Christology基督

General Information一般资料

Although it is true that there was a basic difference between Jesus' message of the kingdom and the post Easter church's message of him as the saving act of God, all of Jesus' words and work imply a Christology.虽然这是事实之间存在着耶稣的信息王国和邮政复活节教会的口信给他为神,耶稣的所有储蓄行为的话,工作意味着基督的根本区别。 Thus the critical quest for the historical Jesus yields a sufficient basis for the message of the post Easter church and is therefore necessary to legitimate it.因此,为追求产量的关键历史上的耶稣为教会的消息后复活节足够的基础,因此有必要把它合法化了。

Message of the Post Easter Church消息邮政复活节教会

The Christology of the earliest Palestinian Christian community apparently had two focuses. It looked backward to the earthly life of Jesus as prophet and servant of God and forward to his final return as Messiah (Acts 3:21). Meanwhile Jesus was thought of as waiting inactively in heaven, to which he was believed to have ascended after the resurrection (Acts 1:9).基督社区的最早的巴勒斯坦基督徒显然有两个重点。 看起来落后,以上帝的人间生活的仆人耶稣和先知,弥赛亚着他作为最后返回(徒3:21)。与此同时,耶稣被认为是等待inactively在天堂,他被认为是后复活(徒1:9)上升。

Soon their experience of the Holy Spirit, whose descent is recorded in Acts 2, led the early Christians to think in terms of a two stage Christology: the first stage was the earthly ministry and the second stage his active ruling in heaven.不久,他们的圣灵,其后裔在行为2记录,经验导致早期基督徒认为在一个两阶段的基督条件:第一阶段是地上部和第二阶段,他在天上的活动作出裁决。 This two stage Christology, in which Jesus is exalted as Messiah, Lord, and Son of God (Acts 2:36; Romans 1:4), is often called adoptionist.这两个阶段的基督,在耶稣是弥赛亚,耶和华高举,儿子的神(徒2:36,罗马书1:4),通常被称为adoptionist。 It is not the Adoptionism of later heresy, however, for it thinks in terms of function rather than being.这不是后来异端Adoptionism,但是,对于它在功能上,而不是想法。At his exaltation to heaven Jesus began to function as he had not previously.在他的提升,耶稣升天开始运作,因为他以前没有。Another primitive Christological affirmation associates the birth of Jesus with his Davidic descent, thus qualifying him for the messianic office at his exaltation (for example, Romans 1:3).另一种原始的基督耶稣肯定联营公司和他的大卫的后裔的诞生,从而为排位赛在他的办公室里提高救世主(例如,罗马书1:3)。 This introduced the birth of Jesus as a Christologically significant moment.这介绍了作为一个重要时刻Christologically耶稣的诞生。

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As Christianity spread to the Greek speaking world between AD 35 and 50, further Christological perspectives were developed.随着基督教的传播,在公元35和50至希腊来说世界,基督前景进行了进一步的发展。The sending - of - the - Son pattern was one of them.派遣 - 中 - 的 - 儿子的模式是其中之一。This pattern is threefold: (1) God sent (2) his Son (3) in order to.这种格局是三个方面:(1)神发送(2)他的儿子(3)为了。..(with a statement of the saving purpose - for example, Galatians 4:4 - 5).(有目的的储蓄声明 - 例如,加拉太书4:4 - 5)。 The birth narratives of Matthew and Luke combine the Davidic descent with the sending - of - the - Son Christology.马修和卢克的出生的叙述与发送相结合的davidic后裔 - 对 - 的 - 儿子基督。Another major development of this period is the identification of Jesus as the incarnation of the heavenly wisdom of Jewish speculation (Prov. 8:22 - 31; Sir. 24:1 - 12; Wisd. 7:24 - 30).这一时期的另一重大发展是耶稣是天上的犹太投机智慧化身识别(箴8:22 - 31;爵士24:1 - 12;。Wisd 7:24 - 30。)。

Hence a three stage Christology emerges: the preexistent wisdom or Logos (Word), who was the agent of creation and of general revelation and also of the special revelation of Israel, becomes incarnate in the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth, and then in the resurrection and exaltation returns to heaven (Php. 2:6 - 11; Col. 1:15 - 20; Heb. 1:1 - 3; John 1:1 - 14).因此,出现了一个三阶段的基督:智慧或标志的preexistent(字),谁是创造和代理人的普遍启示和特殊启示,以色列也成为体现在生活和拿撒勒的耶稣的死,然后在复活和提高效益上天堂(Php. 2时06分 - 11;上校1:15 - 20;希伯来书1:1 - 3;。约翰1:1 - 14)。With this three stage Christology there is a shift from purely functional interpretation to the question of the being or person of Jesus.有了这三个阶段的基督有一个转变,从单纯的功能解释到正在或耶稣的人的问题。Thus the later phases of the New Testament lay the ground for the Christological controversies of the Patristic Age.因此,新约以后各阶段奠定了教父时代的基督论的争论在地上。

Christological Controversies of the Patristic Age教父时代的基督之争

The rise of Gnosticism as a Christian deviation began in the 2d century and led to the development of Docetism, the view that the humanity of Jesus was apparent rather than real.的诺斯替主义作为一个基督徒的偏差上升开始在二维世纪,并导致了Docetism,视图的发展,人类的耶稣显然不是真实的。 Catholic Christianity insisted on his true humanity - hence the statement in the Apostles' Creed, "conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary."天主教基督教坚持他的真正的人性 - 因此,在使徒们的信条声明“,由圣灵的圣母马利亚所生,怀了孕。”

In the 3d and 4th centuries there were some who continued to question the full humanity of Jesus and others who questioned his full deity.在3D和第四世纪有一些谁继续追问,耶稣和其他充满人性谁质疑他充满神。When Arius (Arianism) denied that the preexistent Son, or Word, was fully God, the Council of Nicea (325) formulated a creed (the Nicene Creed) containing the phrases "of one substance with the Father" and "was made man."当阿里乌斯(阿里乌主义)否认先在儿子,或一句话,是完全的神,尼西亚会议(325)制定的一个信条(尼西亚信条),包含“与父同在一个物质”的短语和“而成为人。 “Next, Apollinarius, anxious to assert the Son's deity, taught that the Logos replaced the human spirit in the earthly Jesus (Apollinarianism).下一步,Apollinarius,急于断言儿子的神,告诉我们,理性取代了俗世的耶稣(亚波里拿留派)的人文精神。 This teaching was condemned at the Council of Constantinople (381).这种教学,是谴责在安理会的君士坦丁堡(381)。

Next, the theologians of the School of Antioch were so anxious to maintain the reality of Jesus' humanity that they seemed to compromise his deity.接着,把学院的神学家安提如此渴望能够维持的耶稣的人性现实,他的神似乎妥协。Thus Theodore of Mopsuestia and his pupil Nestorius separated the deity from the humanity almost to the point of denying the unity of his person.因此,西奥多和他的学生的Mopsuestia涅斯分开了人类的神几乎到了否定他的人团结点。To preserve this unity the Council of Ephesus (431) affirmed that Mary was the "God bearer" (Theotokos, later popularly rendered as "Mother of God").为了维护这种团结的安理会的以弗所(431)申明,玛丽是“上帝旗手”(圣母,后来普遍呈现为“上帝之母”)。Eutyches from the Alexandrian school then claimed that the two natures of Christ were, at the incarnation, fused into one.欧迪奇从亚历山大学校则声称,基督的两个性质是在为一个融合的化身,。This view was ruled out at the Council of Chalcedon (451), which insisted that Christ was one person in two natures (divine and human) "without confusion, without change, without division and without separation."这种观点被排除在安理会的chalcedon(451),其中坚持认为基督是一个人在两个性质(神和人)了“没有混乱,没有改变没有分裂也不会分离。”

Modern Christologies generally start "from below" rather than "from above," finding Jesus first to be truly human, and then discovering his divinity in and through his humanity: "God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself" (2 Cor. 5:19).现代Christologies普遍开始“从下面”,而不是“从上面”,首先要找到耶稣真正的人,然后发现他,并通过了他的人性的神性:“上帝在基督里,调和了世界,以自己”(2肺心病。 5:19)。

Bibliography 参考书目
RH Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament Christology (1965); F Hahn, The Titles of Jesus in Christology (1969).相对湿度富勒,新约圣经christology基础(1965),女哈恩,在基督耶稣(1969)的称号。


Christology基督

Advanced Information先进的信息

NT Christology新台币基督

In the NT the writers indicate who Jesus is by describing the significance of the work he came to do and the office he came to fulfill.在新台币的作家表明谁耶稣描述这项工作的意义,他来到他的办公室做,来实现的。Amidst the varied descriptions of his work and office, always mainly in terms of the OT, there is a unified blending of one aspect with another, and a development that means an enrichment, without any cancellation of earlier tradition.末法时代,他的工作和办公室的各种描述总是主要是在加时赛上,还有一个方面是与另一个和发展,这意味着一个浓缩的统一调配,没有任何先前的传统被取消。

Jesus in the Gospels耶稣在福音

His humanity is taken for granted in the Synoptic Gospels, as if it could not possibly occur to anyone to question it.他的人性是采取授予在天气福音,好像不可能发生的任何人怀疑它。We see him lying in the cradle, growing, leaning, subject to hunger, anxiety, doubt, disappointment, and surprise (Luke 2:40; Mark 2:15; 14:33; 15:34; Luke 7:9), and finally to death and burial.我们看到他躺在摇篮里,成长,学习,受饥饿,焦虑,怀疑,失望和惊奇(路加福音14:40,马可福音2:15; 14:33; 15:34;路加福音7:9),和最终死亡和埋葬。But elsewhere his true humanity is specifically witnessed to, as if it might be called in question (Gal. 4:4; John 1:14), or its significance neglected (Heb. 2:9, 17; 4:15; 5:7 - 8; 12:2).但他在其他地方看到真正的人性是专门来,仿佛它可能是在质疑(加拉太书4时04分;约翰1:14),或忽略其意义(希伯来书2:9,17; 4时15分,5: 7 - 8; 12:2)。

Besides this emphasis on his true humanity, there is nevertheless always an emphasis on the fact that even in his humanity he is sinless and also utterly different from other men and that his significance must not be sought by ranking him alongside the greatest or wisest or holiest of all other men.除了这对他的真正的人性的重视,但总是存在的事实强调,即使在他的人性,他是无罪的,并完全由其他人不同,而且他的重要性绝不能以排名伴随着神圣的最大或最聪明的,或向他求所有其他人。 The virgin birth and the resurrection are signs that here we have something unique in the realm of humanity.维尔京诞生和复活的迹象,在这里我们有东西在人类领域独树一帜。Who or what he is can be discovered only by contrasting him with others, and it shines out most clearly when all others are against him.谁或者什么,他是可以通过对比发现他与别人只,它的光芒最清晰,当所有其他人都反对他。 The event of his coming to suffer and triumph as man in our midst is absolutely decisive for every individual he encounters and for the destiny of the whole world (John 3:16 - 18; 10:27 - 28;12:31; 16:11; 1 John 3:8).他来受苦,作为人的胜利就在我们身边的事件,绝对是他遇到的每一个人和整个世界的(约3:16命运的决定性 - 18; 10时27分 - 28; 1​​2点31分,16: 11;约翰一书3:8)。

In his coming the kingdom of God has come (Mark 1:15).在他来的神的国度已经到来(马可福音1:15)。His miracles are signs that this is so (Luke 11:20).有迹象表明他的奇迹是这样(路加福音11:20)。Woe, therefore, to those who misinterpret them (Mark 3:22 - 29).荣辱与共,因此,对那些谁误解他们(马克3:22 - 29)。 He acts and speaks with heavenly regal authority.他的行为,与天上的帝王权威说话。He can challenge men to lay down their lives for his own sake (Matt. 10:39).他可以挑战男子放下他们为了自己的生命(太10:39)。 The kingdom is indeed his own kingdom (Matt. 16:28; Luke 22:30).王国确实是他自己的王国(马太福音16:28,路加福音22:30)。He is the One who, in uttering what is simply his own mind, at the same time utters the eternal and decisive word of God (Matt. 5:22, 28; 24:35).他是一个谁,在什么是简单地说出自己的心里话在同一时间,而行使神的永恒的和决定性的字(太5:22,28; 24:35)。 His word effects what it proclaims (Matt. 8:3; Mark 11:21) as God's word does.他的话是什么影响它宣称(太8:3,马可福音11:21)上帝的话一样。He has the authority and power even to forgive sins (Mark 2:1 - 12).他有权力和权力,甚至原谅的罪过(马克2:1 - 12)。

Christ基督

His true significance can be understood only when his relationship to the people in whose midst he was born is understood.他的真实意义是可以理解的只有他的关系,在人的中间,他出生的​​理解。In the events that are set motion in his earthly career God's purpose and covenant with Israel is fulfilled.在已设置的职业生涯中他的俗世神的目的和事件是以色列履行公约的议案。He is the One who comes to do what neither the people of the OT nor their anointed representatives, the prophets, priests, and kings, could do.他是一个涉及到谁做什么,也没有他们的催产素膏代表,先知,祭司,君王,无论是人可以做的。But they had been promised that One who would rise up in their own midst would yet make good what all of them had utterly failed to make good.但是,他们已经承诺,将增加一个谁在自己中间还做好了将所有这些有什么完全没有做好。In this sense Jesus of Nazareth is the One anointed with the Spirit and power (Acts 10:38) to be the true Messiah or Christ (John 1:41; Rom. 9:5) of his people.在这个意义上的拿撒勒人耶稣是独一的精神和力量(徒10:38)膏是真正的弥赛亚或基督(约翰福音1:41,罗马书9:5)。他的人民。 He is the true prophet (Mark 9:7; Luke 13:33; John 1:21; 6:14), priest (John 17; Heb.), and king (Matt. 2:2; 21:5; 27:11), as, eg, his baptism (Matt. 3:13ff.) and his use of Isa.他是真正的先知(马克9时07分,13时33路加,约翰1时21分,6:14),牧师(约翰17;河北。)和国王(太2:2; 21点05,27: 11),因为,如他的洗礼(太3:13几段)。伊萨和他的使用。61 (Luke 4:16 - 22) indicate. 61(路加福音4:16 - 22)表示。

In receiving this anointing and fulfilling this messianic purpose, he receives from his contemporaries the titles Christ (Mark 8:29) and Son of David (Matt. 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; cf. Luke 1:32; Rom. 1:3; Rev. 5:5).在接受这恩膏和实现这一目的的弥赛亚,他收到来自他的同时代的标题基督(马可福音8:29)和大卫的儿子(太9:27; 12:23; 15:22;比照路加福音1:32。罗1:3;。启示录5:5)。

But he gives himself and receives also many other titles which help to illuminate the office he fulfilled and which are even more decisive in indicating who he is.但他给自己和接收也有很多其他的产品,帮助照亮了办公室,他完成的,哪些是更加显示谁,他是决定性的。A comparison of the current messianic ideas of Judaism with both the teaching of Jesus himself and the witness of the NT shows that Jesus selected certain features of messianic tradition which he emphasized and allowed to crystallize round his own person.同时具有教学的耶稣本人和证人的NT表明,耶稣救世主的传统选定的某些特点,并允许他强调结晶圆他自己的人比较当前的犹太教弥赛亚思想。 Certain messianic titles are used by him and of him in preference to others, and are themselves reinterpreted in the use he makes of them and in the relationship he gives them to himself and to one another.标题使用某些救世主由他和他的优先给他人,并重新诠释自己在使用他们,使他和他的关系使他们对自己和他人。This is partly the reason for his "messianic reserve" (Matt. 8:4; 16:20; John 10:24; etc.).这部分是为他的“救世主储备”的原因(太8时04;十六点20分,约翰10时24等等)。

