and Religion") and by White ("History of the Warfare of Science with Theology"). A craving for the miraculous and supernatural created ever new superstitions, or sanctioned, under the form of relic-worship, old pagan forms of belief. In the name of the Christian faith reason and research were condemned, Greek philosophy and literature were exterminated, and free thinking was suppressed. Whereas Judaismmade the study of the Law, or rather of the Torah-which is learning, and included science and philosophy as well as religion-the foremost duty of each member of the household (Deut. vi. 7, xi. 19; Josephus, "Contra Ap." ii. §§ 18, 26, 41), medieval Christianity tended to find bliss in ignorance, because knowledge and belief seemed incompatible (Lecky, "History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne," ii. 203-210; idem, "History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe," i. 1-201).从这一点,但有一个步骤,德尔图良的完美投降的原因,如表示“信条quia荒谬”,或者,更确切地说,“Credibile quia ineptum; certum美国东部时间quia impossibile美国东部时间”(可以相信,因为它是愚蠢的,一定的因为不可能“;”。。德卡恩基督,“诉)盲目的信仰,这使得不可能成为可能(马克九23,24),产生了整个基督教的,轻信而成为大自然的漠不关心,而过时的法律和学习情况,表明了德雷珀(简称“科学与宗教之间的冲突史”)和白(简称“科学与神学的战争史”)。永远为创造新的奇迹般的迷信和超自然的渴望,或制裁,根据形式矛崇拜,信仰异教旧形式。在基督教信仰的原因和研究的名称被谴责,希腊哲学和文学都灭绝,以及自由的思想被抑制。鉴于Judaismmade该法的学习,或者说托拉,这是学习,包括科学和哲学,以及每个家庭(申命记六成员宗教的首要任务7,十一19;。。约瑟夫,“魂斗罗鸭。”二§ § 18日,26日。 41),中世纪的基督教往往发现在无知的幸福,因为知识和信仰似乎不兼容(莱基,“欧洲道德史,从奥古斯都到查理曼,”二203-210。同上,“历史的兴起与精神的影响在欧洲理性主义,“岛1-201)。

It was the resuscitated pagan thinkers, it was the Mohammedan and the Jew, who kept the lamps of knowledge and science burning; and to them in large measure the revival of learning, through scholastic philosophy in the Catholic cloisters and afterward in western Europe in general, is due.这是复活的异教思想家,这是穆罕默德和犹太人,谁保持知识和科学燃烧的灯,并在很大程度上为他们的学习的复兴,通过经院哲学在天主教修道院和西欧之后一般,是由于。 Not merely the burning of witches and heretics, but the charges, raised by priests and mobs against the Jews, of having poisoned the wells, pierced the consecrated host, and slain innocent children in order to use their blood, can mainly be traced to that stupor of the mind which beholds in every intellectual feat the working of Satanic powers, alliance with which was believed to be bought with blood.不仅是巫婆和异教徒,但收费,所提出的祭司和暴徒对犹太人有毒害的水井,燃烧划破神圣主机,并杀害无辜的儿童,以便利用他们的血液,主要可以追溯到该麻木的心在每一个知识分子壮举的邪恶的力量,与该联盟被认为是与工作揽血所买来的。 On the other hand, the Church was ever busy infusing into the popular mind the belief that those rites which served as symbolic expressions of the faith were endowed with supernatural powers, "sacrament" being the Latin word used for "mysterion," the name given to forms which had a certain magic spell for the believer.另一方面,教会不停地注入到大众心目中的信念,这些仪式它作为符号表达式的信念送达的赋予与神通,“圣事”作为拉丁文意为“mysterion,”使用指定的名称对形式的有一定的信徒紧箍咒。 Both baptism and the eucharist were regarded as miracle-working powers of the Christian faith, on participation in which the salvation of the soul depended, and exclusion from which meant eternal damnation (see the literature in Schaff-Herzog, "Encyc." sv "Sacrament").这两个洗礼和圣体被视为奇迹,工作参与其中的灵魂得救取决于权力的基督教信仰,并排除这意味着永恒的诅咒(参见沙夫-赫尔佐克文学“Encyc。”希沃特“圣事“)。

