Congregationalism公理

General Information一般资料

Congregationalism, a form of Protestant church organization based on the autonomy of each congregation, emerged as part of the liberal wing of Puritanism in the English Reformation.公理,一个新教教堂的每一堂自治的组织形式,成为了在英国的清教改革自由派的一部分。By 1600, many clergymen were calling for reform in the Church of England, arguing that the key to adequate change was to grant local congregations autonomy.到1600年,许多神职人员被要求在英国教会改革,认为适当变革的关键是要给予自治地方的教会。These congregationalists opposed Presbyterians, who wished to manage churches by means of district assemblies, and Anglicans, who wanted bishops for the same purpose.长老会反对这些公理,谁愿意来管理区议会手段教堂,圣公会,谁想要为同一目的主教。

Those who agreed on the democratic principle of congregational self government, however, differed among themselves about what to do.这些谁对公理自治的民主原则同意,但是,它们之间的不同是什么做的。 Some were called Separatists because they refused to associate with the national church; a notable example was the Pilgrim group, which established (1620) the Plymouth Colony in North America.一些被称为分离主义者,因为他们拒绝与国家教会的联营公司;一个明显的例子是朝圣者小组,成立(1620年)在北美普利茅斯殖民地。 Although others, the non Separatists, did not openly break with the Church of England, increasing persecution led many to emigrate to New England under the auspices of the Massachusetts Bay Company.虽然他人,非分离主义者,并没有公开决裂的英国教会,增加移民的迫害下,导致许多人的马萨诸塞湾公司赞助的新英格兰。 The Separatists who remained in England, where they were called Independents, achieved substantial political influence in the period following the English Civil War (the Commonwealth and Protectorate).分离主义谁在英格兰,在那里它们被称为无党派人士依然存在,在此期间取得了实质性的政治影响力后,英国内战(英联邦和保护地)。 The Restoration in 1660 brought renewed repression, but the Toleration Act of 1689 allowed freedom of worship.在1660年恢复带来了新的镇压,但1689年允许信仰自由宽容法。

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In New England, Congregationalist churches worked so closely with civil governments in every colony except Rhode Island that no other type of church was allowed in the area until 1690, when English authorities forced them to tolerate other religious groups.在新英格兰,公理会教堂如此紧密地与工作在每一个公民,除了罗得岛州的殖民地,没有其他类型的教会被允许在该地区,直到1690年,当英国当局强迫他们容忍其他宗教群体的政府。 This relationship is often called theocracy, a situation in which ministers interpreted biblical laws related to general human conduct and town officials enforced them through police power.这种关系通常被称为神权政治,这种情况在解释相关的部长通过警察权力强迫他们一般人的行为和城市官员圣经的法律。State government support for Congregationalist churches did not end until 1818 in Connecticut and not until 1834 in Massachusetts.国家对公理会教堂的政府支持并没有结束,直到1818年才在康涅狄格州和马萨诸塞州1834年。

In 1790, Congregationalists formed the largest, strongest church in America. 1790年,公理形成了规模最大,最强的教会在美国。In the 19th century, however, the church failed to grow proportionately with national expansion.在19世纪,然而,教会没有增长比例与全国扩张。In the 20th century, Congregationalist churches in the United States, Britain, and elsewhere have contributed to the Ecumenical Movement.在20世纪,在美国,英国和其他地方的公理教会合一运动的贡献。In 1957 the US Congregationalists merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Church to form a single denomination, the United Church of Christ, which in the late 1980s had 1.67 million members.1957年,美国公理会合并与福音派和归正会形成一个单一的面额,在美国基督教会,这在80年代后期曾167万会员。

Henry Warner Bowden亨利华纳鲍登

Bibliography 参考书目
P Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (1956); G Nuttall, Visible Saints: The Congregational Way 1640 - 1660 (1957); E Routley, The Story of Congregationalism (1961); H Stout, The New England Soul (1988). P米勒,差事到旷野(1956)100纳托尔,可见圣人:公理路1640年至一六六〇年(1957),电子商务劳特利,对公理的故事(1961年),高h粗壮,新英格兰的灵魂(1988年)。