Son of Man人子

Jesus used the title "Son of man" of himself more than any other.耶稣用他自己的“人子”头衔比其他任何。There are passages in the OT where the phrase means simply "man" (eg, Ps. 8:5), and at times Jesus' use of it corresponds to this meaning (cf. Matt. 8:20).有通道的地方在加时赛一语即是“人”(例如,聚苯乙烯。8:5),在时间和耶稣的使用它对应于这个意思(参见马特。8:20)。 But the majority of contexts indicate that in using this title Jesus is thinking of Dan.但是,大多数情况下表明,在使用这个称号耶稣是丹的想法。7:13, where the "Son of man" is a heavenly figure, both an individual and at the same time the ideal representative of the people of God. 7:13,那里的“人子”是一个神圣的数字,无论是个人,并在同一时间,神的人的理想代表。In the Jewish apocalyptic tradition this Son of man is regarded as a preexistent one who will come at the end of the ages as judge and as a light to the Gentiles (cf. Mark 14:62).在传统的犹太世界末日这人子被认为是先在一个谁就会在担任法官的年龄结束,作为对外邦人(参见马克14:62)光。

Jesus sometimes uses this title when he emphasizes his authority and power (Mark 2:10; 2:28; Luke 12:19).耶稣有时会使用这个称号时,他强调他的权威和权力(马克2点10分,2点28分,路加福音12:19)。 At other times he uses it when he is emphasizing his humility and incognito (Mark 10:45; 14:21; Luke 19:10; 9:58).在其他时候,他使用它时,他强调他的谦逊和隐身(马克10:45; 14:21,路加福音19:10; 9:58)。 In the Gospel of John the title is used in contexts which emphasize his preexistence, his descent into the world in a humiliation which both conceals and manifests his glory (John 3:13 - 14; 6:62 - 63; 8:6ff.), his role of uniting heaven and earth (John 1:51), his coming to judge men and hold the messianic banquet (John 5:27; 6:27).在约翰福音中使用的标题背景,强调融入世界都在屈辱而隐瞒,体现他的荣耀他的前世,他的后裔(约翰3:13 - 14; 6:62 - 63; 8:6几段)。他团结天地(约翰1点51分),他来判断男人的救世主,并举行宴会(约5时27分,6点27分)的作用。

Though "Son of man" is used only by Jesus of himself, what it signified is otherwise expressed, especially in Rom.虽然“人子”耶稣只用他自己,什么是它标志着以其他方式表示,特别是在光盘。5 and 1 Cor.5和1肺心病。 15, where Christ is described as the "man from heaven" or the "second Adam." 15,那里有基督的“天堂来的人”或称为“第二个亚当。”Paul here takes up hints in the Synoptic Gospels that in the coming of Christ there is a new creation (Matt. 19:38) in which his part is to be related to and contrasted with that of Adam in the first creation (cf., eg, Mark 1:13; Luke 3:38).保罗在这里占据在天气福音暗示,在未来的基督有一个新的创造(太19:38)在他的部分是有关,并与亚当表示,对比首创作(参见,例如,马克1:13;路加福音3:38)。 Both Adam and Christ have the representative relationship to the whole of mankind that is involved in the conception "Son of man."亚当和基督有对人类的整体,是在概念所涉及的代表的关系“人子”。But Christ is regarded as One whose identification with all mankind is far more deep and complete that of Adam.但基督被视为一个全人类的认同更为深刻和完整的亚当。In his redeeming action salvation is provided for all mankind.在他的挽救行动是为拯救全人类。By faith in him all men can participate in a salvation already accomplished in him.通过对他的信心所有的人都已经在他参与完成了救赎。He is also the image and glory of God (2 Cor. 4:4, 6; Col. 1:15) which man was made to reflect (1 Cor. 11:7) and which Christians are meant to put on in participating in the new creation (Col. 3:10).他也是上帝的形象和荣耀(2肺心病4:4,6;。歌罗西书1:15),其中男子以反映(1肺心病11时07分。)和基督信徒是为了把参与有关新的创造(西3:10)。

Servant仆人

Jesus' self identification with men is brought out in passages that recall the suffering servant of Isaiah (Matt. 12:18; Mark 10:45; Luke 24:26).耶稣与男性的自我认同是带出,在通道,召回了以赛亚痛苦的仆人(太12时18分;马克10:45;路加福音24:26)。 It is in his baptismal experience that he enters this role (cf. Matt. 3:17 and Isa. 42:1) of suffering as the One in whom all his people are represented and who is offered for the sins of the world (John 1:29; Isa. 53).正是在他的洗礼的经验,他进入这个苦难的角色(参见马特。3:17伊萨。42:1)一个在其中所有的人都表示,谁是世界(约翰提供的罪13:29;赛53)。。 Jesus is explicitly called the "servant" in the early preaching of the church (Acts 3:13, 26; 4:27, 30), and the thought of him as such was also in Paul's mind (cf. Rom. 4:25; 5:19; 2 Cor. 5:21).耶稣是明确所谓的“仆人”,在早期的教会讲道(徒3:13,26; 4时27分,30),以及这些思想是他,因为在保罗的想法(参见光盘还5:10。 ; 5:19; 2肺心病5:21)。。

In the humiliation of his self identification with our humanity (Heb. 2:17; 4:15; 5:7; 2:9; 12:2) he fulfills the part not only of victim, but also of high priest, offering himself once for all (Heb 7:27; 9:12; 10:10) in a self offering that brings about forever a new relationship between God and man.在他的自我认同与我们人类的耻辱(希伯来书2:17; 4时15分,5时07分;时09分; 12:2),他不仅满足了受害者的一部分,但也大祭司,提供自己一劳永逸(来7:27; 21:12; 10:10)在自我产品,它带来永远是神与人之间的新关系。His "baptism," the fulfillment of which he accomplishes in his early career culminating in his cross (cf. Luke 12:50), is his self sanctification to his eternal priesthood, and in and through this self sanctification his people are sanctified forever (John 17:19; Heb. 10:14).他的“洗礼”的实现,他是在他早期的职业生涯的重大突破,他在十字架上(参见路加福音十二时50分)的高潮,是他自己对他的永恒的圣洁的祭司,并通过这种自我成圣的人永远是圣洁(约翰17时十九分;希伯来10:14)。。

Son of God神的儿子

The title "Son of God" is not used by Jesus himself to the same extent as "Son of man" (though cf., eg, Mark 12:6), but it is the name given to him (cf. Luke 1:35) by the heavenly voice at his baptism and transfiguration (Mark 1:11; 9:7), by Peter in his moment of illumination (Matt. 16:16), by the demons (Mark 5:7) and the centurion (Mark 15:39).的标题是“上帝的儿子”不使用耶稣自己在相同的程度为“人子”(虽然比照,例如,马克12点06分。),但它是考虑到他(参见路加福音1名: 35,在他的洗礼和变身(马克1时11分天籁); 9:7),彼得在他的时刻光照(太16:16)的恶魔(马克5:7)和百夫长(马克15:39)。

This title "Son of God" is messianic.这个称号“上帝之子”的救世主。In the OT, Israel is the "son" (Exod. 4:22; Hos. 11:1).在加时赛,以色列是“儿子”(出16:22;居屋11:1。)。The king (Ps. 2:7; 2 Sam. 7:14) and possibly the priests (Mal. 1:6) are also given this title.王(诗篇2:7;。撒下7:14)和可能的祭司(玛拉基书1:6)也有这个称号。Jesus, therefore, in using and acknowledging this title is assuming the name of One in whom the true destiny of Israel is to be fulfilled.耶稣,因此,在使用和承认这个称号是假设在其中一对真正的命运是以色列必须履行的名称。

But the title also reflects the unique filial consciousness of Jesus in the midst of such a messianic task (cf. Matt. 11:27; Mark 13:32; 14:36; Ps. 2:7).但是标题也反映了独特的耶稣在这样一个救世主的任务之中孝顺意识(参见马特11时27分。马克13时32分,14点36分;诗2时07分。)。 This has the profoundest Christological implications.这具有深刻的基督论的影响。He is not simply a son but the Son (John 20:17).他不只是一个儿子,但儿子(约翰20:17)。This consciousness, which is revealed at high points in the Synoptic Gospels, is regarded in John as forming the continuous conscious background of Jesus' life.这种意识,这是在高点的天气福音透露,被认为在约翰为耶稣形成连续的生命意识的背景。The Son and the Father are one (John 5:19, 30; 16:32) in will (4:34; 6:38; 7:28; 8:42; 13:3) and activity (14:10) and in giving eternal life (10:30).圣子与父原为一(约翰5:19,30; 16时32分)在会(4:34; 6时38分,28分; 8时42分,13:3)和活动(14:10)和给予永恒的生命(10:30)。The Son is in the Father and the Father in the son (10:38; 14:10).儿子是在父亲和儿子在父亲(10:38; 14:10)。The Son, like the Father, has life and quickening power in himself (5:26).像父亲的儿子,在自己有生命(5:26),加快电源。The Father loves the Son (3:35; 10:17; 17:23 - 24) and commits all things into his hands (5:35), giving him authority to judge (5:22).父亲爱儿子(3:35,10:17,17:23 - 24),并承诺在他手里的东西(5:35),给他权力,法官(5:22)。The title also implies a unity of being and nature with the Father, uniqueness of origin and preexistence (John 3:16; Heb. 1:2).标题也意味着存在和与父亲,唯一性的起源和本质的统一前世(约翰3:16;。希伯来书1:2)。

Lord

Though Paul also uses the title "Son of God," he most frequently refers to Jesus as "Lord," This term did not originate with Paul.尽管保罗还使用的标题是“上帝的儿子”,他最经常指耶稣为“上帝”这个词并不是由保罗。Jesus is addressed and referred to in the Gospels as Lord (Matt. 7:21; Mark 11:3; Luke 6:46).耶稣是处理和中提到的是主福音(太7时21分;马克11点03分,路加福音6:46)。Here the title can refer primarily to his teaching authority (Luke 11:1; 12:41), but it can also have a deeper significance (Matt. 8:25; Luke 5:8).在这里,标题可以主要指他的教学权威(路加福音11时零一分,12时41分),但它也可以有一个更深的意义(太8时25分;路加福音5:8)。 Though it is most frequently given to him after his exaltation he himself quoted Ps.虽然这是最经常给他后,他的提升,他自己引用诗。110:1 and prepared for this use (Mark 12:35; 14:62).110:1并为此准备使用(马克12:35; 14:62)。

His lordship extends over the course of history and all the powers of evil (Col. 2:15; 1 Cor. 2:6 - 8; 8:5; 15:24) and must be the ruling concern in the life of the church (Eph. 6:7; 1 Cor. 7:10, 25).他的贵族身份延续的历史长河中,所有的邪恶力量(西2:15;。1肺心病2时06分 - 8; 8时05分,15时24分),必须在教会生活中的裁决关注(弗六时07分,1肺心病7:10,25。)。2:6 - 8; 8:5; 15:24) and must be the ruling concern in the life of the church (Eph. 6:7; 1 Cor. 7:10, 25). 2点06 - 8; 8点○五,15:24),必须是在教会的生命(以弗所书6时07分裁定关注,1肺心病7:10,25)。。As Lord he will come to judge (2 Thess. 1:7).由于主,他会来判断(2帖。1:7)。

Though his work in his humiliation is also the exercise of lordship, it was after the resurrection and ascension that the title of Lord was most spontaneously conferred on Jesus (Acts 2:32ff.; Phil. 2:1 - 11) by the early church.虽然他在他的屈辱工作也是贵族身份运动,它的复活和升天后是,大多数的主标题是自发赋予耶稣(徒2:32几段。。菲尔2:1 - 11)初期是由教会。They prayed to him as they would pray to God (Acts 7:59 - 60; 1 Cor. 1:2; cf. Rev. 9:14, 21; 22:16).他为他们祈祷,他们会向上帝祷告(徒7:59 - 60。。林前1:2;比照启示录21:14,21; 22:16)。 His name as Lord is linked in the closest association with that of God himself (1 Cor. 1:3; 2 Cor. 1:2; cf. Rev. 17:14; 19:16; and Deut. 10:17).他作为主的名字是联系在一起的最亲密的与该协会自己的神(林前1:3。1:2 2肺心病。。比照启示录17:14,19:16和申命记10:17)。。To him are referred the promises and attributes of the "Lord" God (Kyrios, LXX) in the OT (cf. Acts 2:21 and 38; Rom. 10:3 and Joel 2:32; 1 Thess. 5:2 and Amos 5:18; Phil. 2:10 - 11 and Isa. 45:23).对他的承诺,被称为与“上帝”上帝在催产素(Kyrios,LXX的)(参见行为2时21分和38个属性;。罗马书10时03分和Joel 2时32分。一帖5点02分和阿莫斯5:18;菲尔2:10 - 11和赛45:23)。。。To him are freely applied the language and formulas which are used of God himself, so that it is difficult to decide in a passage like Rom.对他来说是自由应用的语言,哪些是自己的上帝使用的公式,因此,它是很难决定在一个像罗通行。 9:5 whether it is the Father or the Son to whom reference is made.9:5无论是父亲或儿子的人提到了。In John 1:1, 18; 20:28; 2 Thess.在约翰1:1,18; 20:28; 2帖。1:12; 1 Tim.1:12;一添。 3:16; Titus 2:13; and 2 Pet. 3:16;提多书2:13和2宠物。1:1, Jesus is confessed as "God."1:1,耶稣被承认为“上帝”。

Word

The statement, "The Word became flesh" (John 1:14), relates Jesus both to the Wisdom of God in the OT (which has a personal character, Prov. 8) and to the law of God (Deut. 30:11 - 14; Isa. 2:3) as these are revealed and declared in the going forth of the Word by which God creates, reveals himself, and fulfills his will in history (Ps. 33:6; Isa. 55:10 - 11; 11:4; Rev. 1:16).声明说,“道成了肉身”(约1:14),耶稣都涉及到了上帝的智慧在催产素(其中有一个个人的性格,省。8)和对上帝的律法(申命记30:11 。 - 14;赛2时03分,因为这些)都显示,在走出去的字,其中神创造出来宣布,揭示自己,满足他的意志在历史上(诗篇33:6;赛55:10 - 11。 ; 11:4;启示录1:16)。There is here a close relationship between word and event.这里有一个字和事件之间的密切关系。In the NT it becomes clearer that the Word is not merely a message proclaimed but is Christ himself (cf. Eph. 3:17 and Col. 3:16; 1 Pet. 1:3 and 23; John 8:31 and 15:17).在新台币变得清楚的是话语并不仅仅宣布的消息,但他自己是基督(参见弗3:17上校3:16;彼前1:3和23;约翰8:31和15。。: 17)。What Paul expresses in Col. 1, John expresses in his prologue.保罗在歌罗西一表示,约翰表示在他的开场白。In both passages (and in Heb. 1:1 - 14) the place of Christ as the One who in the beginning was the agent of God's creative activity is asserted.在这两个通道(在希伯来书1:1 - 14。)基督作为一个地方在一开始谁是上帝的创作活性剂为有效。In bearing witness to these aspects of Jesus Christ it is inevitable that the NT should witness to his preexistence.在见证耶稣基督的这些方面是无​​可避免的新台币应见证他的前世。He was "in the beginning" (John 1:1 - 3; Heb. 1:2 - 10).他是“一开始”(约翰1:1 - 3;希伯来书1:2 - 10。)。