Asceticism in the Monasteries.禁欲主义的寺院。

The expectation by early Christianity of a speedy regeneration of the world by the reappearance of Jesus exerted a strange influence also on the whole moral and social state of humanity.由耶稣的产生对整个人类的道德和社会一个奇怪的状态再现的期望影响也由早期的基督教世界的迅速再生。The entire Christian life being a preparation for the world to come (and this change being expected to take place soon; Matt. x. 23; I Cor. i. 7; I Peter i. 13), only those that renounced the joys of the flesh were certain of entering the latter.整个基督徒的生活正在为世界的准备来(而这一变化被预期将很快发生。马特十,23日,我肺心病一7。彼得一13),只有那些放弃的乐趣属肉体的进入后者肯定。 This view gave rise to asceticism in the monasteries, for which genuine religiosity was claimed; while marriage, home, and state, and all earthly comforts, were only concessions to the flesh.这一观点引起了在寺院里,为此,有人声称要真正的宗教禁欲主义,而结婚,家庭和国家,世间的一切舒适,是对肌肤只有让步。 Henceforth the ideal life for the priest and recluse was to differ from that for the people at large, who were to rank as inferiors (Strauss, lci 41 et seq.).从今以后,祭司和隐士的理想的生活是从该有所不同,在大的人,谁被列为下级(施特劳斯,国际狮子总会41起。)。Whereas in Judaism the high priest was not allowed to officiate on the Day of Atonement unless he had a wife that made home sacred to him (Yoma. i. 1, after Lev. xvi. 11, 17), celibacy and virginity were prized as the higher virtues of the Christian elect, contempt of the world with all its material, social, and intellectual pursuits being rendered the ideal of life (see Ziegler, "Gesch. der Ethik," 1886, pp. 192-242).而在犹太教大祭司主持不准在赎罪日,除非他有一个妻子,使得他家的神圣(在列夫Yoma.一,1。十六。11,17),独身和贞操被珍视为基督教选举,在所有的物质,社会世界的蔑视和智力追求更高的美德正在呈现的人生理想(见齐格勒的“Gesch。明镜Ethik,”1886年,第192-242)。 Thus, to the Jew Christendom, from the days of the emperor Constantine, presented a strange aspect.因此,基督教的犹太人,从皇帝君士坦丁的日子里,提出了一个奇怪的方面。The Church, formerly the declared enemy of Rome-Babel (Rev. xvii.), had become her ally, accepting Edom's blessing, "By thy sword shalt thou live" (Gen. xxvii. 40), as her own; and, on the other hand, there appeared her priests ("gallaḥ" = hair-clipped) and monks ("kummarim"), in the guise of the old Hebrew Nazarites and saints, claiming to be the true heirs to Israel's prophecy and priesthood.教会,其前身为罗马的巴贝尔宣布敌人(。启示录第十七章),已成为她的盟友,接受“你必倚靠刀剑活”以东的祝福(创二十七40。),因为她自己的人,上另一方面,似乎有她的祭司(“gallaḥ”=头发剪)和僧侣(“kummarim”),在希伯来文老拿细耳和圣徒的幌子,自称是以色列的预言和神职人员的真正继承者。 Indeed, medieval Judaism and Christianity formed the greatest contrast.事实上,中世纪的犹太教和基督教形成了最大的反差。 Children of the same household, invoking the same God and using the same Scriptures as His revealed word, they interpreted differently life and its meaning, God and religion.同一家庭的孩子,调用同一个上帝为他的发现和使用相同的字的经文,他们的生活有不同的解释和它的意义,上帝和宗教。 Their Bible, Sabbath, and festivals, their whole bent of mind and soul, had become widely divergent.他们的圣经,安息日,节日,他们的头脑和灵魂整体弯曲,已成为大相径庭。They no longer understood each other.他们不再相互理解。

Medieval Jewish Views of Christianity.基督教的中世纪犹太观。

Yet, while neither Augustine nor Thomas Aquinas, the chief framers of the Church dogma, nor even Luther and Calvin, the Reformers, had any tolerance for Jew or Moslem, the authorities of the Synagogue accorded to Christianity and Islam a high providential mission in human history.然而,也有而没有奥古斯丁托马斯阿奎那,教会教条的主要制定者,甚至也不路德和卡尔文,改革者,为犹太人或者穆斯林的宽容,给予的犹太教堂基督教和伊斯兰教一人高天赐的使命当局历史。 Saadia (died 942), the first to examine the Christian dogma, says (in his "Emunot we-De'ot," ii. 5) that, unconcerned by the sensual Trinitarian belief of the common crowd, he would discuss only the speculative value given by Christian thinkers to the Trinity; and so, with penetrating acumen and profound earnestness and love of truth, he endeavors to lay bare either the metaphysical errors of those who, as he says, make of such attributes as life, power, and knowledge separate parts of the Deity, or the defects of the various philosophical constructions of the divinity of Jesus (see Kaufmann, "Gesch. der Attributenlehre," pp. 38-52; Guttmann, "Die Religionsphilosophie des Saadia," pp. 103-113). Saadia(死于942),第一次审查的基督教教条,说,(在他的“Emunot我们- De'ot,”二。五),由感性人群三位一体的共同信念无动于衷,他将只讨论投机由三一基督教思想家的给定值,等等敏锐而深刻的穿透性认真和对真理的热爱,他的努力,奠定了那些谁,他说,利用为生命,力量等属性裸无论是形而上学的错误,单独的部分知识的神,或耶稣的神性的各种哲学结构缺陷(见考夫曼的“Gesch明镜Attributenlehre。”页38-52;古特曼,“模具Religionsphilosophie德Saadia,”页103 - 113)。

