Conversion转换

General Information一般资料

Conversion is the turning of a sinner to God (Acts 15:3).转换是 )(徒15:3 把上帝的罪人In a general sense the heathen are said to be "converted" when they abandon heathenism and embrace the Christian faith; and in a more special sense men are converted when, by the influence of divine grace in their souls, their whole life is changed, old things pass away, and all things become new (Acts 26:18).在一般意义上的异教徒说成是“改建”当他们放弃异教的基督教信仰,拥抱,而且在男性更特殊的意义转换时,由神的恩典在他们的灵魂的影响,他们的整个生活发生了变化,旧事物去世,和一切事物成为新的(徒26:18)。 Thus we speak of the conversion of the Philippian jailer (16:19-34), of Paul (9:1-22), of the Ethiopian treasurer (8:26-40), of Cornelius (10), of Lydia (16:13-15), and others.因此,我们讲的狱卒的腓转换(16:19-34),保罗(9:1-22),埃塞俄比亚的司库(8:26-40),科尼利厄斯(10),莉迪亚(16 :13 - 15)等。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Conversion转换

Advanced Information先进的信息

Conversion is an integral concept in the Bible, though it does not always appear under this name in English translations.转换是圣经中的一个完整的概念,但它并不总是出现在这个名称的英文翻译。In the OT it is directly related to the Hebrew sub, the twelfth most frequently used verb, which signifies to turn back, go back, come back, or return.在加时赛它直接关系的希伯来文子,最常用的第十二届动词,这标志着回头,回去,回来,或退货。It is also associated with the Hebrew niham, which means to be sorry or to regret.它也与希伯来niham,这意味着会后悔或遗憾。In the NT the two principal words indicating "to turn" are episstrepho and metanoeo.在新台币两主词表示“转”是episstrepho和metanoeo。The latter and its cognates indicate a renewal of mind and heart, heartfelt repentance.后者表明,其同源词的头脑和心灵,发自内心的忏悔续期。A key passage in the Synoptic Gospels is Matt.一个在天气福音重要通道,是马特。18:3: "Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven" (AV).18:3:“若不是可转换,并成为小孩子的,你们不得进入天国”(影音)。In the Neb the first part reads, "Unless you turn around"在纳布的第一部分内容:“除非你转身"

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
In the developing Catholic tradition conversion was more and more associated with the sacraments of baptism, penance, and confirmation.在发展中国家,天主教会传统的转化率和越来越多的洗礼,忏悔,并确认相关的圣礼。It was said that in baptism one receives the remission of sins, but for sins committed after baptism one must have recourse to the sacrament of penance, which entails confession of sins, absolution by the priest, and acts of penitence, which mitigate the severity of the temporal consequences of sin.有人说,一个接收到的洗礼,使罪得赦,但对于一个犯了罪的洗礼后,必须诉诸的忏悔圣事,这需要由牧师忏悔的罪孽,赦免,并悔罪行为,这些行为严重程度减轻罪恶的时间后果。

As mysticism penetrated Catholic spirituality, conversion came to be associated with the first stage of the mystical way, purgation, which, it was hoped, would lead to illumination and finally to contemplative union.由于天主教神秘主义精神渗透,转换开始与该神秘的方式,通便,其中,第一阶段是希望相关的,会导致光照,最后到沉思的联盟。 The beginning of the illuminative way was often marked by what was called a second conversion.在开始的照明方式往往是标志是什么被称为第二次转换。

Monastic spirituality, heavily influenced by mysticism, saw a twofold blessing of the Spirit: in baptism and in monastic dedication.寺院的灵性,深受神秘主义的影响,看到一个精神的双重祝福:在洗礼和在寺院的奉献精神。The latter was frequently referred to as both a second baptism and a second conversion.后者是两个经常被称为第二次洗礼和第二次转换。It was regarded as a new empowering of the Spirit for vocation.它被视为一种职业的精神为新的授权。Conversion in this context means retiring from the world, commitment to the religious life.在这方面的转换是指从世界,致力于宗教生活退休。