Congregation - (old meaning)毕业典礼 - (旧的意思)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Congregation, (Heb. kahal), the Hebrew people collectively as a holy community (Num. 15:15).众,(希伯来书kahal),在希伯来人统称为一个神圣的社区(民数记15:15)。Every circumcised Hebrew from twenty years old and upward was a member of the congregation.每割礼希伯来语,从二十岁以外是一个众的成员。Strangers resident in the land, if circumcised, were, with certain exceptions (Ex. 12:19; Num. 9:14; Deut. 23:1-3), admitted to the privileges of citizenship, and spoken of as members of the congregation (Ex. 12:19; Num. 9:14; 15:15).陌生人居民在土地,若受割礼,是,有一些例外(出12:19;序号21:14。。申23:1-3),承认公民的特权,口语的,因为该成员众(出12:19;序号21:14。15:15)。 The congregation were summonded together by the sound of two silver trumpets, and they met at the door of the tabernacle (Num. 10:3]) These assemblies were convened for the purpose of engaging in solemn religious services (Ex. 12:27; Num. 25:6; Joel 2:15), or of receiving new commandments (Ex. 19:7, 8).众被summonded在一起,由两个银声喇叭,他们在会幕门(民数记10:3]),这些组合后,对于从事庄严的宗教服务(出埃及记12:27而召开满足;序号25:6。乔尔2:15,或接受新的命令)(出埃及记19:7,8)。 The elders, who were summonded by the sound of one trumpet (Num. 10:4), represented on various occasions the whole congregation (Ex. 3:16; 12:21; 17:5; 24:1).长老,谁是由一个小号(民数记10:4)声音summonded在不同场合所代表的整个聚集(例如:3:16; 12:21,17:5,24:1)。

After the conquest of Canaan, the people were assembled only on occasions of the highest national importance (Judg. 20; 2 Chr. 30:5; 34:29; 1 Sam. 10:17; 2 Sam. 5:1-5; 1 Kings 12:20; 2 Kings 11:19; 21:24; 23:30).征服迦南后,人们都聚集只在最高的国家重要性的场合(Judg. 20; 2染色体30:5。34:29 1萨姆10:17。撒下5:1-5。 1国王12:20 2国王11:19,21:24,23:30)。 In subsequent times the congregation was represented by the Sanhedrim; and the name synagogue, applied in the Septuagint version exclusively to the congregation, came to be used to denote the places of worship established by the Jews.在随后的时间会众的代表是公会,以及姓名犹太教堂,在七十版本只适用于众,后来被用来表示崇拜由犹太人建立的地方。(See Church.) In Acts 13:43, where alone it occurs in the New Testament, it is the same word as that rendered "synagogue" (qv) in ver. (见教会。)在徒13:43,其中单独看它出现在新约,是因为这所提供的“犹太教”(请参阅​​)的版本同一个词。42, and is so rendered in ver. 42,是如此呈现在查看。43 in RV 43房车