Grander still is the view of Christianity taken by Judah ha-Levi in the "Cuzari."宏伟仍然是基督教的观点,犹大公顷利维参与“Cuzari。”After having rejected as incompatible with reason all the claims of the Trinity and of Christ's origin (i. 5), and remarked that both Christianity and Islam accepted the roots, but not the logical conclusions, of Israel's faith, (iv. 11)-rather amalgamating the same with pagan rites and notions-he declares (iv. 23) that both form the preparatory steps to the Messianic time which will ripen the fruit in which adherents of those faiths, too, will have a share, all the branches thus proving to be "the one tree" of Israel (Ezek. xxxvii. 17; see D. Cassel, "Das Buch Kuzari," 337).后不相容拒绝与所有的索赔理由的三位一体和基督的起源(一5),并表示对基督教和伊斯兰教接受的根源,而不是合乎逻辑的结论,以色列的信仰,(iv. 11), - 而合并与异教仪式和观念相同,他宣称(iv. 23)双方的形式的准备步骤,以救世主的时间,将成熟的果实中,信徒的信仰者,也将有一个份额,因此各分支机构证明是“一树”以色列(结三十七17;。见D.卡塞尔,“达斯布赫Kuzari,”337)。 This view is shared by Maimonides, who writes in "Yad," Melakim, xi.这种观点是赞同迈蒙尼德,谁在写“亚得,”Melakim,十一。4: "The teachings of the Nazarene and the Ishmaelite [Mohammed] serve the divine purpose of preparing the way for the Messiah, who is sent to make the whole world perfect by worshiping God with one spirit: for they have spread the words of the Scriptures and the law of truth over the wide globe; and, whatever of errors they adhere to, they will turn toward the full truth at the arrival of the Messianic time." 4:“的拿撒勒和实玛利[穆罕默德]的教义服务于准备弥赛亚,是谁发送到使整个世界的一个精神神崇拜的方式完美神的目的:因为他们传播的话圣经和真理在广大的全球法律。而且,他们坚持错误,不管结果如何,他们将转向在时间到来的弥赛亚的全部真相“ And in his Responsa (No. 58) he declares: "The Christians believe and profess in common with us that the Bible is of divine origin and given through Moses, our teacher; they have it completely written down, though they frequently interpret it differently."而在他的Responsa(第58号),他宣称:“基督徒相信,与我们共同信奉的圣经是神圣的起源,并通过摩西,我们的老师给,他们已经完全写下来,虽然他们经常以不同诠释“。

The great rabbinical authorities, R. Gershom of Mayence (d. 1040; see "Ha-Ḥoḳer," i. 2, 45); Rashiand his school; the French Tosafists of the twelfth century ('Ab. Zarah, 2a); Solomon ben Adret of Barcelona, of the thirteenth century; Isaac b.伟大的犹太教当局的R.马扬斯革舜(草1040,见“夏Ḥoḳer,”一,二,45); Rashiand他的学校,在12世纪(。'抗体Zarah,第2A)法国Tosafists所罗门本Adret巴塞罗那,在13世纪艾萨克湾Sheshet of the fourteenth century (Responsa No. 119); Joseph Caro (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 156, end; Yoreh De'ah, 148; and Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, 266), and Moses Isserles of the sixteenth century declare that Christians are to be regarded as Proselytes of the Gate and not as idolaters, in spite of their image-worship. Sheshet第十四世纪(Responsa第119号);约瑟夫卡罗(Shulḥan',OraḥḤayyim,156,结束Aruk; Yoreh De'ah,148和ḤoshenMishpaṭ,266),摩西伊塞莱斯宣布了十六世纪的基督徒将被视为proselytes的门,而不是盲目崇拜者,在他们的图像,尽管崇拜。 Still more emphatic in the recognition of Christianity, as teaching a belief in the Creator, revelation, retribution, and resurrection, is Joseph Yaabeẓ, a victim of Spanish persecution (1492), who, in his "Ma'amar ha-Aḥdut," iii., goes so far as to assert that "but for these Christian nations we might ourselves have become infirm in our faith during our long dispersion."更有力的基督教承认为教学中的创造者,启示,报复和复活的信仰,是约瑟夫Yaabeẓ,迫害受害者的西班牙(1492),谁在他的“Ma'amar公顷Aḥdut”三。,竟断言,“但对于这些问题,我们可能自己也成为我们的长期分散在我们的信念中体弱基督教国家。”