In Reformation theology conversion was understood as the human response to regeneration, the infusion of new life into the soul.在改革神学转化率理解为人类的反应再生的,新的生活融入了灵魂输液。Conversion was held to be dependent on grace; it was seen as an act empowered and directed by divine grace.转换被裁定为依赖的宽限期,这是作为一个权力和行为导向看到神的恩典。Calvinism was inclined to portray this grace irresistible, with the result that conversion became a virtually spontaneous turning of the one who was elected to receive grace.加尔文主义倾向来描绘这恩典不可抗拒的,结果,转换成为一个几乎自发的谁当选获得宽限期一转。Luther believed that conversion could be aborted and that one could fall away from one's conversion.路德认为,转换可能被中止,而且人们可以从一个秋天的转换了。Both Calvin and Luther envisaged the whole Christian life as a life of conversion.双方卡尔文和路德设想转化为生活的全部基督徒的生活。

Among the later evangelicals conversion came to be associated with a crisis experience that inaugurates the new life in Christ. 福音派之间的转换后来被基督与危机的经验,在新落成典礼的生活。In some circles it was regarded as an event involving total transformation. 在某些圈子里被看作是一个涉及总转化事件。In the Holiness Movement conversion was seen as the initiation of Christian life and entire sanctification as the fulfillment of Christian life. 在成圣运动转换被视为企业的生命开始的基督信徒生活和整个成圣作为履行基督徒。

Karl Barth in the twentieth century has portrayed conversion (Umkehr) as the pivotal event in history, the liberation and renewal of the world in Jesus Christ.在二十世纪卡尔巴特已经描绘成历史,解放和重建在世界上举足轻重的耶稣基督事件转换(Umkehr)。The awakenings to the reality of this event can be described as conversion (Bekehrung) in a secondary sense.对本次活动的现实惊醒可谓转换次要意义(Bekehrung)。

In an evangelical theology that seeks to be true to Scripture and the Reformation, conversion has two sides, divine and human. It represents the incursion of divine grace into human life, the resurrection from spiritual death to eternal life. It is commonly said that we are active in conversion just as we are passive in regeneration, but this must not be understood synergistically.在一个福音派神学,力求忠实于圣经和改革,转换有两方面,神和人。 它代表了生命的神圣的恩典侵入到人的生命,精神的复活从死亡的永恒。它通常说,我们在转换活跃正如我们在再生被动,但是这不能被理解协同作用。 We are active only on the basis of grace, only through the power of grace.我们只在活跃的宽限期的基础上,只有通过恩典的力量。 We do not procure salvation, but we decide for salvation once our inward eyes are opened to its reality. Conversion is the sign but not the condition of our justification, whose sole source is the free, unconditional grace of God.我们不采购得救,但我们一旦决定拯救我们的眼睛是向内开的现实。 转换为符号,但不是神条件我们的理由,其唯一来源是免费的恩典,无条件的。

Conversion is both an event and a process. It signifies the action of the Holy Spirit upon us by which we are moved to respond to Jesus Christ in faith. 转换既是一项活动,也是一个过程。它标志着我们圣灵在我们的行动,其中被移至回应基督耶稣的信仰。It also includes the continuing work of the Holy Spirit within us purifying us of discord and contumacy, remolding us in the image of Christ.它也包括在我们的圣灵继续工作,净化我们的不和,contumacy,重塑在基督的形象我们。 This work of purification is accomplished as we repent and cling to Christ anew.这种净化工作完成了,因为我们坚持基督悔改,重新。

Again, conversion is both personal and social.同样,转换是对个人和社会。While it basically connotes a change in our relationship with God, it indicates at the same time an alternation in our attitudes toward our fellow human beings.虽然它基本上是蕴含在我们与神关系的变化,它表明在同一时间,在对我们人类同胞的态度交替。Conversion is a spiritual event with far reaching social implications.转换是一个具有深远的社会意义的精神活动。It entails accepting Christ not only as Savior from sin but also as Lord of all of life.这需要从罪接受基督不仅为救主,也为所有生命的主。