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Congregationalism公理

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The retention by the Anglican State Church of the prelatical form of government and of many Catholic rites and ceremonies offensive to genuine Protestants resulted in the formation of innumerable Puritan factions, with varying degrees of radicalism.由英国圣公会教堂的国家政府prelatical形式和许多天主教仪式和庆典真正的新教徒保留进攻造成了无数的清教徒派别的形成,具有不同程度的激进主义。 The violent measures adopted by Elizabeth and the Stuarts to enforce conformity caused the more timid and moderate of the Puritans to remain in communion with the State Church, though keeping up to the present day an incessant protest against "popish tendencies"; but the more advanced and daring of their leaders began to perceive that there was no place for them in a Church governed by a hierarchy and enslaved to the civil power.在伊丽莎白的暴力采取的措施和强制执行符合斯图亚特王朝所造成的更胆小,温和的清教徒留在教会的共融与国家虽然保持到现在一天,一个反对“popish倾向”不断抗议,但更先进和他们的领导人大胆开始觉察到有没有为他们所管辖的一个教堂举行的层次结构和奴役的民间力量。 To many of them, Geneva was the realization of Christ's kingdom on earth, and, influenced by the example of neighbouring Scotland, they began to form churches on the model of Presbyterianism.对他们来说,日内瓦是基督的王国在地球上实现,由苏格兰例如邻近的影响,他们开始形成对长老教会的模式。 Many, however, who had withdrawn from the "tyranny" of the episcopate, were loath to submit to the dominion of presbyteries and formed themselves into religious communities acknowledging "no head, priest, prophet or king save Christ".许多人,但是,谁已经从“暴政”撤回的主教,被不愿服从presbyteries统治和形成了承认“没有头,祭司,先知或国王拯救基督”宗教社区本身。 These dissenters were known as "Independents" and in spite of fines, imprisonments, and the execution of at least five of their leaders, they increased steadily in numbers and influence, until they played a conspicuous part in the revolution that cost Charles I his crown and life.这些持不同政见者被称为“独立”,并在罚款,监禁,尽管和他们的领导人至少五年的执行,他们在数量稳步增长和影响力,直到他们在革命中发挥了突出的一部分,他的王冠成本查理一世和生活。 The earliest literary exponent of Independence was Robert Brown, from whom the dissenters were nicknamed Brownists.最早的独立的文学指数是罗伯特布朗,从他们的持不同政见者被称为Brownists。Brown was born in 1550, of a good family, in Rutlandshire, and studied at Cambridge.布朗出生于1550年,一个良好的家庭,在Rutlandshire,并在剑桥大学学习。About 1580 he began to circulate pamphlets in which the State Church was denounced in unmeasured terms and the duty was inculcated of separating from communion with it.关于1580年他开始在该国流通教会谴责不可测量的条件和职责是由它的共融分离灌输的小册子。The godly were not to look to the State for the reform of the Church; they must set about it themselves on the Apostolic model.敬虔的人不要指望在改革国家的教会,他们必须自己制定的关于它的使徒模型。Brown defines the Church as a "company or number of Christians or believers, who, by a willing covenant made with their God, are under the government of God and Christ, and keep his laws in one holy communion".布朗定义为“公司或基督徒或信徒,谁,与他们的神造了一个愿意立约,是在神和基督的政府,并保持在一个神圣的若干法律共融”的教会。 This new gospel attracted numerous adherents.这种新的福音吸引了众多的追随者。A congregation was formed in Norwich which grew rapidly.聚集形成于诺维奇其中增长较快。Summoned before the bishop's court, Brown escaped the consequences of his zeal through the intervention of his powerful relation, Lord Burghley, and, with his followers, migrated to Holland, the common refuge of the persecuted reformers of all Europe.前主教的法庭召唤时,布朗逃过通过他的强大的关系,伯利勋爵,他的热情干预的后果,并与他的追随者,移民到荷兰,在欧洲的所有迫害改革者共同避难。 The Netherlands were soon flooded with refugees from England, and large congregations were established in the principal cities.荷兰很快就充斥着来自英国的难民,大毕业典礼分别在主要城市设立。The most flourishing Independent Church was that of Leyden under the direction of John Robinson.最繁荣的独立教会是,在莱顿的约翰罗宾逊方向。It was to this congregation that the "Pilgrim Fathers" belonged, who in 1620 set sail in the Mayflower for the New World.这是本教会的“朝圣者的父亲”属于谁在1620年的世界新五月花号起航。

The successful establishment of the New England colonies was an event of the utmost importance in the development of Congregationalism, a term preferred by the American Puritans to Independency and gradually adopted by their coreligionists in Great Britain.新英格兰殖民地的成功建立是一个中的公理,由美国清教徒倾向于长远发展最重要的事件,以独立性,并逐步在英国的教友通过。 Not only was a safe haven now opened to the fugitives from persecution, but the example of orderly communities based entirely on congregational principles, "without pope, prelate, presbytery, prince or parliament", was a complete refutation of the charge advanced by Anglicans and Presbyterians that Independency meant anarchy and chaos, civil and religious.这不仅是一个安全的避风港现在开放给逃犯的迫害,但公理原则的基础上完全有序的社区,例如“没有教宗,主教,长老,王子或议会”,是一个完整的收费由圣公会先进驳斥长老会的独立性意味着无政府状态和混乱,民间和宗教。 In the Massachusetts settlements, "the New England way", as it was termed, developed, not indeed without strifes and dissensions, but without external molestation.在马萨诸塞州的定居点,“新英格兰路”,因为它被称为,发展,甚至根本没有争斗,没有纠纷,但没有外来骚扰。 They formed, from the Puritan standpoint, the veritable kingdom of the saints; and the slightest expression of dissent from the Gospel was punished by the ministers was punished with scourging, exile, and even death.他们形成了从清教徒的观点来看,真正的圣人,英国,以及持不同政见者丝毫的福音是由部长们表达了与鞭打惩罚,流放,甚至处以死刑。 The importance of stamping out Nonconformity in the American colonies did not escape the vigilance of Archbishop Laud; he had concerted measures with Charles I for imposing the episcopacy upon them, when war broke out between the king and the Parliament.在冲压出不符合美国的殖民地也没有摆脱大主教劳德警惕的重要性,他有我对他们施加的主教与查尔斯协调一致的措施,当战争爆发之间的国王和议会了。 During the Civil War in England, though few in number compared with the Presbyterians, they grew in importance through the ability of their leaders, notably of Oliver Cromwell who gained for them the ascendency in the army and the Commonwealth.在英国内战中,虽然人数不多相比,长老会,他们成长的重要性,通过他们的领导人的能力,特别是克伦威尔谁获得了他们在军队和联合体的优越。 In the Westminster Assembly convened by the Long Parliament in 1643, Independency was ably represented by five ministers, Thomas Goodwin, Philip Nye, Jeremiah Burroughs, William Bridge and Sidrach Simpson, known as "The Five Dissenting Brethren", and ten or eleven laymen.在西敏寺议会召开的长期议会于1643年,独立性是由五位部长代表干练,托马斯古德温,菲利普奈伊,耶利米巴勒斯大桥和Sidrach威廉辛普森,被誉为“五持异议的兄弟”,和10或11外行而闻名。 They all took a prominent part in the debates of the Assembly, pleading strongly for toleration at the hands of the Presbyterian majority.他们都参加了大会辩论的一个重要组成部分,恳求在大多数的长老手中容忍强烈。They adopted the doctrinal articles of the Westminster Confession with slight modifications; but as there could be no basis of agreement between them and the Presbyterians regarding church government, a meeting of "elders and messengers" of "the Congregational churches" was held at the Savoy in 1658 and drew up the famous "Savoy Declaration", which was also accepted in New England and long remained as authoritative as such a document could be in a denomination which, theoretically, rejected all authority.他们通过了韦斯敏斯德与理论文章稍作修改,但因为不可能有它们之间关于教会的长老和政府,对“长老和信使”会议协议的基础上的“公理会教堂”举行的萨沃伊1658年,制定了著名的“萨伏伊宣言”,这也是接受新英格兰和长期没有像这样的文件可以在一个面额的,理论上,拒绝一切权威的权威。 From this Declaration we obtain a clear idea of the Congregationalist notion of the Church.从这个宣言,我们取得了教会的公理概念清晰的概念。