Christianity Compared with Islam.基督教与伊斯兰教相比较。

The same generous view is taken by his contemporary Isaac Arama ("Aḳedat Yiẓḥaḳ," lxxxviii.).同样慷慨的观点是由他的当代艾萨克阿拉马(“AḳedatYiẓḥaḳ,”lxxxviii。)。Eliezer Ashkenazi (sixteenth century) warns his coreligionists, in his "Ma'ase ha-Shem," written in Turkey, "not to curse a whole Christian nation because a portion wrongs us, as little as one would curse one's own brother or son for some wrong inflicted."埃利泽Ashkenazi(16世纪)警告他的教友,在他的“Ma'ase公顷闪,”在土耳其的书面“,不诅咒整个基督教国家,因为我们一个错误的部分,因为少人会诅咒自己的兄弟或儿子对一些错误造成的。“ Jacob Emden at the middle of the eighteenth century wrote: "Christianity has been given as part of the Jewish religion by the Apostles to the Gentile world; and its founder has even made the moral laws stricter than are those contained in Mosaism. There are, accordingly, many Christians of high qualities and excellent morals who keep from hatred and do no harm, even to their enemies. Would that Christians would all live in conformity with their precepts! They are not enjoined, like the Israelites, to observe the laws of Moses; nor do they sin if they associate other beings with God in worshiping a triune God. They will receive reward from God for having propagated a belief in Him among nations that never heard His name; for 'He looks into the heart.'雅各布在十八世纪中叶埃姆登说:“基督教已被作为由使徒犹太宗教世界的一部分给詹蒂莱,而且它的创始人甚至作出了更严格的道德法律比是那些载有Mosaism。因此,高品质和优良的道德谁远离仇恨和不伤害,甚至对自己的敌人许多基督徒。是否基督徒都将生活在他们的戒律符合!他们没有责成像以色列人,遵守法律的摩西,也没有罪,如果他们崇拜一个副三位一体的神与神的其他人,他们将获得国家之间有传播从未听到他的名字在信他从神的奖励;。'。他看起来入心,为 Yea, many have come forth to the rescue of Jews and their literature" ("Resen Mat'eh," p. 15b, Amsterdam, 1758, and "Leḥem ha-Shamayim" to Ab. v. 17).是啊,很多人站出来拯救的犹太人和他们的文学“(”的RESEN Mat'eh,“第15B条,阿姆斯特丹,1758年,和”伯利恒公顷Shamayim“的抗体。诉17)。Leone del Bene (Judah Asahel Meha-Ṭob) also may be mentioned, who, in his "Kis'ot le-Bet David," 1646, xxiv., xxvi., xlvi., xlviii., compares Mohammedanism with Christianity, and declares the latter as superior, notwithstanding its Trinitarian dogma.塞拉利昂德尔贝内(犹大亚撒黑Meha,尖)也可能会提到,谁在他的“Kis'ot乐投注大卫,”1646年,二十四。,26。,四十六。,48。,比​​较伊斯兰教与基督教,并宣布后者为优,尽管它的三位一体的教条。 A highly favorable opinion of Jesus is expressed also in a Karaite fragment noted in Steinschneider, "Oẓerot Ḥayyim," Catalogue of the Michael Library, pp. 377 et seq., Hamburg, 1848.耶稣的意见是非常有利的表达在圣经派片段也指出Steinschneider,“OẓerotḤayyim,”有关迈克尔图书馆目录,第377页起。,汉堡,1848年。 Compare Jew.比较犹太人。Encyc.Encyc。i.223, sv Afendopolo. 223,希沃特Afendopolo。