Finally, conversion must be seen as the beginning of our ascent to Christian perfection.最后,转换必须被看作是我们提升到基督教完善的开始。What is needed is not a second conversion by which such perfection is secured but the continuing and maintaining of a conversion that is never completed in this life.现在需要的是不是第二次转换,使这种完美是安全,但持续和一个从来没有在这辈子完成转换维护。Evangelical theology in the tradition of the Reformation contends that we can make progress toward perfection, but we can never attain it as a realized goal.福音派在改革传统的神学争辩说,我们能够趋于完美的进展,但我们永远不能达到它作为实现目标。Even the converted need to repent, even the sanctified need to turn again to Christ and be cleansed anew (cf. Ps. 51:10 - 12; Luke 17:3 - 4; 22:32; Rom. 13:14; Eph. 4:22 - 24; Rev. 2:4 - 5, 16; 3:19).即使是转换需要悔改,甚至神圣的需要转向基督,并再次重新清洗(参见聚苯乙烯51:10 - 12;。路加福音17:3 - 4; 22:32,罗马书13:14;弗。。 4:22 - 24;启示录2:4 - 5,16; 3:19)。

We cannot be converted through our own power, but we can repent and turn to Christ through the power of his Spirit.我们不能被转换通过我们自己的力量,但我们可以通过悔改并把他的精神动力基督。 We cannot maintain our walk with Christ on the basis of our own resources, but we can maintain this walk with the aid of his Spirit.我们不能维护我们自己的资源的基础上我们与基督同行,但我们可以保持这种与他的精神援助散步。Conversion entails the promise of sanctification just as it reveals the gift of justification.需要转换的神圣承诺,只是因为它揭示了理由的礼物。

DG Bloesch危险品Bloesch
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
DG Bloesch, The Christian Life and Salvation, The Crisis of Piety, and Essentials of Evangelical Theology, II; J Baillie, Baptism and Conversion; AB Crabtree, The Restored Relationship; K Rahner, The Christian Commitment; B Citron, New Birth; JH Grestner, Steps to Salvation; A Koeberle, The Quest for Holiness; WGT Shedd, Dogmatic Theology, II; H Schmid, The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church; E Routley, The Gift of Conversion; K Barth, Church Dogmatics; J Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion 2.危险品Bloesch,基督徒的生活和拯救,危机的虔诚,和基督教神学,二要素; Ĵ贝利,洗礼和转换,AB公司克拉布特里,还原的关系; K表拉纳,基督教承诺;乙柚子,新的诞生; Jh的Grestner,以拯救步骤;一个Koeberle,为圣洁追求; wgt谢德,教条式的神学,二高h施密德,在福音派路德教会教义神学,电子商务劳特利,转换礼物; K表巴特,教会教义学; j卡尔文,研究所的基督教宗教2。2.3.14; PS Watson, The Concept of Grace; PT Forsyth, The Work of Christ. 2.3.14;聚苯乙烯沃森,恩典概念;铂佛塞斯,基督的工作。


Convert, Conversion (verb)转换,转换(动词)

Advanced Information先进的信息

"to turn about, turn towards" (epi, "towards" and No. 1), is used transitively, and so rendered "convert" (of causing a person to turn) in Jas. “转过身,转向”(外延,“朝”和第1号),是用来传递地,所以所提供的“转换”的雅(造成一人转)。5:19-20.5:19-20。Elsewhere, where the KJV translates this verb, either in the middle voice and intransitive use, or the passive, the RV adheres to the middle voice significance, and translates by "turn again," Matt.在其他地方,那里的新译翻译这个动词​​无论是在语音和不及中使用,或被动,风疹病毒附着到中间的声音的意义,并通过翻译“再次开启,”马特。 13:15; Mark 4:12; Luke 22:32; Acts 3:19; 28:27.13:15,马可福音16:12,路加福音22:32,徒3:19; 28:27。


Convert, Conversion (noun)转换,转换(名词)