The elect are called individually by the Lord, but "those thus called (through the ministry of the word by His Spirit) he commandeth to walk together in particular Societies or Churches, for their mutual edification and the due performance of that Public Worship which He requireth of them in this world".该选举是所谓单独由主,但“这样所谓的(通过词,是由他的精神部),他吩咐走在特定社会或教会,共同为他们的相互启迪和适当的政府绩效那些崇拜他其中requireth在这个世界上。“ Each of these particular churches is the Church in the full sense of the term and is not subject to any outside jurisdiction.这些特殊教会每个人都是在完全意义上的任期教会和不受任何外界的管辖范围。The officers of the church, pastors, teachers, elders, and deacons, are "chosen by the common suffrage of the church itself, and solemnly set apart by fasting and prayer, with imposition of hands of the eldership of that church, if there be any before constituted therein"; the essence of the call consists in election by the Church.该教会的人员,牧师,教师,长老,和执事,是“选择了由教会本身共同普选,并郑重选派禁食和祈祷,与该教会的长老实行手中,如果有其中前任何构成“;呼叫的本质由教会选举组成。 To preserve harmony, no person ought to be added to the Church without the consent of the Church itself.为了保持和谐,没有人应该被添加未经同意教会本身的教会。The Church has power to admonish and excommunicate disorderly members, but this power of censure "is to be exercised only towards particular members of each church as such".教会有权告诫和破门无序的成员,但这种谴责权“只可对这些教会的每个成员特别是行使”。"In case of difficulties or differences, either in point of doctrine or administration, wherein either the churches in general are concerned, or any one church, in their peace, union, and edification, or any member or members of any church are injured in or by any proceeding in censures not agreeable to truth and order, it is according to the mind of Christ that many churches holding one communion together do by their messengers meet in a Synod or Council to consider and give their advice in or about that matter in difference, to be reported to all the churches concerned: Howbeit, these Synods so assembled are not entrusted with any church power properly so called, or with any jurisdiction over the churches themselves, to exercise any censures, either over any churches or persons, or to impose their determination on the churches or officers." “在困难或分歧,无论是在理论或管理,点,其中任一案件的一般教会而言,或任何一个教会,在他们的和平,团结,和熏陶,或任何成员公司或任何教会的成员受伤或进行任何责难不同意,真理和秩序,它是根据基督的心在一起,举行一个共融许多教堂做他们的使者在一个主教或理事会举行会议,审议并给予或即将在这个问题的意见差异,必须报告有关的所有教堂:然而人,这些主教会议这样组装的不负责妥善所谓任何教会权力,或任何超过自己的教堂,行使管辖权的任何指责或者在任何教会或个人,或者,强加给教会或人员的决心。“ If any person, for specified reasons, be dissatisfied with his church, "he, consulting with the church, or the officer or officers thereof, may peaceably depart from the communion of the church wherewith he hath so walked, to join himself to some other church".如果任何人因特定原因,是与他的教会不满,“他,咨询与教会,或有关人员或人员及其可能和平地离开了教会的共融等所受的他已经走了,加入自己的一些其他教会“。 Finally it is stated that "churches gathered and walking according to the mind of Christ, judging other churches (though less pure) to be true churches, may receive unto occasional communion with them such members of these churches as are credibly testified to be godly and to live without offense".最后,它指出,“教会聚集和步行按照基督的心,判断(虽然少纯)其他教会是真实的教会,可能会收到他们到这些教会的共融偶尔这些成员被证明是可信的虔诚和生活在没有犯罪“。