His very coming (Luke 12:49; Mark 1:24; 2:17) involves him in deep self abasement (2 Cor. 8:9; Phil. 2:5 - 7) in fulfillment of a purpose ordained for him from the foundation of the world (Rev. 13:8).他非常未来(路加福音12:49,马可福音1:24; 2:17)涉及深自贬他 - 在他受戒的目的达成(2肺心病8:9菲尔2:5 7。。)基金会世界(启示录13:8)。In the Gospel of John he gives this testimony in his own words (John 8:58; 17:5, 24).在约翰福音,他把他自己的话说这见证(约8:58,17:5,24)。

Yet while his coming from the Father involves diminution of his Godhead, there is nevertheless a subordination of the incarnate Son to the Father in the relationship of love and equality which subsists between the Father and the Son (John 14:28).然而,尽管他从父亲过来涉及他的神性减弱,但有一个肉身的儿子在爱的从属关系和平等的关系,父亲和儿子(约翰14:28)存续关系的父亲。 For it is the Father who sends and the Son who is sent (John 10:36), the Father who gives and the Son who receives (John 5:26), the Father who ordains and the Son who fulfills (John 10:18).因为这是父亲谁是谁发送和发送的儿子(约翰福音10:36),父亲和儿子谁给谁接收(约翰5:26),父亲和儿子谁注定谁符合(约翰福音10:18 )。Christ belongs to God who is the Head (1 Cor. 3:23; 11:13) and in the end will subject all things to him (1 Cor. 15:28).基督属于上帝谁是头(1肺心病3时23分。11:13),最终将问题的所有的东西给他(1肺心病15点28分。)。

Patristic Christology教父基督

In the period immediately following the NT, the apostolic fathers (AD 90 - 140) can speak highly of Christ.在后立即新台币,使徒的父亲(公元90 - 140)可以说非常的基督。We have a sermon beginning: "Brethren, we ought so to think of Jesus Christ, as of God, as the Judge of the quick and the dead" (2 Clement).我们有一个开始讲道:“弟兄们,我们应该这样认为耶稣基督为上帝,作为死人和活人法官”(2克莱门特)。Ignatius with his emphasis on both the true deity and humanity of Christ can refer to the "blood of God."与他同时在真实的神和基督的人性重点伊格可以参考“上帝的血。”Even if their witness falls short of this, there is a real attempt to combat both Ebionitism, which looked on Christ as a man born naturally, on whom the Holy Spirit came at his baptism, and also docetism, which asserted that the humanity and sufferings of Christ were apparent rather than real.即使他们的见证,属于这条简短的,有一个真正的企图都Ebionitism打击,这对基督看作自然出生,其中一名男子在他的洗礼圣灵来了,也docetism,它宣称,人类和痛苦基督是明显的,而不是真实的。

The apologists of the next generation (eg, Justin, c. 100 - 165, and Theophilus of Antioch) sought to commend the gospel to the educated and to defend it in face of attacks by pagans and Jews.下一世代辩护士(例如,贾斯汀,长100 - 165,和安提西奥菲勒斯)旨在表彰福音的教育和捍卫由异教徒和犹太人的袭击面对它。Their conception of the place of Christ was determined, however, rather by current philosophical ideas of the logos than by the historic revelation given in the gospel, and for them Christianity tends to become a new law or philosophy and Christ another God inferior to the highest God.他们对基督地思想的决心,但是,而不是由当前哲学思想的标识比由历史上的启示,在给定的福音,并为他们基督教往往成为一个新的法律或哲学和基督神不如另一最高神。

Melito of Sardis at this time, however, spoke clearly of Christ as both God and man, and Irenaeus, in meeting the challenge of Gnosticism, returned also to a more biblical standpoint, viewing the person of Christ always in close connection with his work of redemption and revelation, in fulfillment of which "he became what we are, in order that he might make us to become even what he is himself."美利托的萨迪斯在这个时候,然而,以明确双方的基督作为上帝和人,和爱任纽,在迎接挑战的诺斯替主义,也返回到一个更圣经的观点,观看他的工作密切联系的基督的人总是在履行赎回及启示,其中“他成为我们的,为了使他可能使我们变得连他就是他自己。” He thus became the new Head of our race and recovered what had been lost in Adam, saving us through a process of "recapitulation."因此,他成为了我们人类的新的头和恢复已经失去了什么亚当,节约我们通过一个过程“重演。”In thus identifying himself with us he is both true God and true man.在与我们自己从而确定他是双方真实的上帝和真正的男人。Tertullian also made his contribution to Christology in combating Gnosticism and the various forms of what came to be known as monarchianism (dynamism, modalism, Sabellianism), which has reacted in different ways against the apparent worship of Christ as a second God beside the Father.德尔图良也取得了诺斯替主义和打击各种形式的贡献,后来被基督的神格唯一已知的(活力,模态论,Sabellianism),它以不同的方式反应,对旁边的基督为神的父亲第二次明显的崇拜。 He was the first to teach that the Father and Son are of "one substance," and spoke of three persons in the Godhead.他是第一个教的父亲和儿子是“一种物质”,并以三人的神性。

Origen had a decisive influence in the development of Christology in the East.奥利曾在基督在东方的发展具有决定性的影响。He taught the eternal generation of the Son from the Father and used the term homoousios.他教从儿子的父亲永恒的产生和使用的术语homoousios。Yet at the same time his complicated doctrine included a view of Christ as an intermediate being, spanning the distance between the utterly transcendent being of God and this created world.然而,在同一时间他复杂的学说包括作为中间被基督的观点,跨越之间的完全超越,这是上帝创造的世界的距离。Both sides in the later Arian controversy, which began c.在后来的阿里安争议,开始双方角318, show influences which may be traced to Origen.318,表明它的影响可追溯到奥利。

Arius denied the possibility of any divine emanation, or contact with the world, or of any distinction within the Godhead.阿里乌斯否认任何神圣泄漏的可能性,与世界或咨询,或任何在神的源头区别。 Therefore the Word is made out of nothing before time.所以这个词是由什么时间之前。Though called God, he is not very God.虽然所谓的上帝,他不是很神。Arius denied to Christ a human soul.阿里乌斯拒绝基督,是人的灵魂。The Council of Nicaea (325) condemned Arius by insisting that the Son was not simply the "first born of all creation" but was indeed "of one essence with the Father."理事会的尼西亚(325)谴责,坚持认为,儿子不是简单的“第一出生的所有创作”,但的确是阿里乌斯“一个与父亲的本质。” In his long struggle against Arianism, Athanasius sought to uphold the unity of essence of the Father and Son by basing his argument not on a philosophical doctrine of the nature of the Logos, but on the nature of the redemption accomplished by the Word in the flesh.在他对阿里乌主义的长期斗争中,他那修试图坚持立足作者的标识性质的哲学学说他的论点都不是父亲和儿子的本质的统一,但在大自然的赎回由Word完成的肉。 Only God himself, taking on human flesh and dying and rising in our flesh, can effect a redemption that consists in being saved from sin and corruption and death, and in being raised to share the nature of God himself.只有上帝自己,以对人肉和垂死的和我们的血肉上升,会影响赎回,在被从罪和贪污腐败和死亡,包括保存和被提出来分享神自己的性质。

After Nicaea the question was raised: If Jesus Christ be truly God, how can he be at the same time truly man?尼西亚后提出的问题是:如果耶稣基督是真正的上帝,他怎么能在同一时间真正的男人?Apollinaris tried to safeguard the unity of the person of the God - man by denying that he had complete manhood.亚坡试图维护团结的神人 - 由否认他有完全的成年男子。He assumed that man was composed of three parts: body, irrational or animal soul, and rational soul or intellect (nous).他认为人是三个部分组成:身体,不合理或动物的灵魂,理性的灵魂,或智力(理性)。In Jesus the human nous was displaced by the divine Logos.在耶稣是人类理性所取代神圣的标志。But this denied the true reality of Christ's humanity and indeed of the incarnation itself and therefore of the salvation.但这种否认基督的人性真实的现实,确实是化身本身和拯救因此。The most cogent objection to it was expressed by Gregory of Nazianzus: "The unassumed is the unhealed."最有力的反对意见表示了格雷戈里的nazianzus道:“unassumed是不愈。”Christ must be true man as well as true God.基督必须是真实的人,也真神。Apollinaris was condemned at Constantinople in 381.亚坡谴责在君士坦丁堡在381。

How, then, can God and man be united in one person?那么,如何能够神和人团结在一个人呢?The controversy became focused on Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, who refused to approve the use of the phrase "mother of God" (Theotokos) as applied to Mary, who, he asserted, bore not the Godhead but "a man who was the organ of the Godhead."争议就成为涅斯,君士坦丁堡的主教,谁拒绝批准这一词语的“上帝之母”的使用(圣母)适用于玛丽,谁,他断言重点,孔不是神的源头,但“一人谁是器官的神性。“ In spite of the fact that Nestorius clearly asserted that the Godman was one person, he seemed to think of the two natures as existing side by side and so sharply distinguished that the suffering of the humanity could not be attributed to the Godhead.在事实清楚涅斯宣称,戈德曼是一个人,尽管他似乎觉得这两个性质与现有并肩,尖锐地判别出人类苦难不能归因于神性的。 This separation was condemned, and Nestorius's deposition at the Council of Ephesus (431) was brought about largely by the influence of Cyril in reasserting a unity of the two natures in Cyril in reasserting a unity of the two natures in Christ's person so complete that the impassible Word can be said to have suffered death.这种分离的谴责,并涅斯的在安理会的以弗所(431)沉积所带来的西里尔影响大约主要是在重新确立在重新确立在基督里的人是两个性质团结,完成了A的两个性质在西里尔团结恝Word可以说已经遭受死亡。 Cyril sought to avoid Apollinarianism by asserting that the humanity of Christ was complete and entire but had no independent subsistence (anhypostasis).西里尔设法避免断言,人类的基督已经完成,全部却没有独立生活津贴(anhypostasis)亚波里拿留派。

A controversy arose over one of Cyril's followers, Eutyches, who asserted that in the incarnate Christ the two natures coalesced in one.争议出现超过Cyril的追随者,欧迪奇,谁主张,在肉身的基督的两个性质在一个联合起来的。This implied a docetic view of Christ's human nature and called in question his consubstantiality with us.这意味着一个基督的人性docetic观与质疑他与我们同体。Eutychianism and Nestorianism were finally condemned at the Council of Chalcedon (451), which taught one Christ in two natures united in one person or hypostasis, yet remaining" without confusion, without conversion, without division, without separation." Eutychianism,景教终于谴责在安理会的chalcedon(451),它告诉我们在联合国中的一人或本质,而余下的两个性质,一个基督“没有混乱,无需转换没有分裂,没有分离。”

Further controversies were yet to arise before the mind of the church could be made up as to how the human nature could indeed retain its complete humanity and yet be without independent subsistence.此外还出现了争议之前,心中的教会可以提出如何人性确实可以保留其完整的人类,但没有独立生活了。It was Leontius of Byzantium who advanced the formula that enabled the majority to agree on an interpretation of the Chalcedonian formula.它是拜占庭Leontius谁先进的配方,使多数人同意的迦克公式的解释。The human nature of Christ, he taught, was not an independent hypostasis (anhypostatic), but it was enhypostatic, ie, it had its subsistence in and through the Logos.基督的人性,他教,是不是一个独立的本质(anhypostatic),但它是enhypostatic,也就是说,它的标识中,并通过其生存。

A further controversy arose as to whether two natures meant that Christ had two wills or centers of volition.进一步的争论便产生了两个性质是否意味着基督有两个意志或意志中心。A formula was first devised to suit the monothelites, who asserted that the God - man, though in two natures, worked by one divine - human energy.首先设计了一个公式,以适应monothelites,谁主张,神 - 人,虽然在两个性质,一个神圣的工作 - 人体能量。But finally, in spite of the preference of Honorius, Bishop of Rome, for a formula asserting "one will" in Christ, the Western church in 649 decreed that there were "two natural wills" in Christ, and this was made the decision of the whole church at the sixth ecumenical council at Constantinople in 680, the views of Pope Honorius I being condemned as heresy.但最后,在对挪,罗马主教,偏好尽管声称公式为“一会”在基督里,在649西方教会颁布法令,有“两个天然遗嘱”在基督里,这是作出的决定在第六届理事会在君士坦丁堡680全教会,教皇的意见,我被挪谴责为异端。

Further Development进一步发展

The theologians of the Middle Ages accepted the authority of patristic Christology and allowed their thought and experience to be enriched by Augustine's stress on the real humanity of Christ in his atoning work, on his important as our example in humility, and on mystical experience.中世纪的神学家接受了基督教父的权威,并允许他们的思想和经验的丰富了奥古斯丁的压力就在他的基督赎罪的工作真正的人性,他的谦逊的例子作为我们在重要的,对神秘的体验。 But this emphasis on the humanity of Christ tended to be made only when he was presented in his passion as the One who mediates between man and a distant and terrible God.但是,这对基督的人性重点往往是仅当他是在他作为一个谁人与一个遥远而可畏的神介导的热情介绍。In their more abstract discussion of the person of Christ there was a tendency to present One who has little share in our real humanity.在他们更多的抽象讨论基督的人有一种趋势在一份谁已经在我们的真正的人性的小份额。The humanity of Jesus, however, became the focus of mystical devotion in Bernard of Clairvaux, who stressed the union of the soul with the Bridegroom.耶稣的人性,然而,成为在伯纳德的克莱尔沃,谁强调了欧盟与新郎神秘的灵魂奉献的焦点。

At the Reformation, Luther's Christology was based on Christ as true God and true man in inseparable unity.在宗教改革,路德的基督是基于基督为真​​神和不可分割的团结真正的男人。He spoke of the "wondrous exchange" by which, through the union of Christ with human nature, his righteousness becomes ours, and our sins become his.他的“奇妙的交换”,其中通过基督与人​​类自然联盟发言,他的正义成为我们和我们成为他的罪。

He refused to tolerate any thinking that might lead to speculation about the God - man divorced either from the historical person of Jesus himself or from the work he came to do and the office he came to fulfill in redeeming us.他拒绝容忍任何想法,可能导致投机活动有关神 - 人脱离耶稣自己的历史人物或从工作要做,他来到他的办公室来履行我们双方都在挽救。 But Luther taught that the doctrine of the "communication of attributes" (communicatio idiomatum) meant that there was a mutual transference of qualities or attributes between the divine and human natures in Christ, and developed this to mean a mutual interpenetration of divine and human qualities or properties, verging on the very commingling of natures which Chalcedonian Christology had avoided.但路德教导说了(交际idiomatum)意味着有一种素质或与神和基督的人性属性的相互转移,并制定这意味着神和人的素质的相互渗透“的属性传播”学说或属性,在十分,其中迦克基督避免了濒临性质混杂。 In Lutheran orthodoxy this led to a later controversy as to how far the manhood of the Son of God shared in and exercised such attributes of divine majesty, how far it was capable of doing so, and how far Jesus used or renounced these attributes during his human life.在路德正统这导致了后来的争议,以多大的神共享的儿子成年和神圣的威严行使这样的属性,有多远是有能力这样做,以及如何使用或放弃远耶稣在他的这些属性人的生命。