The persistent attacks of Christian controversialists against the Jewish belief gave rise, of course, to a number of polemical works, written in self-defense, in which both the Christian dogmas and the New Testament writings are submitted to unsparing criticism.基督教controversialists反对犹太人的信仰产生了持续的攻击,当然,在作品中的论战自卫写的,其中既有基督教教条和新约圣经的著作被提交到不留情面的批评。 Foremost among these-not to mention Naḥmanides' published disputation with Pablo Christiani-is that of Ḥasdai Crescas, who, in a Spanish "tratado" on the Christian creeds (1396), showed the irrationality of the doctrines of Original Sin, the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Virginity of Jesus' Mother, and Transubstantiation, and who investigated the value of baptism and of the New Testament compared with the Old; beginning with the following three axioms: "(1) Reason can not be forced into belief; (2) God Himself can not alter the laws of a priori truth and understanding; (3) God's justice must comprise all His children."其中最重要的,更别提Naḥmanides'出版巴勃罗克里斯蒂争议,就是ḤasdaiCrescas,谁,在西班牙的“tratado”关于基督教信仰(1396),显示了原罪,三位一体的教义不合理,化身,耶稣的母亲童贞,并陷于变,谁调查,相较于旧值的洗礼和新约圣经;以下三个公理的开头:“(1)原因不能到信仰被迫;( 2)上帝本身也不想改变先验真理和规律的认识;(3)神的正义必须包括他所有的孩子“。Another vigorous defender of Judaism against Christianity was Simon ben Ẓemaḥ Duran (1361-1440), who, in his great work, "Magen Abot," reiterates the assertion that Jesus, according to his own words, did not come to abrogate the Law; and then exposes the many self-contradictory statements in the New Testament concerning Jesus.另一项对基督教犹太教大力卫士西蒙本Ẓemaḥ杜兰(1361年至1440年),谁,在他伟大的作品“马根Abot,”再次断言,耶稣,根据他自己的话说,没有来废除法律;然后暴露了在新约中关于耶稣许多自相矛盾的陈述。 The "Iḳḳarim" of Joseph Albo is (not merely in ch. xxv. of sect. iii., but in its totality) a defense of liberal Jewish thought against Christian dogmatism; and it therefore dwells with especial emphasis on the fact-which all Jewish thinkers from Saadia and Maimonides down to Mendelssohn accentuated-that miracles can never testify to the verity of a belief, because every belief claims them for itself.在“Iḳḳarim”红桦约瑟夫(不只是在二十五章的第三节,但在其整体。。。。)一教条主义的自由主义对基督教犹太思想辩护;因此,它尤其强调与居住的事实,所有从Saadia门德尔松和迈蒙尼德到犹太思想家加剧,这奇迹不能证明了一个真理的信仰,因为每一个他们声称自己的信念。 As to the two Hebrew standard works of New Testament criticism in the Middle Ages, written for apologetic purposes, the "Sefer Niẓẓaḥon" and the "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah," see Mühlhausen; Lippmann, and Isaac ben Abraham Troki.至于两个希伯来文新约圣经的批评,在中世纪的书面道歉的目的,标准工程,“Niẓẓaḥon之书”和“ḤizzuḳEmunah,”见米尔豪森,李普曼和伊萨克本亚伯拉罕Troki。

Christianity's Historic Mission.基督教的历史使命。

III.三。To offer to the great Gentile world the Jewish truth adapted to its psychic and intellectual capacities-this was the providential mission of Christianity.为了提供詹蒂莱世界的伟大真理的犹太人适应其心理和智力能力,这是基督教的天赐的使命。Yet, in order to become a unifying power for all the nations on the globe, shaping and reshaping empires, and concentrating the social, political, and spiritual forces of humanity in a manner never before attempted or dreamed of, it required an inspiring ideal of sublime grandeur and beauty, which should at once fascinate and stir souls to their very depths and satisfy their longings.然而,为了成为地球上所有国家的凝聚力,塑造和重塑的帝国,并集中的方式对人类的社会,政治和精神力量从未尝试或梦想,它需要一个鼓舞人心的理想崇高的庄严和美丽,这应立即吸引和煽动他们的灵魂深处,满足他们的渴望。 Nothing less than the conquests of Cyrus the Lord's "anointed," called "to subdue nations and to break their prison doors" (Isa. xlv. 1, 2), than Alexander's great empire over the earth, still more than a kingdom that would encompass all that for which Rome and Alexandria and Jerusalem stood-"a kingdom of the people of the saints of the Most High" (Dan. vii. 17-27)-nothing less than this was the goal which they that were told to "go forth and make disciples of all nations" (Matt. xxviii. 19) had in view.没有什么比居鲁士主的“受膏者”,所谓“制服的国家,并打破他们监狱的大门”的征服少(以赛亚书四十五。1,2),比亚历山大的大帝国在地球上,仍然比一个王国更多的会其中包括所有的罗马和亚历山大和耶路撒冷站着,“一对至高者的圣民王国”(Dan.七。17-27),没有什么比这少的是,他们被告知要目标“出去,使所有国家的“门徒(太二十八。19)有意见。 The Jewish propaganda, begun in the Babylonian Exile (Isa. xlv. 6; xlix. 6; lvi. 6, 7; lxvi. 21), and systematically pursued in Alexandria and Rome (Matt. xxiii. 15; Schürer, "Gesch." iii. 302 et seq., 420 et seq.), was to be left far behind, and, by battering down the barriers of the Law and the Abrahamic faith, was to be rendered elastic enough to suit the needs of a polytheistic world.犹太人的宣传,在巴比伦流亡开始(以赛亚书四十五6;。第四十九届6;。LVI的六,七;。lxvi 21。),系统在亚历山大和罗马(二十三十五追求的目标;。Schürer,的“Gesch。 “三。302起。,420起。),是被远远抛在后面,而且,通过殴打下来的法律和亚伯拉罕信仰的障碍,是要呈现足够的弹性,以满足世界的需要一个多神教。