Such are the main principles of Congregationalism regarding the constitution of the church; in doctrine the Congregational teachers were, for the most part, strictly Calvinistic.这些就是公理关于教堂宪法的主要原则,在理论的公理教师,在大多数情况下,严格加尔文。Independent ascendency came to an abrupt close at the death of Cromwell and the restoration of Charles II.独立优越来到一个在克伦威尔死后突然结束和查理二世复辟。The Presbyterians, who had seated the Stuart on his throne, might hope for his favour; there was slight prospect that he would tolerate the democratic tenets of Congregationalism.长老会,谁坐在他的宝座,斯图尔特,​​可能希望他的青睐;有轻微的前景,他会容忍公理的民主原则。 As a matter of fact Charles and his servile parliament persecuted both forms of dissent.事实上,查尔斯和他的奴性议会事项迫害异议两种形式。A succession of severe edicts, the Corporation Act, 1661, the Act of Uniformity, 1662, the Conventicle Act, 1663, renewed, 1670, the Five-Mile Act, 1665, and the Test Act, 1673, made existence almost impossible to Nonconformists of all shades of belief.一个严重的法令继承,公司法,1661年,在统一性,1662年法,Conventicle法,1663年,续期,1670年,在五英里法,1665年,测试法,1673年,几乎不可能存在使新教徒形形色色的信仰。 Yet in spite of persecution, they held out until the eighteenth century brought toleration and finally freedom.然而,在尽管有迫害,他们认为,直到十八世纪带来了宽容,最后的自由。It is characteristic of the Puritans that, notwithstanding the sufferings they had undergone they spurned the indulgence offered by James II, because it tolerated popery; in fact, they were more zealous than the rest of the nation in driving James from the throne.它是,尽管他们经历的痛苦,他们提供的詹姆斯二世所唾弃的放纵清教徒的特点,因为它不能容忍popery,事实上,他们更比在推动国家从宝座詹姆斯休息热心。 The exclusion of Dissenters from the British universities created a serious problem for the Congregationalists as well as for the Catholics; to the sacrifices which these and other denominations out of communion with the State Church made for the maintenance of academies and colleges conducted according to their respective principles, England, like America, owes that great boon so essential to the well-being of civilized nations, freedom of education.对持不同政见者排除从英国大学的公理创造了一个严重的问题以及为天主教徒;向这些牺牲和不符合国家其他教派的教会的共融的院校进行维修提出根据各自的原则,英国和美国一样,归功于伟大的恩惠如此重要的教育幸福的文明国家的福利,自由。 During the eighteenth century, while the clergy of the Established Church, educated and maintained by the State, were notoriously incapable and apathetic, whatever there was of spiritual energy in the nation emanated from the denominational colleges.在十八世纪,而所建立的教会,由国家教育和维护,是众所周知的神职人员不能麻木不仁,不管那里的精神能量是从院校所发出的教派的国家。