Calvin also approved of the orthodox Christological statements of the church councils.卡尔文还批准了正统的基督堂议会发言。He taught that when the Word became incarnate he did not suspend nor alter his normal function of upholding the universe.他告诉我们,道成了肉身时,他没有停止,也没有改变他坚持宇宙的正常功能。He found the extreme statements of Lutheran Christology guilty of a tendency toward the heresy of Eutyches, and insisted that the two natures in Christ are distinct though never separate.他发现信义基督的极端报表一对异端的欧迪奇趋势有罪,并坚持认为在基督的两个性质是截然不同的,但从来没有分开。 Yet in the unity of person in Christ, one nature is so closely involved in the activities and events which concern the other that the human nature can be spoken of as if it partook of divine attributes.然而,在这样的人在基督里合一,一自然是如此密切相关的活动和事件关注的是人类的天性是口语的,因为如果它的神圣属性,分享了其他。 Salvation is accomplished not only by the divine nature working through the human but is indeed the accomplishment of the human Jesus, who worked out a perfect obedience and sanctification for all men in his own person (the humanity being not only the instrument but the "material cause" of salvation).救恩是完成的不仅是神通过人的工作性质,但确实是耶稣的人,谁制定了自己的人,在他所有的人一个完美的服从和成圣(即人类福祉不仅仪器,但“物质成就原因救赎“)。 This salvation is worked out in fulfillment of the threefold office of prophet, priest, and king.这救恩是在制定的先知,祭司,和国王办公室履行三倍。

There is here a divergence between the Lutheran and Reformed teaching.这里有一个路德之间的分歧,改革教学。The Lutherans laid the stress upon a union of two natures in a communion in which the human nature is assumed into the divine nature.该lutherans后,奠定了两个性质联盟在其中的人性假设到神性相通的压力。The Reformed theologians refused to think of an assumption of the human nature into the divine, but rather of an assumption of the human nature into the divine person of the Son, in whom there was a direct union between the two natures.归正神学家拒绝考虑一个人性的进入神圣的假设,而是一个人性的假设,而进入神的儿子的人,在人之间存在着直接的两个性质的联盟。 Thus, while keeping to the patristic conception of the communicatio idiomatum, they developed the concept of the communicatio operationum (ie, that the properties of the two natures coincide in the one person) in order to speak of an active communion between the natures without teaching a doctrine of mutual interpenetration.因此,虽然保持到交际idiomatum教父的观念,他们发展了交际operationum概念(即,两个性质的属性相吻合,在一个人),以一种积极的性质之间的交流发言,没有教学相互渗透学说。

The importance of the communicatio operationum (which also came to be taken up by Lutherans) is that it corrects the rather static way of speaking of the hypostatic union in patristic theology, by seeing the person and the work of Christ in inseparable unity, and so asserts a dynamic communion between the divine and human natures of Christ in terms of his atoning and reconciling work.该交际operationum的重要性(这也逐渐被采取了由路德会)是它纠正了发言教父神学的本质联盟通过观察人与基督的不可分割的统一工作,而不是静态的方式,等等声称在他的赎罪和协调工作方面之间的神和基督的人性动态交流。 It stresses the union of two natures for his mediatorial operation in such a way that this work proceeds from the one person of the God - man by the distinctive effectiveness of both natures.它强调,他以这种方式运作的中保两个性质联盟,从一个人的神这项工作收益 - 由两个性质不同的成效的人。In this light the hypostatic union is seen as the ontological side of the dynamic action of reconciliation, and so incarnation and atonement are essentially complementary.有鉴于此本质的联盟被看作是动态的和解行动本体论的一面,所以基本上是化身和赎罪的互补性。

Since the early nineteenth century the tendency has been to try to depart from the Chalcedonian doctrine of the two natures on the ground that this could not be related to the human Jesus portrayed in the Gospels, and that it made use of terms which were alien both to Holy Scripture and to current modes of expression.十九世纪初以来的趋势就是试图偏离对这种无法与在描绘人类的福音耶​​稣地上的两个性质迦克学说,而且使其中的外来术语的使用都以圣经和当前的表达方式。 Schleiermacher built up a Christology on the basis of finding in Christ a unique and archetypal consciousness of utter filial dependence on the Father.施莱尔马赫建立了一个关于在基督找到一个完全依赖对父亲孝顺意识的基础上独一无二的基督原型。In Lutheran Christology there was a further important development, the attributes of the humanity of Jesus being regarded as limiting those of his deity, according to the "kenotic" theory of Thomasius.在路德会基督有一个更为重要的发展,人类的耶稣的属性被视为他的神的限制,根据“虚己”的托马理论。On this view, the Word, in the incarnation, deprived himself of his "external" attributes of omnipotence, omnipresence, and omniscience, yet still retained the "essential" moral attributes.从这个角度来看,这个词,在化身,剥夺他的“外部”无所不能,无所不在,无所不知的属性和自己,但仍保留了“必要”的道德属性。 Though always remaining God, he ceased to exist in the form of God.虽然总是其余的神,他不再在神的存在形式。Even his self consciousness as God was absorbed in the single awakening and growing consciousness of the God - man.连他作为上帝的自我意识是在单吸收和不断增长的意识觉醒的神 - 人。

Ritschl, too, stressed the importance of the ethical attributes of the person of Christ and of refusing to speculate beyond the revelation of God found in the historic Jesus, who must have for us the value of God and whose perfect moral nature is both human and divine.里奇尔,也强调了基督和拒绝推测超出了上帝的启示人的道德属性的重要性在历史耶稣,谁必须对我们有上帝的完美的道德价值和自然界中发现的是人类和神圣的。 Early in the twentieth century modern conceptions of personality and scientific and philosophical doctrines of evolution enabled theologians to produce further variations in the development of nineteenth century Christology.早在20世纪的人格和进化学说的现代科学和哲学观念使神学家,生产中的十九世纪基督教神学的发展进一步的变化。

The middle years of the twentieth century saw a return to the use of the Chalcedonian doctrine of the two natures, particularly as interpreted in the Reformed tradition, and a realization that this apparently paradoxical formula is meant to point toward the mystery of the unique relationship of grace set up here between the divine and human in the person and work of the God - man.二十世纪中叶年来,以期两个特别是在改革传统解释性质,使用返回迦克学说,以及矛盾的公式,这显然是为了朝向关系的独特神秘的实现在这里设立宽限期之间的神和人在工作的人与神 - 人。This mystery must not be thought of apart from atonement, for it is perfected and worked out in history through the whole work of Christ crucified and risen and ascended.这个谜团不能被认为是除了赎罪,因为它是完善和曾在历史上通过全钉在十字架上的基督复活,升天的工作。To share in this mystery of the new unity of God and man in Christ in some measure is also given to the church through the Spirit.为了分享在这个新的上帝在基督里的人团结在一定程度上的奥秘,也是考虑到通过圣灵教堂。This means that our Christology is decisive in determining our doctrine of the church and of the work of sacraments as used in the church.这意味着我们的基督是决定我们的教会教义和圣礼的工作具有决定性的教堂中使用。Our Christology must indeed indicate the direction in which we seek to solve all theological problems where we are dealing with the relation of a human event or reality to the grace of God in Christ.我们的基督确实必须指出的方向,是我们寻求解决一切,我们是与一个人的事件或现实的关系,以上帝的恩典在基督神学方面的问题。 In this Christological pattern the whole of our theological system should find its coherence and unity.在这种模式中,我们的基督神学体系,都应该找到自己的连贯性和统一性。

Nor must this mystery be thought of in abstraction from the person of Jesus shown to us in the Gospels in the historical context of the life of Israel.这个谜团也必须在抽象的思想,从所显示的福音给我们在以色列生活的历史背景下耶稣的人。The human life and teaching of the historical Jesus have to be given full place in his saving work as essential and not incidental or merely instrumental in his atoning reconciliation.人类生活和历史的耶稣教学必须给他充分的地方节能工作至关重要,不是偶然的,或只是在他的赎罪和解作用。 Here we must give due weight to modern biblical study in helping us to realize both what kind of a man Jesus was and yet also to see this Jesus of history as the Christ of faith, the Lord, the Son of God.在这里,我们必须给予应有的重视,现代圣经研究在帮助我们实现什么样的人都种了,但耶稣也看作是信仰基督,上帝,上帝的儿子,历史的耶稣。 Through the study of his office and work we come to understand how his humanity is not only truly individual but is also truly representative.通过他的办公室学习和工作,我们来了解他的人性不仅是个人,而且也是真正的真正代表。

Modern theological discussion continues to be a witness to the centrality of Jesus Christ himself in matters of faith and is dominated by the two closely related questions: "Who is Jesus Christ?"现代神学的讨论仍然是一个以基督耶稣自己在信仰方面的核心地位的见证,是由两个密切相关的问题为主:“耶稣基督是谁?” and "What has he done for the world?"和“为他做了什么世界?”The context in which these questions are raised has, however, changed.在这些问题都提出了,但环境发生了变化。In the nineteenth century many of the radical restatements of Christological belief were often felt to imply a rejection of orthodox faith, and were argued for as such.在十九世纪的基督信仰的激进重述许多人往往认为暗示着一种排斥正统信仰,并为上述主张。It is often claimed today, however, that restatements of this type, if they arise from a sincere response to Jesus, deserve to be regarded as valid modern interpretations of the same truth to which the older statements bore witness in their day.它往往是今天声称,但是,这种类型的重述,如果他们真诚的回应耶稣的出现,应该被视为有效的现代诠释相同的事实陈述的老孔在他们的时代的见证认为。 Those who formulated the earlier creeds, it is held, were expressing in their statements simply their own contemporary experience of being redeemed by Jesus.谁制定了这些早期教义,它的举行,是在表达他们的发言只是在他们自己的耶稣被赎回的当代境遇。Their statements need not be interpreted literally in order to be confessed truly, even if their language continues to be occasionally used.他们的发言不需要字面解释,以便真正承认,即使他们的语言仍然是偶尔使用。

It is held, moreover, that modern man with his secular and scientific outlook cannot possibly be asked seriously to think of the universe as providing the background necessary to give credibility to talk of a preexistent Son of God descending into our midst from heaven and finally ascending.它的举行,而且,这与他世俗和科学的世界观现代人不可能要求认真宇宙看作是提供背景必须给信誉的一个神先在儿子说服我们从天当中下降,最后上升。 The early church, when it affirmed such things of Jesus, was simply using the pictures given by current religious myths of the time in order to give expression to the new liberty and self understanding given to them as they found themselves addressed by God as Jesus, especially in the proclamation of his cross.早期的教会,当它肯定了耶稣这样的事情,只是使用的时间由目前的宗教神话杀无赦是为了体现新的自由和自我认识给他们,因为他们发现自己被耶稣神处理的图片,特别是在宣布他的十字架。 Some church theologians believe that what the early witnesses meant by their statements can today be adequately reexpressed without recourse even to talk of an incarnation.一些教会神学家认为,他们的发言所讲的意思是今天早证人可以得到充分的无追索权reexpressed甚至谈论的化身。 Discontent continues to be expressed, exactly as it was in last century, with words like "essence," "substance," and "nature."继续表示不满,正是因为它是在过去一个世纪中包含“本质”,“物质”和“自然的话。”It is claimed that these are now mere dictionary terms of no current use in making meaningful statements.据称,这些仅仅是现在字典里没有任何有意义的陈述使目前的使用条款。

In the midst of such desire to express the meaning of Christ in new ways, Jesus is often spoken of simply as an agent through whose mediation and example we are enabled to find authentic self expression and new being, and enter into a meaningful experience of reality and the world.在这样的愿望,表达了基督的意义以新的方式之中,常说耶稣是简单地通过代理作为其调解和榜样,我们能够找到真实的自我表达和新的福利,并进入一个现实的有意义的经验和世界。 Doubt is raised about our need for his continuing work and ministry.怀疑是我们对他提出的关于继续开展工作和事工的需要。Even when we are directed to his person, it is as if to One who is symbolic of something else, and who points entirely beyond himself.即使当我们向他的人,就好像是一个谁是象征性的东西别人,谁点自己完全超越。We seem at times to be confronted by an Arianism content to affirm that the Son is simply "of like substance" with the Father, at times with a docetism for which the reality of the human nature is of little importance.我们似乎在被一个阿里乌主义面临的时代内容申明,儿子是简单的“象物质”与父亲在同一个docetism那里的人的本质的现实意义不大的时候。

Much recent NT study has, however, been undertaken in the belief that the Gospels do provide us with sufficient historical detail about Jesus to give us a reliable picture of the kind of man he actually was.最近许多研究新台币,不过,已经采取的信念,福音做提供足够的历史细节我们关于耶稣给我们一个真正的男人,他是可靠的图片。 The importance of regaining such a genuine understanding of his humanity as a basis for our Christology has been stressed.对恢复作为我们这样一个基础上的基督,他的真正理解人类的重要性已得到强调。Wolfhart Pannenberg has criticized Karl Barth and others who have followed him for beginning their Christological thought from the standpoint of God himself: ie, by first assuming the Trinity and the incarnation, and then arguing downward, viewing the humanity of Jesus against this transcendent background. Wolfhart潘内伯格批评卡尔巴特和谁奉行开始从自己的角度来看他们的基督神以为他是其他:即首先假设三一和化身,然后向下争论,观看在此背景下,超越耶稣的人性。 Pannenberg himself believes that such initial presupposition of the divinity of Jesus will involve us inevitably in a Christology marked by disjunction and paradox, and will pose insoluble problems in relation to the unity of his person.潘内伯格他认为,这样的耶稣神性的初始预设将不可避免地涉及到我们在基督的脱节和矛盾标示,并提出了有关他的人团结无法解决的问题。 Moreover, it will obscure our understanding of his true humanity.此外,它会模糊我们对他的真正的人性的理解。

Pannenberg seeks to form a "Christology from below," moving upward from Jesus' life and death toward his transformation in his resurrection and exaltation through the grace of God.潘内伯格旨在形成“基督从下面”,正从耶稣的生活,对他在他的复活和提升改造死亡向上通过上帝的恩典。Pannenberg believes that there are legendary elements in the Gospel history (eg, the virgin birth).潘内伯格认为,有历史的福音(例如,维尔京出生)传说中的元素。He stresses the need to interpret Jesus and his death from the standpoint of our own experience of history as well as from the standpoint of the OT.他强调,必须从我们解释历史的角度看自己的经验以及从城市旅游局的立场耶稣和他的死亡。Karl Rahner, on the Roman Catholic side, also pursues a Christology beginning with the humanity of Jesus and based on anthropology.卡尔拉对罗马天主教方,也追求与基督耶稣的人性的基础上开始和人类学。