Such was the view of the missionary of Tarsus.就是这样的大数传教士的看法。

But it was, after all, the glad tidings of the Jew Jesus which won humanity for Abraham's God.但它毕竟是耶稣的犹太人赢得了亚伯拉罕的神人类的福音。Jewish righteousness, "Ẓedaḳab," which is the power of helpful love readjusting social inadequacies, was destined to go forth from the Synagogue in order to lift the burden of wo from suffering humanity and to organize everywhere works ofcharity.犹太教义,“Ẓedaḳab”,这是调整社会有用的不足之处,爱的力量,是注定要在规定的犹太教堂,以摆脱苦难人类禾负担,并组织各地工程ofcharity。 By this the Church, "the congregation of the Lord," conquered the masses of the vast Roman empire, and, as she learned the better to apply the Jewish system (see Essenes) to the larger field opened, achieved ever-increasing wonders with the mighty resources at her disposal.这个教会“的主聚集,”征服罗马帝国的广大人民群众,而且,正如她学会了更好地运用犹太系统(见爱色尼),以较大的领域开放,实现不断增长的奇迹与她掌握的强大资源。 The poorhouse, or hospital, "transplanted as a branch of the terebinth of Abraham to Rome."救济院旁,或医院,“作为亚伯拉罕笃耨香松节油分支移植到罗马。”(See Charity), became a mighty factor of human beneficence, and moved the deepest forces of the Church to glorious activity.(见慈善),成为人类的恩泽强大的因素,提出最深的教会势力光荣活动。Christianity, following the matchless ideal of its Christ, redeemed the despised and outcast, and ennobled suffering.基督教,基督之后,其无与伦比的理想,赎回的鄙视和弃儿,和高贵的痛苦。It checked infanticide and founded asylums for the young; it removed the curse of slavery by making the humblest bondsman proud of being a child of God; it fought against the cruelties of the arena; it invested the home with purity and proclaimed, in the spirit of Ezek.它的成立检查女婴和年轻的精神病院,它通过使最卑微的拆除担保人被神的孩子感到骄傲的奴役的诅咒,它反对的残酷斗争的舞台,它宣告着纯洁与投资家的精神,对以西结书。 xviii.十八。and Yer.和也门里亚尔。Sanh.葬身。iv.四。22a, the value of each human soul as a treasure in the eyes of God; and it so leavened the great masses of the empire as to render the cross of Christ the sign of victory for its legions in place of the Roman eagle. 22A条,每一个在神的眼中珍惜人类灵魂的价值,以及它使发酵帝国正如伟大的群众提供基督的十字架,供其军团胜利的罗马鹰地点标志。The "Galilean" entered the world as conqueror.在“伽利略”进入世界的征服者。The Church became the educator of the pagan nations; and one race after another was brought under her tutorship.教会成为教育家的异教国家,以及一个又一个的比赛是她的辅导下带来的。The Latin races were followed by the Celt, the Teuton, and the Slav.拉丁种族其次是凯尔特人,在日耳曼和斯拉夫人。The same burning enthusiasm which sent forth the first apostle also set the missionaries aglow, and brought all Europe and Africa, and finally the American continent, under the scepter of an omnipotent Church.同样的燃烧的热情而第一使徒差遣传教士还设置发红,并提请下一个万能教会权杖整个欧洲和非洲,最后是美洲大陆。The sword and the cross paved the way through vast deserts and across the seas, and spread the blessings of a civilization claimed to be Christian because its end was the rule of Christ.交叉的剑和广阔的沙漠里,通过铺设在海中的方式,传播文明的祝福自称是基督徒,因为它的结束是基督的统治。