Advanced Information先进的信息

akin to A, No. 2, "a turning about, or round, conversion," is found in Acts 15:3.类似,第2号“,一转过来,或圆,转换”,是在行为15:3发现。The word implies "a turning from and a turning to"; corresponding to these are repentance and faith; cf.这个词意味着“一个转折点,从和转向”,对应于这些都悔改和信念;比照。"turned to God from idols" (1 Thess. 1:9).“转向上帝从偶像”(1帖。1:9)。Divine grace is the efficient cause, human agency the responding effect.神的恩典是高效率的原因,人类机构的响应效果。


Conversion转换

Catholic Information天主教新闻

(From the classical Latin converto, depon. convertor, whence conversio, change, etc.).(从古典拉丁语converto,depon。转炉,何处conversio,变更等)。

In the Latin Vulgate (Acts 15:3), in patristic (St. Augustine, Civ. Dei, VIII, xxiv), and in later ecclesiastical Latin, conversion refers to a moral change, a turning or returning to God and to the true religion, in which sense it has passed into our modern languages.在拉丁语武加大(徒15:3),在教父(圣奥古斯丁,持续输注。棣,八,二十四),并在以后的教会拉丁文,转换指的是一个道德变化,转向或回归上帝,真宗教,其中意义上,它通过成为我们的现代语言。 (For example, the "conversions" of St. Paul, of Constantine the Great, and of St. Augustine.) In the Middle Ages the word conversion was often used in the sense of forsaking the world to enter the religious state. (例如,“转换”的圣保禄君士坦丁大帝,和圣奥古斯丁。)在中世纪的常用词的转化率在世界上的放弃进入宗教的国家意识。Thus St. Bernard speaks of his conversion.因此,圣伯纳德谈到他的转化。The return of the sinner to a life of virtue is also called a conversion.的罪人返回的生活美德也被称为转换。More commonly do we speak of the conversion of an infidel to the true religion, and most commonly of the conversion of a schismatic or heretic to the Catholic Church.更普遍的做我们讲的是一个异教徒转换为真正的宗教,和最异端的一个分裂或转化为天主教教会普遍。

Every man is bound by the natural law to seek the true religion, embrace it when found, and conform his life to its principles and precepts.每个人都是自然法则的约束,寻求真正的宗教,拥抱它被发现时,他的生命,并符合其原则和规则。And it is a dogma of the Church defined by the Vatican Council that man is able by the natural light of reason to arrive at the certain knowledge of the existence of the one true God.它是一个教条的教会由梵蒂冈理事会确定这名男子是由自然光的原因无法到达的唯一真神的存在一定的认识。our Creator and Lord.我们的创造主。The same council teaches that faith is a gift of God necessary for salvation, that it is an act of the intellect commanded by the will, and that it is a supernatural act.同样会教导我们,信仰是神的恩赐,为得救所必需的,它是一个由意志指挥智力行为,这是一个超自然的行为。The act of faith then is an act of the understanding, whereby we firmly hold as true whatever God has revealed, not because of its intrinsic truth perceived by the natural light of reason, but because God, who can neither deceive nor be deceived, has revealed it.当时该法的信仰的理解是,我们坚决为真,即不论上帝透露,不是因为其内在的自然光的原因认为真理,持有的行为,而是因为上帝,既不能欺骗,也没有谁被欺骗,有发现它。 It is in itself an act of the understanding, but it requires the influence of the will which moves the intellect to assent.这本身就是一种理解的行为,但它需要意志移动智力赞同影响。For many of the truths of revelation, being mysteries, are to some extent obscure.对于许多真理的启示,即奥秘,在一定程度上掩盖。Yet, it is not a blind act, since the fact that God has spoken is not merely probable but certain.然而,它不是一个盲目的行为,因为神已经说过其实不仅是可能的不确定性。The evidences for the fact of revelation are not, however.对事实的启示的证据都没有,但是。the motive of faith; they are the grounds which render revelation credible, that is to say, they make it certain that God has spoken.信仰的动机,他们的理由是它提供的启示可信的,这就是说,它们使某些上帝说的。And since faith is necessary for salvation, that we may comply with the duty of embracing the true Faith and persevering in it, God by His only-begotten Son has instituted the Church and has adorned it with obvious marks so that it may be known by all men as the guardian and teacher of revealed truth.而且,由于信心是必要的救赎,我们可以遵守拥抱真正的信仰和执着在它的责任,由他的独生子上帝教会,并已提起装饰,具有明显的标志,以便它可能是已知的作为监护人和老师都发现真理的人。 These marks (or notes) of credibility belong to the Catholic Church alone.这些标记的信誉(或笔记)属于天主教孤单。Nay, the Church itself by its admirable propagation, sublime sanctity, and inexhaustible fecundity, by its Catholic unity and invincible stability, is a great and perpetual motive of credibility and irrefragable testimony of its Divine mission (see Conc. Vatic., De Fide, cap. 3).不仅如此,其令人钦佩的繁殖,崇高的神圣性,其繁殖力和不竭天主教团结和不可战胜的稳定,教会本身,是一个伟大而永恒的信誉,其动机和神圣使命的不可辩驳的证据(见浓。Vatic。,德有诚意,帽。3)。