We have to question whether the NT accounts of Jesus allow us to make such a one sided approach and to follow such a method.我们不得不质疑耶稣的NT帐户允许我们作出这样的片面做法,并遵循这样的方法。Consistently Jesus is presented in the Gospels as one who is both truly man and truly God.坚持耶稣在福音中,提出了作为一个真正的人谁是既与真正的上帝。The first witnesses did not try to present him to us in a manhood existing apart from the mystery of his unique union with God.第一证人并没有试图以一种现有的从他与上帝的奥秘,除了独特的联盟成年他给我们。It does not seem possible, therefore, that we ourselves should have access to the reality to which they are pointing unless we try to gasp him in the strange interpenetration of these two aspects that seems to mark their accounts of him.这似乎并不可能,因此,我们自己应获得的现实,他们都指出,除非我们设法在喘气,这两个方面,这似乎标志着他的奇怪的相互渗透他自己的账户。 That the "Word became flesh" seems to imply that we cannot have the flesh apart from the Word nor the Word apart from the flesh.认为“道成了肉身”,似乎暗示我们不能有肉,除了这个词,也不是从肉体外字。

What the Gospel writers intended to give us in their witness must therefore determine both our own approach and the method we adopt in our investigation.福音的目的是什么让他们的见证,因此必须在双方确定我们自己的方式和方法,我们采取在我们调查的作家。 Hans Frei has more recently produced a study in Christology in which he attempts to face the problems of our approach to the Gospel narratives.汉斯弗雷最近有更多的研究产生了基督,他试图面对我们对福音的叙述方式的问题。 He insists that Jesus Christ is known to the Christian believer in a manner that includes personal knowledge but also at the same time surpasses it mysteriously.他坚持认为,耶稣基督是众所周知的基督教信徒,而且在同一时间的方式,包括个人知识超越它神秘。Moreover, "we can no longer think of God except as we think of Jesus at the same time nor of Jesus except in reference to God."此外,“我们不能再认为,除非我们在同一时间,也没有想到,除了耶稣耶稣在提到神。神”Frei also insists that while we can think of other people rightly without them being present, we cannot properly think of Jesus as not being present.弗雷还坚持认为,虽然我们可以考虑其他的人,没有他们正确地在场,我们不能正确地认为,耶稣视为不存在。We cannot indeed know his identity without being in his presence.我们无法知道他确实没有在他面前存在的同一性。

RS Wallace遥感华莱士
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
HR Mackintosh, The Person of Christ; DM Baillie, God Was in Christ; O Cullmann, The Christology of the NT; E Brunner, The Mediator; LB Smedes, The Incarnation, Trends in Modern Anglican Thought; H Relton, A Study in Christology; K Barth, Church Dogmatics; RGG , I; H Vogel, Gott in Christo and Christologie; M Fonyas, The Person of Jesus Christ in the Decisions of the Ecumenical Councils; W Pannenberg, Jesus, God and Man; HW Frei, The Identity of Jesus Christ; E Schillebeeckx, Christ, Jesus, and Jesus and Christ; RA Norris, The Christological Controversy; JA Dorner, History of the Development of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ.人力资源麦金托什,基督的人,马克拜里,神在基督; Ø Cullmann,基督的新台币,电子商务布伦纳,调解员;磅Smedes,化身,在现代英国圣公会思潮,高h雷尔顿,在基督研究; K表巴特,教会教义学,RGG,我; ħ沃格尔,在克里斯托和Christologie戈特〔M Fonyas,在对基督教议会的决定耶稣基督的人; W潘内伯格,耶稣,上帝和人;硬件弗雷,身份耶稣基督,电子商务施雷贝克,基督,耶稣,耶稣和基督;类风湿性关节炎诺里斯,该基督争议;茉莉多纳,在对基督的人本主义的发展史。


Christology基督

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ.基督是神学的部分与我们的主耶稣基督的交易。In its full extent it comprises the doctrines concerning both the person of Christ and His works; but in the present article we shall limit ourselves to a consideration of the person of Christ.在充分程度它包括两个方面的教义,基督和他的作品的人,但在目前的文章中,我们将自己限制了基督的人考虑。Here again we shall not infringe on the domain of the historian and Old-Testament theologian, who present their respective contributions under the headings JESUS CHRIST, and MESSIAS; hence the theology of the Person of Jesus Christ, considered in the light of the New Testament or from the Christian point of view, is the proper subject of the present article.在这里我们再次不得侵犯了历史学家和旧全书神学领域,谁的标题下介绍耶稣,弥赛亚了各自的贡献,因此对耶稣基督的人,在新约圣经的角度来考虑,神学还是从基督教的观点来看,是正确的,本条款的主题。

The person of Jesus Christ is the Second Person of the Most Holy Trinity, the Son or the Word of the Father, Who "was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary and was made man."耶稣基督的人是最神圣的三位一体的第二位,子或父的话,谁“体现的是对圣母玛利亚圣灵而成为人。”These mysteries, though foretold in the Old Testament, were fully revealed in the New, and clearly developed in Christian Tradition and theology.这些谜团,虽然在旧约预言,充分暴露了在新的,并明确在基督教传统和神学的发展。Hence we shall have to study our subject under the triple aspect of the Old Testament, the New Testament, and Christian Tradition.因此,我们必须研究在旧约的三方面,新约,和基督教的传统我们的主题。

OLD TESTAMENT旧约

From what has been said we understand that the Old Testament is not considered here from the viewpoint of the Jewish scribe, but of the Christian theologian.从已表示,据我们所知,旧约是这里不考虑从犹太文士的观点,但在基督教神学家。Jesus Christ Himself was the first to use it in this way by His repeated appeal to the Messianic passages of the prophetic writings.耶稣基督自己是第一个使用这种方式由他一再呼吁弥赛亚的预言著作段落了。The Apostles saw in these prophecies many arguments in favour of the claims and the teachings of Jesus Christ; the Evangelists, too, are familiar with them, though they appeal less frequently to them than the patristic writers do.使徒们看到这些预言赞成的债权和耶稣基督的教导许多论点;的福音,也与他们熟悉的,但他们对他们的吸引力较少比教父作家做。 Even the Fathers either state the prophetic argument only in general terms or they quote single prophecies; but they thus prepare the way for the deeper insight into the historical perspective of the Messianic predictions which began to prevail in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.即使是父亲要么只笼统地预言参数或状态的报价单,他们的预言,但是他们因此准备到救世主的预言而开始占上风,在十八和十九世纪历史的角度更深入的了解了道路。 Leaving the statement of the historical development of the Messianic prophecies to the writer of the article MESSIAS, we shall briefly call attention to the prophetic predictions of the genealogy of Christ, of His birth, His infancy, His names, His offices, His public life, His sufferings, and His glory.在离开的弥赛亚预言的弥赛亚作家的文章历史发展的发言,我们将简要地呼吁人们关注的基督的家谱,他的出生,他的起步阶段,他的名字,他的办公室,他的公共生活的先知预言,他的苦难,他的荣耀。

(1) References to the human genealogy of the Messias are quite numerous in the Old Testament: He is represented as the seed of the woman, the son of Sem, the son of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the son of David, the prince of pastors, the offspring of the marrow of the high cedar (Genesis 3:1-19; 9:18-27; 12:1-9; 17:1-9; 18:17-19; 22:16-18; 26:1-5; 27:1-15; Numbers 24:15-19; 2 Samuel 7:1-16; 1 Chronicles 17:1-17; Jeremiah 23:1-8; 33:14-26; Ezekiel 17). (1)对人类家谱的messias引用相当众多在旧约:他是代表作为女人的后裔,扫描电镜,是亚伯拉罕,以撒的儿子,雅各​​,大卫的儿子,儿子王子的牧师,对高雪松(创3:1-19骨髓后代; 9:18-27; 12:1-9; 17:1-9; 18:17-19; 22:16-18 ; 26:1-5; 27:1-15;数24:15-19;撒下7:1-16;历代志上17:1-17;耶利米书23:1-8; 33:14-26;厄泽克尔17)。 The Royal Psalmist extols the Divine genealogy of the future Messias in the words: "The Lord hath said to me: Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee" (Ps. ii, 7).皇家诗人赞美的话在未来的弥赛亚神的家谱:“上帝对我说:你是我的儿子,我今日生你”(诗篇二,7)。

(2) The Prophets frequently speak of the birth of the expected Christ. (2)先知经常在耶稣诞生的预期发言。They locate its place in Bethlehem of Juda (Micah 5:2-14), they determine its time by the passing of the sceptre from Juda (Genesis 49:8-12), by the seventy weeks of Daniel (ix, 22-27), and by the "little while" mentioned in the Book of Aggeus (ii, 1-10).他们找到其在犹大伯利恒(弥5:2-14),他们确定了从犹大(创世纪49:8-12),权杖由丹尼尔七十零周(九,22-27通过其时间地点),由“小而”在Aggeus(二,1-10)书中提到。 The Old-Testament seers know also that the Messias will be born of a Virgin Mother (Isaiah 7:1-17), and that His appearance, at least His public appearance, will be preceded by a precursor (Isaiah 40:1-11; Malachi 4:5-6).老式的旧约的预言家也知道该messias将是一个童贞的母亲(以赛亚书7:1-17)出生,而他的出现,至少他的公开露面,将由前体(以赛亚书40:1-11之前;玛拉基书4:5-6)。

(3) Certain events connected with the infancy of the Messias have been deemed important enough to be the subject of prophetic prediction. (3)与婴儿的messias连接某些事件已足以被视为重要的先知预言的主题。Among these are the adoration of the Magi (Ps. lxxxi, 1-17), the slaughter of the innocents (Jeremiah 31:15-26), and the flight into Egypt (Hosea 11:1-7).其中包括东方三博士(诗篇捌拾,1-17)崇拜,对无辜者(耶利米31:15-26)屠宰,到埃及(何西阿书11:1-7)飞行。 It is true that in the case of these prophecies, as it happens in the case of many others, their fulfilment is their clearest commentary; but this does not undo the fact that the events were really predicted.诚然,在这些预言的情况,因为它在许多其他情况下发生的,它们的实现是他们最清楚的评论,但是这并不撤消,该事件是真的预测的事实。

(4) Perhaps there is less need of insisting on the predictions of the better known Messianic names and titles, seeing that they involve less obscurity. (4)也许有少对更好地了解救世主的名字和头衔的预测需要坚持,看到他们默默无闻涉及较少。Thus in the prophecies of Zacharias the Messias is called the Orient, or, according to the Hebrew text, the "bud" (iii; vi, 9-15), in the Book of Daniel He is the Son of Man (vii), in the Prophecy of Malachias He is the Angel of the Testament (ii, 17; iii, 6), in the writings of Isaias He is the Saviour (li, 1; lii, 12; lxii), the Servant of the Lord (xlix, 1), the Emmanuel (viii, 1-10), the Prince of peace (ix, 1-7).因此,在撒迦利亚的预言messias是所谓的东方,或根据希伯来文中,“萌芽”(三,六,9-15),在但以理书中,他是人子(七)在玛拉基亚亚预言他是遗嘱(二,17;三,六)天使,在他的著作的伊萨亚斯是他们的救世主(李,1,崇礼,12岁;第六十二号),主(第四十九届仆人,1),灵光(八,1月10日),和平王子(九,1-7)。

(5) The Messianic offices are considered in a general way in the latter part of Isaias (lxi); in particular, the Messias is considered as prophet in the Book of Deuteronomy (xviii, 9-22); as king in the Canticle of Anna (1 Samuel 2:1-10) and in the royal song of the Psalmist (xliv); as priest in the sacerdotal type Melchisedech (Genesis 14:14-20) and in the Psalmist's words "a priest forever" (cix); as Goel, or Avenger, in the second part of Isaias (lxiii, 1-6); as mediator of the New Testament, under the form of a covenant of the people (Isaiah 42:1; 43:13), and of the light of the Gentiles (Isaiah 49). (5)被认为是救世主的办事处在一般途径:伊萨亚斯(LXI的)后期,特别是messias是在书申命记(十八,9-22)先知认为,作为国王的颂歌安娜(撒母耳记2:1-10),并在诗人(四十四)皇家歌曲;如sacerdotal型Melchisedech(创14:14-20)和诗人的话“永远为祭司”牧师(的CIX) ;作为戈埃尔,或复仇者的伊萨亚斯第二部分(lxiii,1-6);作为调解人的新约,在一个人的契约形式(以赛亚书42:1,43:13),以及的外邦人(以赛亚书49)光。

(6) As to the public life of the Messias, Isaias gives us a general idea of the fulness of the Spirit investing the Anointed (xi, 1-16), and of the Messianic work (Iv). (六)关于公共生活的messias,伊萨亚斯使我们对圣灵的投资的受膏者(十一,1-16)丰满的总体思路,以及弥赛亚的工作(四)。The Psalmist presents a picture of the Good Shepherd (xxii); Isaias summarizes the Messianic miracles (xxxv); Zacharias exclaims, "Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Sion", thus predicting Christ's solemn entrance into Jerusalem; the Psalmist refers to this same event when he mentions the praise out of the mouth of infants (viii).在诗人提出了一个好牧人(二十二)照片;伊萨亚斯总结了救世主的奇迹(三十五);撒迦利亚感叹,“飘柔很大,对锡安的民哪”,从而预测基督进入耶路撒冷庄严入口;的诗人,是指同一事件当他提到的好评超出了婴儿(八)口。 To return once more to the Book of Isaias, the prophet foretells the rejection of the Messias through a league with death (xxvii); the Psalmist alludes to the same mystery where he speaks of the stone which the builders rejected (cxvii).要返回再次向伊萨亚斯书,通过与先知预言死亡联赛的messias排斥反应(二十七),而诗人影射到同一个神秘的地方,他的石头,匠人所弃(cxvii)说话。

(7) Need we say that the sufferings of the Messias were fully predicted by the prophets of the Old Testament?(七)需要我们说的messias的痛苦,完全的旧约先知预言?The general idea of the Messianic victim is presented in the context of the words "sacrifice and oblation thou wouldst not" (Ps. xxxix); in the passage beginning with the resolve "Let us put wood on his bread" (Jeremiah 11), and in the sacrifice described by the prophet Malachias (i).救世主的受害者提出的总体思路是对的话“牺牲和奉献你肯不”(诗篇三十九)范围内,在通过与决心开始“让我们把他的面包木”(耶利米书11),在由(一)先知玛拉基亚亚描述的牺牲。 Besides, the series of the particular events which constitute the history of Christ's Passion has been described by the prophets with a remarkable minuteness: the Psalmist refers to His betrayal in the words "the man of my peace . . . supplanted me" (xl), and Zacharias knows of the "thirty pieces of silver" (xi); the Psalmist praying in the anguish of his soul, is a type of Christ in His agony (Ps. liv); His capture is foretold in the words "pursue and take him" and "they will hunt after the soul of the just" (Ps. lxx; xciii); His trial with its false witnesses may be found represented in the words "unjust witnesses have risen up against me, and iniquity hath lied to itself" (Ps. xxvi); His flagellation is portrayed in the description of the man of sorrows (Isaiah 52:13; 53:12) and the words "scourges were gathered together upon me" (Ps. xxxiv); the betrayer's evil lot is pictured in the imprecations of Psalm 108; the crucifixion is referred to in the passages "What are these wounds in the midst of thy hands?"此外,对它们构成了基督的受难史的一系列事件已被描述的先知与一个了不起的微小:该诗人是指他背叛的话“。。。我的爱好和平的人取代我”(四十) ,和撒迦利亚知悉“三十两银子”(十一);的诗人在他的灵魂祈祷的痛苦,是基督在他的痛苦(诗篇丽芙)型,他的话中捕捉预言“的追求和把他“和”他们猎取后,刚刚的灵魂“(诗篇LXX的; xciii),他与证​​人的虚假审判可能找到的话代表了”不公正的证人都起来攻击我,欺骗和邪恶祂所本身“(诗篇二十六),他的鞭挞是描绘在受痛苦的人(以赛亚书52:13; 53:12)的说明,并在”祸害人聚集在我身上“(诗三十四)背叛者的邪恶很多是描绘在诗篇108诅咒;受难的经文中提到的“什么是你双手的中间这些伤口?” (Zechariah 13), "Let us condemn him to a most shameful death" (Wisdom 2), and "They have dug my hands and my feet" (Ps. xxi); the miraculous darkness occurs in Amos 8; the gall and vinegar are spoken of in Psalm 68; the pierced heart of Christ is foreshadowed in Zach., xii. (撒迦利亚书13),“让我们谴责他是最可耻的死亡”(智慧2),“他们挖我的手,我的脚”(诗篇二十一)黑暗的奇迹发生在8阿莫斯;和醋胆是口语的诗篇68;刺穿的基督的心,在扎克预示,十二。。 The sacrifice of Isaac (Genesis 21:1-14), the scapegoat (Leviticus 16:1-28), the ashes of purification (Numbers 19:1-10), and the brazen serpent (Numbers 21:4-9) hold a prominent place among the types prefiguring the suffering Messias.以撒的(创世纪21:1-14)的替罪羊(利未记16:1-28)牺牲,净化的灰烬(民数记19:1-10),以及厚颜无耻蛇(民数记21:4-9)举行一间预演的苦难弥赛亚类型突出的位置。 The third chapter of Lamentations is justly considered as the dirge of our buried Redeemer.第三章的悲叹是公正的,我们认为是埋救世主挽歌。