Messianic Promises Not Fulfilled.救世主的承诺没有得到履行。

Judaism, however, denies the validity of this claim.犹太教,但否认了这种说法的正确性。As Isaac Troki (in his "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah," i. 2, 4a, 6) says, "none of the Messianic promises of a time of perfect peace and unity among men, of love and truth of universal knowledge and undisturbed happiness, of the cessation of all wrong-doing, superstition, idolatry, falsehood, and hatred [Isa. ii. 1 et seq., 18; xi. 1-9, lxv. 19, 23; Jer. iii. 17; Ezek. xxxiv. 25, xxxvi. 25 et seq., xxxvii. 26; Zech. xiii. 2, xiv. 9; Zeph. iii. 13] have been fulfilled by the Church."正如艾萨克Troki(在他的“ḤizzuḳEmunah,”一,二,第4A,6)说,“没有承诺的救世主男性,爱情和普遍的知识,不受打扰的幸福,真理的一个完美的和平与统一时间。一切错误的做法,迷信,偶像崇拜,停止谎言,仇恨[赛二1起,18人;。。十一1-9,第六十五19,23。。。耶三17;。以西结书三十四。。 25日,25日起三十六,三十七26;。。。。撒加利亚十三2,十四9;。。。。Zeph三,13]已完成了教会“。On the contrary, the medieval Church divided men into believers and unbelievers, who are to inherit heaven and hell respectively.相反,中世纪教会信徒和非信徒分成,谁是分别继承天堂与地狱的男子。With the love which she poured forth as the fountain of divine grace, she also sent forth streams of hatred.随着她的爱倾注作为神的恩典喷泉出来,她还派出了仇恨流。She did not foster that spirit of true holiness which sanctifies the whole of life-marriage and home, industry and commerce-but in Jewish eyes seemed to cultivate only the feminine virtues, love and humility, not liberty and justice, manhood and independence of thought.她没有培养这种精神的真正的圣洁成圣的生活,婚姻和家庭,工业和整个商业的,但在犹太人的眼里似乎只有培养女性的美德,爱和谦卑,而不是自由和正义,少年和思想独立。 She has done much in refining the emotions, unfolding those faculties of the soul which produce the heavenly strains of music and the beauties of art and poetry; but she also did all in her power to check intellectual progress, scientific research, and the application of knowledge.她已经做了很多的情绪在炼油,开展那些院系的灵魂,它产生的音乐天上的菌株及艺术和诗歌中的美人,但她也没有在她的权力,检查知识的进步,所有科研和应用知识。 Her tutorship sufficed as long as the nations under her care were in the infant stage; but as soon as they awoke to self-consciousness and longed for freedom, they burst the shackles of dogma and of ecclesiastical authority.她的辅导下就够了,只要她照顾各国在婴幼儿阶段的,但一旦他们醒来时,自我意识和自由的渴望,他们就突然的教条和教会权威的枷锁。 Thus the Church was broken up into churches.因此,教会被分解成教堂。Under the influence of Judaism and of Arabic philosophy, Scholasticism arose, and then came the Reformation; and the process of disintegration continues throughout Protestantism.根据犹太教的影响和阿拉伯哲学,士林站起身来,随后而来的改革,以及整个新教的解体过程仍在继续。The tendency of historical inquiry and Biblical criticism is to leave nothing but the picture of the man Jesus, the Jew, as a noble type of humanity, and to return to simple monotheism (see Renan, "Le Judaisme et le Christianisme," 1883; idem, "L'Eglise Chrétienne," 1879, p. 248; Alexander von Humboldt, in Samter, "Moderne Judentaufen," and in A. Kohut, "Alexander von Humboldt und das Judenthum," 1871, p. 176; Berner, "Judenthum und Christenthum," 1891, p. 31; Alphonse de Candolle, in Jellinek, "Franzosen über Juden," 1880, p. 27; Singer. "Briefe Berühmter Christ. Zeigenossen," p. 114. No human individual, however great in his own environment, can, according to the Jewish view, present a perfect ideal of humanity for all ages and phases of life. "No one is holy but God": to this Jewish conception of man Jesus also gave expression (Matt. xix. 17). Man as the image of God requires all the ages and historical conditions of progress to unfold the infinite possibilities of the divine life planted in him. "Each age has its own types of righteousness" (Tan., Miḳeẓ, Vienna ed., p. 48), and only by the blending of all human efforts toward the realization of the true, the good, and the beautiful can the highest perfection be attained at the end of history, "each mount of vision forming a stepping-stone to Zion as the sublime goal" (Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxxvi. 6).历史调查和圣经批评的倾向是什么,但离开的人耶稣,犹太人,作为人类的崇高类型的图片,并返回到简单的一神教(见雷南,“乐Judaisme等乐Christianisme,”1883年;同上,“欧莱雅埃格斯Chrétienne,”1879年,第248页;亚历山大冯洪堡,在Samter,“摩登Judentaufen”,并在答胡特,“亚历山大冯洪堡DAS的Judenthum有限公司”,1871年,第176页;伯纳, “Judenthum有限公司Christenthum,”1891年,第31页;在耶利内克阿尔方德Candolle,“Franzosen黚犹太人,”1880年,第27页;。。歌手“。Briefe Berühmter基督Zeigenossen”,第114号的人类个体,但。在自己的环境很好,可以根据犹太人认为,提出一个适合所有年龄和人生各个阶段的人类理想中的完美“没有人是神圣的,但神”:这种人耶稣犹太人的概念也体现了(太十九。17)。如神的形象造人要求所有的年龄和进步的历史条件下开展对他种植的神圣的生命的无限可能性。“每个时代都有它自己的类型的正义”(Tan.,Miḳeẓ,维也纳教育署。,第48页),只有由朝真,善融合实现所有人类的努力,和美丽的完美最高可在年底达到了历史,“​​每摩视觉形成了加强石锡安的崇高目标“(midr.了。到PS。三十六。6)。