The first step, therefore, in the normal process of conversion is the investigation and examination of the credentials of the Church, which often is a painful labor lasting for years.第一步,因此,在正常的转换过程,是调查和教会,这往往是一个痛苦的劳动持续数年的全权证书考试。 The external grace which draws a man's attention to the Church and causes him to begin his inquiry is as various and manifold as there are individual inquirers.外部恩典,这是吸引男人的注意,并导致他的教会,开始他的调查是各种和多方面的,因为是个人查询人。It may even be something to one's temporal advantage, which was the case with Henry IV of France.它甚至有可能一个东西的时间优势,这是与法国的亨利第四的情况。It may be the interest aroused in a great historical personage, such as Innocent III, in the case of Friedrich von Hurter.这可能是在一个伟大的历史人物引起了兴趣,弗里德里希冯Hurter情况下,如英诺森三世。Whatever may have been the initial motive.无论可能已初步动机。if the study be pursued with an open mind, we hold that it will lead to the knowledge of the true Church, ie to this certain conclusion: The Catholic Church is the true Church.如果研究,虚心追求,我们认为这将导致真正的教会的知识,即这个某些结论:天主教教会是真正的教会。This intellectual conviction.这个知识的信念。however, is not yet the act of faith.但是,还不是信心的行动。One may hesitate, or refuse to take the next step, which is the "good will to believe" (pius credulitatis affectus).有人可能会犹豫,或拒绝采取下一个步骤,这是“良好意愿,相信”(庇护credulitatis affectus)。 And this leads to the third and final act, the act of faith itself: I believe what the Church teaches because God has revealed it.这导致了第三次也是最后的行为,行为本身的信仰:我相信教会的教导,因为上帝已经发现它。These three acts, especially the last, are, in accordance with Catholic teaching, supernatural acts.这三种行为,特别是最后一个,是在与天主教教学,超自然的行为规定。Then follows baptism by which the believer is formally received into the body of the Church.然后如下洗礼的信徒,其中正式进入教会机构收到。(See BAPTISM, VII, VIII.) Since the duty of embracing the true religion is of natural and positive Divine right, it is evident that no civil law can forbid the fulfilling of this duty, nor should any temporal considerations be allowed to interfere with a duty on which depends the soul's salvation. (见洗礼,七,八。)自拥抱真正的宗教职责,把自然和积极的神圣权​​利,这是显而易见的,任何民事法律可以禁止在履行这一职责,也不应允许任何时间考虑干预责任取决于它的灵魂的拯救。 And because all are bound to enter the Church, it follows that the Church has a right to receive all who apply for reception, of whatever age, sex, or condition they may be.而且因为所有必将走进教堂,它遵循,教会有权利接受所有申请接待谁,不论其年龄,性别,或条件,他们可能。Nay, in virtue of the Divine command to preach the Gospel to every creature, the Church is strictly bound to receive them, and no earthly authority can forbid the exercise of this duty.不仅如此,在神的命令美德的传福音给每一个生物,教会是他们接受严格的约束,没有世俗的权力可以禁止行使这一职责。To the Church alone it belongs to lay down the conditions for reception and to inquire into the interior dispositions of him who presents himself for admission into her bosom.对于教会仅属于放下接收的条件,并查究他对谁提出将她的怀抱接纳自己的内部处分。The conditions are, knowledge and profession of the Catholic Faith and the resolve to live in accordance with it.条件是,知识和信仰天主教界和决心按照与之共存。The right to admit converts into the Church belongs strictly speaking to the bishop.承认的权利转换到教会属于严格地说的主教。Usually all priests exercising the sacred ministry receive faculties for reconciling heretics.通常所有神职人员行使神圣部收到调和异端学院。When conditional baptism is administered, sacramental confession is also required from the convert.当有条件的洗礼,是管理,圣供认还需要从转换。It is the law clearly laid down in the Acts of the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore.这显然​​是奠定在第二次全体会议,会议的巴尔的摩下来的行为的法律。The order of proceedings is as follows:法律程序的顺序如下:

first, abjuration of heresy or profession of faith;第一,异端或专业的信念abjuration;

second, conditional baptism;第二,有条件的洗礼;

third, sacramental confession and conditional absolution.第三,圣供述和有条件的赦免。 (Tit. V, Cap. II, n. 240.) (Tit.第五章。二,注240。)

Force, violence, or fraud may not be employed to bring about the conversion of an unbeliever.武力,暴力,欺诈或不得雇用带来一个不信的转换。Such means would be sinful.这种办法是有罪的。The natural law, the law of Christ, the nature of faith, the teaching and practice of the Church forbid such means.自然法则,基督,信仰,教学和实践的教会性质的法律禁止这种手段。Credere voluntatis est, to believe depends upon the free will, says St. Thomas (II-II:10:8), and the minister of baptism, before administering the sacrament, is obliged to ask the question, "Wilt thou be baptized"?担保买方支付的voluntatis美国东部时间,相信在自由意志而定,说圣托马斯(二-Ⅱ:10:8),以及部长的洗礼,在管理圣礼,是要问一个问题:“你愿意接受洗礼” ?And only after having received the answer, "I will", may he proceed with the sacred rite.而只有在收到答复后,“我会”,可他进行神圣的仪式。The Church also forbids the baptism of children of unbaptized parents without the consent of the latter, unless the children have been cast away by their parents, or are in imminent danger of death.教会还禁止未经同意,后者未受洗礼的父母子女的洗礼,除非该儿童已被父母抛弃,或迫在眉睫的死亡的危险。For the Church has no jurisdiction over the unbaptized, nor does the State possess the power of using temporal means in spiritual things.对于教会在未受洗礼没有管辖权,也没有国家具备了使用时间意味着权力,精神的东西。The punishments formerly decreed against apostates were not intended to coerce men to accept outwardly what they did not believe in their hearts, but to atone for a crime (see the article of St. Thomas, loc. cit.).以前颁布的处罚对叛教者并不打算强迫男子接受外表是什么,他们不相信在他们的心中,但赎罪的犯罪(见圣托马斯文章,同上。同上。)。 The medieval legislation, both ecclesiastical and secular, clearly distinguished between the punishment to be inflicted for the crime of apostasy and the means of instruction to be used in order to bring about the resipiscence of the apostate.中世纪的法律,既教会和世俗的,明确的惩罚之间的区别是造成对叛教罪和教学手段被使用,以实现对叛教resipiscence。 As Bishop von Ketteler says, "The punishment inflicted by the Church upon heretics in comparatively few cases was not based upon the false principle that conviction could be forced upon the mind by external means, but upon the truth that by baptism the Christian has assumed obligations the fulfillment of which could be insisted upon. This punishment was only inflicted in particular cases and upon public and formal heretics."作为主教克林德说:“通过后异教徒在相对少数情况下会受到的处罚是没有依据的原则是错误的信念可以由外部强加的手段介意,但当时实行的洗礼的基督教真理承担的义务在履行这可能是坚持的。这种惩罚只在特殊情况下,一经公开,正式异教徒造成的。“ Convert parents like other Catholics are obliged to have their children baptized and educated in the Catholic religion.像其他天主教徒转换父母有责任让他们的孩子洗礼和教育,在天主教的宗教。