(8) Finally, the glory of the Messias has been foretold by the Prophets of the Old Testament.(8)最后,荣耀的messias预言已经由旧约先知。The context of such phrases as "I have risen because the Lord hath protected me" (Psalm 3), "My flesh shall rest in hope (Psalm 15), "On the third day he will raise us up" (Hosea 5:15, 6:3), "O death, I will be thy death" (Hosea 13:6-15a), and "I know that my Redeemer liveth" (Job 19:23-27) referred the devout Jewish worshipper to something more than a merely earthly restoration, the fulfilment of which began to be realized in the Resurrection of Christ. This mystery is also implied, at least typically, in the first fruits of the harvest (Leviticus 23:9-14) and the delivery of Jonas from the belly of the fish (Jonah 2). Nor is the Resurrection of the Messias the only element of Christ's glory predicted by the Prophets. Psalm 67 refers to the Ascension; Joel, ii, 28-32, to the coming of the Paraclete; Is., Ix, to the call of the Gentiles; Mich., iv, 1-7, to the conversion of the Synagogue; Dan., ii, 27-47, to the kingdom of the Messias as compared with the kingdom of the world. Other characteristics of the Messianic kingdom are typified by the tabernacle (Exodus 25:8-9; 29:43; 40:33-36; Numbers 9:15-23), the mercy-seat (Exodus 25:17-22; Psalm 79:1), Aaron the high priest (Exodus 28:1; 30:1; 10; Numbers 16:39-40), the manna (Exodus 16:1-15; Psalm 77:24-25), and the rock of Horeb (Exodus 17:5-7; Numbers 20:10-11; Psalm 104:41). A Canticle of thanksgiving for the Messianic benefits is found in Is., xii.这种短语中的“我已经上涨,因为耶和华保护我”(诗篇3),“我的肉身要安居在指望(诗篇15),”第三天他必使我们兴起了“(何西阿书5:15 ,6:3),“死啊,我愿意做你死”(何西阿13:6 - 15A条),“我知道我的救世主活着”(伯19:23-27)提到的虔诚的犹太信徒到更多的东西以上只是一个俗世的恢复,开始履行其实现在基督的复活。这种神秘,也意味着,至少在通常的收获(利未记23:9-14)和乔纳斯交付的第一批成果, 。从鱼(乔纳2)肚皮也不是复活的messias基督荣耀的唯一因素预测的先知,诗篇67指的是耶稣升天。乔尔,二,28-32,到未来的圣灵;是,九,向外邦人的召唤;。密歇根州,四,1-7,到犹太教堂转换;。丹,二,27-47,到王国的messias较王国。世界的救世主王国的其他特征是典型的帐幕(出埃及记25:8-9; 29:43; 40:33-36;民数记9:15-23),施恩座(出埃及记25:17 - 22;诗篇79:1),大祭司亚伦(出埃及记28:1,30:1,10;数16:39-40),吗哪(出埃及记16:1-15;诗篇77:24-25)和何烈的磐石(出埃及记17:5-7;民数记20:10-11;诗篇104:41)。一个为救世主的好处感恩颂歌中发现的,十二。。

The Books of the Old Testament are not the only source from which the Christian theologian may learn the Messianic ideas of pre-Christian Jewry.在旧约的书并不是唯一的来源是基督教神学家可以学习前基督教的犹太人的救世主的想法。The Sibylline oracles, the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Psalms of Solomon, the Ascensio Moysis, the Revelation of Baruch, the Fourth Book of Esdras, and several Talmudic and Rabbinic writings are rich depositories of pre-Christian views concerning the expected Messias.The知未来的签,以诺,的jubilees,对所罗门Ascensio Moysis,在巴鲁克启示,第四册埃斯德拉斯,诗篇和几个塔木德和拉比著作书刊是前基督教丰富的托管有关意见预计弥赛亚。Not that all of these works were written before the coming of Christ; but, though partially post-Christian in their authorship, they preserve a picture of the Jewish world of thought, dating back, at least in its outline, centuries before the coming of Christ.这并不是说这些作品都是基督来临前写的;不过,虽然部分后的基督徒,在他们的著作,他们保存了犹太人的思想世界图景,距今至少在它的轮廓,在未来的几个世纪之前基督。

NEW TESTAMENT新约

Some modern writers tell us that there are two Christs, as it were, the Messias of faith and the Jesus of history.一些现代作家告诉我们,有两个基督,因为它是,信仰的弭赛亚和历史的耶稣。They regard the Lord and Christ, Whom God exalted by raising Him from the dead, as the subject of Christian faith; and Jesus of Nazareth, the preacher and worker of miracles, as the theme of the historian.他们认为上帝和基督,就是上帝开天辟地通过提高从他死了,作为基督教信仰的主题;和拿撒勒人耶稣,牧师与奇迹工作者,作为历史学家的主题。 They assure us that it is quite impossible to persuade even the least experienced critic that Jesus taught, in formal terms and at one and the same time, the Christology of Paul, that of John, and the doctrines of Nicæa, of Ephesus, and of Chalcedon.他们向我们保证,这是完全不可能说服即使最有经验的评论家说,耶稣教,在正式条款和同一个时间,保罗的基督,即约翰和以弗所尼西亚的教义,和卡尔西。 Otherwise the history of the first Christian centuries appears to these writers to be quite inconceivable.否则,第一次基督教百年历史上似乎这些作家是相当不可思议的。The Fourth Gospel is said to lack the data which underlie the definitions of the first ecumenical councils and to supply testimony that is not a supplement, but a corrective, of the portrait of Jesus drawn by the Synoptics.第四福音是说是缺乏数据所依据的第一个基督教理事会的定义和提供的证词中说不是一个补充,但纠正的,由天气学画耶稣的画像。 These two accounts of the Christ are represented as mutually exclusive: if Jesus spoke and acted as He speaks and acts in the Synoptic Gospels, then He cannot have spoken and acted as He is reported by St. John.在基督这两个帐户被描绘成相互排斥的:如果耶稣发言,并担​​任他说,在天气福音行为,那么他就可以不发言,因为他是由担任圣约翰报告。 We shall here briefly review the Christology of St. Paul, of the Catholic Epistles, of the Fourth Gospel, and the Synoptics.我们将在这里简要地回顾了基督,天主教圣保禄书信,第四福音,该synoptics。Thus we shall give the reader a complete Christology of the New Testament and at the same time the data necessary to control the contentions of the Modernists.因此,我们应让读者对新约,并在同一时间内的资料需要控制的现代主义完成基督的争论。The Christology will not, however, be complete in the sense that it extends to all the details concerning Jesus Christ taught in the New Testament, but in the sense that it gives His essential characteristics taught in the whole of the New Testament. The基督不会,但是,要完成这个意义上,它延伸到所有的细节有关耶稣基督在新约圣经教导,但在某种意义上说,它给了他的基本特点,在整个的新约教授。

(1) Pauline Christology(1)保利娜基督

St. Paul insists on the truth of Christ's real humanity and Divinity, in spite of the fact that at first sight the reader is confronted with three objects in the Apostle's writings: God, the human world, and the Mediator.圣保罗坚持基督的真正的人性与神性的真理,在乍看之下,在读者中有三个对象面对使徒的著作,尽管事实:上帝,人的世界,调解员。 But then the latter is both Divine and human, both God and man.但后者则是既神圣和人力,上帝和人。

(a) Christ's Humanity in the Pauline Epistles(一)基督的人性在宝莲书信

The expressions "form of a servant", "in habit found as a man", "in the likeness of sinful flesh" (Philippians 2:7; Romans 8:3) may seem to impair the real humanity of Christ in the Pauline teaching.表达“形式的仆人”,“作为一个男人的习​​惯发现”,“在罪身的形状”(腓2:7,罗马书8:3)看起来可能损害在宝莲教学中的基督真正的人性。 But in reality they only describe a mode of being or hint at the presence of a higher nature in Christ not seen by the senses, or they contrast Christ's human nature with the nature of that sinful race to which it belongs.但在现实中,他们只描述在一个较高的性质在基督不存在的感官看到的存在方式或暗示,或对比基督的与该种族性质的人性罪恶它所属。 On the other hand the Apostle plainly speaks of Our Lord manifested in the flesh (1 Timothy 3:16), as possessing a body of flesh (Colossians 1:22), as being "made of a woman" (Galatians 4:4), as being born of the seed of David according to the flesh (Romans 1:3), as belonging according to the flesh to the race of Israel (Romans 9:5).另一方面,使徒明明说:“由一个女人”(加拉太书4:4)我们的主表现在肉体(1提后3:16)为拥有一个​​肉身(歌罗西书1:22)为正,作为出生的大卫种子属于根据向以色列种族(罗马书9:5)肉根据肉(罗马书1:3)。 As a Jew, Jesus Christ was born under the Law (Galatians 4:4).作为一个犹太人,耶稣基督诞生根据法律(加拉太书4:4)。The Apostle dwells with emphasis on Our Lord's real share in our physical human weakness (2 Corinthians 13:4), on His life of suffering (Hebrews 5:8) reaching its climax in the Passion (ibid., 1:5; Philippians 3:10; Colossians 1:24).重点在于我们的主的真实分享人类的弱点,在我们的身体上的痛苦,他的生活达到其在激情高潮(同上,1:5(希伯来书5:8)(林后13:4),使徒住;腓三:10;歌罗西书1:24)。 Only in two respects did Our Lord's humanity differ from the rest of men: first in its entire sinlessness (2 Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 2:17; Romans 7:3); secondly, in the fact that Our Lord was the second Adam, representing the whole human race (Romans 5:12-21; 1 Corinthians 15:45-49).只有在两个方面做了我们的主的人类从其余的人不同:第一次在其整个清白(哥林多后书5:21;加拉太书2:17,罗马书7:3),其次是事实,我们的主是第二个亚当,代表整个人类(罗马书5:12-21,哥林多前书15:45-49)。

(b) Christ's Divinity in the Pauline Epistles(二)基督的神性在宝莲书信

According to St. Paul, the superiority of the Christian revelation over all other Divine manifestations, and the perfection of the New Covenant with its sacrifice and priesthood, are derived from the fact that Christ is the Son of God (Hebrews 1:1 sq.; 5:5 sq.; 2:5 sq.; Romans 1:3; Galatians 4:4; Ephesians 4:13; Colossians 1:12 sq.; 2:9 sq.; etc.).据圣保罗,对其他一切神圣的表现基督教的启示优势,新的公约,其牺牲和神职人员的完美,是来自一个事实,即基督是神的儿子(希伯来书1:1平; 5:5平,2:5平,罗马书1:3;加拉太书4:4,弗4:13;歌罗西书1:12平方米; 2:9平,等等)。The Apostle understands by the expression "Son of God" not a merely moral dignity, or a merely external relation to God which began in time, but an eternal and immanent relation of Christ to the Father.使徒理解的表达“上帝的儿子”不只是一个道德尊严,或仅仅是外部关系的神,在时间开始,但一个基督永恒的内在关系的父亲。 He contrasts Christ with, and finds Him superior to, Aaron and his successors, Moses and the Prophets (Hebrews 5:4; 10:11; 7:1-22; 3:1-6; 1:1).基督与他对比,发现他优越,亚伦和他的继任者,摩西和先知(希伯来书5:4; 10:11; 7:1-22; 3:1-6; 1:1)。He raises Christ above the choirs of angels, and makes Him their Lord and Master (Hebrews 1:3; 14; 2:2-3), and seats Him as heir of all things at the right hand of the Father (Hebrews 1:2-3; Galatians 4:14; Ephesians 1:20-21).他提出了上述天使的合唱团基督,并让他自己的上帝和硕士(希伯来书1:3; 14; 2:2-3),席位作为万物的继承人在父亲(希伯来书一右手他: 2-3;加拉太书4:14,以弗所书1:20-21)。If St. Paul is obliged to use the terms "form of God", "image of God", when he speaks of Christ's Divinity, in order to show the personal distinction between the Eternal Father and the Divine Son (Philippians 2:6; Colossians 1:15), Christ is not merely the image and glory of God (1 Corinthians 11:7), but also the first-born before any created beings (Colossians 1:15), in Whom, and by Whom, and for Whom all things were made (Colossians 1:16), in Whom the fulness of the Godhead resides with that actual reality which we attach to the presence of the material bodies perceptible and measurable through the organs of our senses (Colossians 2:9), in a word, "who is over all things, God blessed for ever" (Romans 9:5).如果圣保罗有义务使用命令的条款,“上帝的形象”,当他基督的神性说“上帝的形式”,以示永恒的父亲之间的和神圣的儿子(腓2:6个人的区别;歌罗西书1:15),基督不仅是神的形像和荣耀(林前11:7),但也是第一个出生前(歌罗西书1:15),在其中,由何人,以及任何创建人谁所有事情发了言(歌罗西书1:16)在其中,充满了神的源头所在,实际的现实,与我们重视材料的机构,通过我们的感官(歌罗西书2:9)的器官感知的,可衡量的存在,总之,“谁是对所有的事情,上帝保佑永远”(罗9:5)。

(2) Christology of the Catholic Epistles(2)基督的天主教教会

The Epistles of St. John will be considered together with the other writings of the same Apostle in the next paragraph.书信的圣约翰将一并考虑,在未来的一段相同的使徒的其他著作。Under the present heading we shall briefly indicate the views concerning Christ held by the Apostles St. James, St. Peter, and St. Jude.在目前的标题,我们将简要地说明有关的意见,基督的使徒圣雅各福群,圣彼得和圣裘德举行。