Congregational Unions公理会联盟

The Congregational churches were at their best while the pressure of persecution served to cement them; this removed, the absence of organization left them an easy prey to the inroads of rationalism and infidelity.公理教会在他们的最佳而迫害他们的压力起到了水泥,这拆除,没有离开他们的组织好欺负的理性和背叛的侵蚀。 Before the end of the eighteenth century many of them lapsed into Unitarianism, alike in England and America.以前,在十八世纪到单一制年底失效,其中许多都在英国和美国。A new problem was thus forced upon them, viz.一个新的问题是被迫在他们身上,即。how to maintain the unity of the denomination without consciously violating their fundamental doctrine of the entire independence of each particular church.如何保持不自觉地侵犯了他们的每一个特定的教会整个独立的基本教义的教派团结。"A Congregational Union of England and Wales", formed in 1833 and revised in 1871, issued a "Declaration of the Faith, Church Order, and Discipline of the Congregational or Independent Dissenters", and provided for annual meetings and a president who should hold office for a year. “英格兰和威尔士一堂联盟”,成立于1833年和1871年修订,发布了“宣言的信仰,教会秩序,公理或独立的持不同政见者和纪律”,并为每年的会议和举行总统谁应该提供办公室一年。 American Congregationalism has always been of a more organic character.美国公理一直是一个更有机的性格。While persisting in emphasizing the complete independence of particular churches, it has made ample provision, at the expense of consistency, for holding the denomination together.虽然在特别强调坚持完全独立的教会,这也使得提供充足,在一致性为代价,为举行面额在一起。No minister is admitted except upon approval of the clerical "association" to which he must belong.没有部长承认除根据文书“协会”批准,他必须属于。To be acknowledged as Congregationalist, a new community must be received into fellowship by the churches of its district.被视为公理会承认,一个新的社区必须在入金通过其地区的教堂。Should a church fall into serious error, or tolerate and uphold notorious scandals, the other churches may withdraw their fellowship, and it ceases to be recognized as Congregationalist.如果一个严重错误教堂下降,或容忍和坚持臭名昭著的丑闻,其他教会可以撤回其相交,它就不再被视为公理的承认。 If a minister is found guilty of gross heresy or evil life, a council summoned to examine his case may, if necessary, withdraw from him the fellowship of the churches.如果部长发现严重异端邪说或邪恶的生活有罪,一会传唤审查他的案件可能,如果有必要,退出他的教会的团契。The statements of Henry M. Dexter, DD, the historian of his sect ("American Encyclopedia", sv "Congregationalism"), prove that there is a marked contrast between Congregational theory and practice.德克斯特的亨利先生,副署长,他的教派(“美国百科全书”,希沃特“公理”)历史学家的声明,证明是有理论和实践之间的公理形成鲜明对比。 The Congregationalists have been very active in home and foreign mission work and possess eight theological seminaries in the United States viz.的公理都十分家庭和外国使团的工作积极,拥有八即在美国神学院。Andover, Massachusetts; Atlanta, Georgia; Bangor, Maine; New Haven and Hartford, Connecticut; Oberlin, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; and the Pacific, Berkeley, California.安多佛,马萨诸塞州,佐治亚州亚特兰大市,班戈,缅因州,纽黑文和康涅狄格州的哈特福德,美林,俄亥俄州,伊利诺斯州芝加哥和太平洋,伯克利,加利福尼亚州。 Since 1871 national councils, composed of delegates from all the States of the Union, are convened every third year.自1871年国家委员会,从所有欧盟成员国代表组成,是第三年举行一次。"The Congregational Handbook for 1907" gives the following statistics of the denomination in America: Churches 5931; ministers 5933; members 668,736.他说:“1907年公理手册”给在美国的面额以下统计数字:教会5931;部长5933,会员668736。Included in this count are Cuba with 6 ministers and 636 members and Porto Rico with 3 ministers and 50 members.在此计数中包括6个部长和古巴636个成员和3个部长和50名成员波尔图里科。In England and Wales the statistics for 1907 were: sittings 1,801,447; communicants 498,953; ministers 3197; local preachers 5603.在英格兰和威尔士1907年的统计数字为:开庭1801447;圣餐498953;部长3197; 5603当地传教士。The efforts made in recent years to find a basis for some kind of corporate union between the Congregationalists, the Methodist Protestants, and the United Brethren in Christ have not been successful.在最近几年所取得的努力,以找到一个对一些企业工会之间的公理,卫新教徒,并在基督教弟兄都没有成功实物为准。

Publication information Written by JF Loughlin.出版信息的书面由JF劳克林。Transcribed by Robert H. Sarkissian.转录由罗伯特H萨尔基相。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Walker, A History of the Congregational Churches in the United States (New York, 1894); Idem, The Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism (ibid., 1893); Dexter, The Congregationalism of the last 300 years, as seen in its Literature (ibid., 1880).沃克,一个在美国(纽约,1894年)公理教会的历史;同上,公理的信条和平台(同上,1893年);德克斯特,在过去300年公理,在其文学看到(同上。,1880)。 Each of these works contains a good bibliography.这些作品都包含了良好的书目。


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