The Constitution of the United States of America proclaims complete separation of Church and State and guarantees full liberty of conscience.作者:美利坚合众国宪法宣布的教会与国家分离,并保证完全充分自由的良心。In consequence the laws of these States place no hindrance whatever in the way of conversions.在后果的,这些国家的法律在任何地方没有障碍的转换方式。It may also be said that on the whole the American people are socially tolerant towards converts.这也可以说,就整体而言,美国人民是社会对转换宽容。No wonder that in this country's conversions are comparatively more numerous than in most others.难怪在这个国家的转换是相对比其他大多数多。In the British Empire too, since the days of Catholic Emancipation in 1829, liberty of conscience prevails in theory as well as in practice, although there exists both in England and Scotland an established Church.在大英帝国也因为在1829年天主教解放的日子里,普遍存在着良心的自由理论,以及在实践中,虽然无论是在英格兰和苏格兰的一个既定的教会存在。 Catholic disabilities have been almost entirely removed.天主教残疾人已几乎完全消除。

Catholics are only excluded from the throne and from a few of the highest offices of the State.天主教徒只能被排除在王位,从一个国家的最高处很少。In Germany after the Reformation the tyrannical principle cujus regio, illius religio was proclaimed, in virtue of which the sovereign for the time being could impose his religion upon his subjects.在德国宗教改革后残暴的原则cujus雷乔,illius的宗教宣告成立,在凭借其中暂时可以强加于他的臣民他的宗教,君主。 He exercised the power both to forbid conversions to the Catholic Church, and to compel apostasy from it.他行使权力既要禁止的天主教教会的转换,并迫使它从叛教。In present-day Germany, liberty of conscience is the law of the land.在今天的德国,良心自由是国家的法律。And although some union of Church and State exists, conversion does not involve any disabilities or the loss of any civil or political rights.尽管一些工会,教会和国家存在,转换不涉及任何残疾或任何公民或政治权利的丧失。 Formerly, however, most of the states prescribed the age before which conversions were not lawful, which was either fourteen or sixteen, or even eighteen.以前,然而,大多数国家规定的年龄在它面前,转化率不合法,这是不是十四,十六,甚至十八。In Saxony, Brunswick, and Mecklenburg, the public exercise of the Catholic religion historically was subjected to vexatious interference.在萨克森州,布伦瑞克和梅克伦堡,在历史上遭到无理干涉天主教全民运动。In Russia the Orthodox Church is the State religion.在俄罗斯东正教为国教。Other denominations are only tolerated.其他教派只是容忍。Under the czars, conversion from the Orthodox Church to Catholicism was followed by grievous disabilities.在沙皇,从转换到东正教天主教其次是严重残疾。By the ukase of 1905 certain rights and liberties were granted to other denominations.到1905年的某些权利和自由ukase分别给予其他教派。The publication of the ukase was immediately followed by the return to the Catholic Church of many Eastern Catholics who had been forced into schism by persecution.该ukase出版紧接着向许多东欧天主教徒天主教教会谁已分裂成迫害被迫返回。The Scandinavian countries were very intolerant till about the middle of the nineteenth century.斯堪的纳维亚国家十分至约十九世纪中叶不能容忍。Denmark gave liberty to the Catholic Church in 1849, Sweden and Norway in 1860.丹麦给在1849年,瑞典和挪威自由天主教会在1860年。

Publication information Written by B. Guldner.出版信息的书面由B. Guldner。Transcribed by Charles Sweeney, SJ.转录由查尔斯斯威尼,律政司司长。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Also, see:此外,见:
Sanctification 成圣
Justification 理由
Confession 自白
Salvation 救赎
Various Attitudes不同态度
Supralapsarianism supralapsarianism
Infralapsarianism infralapsarianism
Amyraldianism amyraldianism
Arminianism arminianism

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html