(a) The Epistle of St. James(一)书信圣雅各福群

The mainly practical scope of the Epistle of St. James does not lead us to expect that Our Lord's Divinity would be formally expressed in it as a doctrine of faith.作者:圣雅各福群主要是书信的实用范围不会导致我们期望我们的主的神将正式在它表现为一种信仰的教义。This doctrine is, however, implied in the language of the inspired writer.这一理论,然而,在灵感的作家的语言暗示。He professes to stand in the same relation to Jesus Christ as to God, being the servant of both (i, 1): he applies the same term to the God of the Old Testament as to Jesus Christ (passim).他自称站在相同的关系,以神耶稣基督,作为双方的仆人(一,1):他采用同样的任期到旧约以耶稣基督(各处)神。 Jesus Christ is both the sovereign judge and independent lawgiver, who can save and can destroy (iv, 12); the faith in Jesus Christ is faith in the lord of Glory (ii, 1).耶稣基督是两个主权独立的立法者和法官,谁可以保存并可以摧毁(四,12);在耶稣基督的信仰是荣耀的(二,1)主的信心。 The language of St. James would be exaggerated and overstrained on any other supposition than the writer's firm belief in the Divinity of Jesus Christ.在圣雅各福群会被夸大的语言,在任何比作家在耶稣基督的神性等假设过劳的坚定信念。

(b) Belief of St. Peter(二)信仰的圣彼得大教堂

St. Peter presents himself as the servant and the apostle of Jesus Christ (1 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 1:1), who was predicted by the Prophets of the Old Testament in such a way that the Prophets themselves were Christ's own servants, heralds, and organs (1 Peter 1:10-11).圣彼得表现为,仆人和耶稣基督的使徒(1彼得1:1; 2彼得1:1)自己,谁是由老先知以这样的方式约圣经的预言本身是基督自己的仆人预测,预示和器官(1彼得1:10)。It is the pre-existent Christ who moulds the utterances of Israel's Prophets to proclaim their anticipations of His advent.这是前存在的基督谁模具以色列的先知,他的到来宣布其预期的话语。St. Peter had witnessed the glory of Jesus in the Transfiguration (2 Peter 1:16); he appears to take pleasure in multiplying His titles: Jesus Our Lord (2 Peter 1:2), our Lord Jesus Christ (ibid., i, 14, 16), the Lord and Saviour (ibid., iii, 2), our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (ibid., i, 1), Whose power is Divine (ibid., i, 3), through whose promises Christians are made partakers of the nature of God (ibid., i, 4).圣彼得曾亲眼目睹了在变形(2彼得1:16)耶稣的荣耀,他似乎要在他的名称乘以乐趣:我们的主耶稣(彼得后书1:2),我们的主耶稣基督(同上,我,14,16),主,救主(同上,三,二),我们主救主耶稣基督(同上,一,1),其权力是神圣的(同上,我,3),通过其承诺基督徒是由神的本质(同上,我,4)有分。 Throughout his Epistle, therefore, St. Peter feels, as it were, and implies the Divinity of Jesus Christ.纵观他的书信,因此,圣彼得的感觉,因为它是,并且暗示耶稣基督的神性。

(c) Epistle of St. Jude(三)书信圣裘德

St. Jude, too, introduces himself as the servant of Jesus Christ, through union with whom Christians are kept in a life of faith and holiness (1); Christ is our only Lord and Saviour (4), Who punished Israel in the wilderness and the rebel angels (5), Who will come to judgment surrounded by myriads of saints (14), and to Whom Christians look for the mercy which He will show them at His coming (21), the issue of which will be life everlasting.圣犹大,也引入了耶稣基督的仆人自己,通过与他们在一个基督徒的信仰和圣洁(1)生活保持联盟,基督是我们唯一的上帝和救主(4),以色列在旷野处罚和反叛天使(5),他会来了无数的圣人(14)包围的判断,对他们的基督徒寻找怜悯他将显示在他的未来(21),这个问题他们将永生。 Can a merely human Christ be the subject of this language?可以只是一个人的基督是这种语言的对象吗?

(3) Johannean Christology(3)Johannean基督

If there were nothing else in the New Testament to prove the Divinity of Christ, the first fourteen verses in the Fourth Gospel would suffice to convince a believer in the Bible of that dogma.如果有什么其他的新约,以证明基督的神,先在第四十四福音经文将足以说服该教条圣经的信徒。 Now the doctrine of this prologue is the fundamental idea of the whole Johannean theology.现在这个序幕学说是整个Johannean神学的基本思想。The Word made flesh is the same with the Word Who was in the beginning, on the one hand, and with the man Jesus Christ, the subject of the Fourth Gospel on the other.道成肉身是用Word谁是在开始时,一方面,相同的,并与该男子耶稣基督,关于其他四福音的主题。The whole Gospel is a history of the Eternal Word dwelling in human nature among men.整个福音是一个永恒的Word在男性人性居住的历史。

The teaching of the Fourth Gospel is also found in the Johannean Epistles.第四次福音教学也发现,在Johannean书信。In his very opening words the writer tells his readers that the Word of life has become manifest and that the Apostles had seen and heard and handled the Word incarnate.他非常开放的作家告诉他的话,生命的单词已成为体现和使徒们所看到的和听到和处理肉身读者。The denial of the Son implies the loss of the Father (1 John 2:23), and "whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God abideth in him and he in God" (ibid., iv, 15).儿子的否定意味的父亲(约翰一书2:23)的损失,而“凡承认耶稣是神儿子的,神在他身上,他仍住在神”(同上,四,15)。 Towards the end of the Epistle the writer is still more emphatic: "And we know that the Son of God is come: and he hath given us understanding that we may know the true God, and may be in his true Son. This is the true God and life eternal" (ibid., v, 20).对作家的书信到底是更有力的:“我们知道,神的儿子来了:他所赐给我们的理解是,我们可能知道的真神,并且可能在他真正的儿子,这是。真正的上帝和永恒的生命“(同上,五,20)。

According to the Apocalypse, Christ is the first and the last, the alpha and the omega, the eternal and the almighty (i, 8; xxi, 6; xxii, 13).根据启示,基督是第一个和最后一个,阿尔法和欧米茄,永恒的和万能的(一,8;二十一,6;第二十二,13)。He is the king of kings and lord of lords (xix, 16), the lord of the unseen world (xii, 10; xiii, 8), the centre of the court of heaven (v, 6); He receives the adoration of the highest angels (v, 8), and as the object of that uninterrupted worship (v, 12), He is associated with the Father (v, 13; xvii, 14).他是万王之王,万主之王(19,16),在看不见的世界主(十二,10;十三,8),对法院的天堂(五,六)中心,他得到的崇拜的最高的天使(五,八),并作为该不间断崇拜(五,12)对象,他与父亲有关(五,13;十七,14)。

(4) Christology of the Synoptists(4)对基督的Synoptists

There is a real difference between the first three Evangelists and St. John in their respective representations of our Lord.之间存在着前三福音和圣约翰在各自的陈述我们的主真正的差别。The truth presented by these writers may be the same, but they view it from different standpoints.这些作家提出的事实可能是相同的,但他们从不同的角度查看它。The three Synoptists set forth the humanity of Christ in its obedience to the law, in its power over nature, and in its tenderness for the weak and afflicted; the fourth Gospel sets forth the life of Christ not in any of the aspects which belong to it as human, but as being the adequate expression of the glory of the Divine Person, manifested to men under a visible form.三个synoptists规定在其服从法律的基督的人性,在其供电的性质,以及它的柔情为弱者和折磨,第四福音阐述没有在任何方面属于基督的生命它作为人类,但作为对人的神圣荣耀可见的形式下表现出来的男子,充分表达。 But in spite of this difference, the Synoptists by their suggestive implication practically anticipate the teaching of the Fourth Gospel.但在这种差异,尽管他们的暗示意义的Synoptists几乎预料到第四福音教学。This suggestion is implied, first, in the Synoptic use of the title Son of God as applied to Jesus Christ.这项建议是隐含的,首先,在题目适用于上帝的儿子耶稣基督天气使用。Jesus is the Son of God, not merely in an ethical or theocratic sense, not merely as one among many sons, but He is the only, the well-beloved Son of the Father, so that His son-ship is unshared by any other, and is absolutely unique (Matthew 3:17, 17:5; 22:41; cf. 4:3, 6; Luke 4:3, 9); it is derived from the fact that the Holy Ghost was to come upon Mary, and the power of the Most High was to overshadow her (Luke 1:35).耶稣是神的儿子,在一个道德或神权的意义不仅,而不是仅仅作为一个在众多儿子,但他是唯一的,父的良好心爱的儿子,所以他的儿子舰是其他任何非共享,是绝对的唯一的(马太3:17,17:5,22:41;。比照4:3,6;路加福音4:3,9),它是来自一个事实,即圣灵临到玛丽,以及至高权力,掩盖她(路加福音1:35)。 Again, the Synoptists imply Christ's Divinity in their history of His nativity and its accompanying circumstances; He is conceived of the Holy Ghost (Luke, 1, 35), and His mother knows that all generations shall call her blessed, because the mighty one had done great things unto her (Luke 1:48).同样,的Synoptists意味着基督在了对他的耶稣诞生和与之配套的情况下,历史的神,他是设想的圣灵(路,1,35),和他的母亲知道,所有代要称她有福,因为强大的一人做伟大的事告诉她(路加福音1:48)。 Elisabeth calls Mary blessed among women, blesses the fruit of her womb, and marvels that she herself should be visited by the mother of her Lord (Luke 1:42-43).玛丽伊丽莎白呼吁妇女祝福,祝福她的子宫水果,而她自己应该由她的主(路加福音1:42-43)的母亲访问了奇迹。 Gabriel greets Our Lady as full of grace, and blessed among women; her Son will be great, He will be called the Son of the Most High, and of His kingdom there will be no end (Luke 1:28, 32).加布里埃尔作为迎接充满恩宠圣母和妇女祝福,她的儿子将是巨大的,他将被称为至高者,和他的王国里的儿子就没有结束(路加福音1:28,32)。 As new-born infant, Christ is adored by the shepherds and the Magi, representatives of the Jewish and the Gentile world.由于新出生的婴儿,基督是崇拜的牧羊人和贤士,对犹太人的代表和詹蒂莱世界。Simeon sees in the child his Lord's salvation, the light of the Gentiles, and the pride and glory of his people Israel (Luke 2:30-32).西蒙认为,在孩子他的主的救恩,外邦人的光,他的人民感到自豪和以色列(路加福音2:30-32)的荣耀。These accounts hardly fit in with the limits of a merely human child, but they become intelligible in the light of the Fourth Gospel.这些账户很难适应与一个孩子只是人类的极限,但他们成为了第四福音的光理解。

The Synoptists agree with the teaching of the Fourth Gospel concerning the person of Jesus Christ not merely in their use of the term Son of God and in their accounts of Christ's birth with its surrounding details, but also in their narratives of Our Lord's doctrine, life, and work.的Synoptists同意第四福音有关,只是在他们对上帝的长期的儿子使用,在基督的与周围的细节出生户口耶稣基督的人不教,而且在我们的主的学说,生活的叙述和工作。 The very term Son of Man, which they often apply to Christ, is used in such a way that it shows in Jesus Christ a self-consciousness for which the human element is not something primary, but something secondary and superinduced.对人很长远的儿子,他们往往是针对基督,是用这样一种方式,它显示了一个在耶稣基督的自我意识对这些人的因素是不是主要的,但一些中学和superinduced。 Often Christ is simply called Son (Matthew 11:27; 28:20), and correspondingly He never calls the Father "our" Father, but "my" Father (Matthew 18:10, 19, 35; 20:23; 26:53).通常被简称为儿子基督(马太11:27,28:20),并相应地调用父,他从来没有“我们”的父亲,但“我”父亲(马太18:10,19,35; 20:23,26: 53)。At His baptism and transfiguration He receives witness from heaven to His Divine Son-ship; the Prophets of the Old Testament are not rivals, but servants in comparison with Him (Matthew 21:34); hence the title Son of Man implies a nature to which Christ's humanity was an accessory.在他的洗礼和变形,他收到从天上见证他的神的儿子船舶;的旧约先知不是对手,而是在与他(马太21:34)比较公务员,因此题目人子意味着性质基督的人性是从犯。 Again, Christ claims the power to forgive sins and supports His claim by miracles (Matthew 9:2-6; Luke 5:20, 24); He insists on faith in Himself (Matthew 16:16, 17), He inserts His name in the baptismal formula between that of the Father and the Holy Ghost (Matthew 28:19), He alone knows the Father and is known by the Father alone (Matthew 11:27), He institutes the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist (Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19), He suffers and dies only to rise again the third day (Matthew 20:19; Mark 10:34; Luke 18:33) He ascends into Heaven, but declares that He will be among us till the end of the world (Matthew 28:20).同样,基督索赔赦罪的权柄,支持他所声称的奇迹(太9:2-6路加福音5:20,24),他在自己的信仰(马太16:16,17),他坚持他的名字插入在之间的父亲和圣灵(马太28:19)公式的洗礼,他独自认识父,由爸爸独自一人(马太11:27)称,他研究所的圣体圣事(马太26圣礼:26,马可福音14:22,路加福音22:19),他患有和模具只增不减再次第三天(马太20:19,马可福音10:34,路加福音18:33)他进入天堂上升,但宣称,他在我们将要到世界(马太28:20)结束。

Need we add that Christ's claims to the most exalted dignity of His person are unmistakably clear in the eschatological discourses of the Synoptists?我们需要补充的是基督的声称,他的人最崇高的尊严是在论述了eschatological的Synoptists无误地清楚了吗? He is the Lord of the material and moral universe; as supreme lawgiver He revises all other legislation; as final judge He determines the fate of all.他是宇宙的物质和道义上的主,他作为最高立法者修改所有其他法律;作为最终的裁判,他决定了所有的命运。Blot the Fourth Gospel out of the Canon of the New Testament, and you still have in the Synoptic Gospels the identical doctrine concerning the person of Jesus Christ which we now draw out of the Four Gospels; some points of the doctrine might be less clearly stated than they are now, but they would remain substantially the same. blot的第四福音的佳能的新约,而你仍然有相同的天气福音教义有关耶稣基督的人,我们现在制定出的四福音;点的学说一些可能不太清楚说明他们现在比,但它们仍将是大致相同。

CHRISTIAN TRADITION基督教传统

Biblical Christology shows that one and the same Jesus Christ is both God and man.圣经的基督表明,同一个耶稣基督是上帝和人。While Christian tradition has always maintained this triple thesis that Jesus Christ is truly man, that He is truly God, and that the Godman, Jesus Christ, is one and the same person the heretical or erroneous tenets of various religious leaders have forced the Church to insist more expressly now on the one, now on another element of her Christology.而基督教传统,始终保持着这三重论文耶稣基督是真实的人,他是真正的上帝,而戈德曼,耶稣基督,是一个和同一个人不同宗教领袖的邪教或错误的原则却迫使教会现在更明确地坚持一个,现在她的基督的另一个因素。 A classified list of the principal errors and of the subsequent ecclesiastical utterances will show the historical development of the Church's doctrine with sufficient clearness.阿的主要错误和随后的教会话语分类名单将显示教会的教义有足够清晰的历史发展。The reader will find a more lengthy account of the principal heresies and councils under their respective headings.读者会发现在他们各自的主标题是异端邪说和议会更长时间的帐户。