Christianity is not an end, but the means to an end; namely, the establishment of the brotherhood of man and the fatherhood of God.基督教不是目的,而是手段结束;即人类的兄弟和父亲的神的建立。Here Christianity presents itself as an orb of light, but not so central as to exclude Islam, nor so bright and unique as to eclipse Judaism, the parent of both.基督教在这里表现为一个光球本身,但不能排除中央为伊斯兰教,也没有如此明亮,独特的,以日食犹太教,两者的父母。Moreover, room is left for other spiritual forces, for whatever of permanent value is contained in Brahmanism, especially its modern theistic sects, and in Buddhism (see Eucken, "Der Wahrheitsgehalt der Religion," Leipsic, 1901; Happel, "Die Religiösen und Philosophischen Grundanschauungen der Inder," 1902), and in the theosophic principles derived from it, and for all religious and philosophical systems that may yet be evolved in the process of the ages.此外,房间是留给其他的精神力量,不管永久值包含在婆罗门教,尤其是它的现代有神论教派,在佛教(见奥伊肯,“明镜Wahrheitsgehalt明镜宗教”,普西克,1901年;哈佩尔,“模具Religiösen有限公司Philosophischen Grundanschauungen德音德尔,“1902年),和从它派生了theosophic原则,对所有宗教和哲学的还可能在发展,时代的过程系统。 In fact, whatever constitutes humanity and bears the image of God, whatever man does in order to unfold the divine life (Gen. i. 27; Lev. xviii. 5; Ps. viii. 6; Job xxviii. 28; Eccl. xii. 13)-that helps to make up the sum of religion.其实,无论构成人类和熊神的形象,无论男人为了不展现出神圣的生命(创一27;。列弗十八5;。诗八6;。。就业二十八28;。传道书十二。 13。),即有助于弥补宗教的总和。

For the modern tendency toward pure theistic and humanitarian views among the various systems of religious thought, see Ethical Culture; Unitarianism.对于有神论和人道主义走向纯宗教思想之间的各种系统观的现代趋势,看到伦理文化;单一制。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Graetz, Hist.格雷茨,历史。 of the Jews, ii., iii., iv., passim; Hamburger, RBT ii., sv Christenthum; Geiger, Das Judenthum und Seine Gesch.犹太人的第一,二,三,四,各处;。。。汉堡包,仙踪林二,希沃特Christenthum。盖格尔,达斯Judenthum有限公司塞纳河Gesch。 1865, i., ii., Supplement; M. Schreiner, Die Jüngsten Urtheile über das Judenthum, 1902; Perles, What Jews May Learn from Harnack, in Jew.1865年,一,二,补充。米施赖纳,模具Jüngsten Urtheile黚格Judenthum,1902年;珍珠,有什么可以学习犹太人从哈纳克,在犹太人。Quart.夸脱。Rev. 1902; M. Güdemann, Das Judenthum, 1902; Toy, Judaism and Christianity, 1890; Harnack, History of Dogma, i.-v., Eng.致1902年;米Güdemann,达斯Judenthum,1902年;玩具,犹太教和基督教,1890年;哈纳克,教条,i.-v.,英历史。 transl.译。by N. Buchanan; D. Strauss, Die Christliche Glaubenslehre, 1840-41, i., ii.; Chwolson,Die Blutanklage und Sonstige Mittelalterliche Beschuldigungen, pp. 1-78, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1901; Lecky,History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne, 1874, i., ii.; Ziegler, Gesch.由N.布坎南; 4,施特劳斯,模具Christliche Glaubenslehre,1840年至1841年,一,二;。Chwolson,模具Blutanklage有限公司Sonstige Mittelalterliche Beschuldigungen,第1-78,法兰克福发表了主,1901年;莱基,历史从奥古斯都到查理曼,1874年,一,二,欧洲的道德标准。齐格勒,Gesch。 der Christlichen Ethik, 1886.明镜Christlichen Ethik,1886年。David Einhorn, Unterscheidungslehre Zwischen, Judenthum und Christenthum, in Sinai, 1860, pp. 193 et seq., and 1861, pp. 100 et seq.K.大卫艾因霍恩,Unterscheidungs​​lehre Zwischen,Judenthum有限公司在西奈半岛,1860年Christenthum,第193页起。,和1861年,第100等seq.K.


Also, see:此外,见:
Jesus 耶稣
Christ 基督
God 上帝
Bible 圣经
The Arising of Jesus产生的耶稣

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