(1) Humanity of Christ(1)基督的人性

The true humanity of Jesus Christ was denied even in the earliest ages of the Church.耶稣基督的真正的人性被剥夺,甚至在教会的最早年龄。The Docetist Marcion and the Priscillianists grant to Jesus only an apparent body; the Valentinians, a body brought down from Heaven.The Docetist马吉安和Priscillianists拨款,以耶稣只是一个明显的正文,伦提努,带来了一个从天上降下来的身体。The followers of Apollinaris deny either that Jesus had any human soul at all, or that He possessed the higher part of the human soul, they maintain that the Word supplies either the whole soul in Christ, or at least its higher faculties.对亚坡理纳的追随者否认耶稣,要么完全没有人的灵魂,或者说,他具备了较高的人类灵魂的一部分,他们认为,无论是在基督的Word用品,或者至少是其较高的院系整个灵魂。 In more recent times it is not so much Christ's true humanity as His real manhood that is denied.在更近的时候是没有这么多基督作为他的真正的男子汉气概真正的人性是拒绝。According to Kant the Christian creed deals with the ideal, not with the historical Jesus; according to Jacobi, it worships Jesus not as an historical person, but as a religious ideal; according to Fichte there exists an absolute unity between God and man, and Jesus was the first to see and teach it; according to Schelling, the incarnation is an eternal fact, which happened to reach in Jesus its highest point, according to Hegel, Christ is not the actual incarnation of God in Jesus of Nazareth but the symbol of God's incarnation in humanity at large.根据康德的理想与信仰基督教的处理不符合历史上的耶稣;根据雅可比,它崇拜耶稣不是作为一个历史人物,但作为一个宗教理想,据费希特存在一个与上帝的人,绝对的统一耶稣是第一个看到并教它,据谢林,化身是一个永恒的事实,即发生在耶稣达到最高点,根据黑格尔,基督不是神在拿撒勒人耶稣的化身,但实际的符号神的化身,在整个人类。 Finally, certain recent Catholic writers distinguish between the Christ of history and the Christ of faith, thus destroying in the Christ of faith His historical reality.最后,某些最近的天主教作家区分历史基督和基督的信仰,因此,在基督的信仰摧毁他的历史现实。The New Syllabus (Proposit, 29 sq.) and the Encyclical "Pascendi dominici gregis" may be consulted on these errors.新教学大纲(Proposit,29平方米)和通谕“Pascendi dominici gregis”可查阅这些错误。

(2) The Divinity of Christ(2)基督的神

Even in Apostolic times the Church regarded a denial of Christ's Divinity as eminently anti-Christian (1 John 2:22-23; 4:3; 2 John 7).即使在使徒时代教会显然认为,作为反基督教,基督的神性否定(约翰2:22-23; 4:3;约翰二书7)。The early martyrs, the most ancient Fathers, and the first ecclesiastical liturgies agree in their profession of Christ's Divinity.早期的烈士,最古老的父亲,也是第一个教会礼仪同意在他们的基督的神性行业。Still, the Ebionites, the Theodotians, the Artemonites, and the Photinians looked upon Christ either as a mere man, though singularly enlightened by Divine wisdom, or as the appearance of an æon emanating from the Divine Being according to the Gnostic theory; or again as a manifestation of the Divine Being such as the Theistic and Pantheistic Sabellians and Patripassians admitted; or, finally, as the incarnate Word indeed, but the Word conceived after the Arian manner as a creature mediating between God and the world, at least not essentially identical with the Father and the Holy Ghost.尽管如此,以便尼派的Theodotians的Artemonites和Photinians看不起基督无论是作为一个单纯的人,虽然奇的神圣智慧开明,或者作为一个永旺出现从神所产生的作为根据诺斯底理论;或再次作为一个表达,如有神论,并承认泛神论Sabellians和Patripassians身为神,或者,最后在道成肉身确实,但这个词,它孕育后,作为上帝和世界之间的中介物阿里安的方式,至少没有本质等同采用的父亲和圣灵。 Though the definitions of Nice and of the subsequent councils, especially of the Fourth Lateran, deal directly with the doctrine concerning the Most Holy Trinity, still they also teach that the Word is consubstantial with the Father and the Holy Ghost, and thus establish the Divinity of Jesus Christ, the Word incarnate.虽然尼斯及随后的议会定义,特别是第四次拉特兰,处理有关直接至圣三位一体,他们仍然还教导说,这个词是与父和圣灵同质,从而建立了神耶稣基督的肉身。 In more recent times, our earliest Rationalists endeavoured to avoid the problem of Jesus Christ; they had little to say of him, while they made St. Paul the founder of the Church.在更近的时候,我们最早的理性努力避免耶稣基督的问题,他们也没什么可说的他,而他们在圣保罗的教会的创始人。But the historical Christ was too impressive a figure to be long neglected.但是,历史基督太令人印象深刻的人物是长期被忽视。 It is all the more to be regretted that in recent times a practical denial of Christ's Divinity is not confined to the Socinians and such writers as Ewald and Schleiermacher.这更是令人感到遗憾,在最近一个基督的神性并不局限于实际否定的苏西尼和埃瓦尔德和施莱尔马赫等作家。 Others who profess to be believing Christians see in Christ the perfect revelation of God, the true head and lord of the human race, but, after all, they end with Pilate's words, "Behold, the man".其他谁自称是基督徒看见神在基督里,真正的头部和人类主完美的启示,但是,毕竟,他们与彼拉多的话结束:“看哪,这名男子。”

(3) Hypostatic Union(3)本质联盟

His human nature and His Divine nature are in Jesus Christ united hypostatically, ie united in the hypostasis or the person of the Word.他的人性和神性是统一的,他在耶稣基督hypostatically,即在本质或人字团结。This dogma too has found bitter opponents from the earliest times of the Church.这太教条已发现的时代最早的教会苦对手。Nestorius and his followers admitted in Christ one moral person, as a human society forms one moral person; but this moral person results from the union of two physical persons, just as there are two natures in Christ.涅斯和他的追随者承认一个有道德的人,在基督里,作为人类社会的形式之一,有道德的人,但这种情况从两个物理人联盟道德的人的结果,正如在基督里有两个性质。 These two persons are united, not physically, but morally, by means of grace.这两个人的团结,不是身体,而是道义上,以优雅的手段。The heresy of Nestorius was condemned by Celestine I in the Roman Synod of AD 430 and by the Council of Ephesus, AD 431, the Catholic doctrine was again insisted on in the Council of Chalcedon and the second Council of Constantinople.异端的nestorius是由天青石我在公元430,由罗马主教的以弗所,公元431安理会谴责,天主教教义又坚持在安理会的chalcedon和第二届理事会君士坦丁堡。 It follows that the Divine and the human nature are physically united in Christ.由此可见,神和人的自然是身在基督教。 The Monophysites, therefore, believed that in this physical union either the human nature was absorbed by the Divine, according to the views of Eutyches; or that the Divine nature was absorbed by the human; or, again, that out of the physical union of the two resulted a third nature by a kind of physical mixture, as it were, or at least by means of their physical composition.该monophysites,因此,相信在这种物理联盟无论是人的本性是神所吸收,根据欧迪奇的意见;或神圣的性质是由人类吸收;或再次,即出的物理联盟这两个结果由第三类物理混合物的性质,因为它是,或以自己的身体组成意味着至少。 The true Catholic doctrine was upheld by Pope Leo the Great, the Council of Chalcedon, and the Fifth Ecumenical Council, AD 553.真正的天主教教义维持了教皇利奥伟大,安理会的chalcedon,第五大公会议,公元553。 The twelfth canon of the last-named council excludes also the view that Christ's moral life developed gradually, attaining its completion only after the Resurrection.最后一个命名会第十二届佳能排除也认为,基督的道德生活的逐步发展,实现复活后,方可完成。The Adoptionists renewed Nestorianism in part because they considered the Word as the natural Son of God, and the man Christ as a servant or an adopted son of God, thus granting its own personality to Christ's human nature.The Adoptionists更换部分景教,因为他们认为是上帝的亲生儿子,那人基督为神的仆人或养子的话语,从而赋予自己的个性,以基督的人性。This opinion was rejected by Pope Adrian I, the Synod of Ratisbon, AD 782, the Council of Frankfort (794), and by Leo III in the Roman Synod (799).这个意见被否决,教宗阿德里安我,拉蒂斯邦主教,公元782,在法兰克福会议(794),以及在罗马主教利奥三世(799)。 There is no need to point out that the human nature of Christ is not united with the Word, according to the Socinian and rationalistic views.没有必要指出的是基督的人性与Word是不团结,根据​​Socinian和理性的意见。 Dorner shows how widespread among Protestants these views are, since there is hardly a Protestant theologian of note who refuses its own personality to the human nature of Christ.多纳显示广泛的新教徒这些意见,因为几乎没有一个值得注意的新教神学谁拒绝自己的个性,以基督的人性。Among Catholics, Berruyer and Günther reintroduced a modified Nestorianism; but they were censured by the Congregation of the Index (17 April, 1755) and by Pope Pius IX (15 Jan., 1857).其中天主教徒,Berruyer和Gunther重新修改景教,但他们是由该指数(1755年4月17日)众和教宗比约九(1857年1月15日)谴责。 The Monophysite heresy was renewed by the Monothelites, admitting only one will in Christ and thus contradicting the teaching of Popes Martin I and Agatho and of the Sixth Ecumenical Council.The monophysite异端被重提Monothelites,承认只有一个基督,因此矛盾的教皇马丁,我和Agatho和第六大公会议教学。Both the schismatic Greeks and the Reformers of the sixteenth century wished to retain the traditional doctrine concerning the Word Incarnate; but even the earliest followers of the Reformers fell into errors involving both the Nestorian and the Monophysite heresies.无论是分裂的希腊人和希望保留传统教义有关肉身改革者的16世纪,但即使是最早的改革者都参与追随者陷入景教异端和基督一性的错误。 The Ubiquitarians, for example, find the essence of the Incarnation not in the assumption of human nature by the Word, but in the divinization of human nature by sharing the properties of the Divine nature.The Ubiquitarians,例如,发现不是在人性的假设,这个词的本质的化身,但在通过分享神性的属性人性的神化。The subsequent Protestant theologians drifted away farther still from the views of Christian tradition; Christ for them was the sage of Nazareth, perhaps even the greatest of the Prophets, whose Biblical record, half myth and half history, is nothing but the expression of a popular idea of human perfection.随后的新教神学家仍然游离于更远从基督教传统的意见;他们是基督的拿撒勒圣人,甚至可能是先知,他的圣经的纪录,半历史半神话,最大的不过是一个受欢迎的表达人类思想的完善。 The Catholic writers whose views were derogatory either to the historical character of the Biblical account of the life of Christ or to his prerogatives as the God-man have been censured in the new Syllabus and the Encyclical "Pascendi dorninici gregis". The其观点或贬到了生命的基督圣经帐户中的历史人物,或为神人一直指责他的特权,在新的教学大纲和谕“Pascendi dorninici gregis”天主教作家。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息的书面由AJ马斯。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯j.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

For Christology consult the following:对于基督参考以下内容:

Patristic Works: ATHANASIUS, GREGORY NAZIANZUS, GREGORY OF NYSSA, BASIL, EPIPHANIUS wrote especially against the followers of Arius and Apollinaris; CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA, PROCLUS, LEONTIUS BYZANTINUS, ANASTASIUS SINAITA, EULOGIUS OF ALEXANDRIA, PETER CHRYSOLOGUS, FULGENTIUS, opposing the Nestorians and Monophysites; SOPHRONIUS, MAXIMUS, JOHN DAMASCENE, the Monothelites; PAULINUS OF AQUILEIA, ETHERIUS, ALCUIN, AGOBARDUS, the Adoptionists.教父的作品:亚他那修,格雷戈里NAZIANZUS,格雷戈里的nyssa,罗勒,埃皮法尼乌斯说,特别是对阿里乌和亚坡理纳的追随者;利罗的亚历山德里亚,PROCLUS,LEONTIUS BYZANTINUS,斯达西SINAITA,EULOGIUS的亚历山德里亚,彼得CHRYSOLOGUS,傅箴修,反对nestorians和Monophysites; SOPHRONIUS,大菱鲆,约翰大马士革的Monothelites 1996-04-03阿奎,ETHERIUS,阿尔昆,AGOBARDUS的Ado​​ptionists PAULINUS。See PG and PL Scholastic writers: ST.见PG和特等作家,在学术:圣。THOMAS, Summa theol., III, QQ.托马斯,总结theol。,三,QQ号。I-lix; IDEM, Summa contra gentes, IV, xxvii-lv; In III Sentent.; De veritate, QQ.俺- 59;同上,总结矛盾氏族,四,二十七,低压,在三Sentent。德veritate,QQ号。xx, xxix; Compend, theol., QQ.二十,第29届;概略,theol,QQ号。。cxcix-ccxlii; Opusc., 2; etc.; BONAVENTURE, Breviloquium, 1, 4; In III Sentent.; BELLARMINE, De Christo capite totius ecclesioe controvers., I, col.cxcix - ccxlii; Opusc,2;。等;文德,Breviloquium,1,4;在III Sentent。贝拉明,德克里斯托capite托蒂厄斯ecclesioe controvers,我山口。。1619; SUAREZ, De Incarn., opp. 1619年,苏亚雷斯,德Incarn,奥普。。XIV, XV; LUGO, De lncarn., op.第十四,十五,卢戈,德lncarn,同前。。III.三。Positive Theologians: PETAVIUS, Theol.积极神学家:PETAVIUS,Theol。dogmat., IV, 1-2; THOMASSIN, De Incarn., dogm.dogmat,四,1-2;。汤玛森,德Incarn,dogm。。theol., III, IV. theol。,三,四。

Recent Writers:最近的作家:

FRANZELIN, De Verbo Incarn.FRANZELIN,德Verbo Incarn。(Rome, 1874); KLEUTGEN, Theologie der Vorzeit, III (Münster, 1873); JUNGMANN, De Verbo incarnato (Ratisbon, 1872); HURTER, Theologia dogmatica, II, tract.(罗马,1874年); KLEUTGEN,神学明镜Vorzeit,三(明斯特,1873年); JUNGMANN,德Verbo incarnato(拉蒂斯邦,1872年); HURTER,神学dogmatica,二,道。vii (Innsbruck, 1882); STENTRUP, Proelectiones dogmaticoe de Verbo incarnato (2 vols., Innsbruck, 1882); LIDDON, The Divinity of Our Lord (London, 1885); MAAS, Christ in Type and Prophecy (2 vols., New York, 1893-96); LEPIN, Jésus Messie et Fils de Dieu (Paris, 1904).第七章(因斯布鲁克,1882年); STENTRUP,Proelectiones dogmaticoe德Verbo incarnato(2卷,因斯布鲁克,1882年。)利敦,我们的主(伦敦,1885年)神。马斯,基督的类型和预言(2卷,新纽约,1893年至1896年); LEPIN,耶稣Messie等菲尔斯德Dieu酒店(巴黎,1904年)。

See also recent works on the life of Christ, and the principal commentaries on the Biblical passages cited in this article.另见关于生命的基督近期的作品,并在圣经段落的主要评论这篇文章中引用。 For all other parts of dogmatic theology see bibliography at the end of this section (I.).对于神学的教条式的所有其他部分看到在本条第(一)结束书目。


Also, see:此外,见:
Jesus 耶稣
Christ 基督
God 上帝
Bible 圣经
Christianity 基督教
The Arising of Jesus产生的耶稣

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