Covenant公约

General Information一般资料

A covenant is a mutual agreement between 2 or more persons to do or refrain from doing certain acts.阿约是一两个或更多的人共同的协议或不从事某种行为,不要。Sometimes, this is the undertaking of one of the parties.有时候,这是一方当事人承担。In the Bible, God is regarded as the witness of this pact (Gen. 31:50, 1Sam. 20:8).在圣经中,上帝被视为本协议的见证(创31:50,1Sam。20:8)。

In the Old Testament, there are three different types of covenant:在旧约中,有三种不同类型的契约:

  1. A two-sided covenant between human parties, both of whom voluntarily accept the terms of the agreement (1Sam. 18:3,4; Mal. 2:14; Obad. 7).一个人的各方之间的双面立约,他们两人都自愿接受协议的条款(1Sam. 18:3,4;玛2:14;。Obad 7。)。
  2. A one-sided disposition imposed by a superior party (Ezek. 17:13,14).片面的处置由上级党(结17:13,14)的罚款。In this, God "commands" a covenant which man, the servant, is to obey (Josh. 23:16).在此,上帝的“命令”立约的人,是公仆,是服从(Josh. 23:16)。
  3. God's self-imposed obligation, for the reconciliation of sinners to Himself (Deut. 7:6-8; Ps. 89:3,4).上帝的自我强加的义务,为和解,以自己的罪人(申命记7:6-8;诗89:3,4)。。

God made several such covenants in the Bible:神在圣经中几个这样的公约:

The prophets foretold a New Covenant (Jer. 31:31-34) which would center in a person (Isa. 42:6; 49:8).先知预言新约 (耶31:31-34)中心将在一人(以赛亚书42:6,49:8)。 In the New Covenant, the Covenant of Grace , man is placed in right relationship to God through Christ (Heb. 7:22; 8:6-13; 2Cor. 3:6-18).在新的盟约, 盟约恩典 ,人是放置在正确的关系,以上帝透过基督(希伯来书7:22; 8:6-13,林后3:6-18)。。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件

Covenant公约

General Information一般资料

Covenant is a legal concept often used in the Bible as a metaphor to describe the relationship between God and humankind. The biblical usage was derived from ancient secular usage, where covenant meant a binding and solemn agreement between two or more parties. 公约是一个法律概念,往往用在圣经作为一个比喻来描述上帝和人类之间的关系。圣经中的使用是源于古代的世俗党派用法,公约两个或两个以上的协议意味着约束力和严肃的。 There were different kinds of covenants in the biblical world, however, just as there are different kinds of contracts today.有各种不同的公约,在圣经的世界,然而,正如有不同种类的合同今天。One type of ancient covenant that serves as a model for certain biblical passages is the royal grant.一个古老的盟约类型,作为某些圣经段落典范是皇家津贴。In this type of covenant, a king or other person in authority rewards a loyal subject by granting him an office, land, exemption from taxes, or the like.在这个公约,一个国王或其他类型的人在机关给予奖励由他一个办公室,土地,免征税款,或像一个忠诚的主题。It is typical of such covenants that only the superior party binds himself; conditions are not imposed on the inferior party.这是只有上级党公约约束自身这样的典型,条件不劣于党的罚款。

Such covenants are also referred to as covenants of promise or unconditional covenants.这些公约也被称为无条件的承诺或契约条款。The covenants God made with Noah (Gen. 9:8 - 17), Abraham (Gen. 15:18), and David (2 Sam. 7; 23:5) fit this pattern.该公约上帝与挪亚(创9:8 - 17),亚伯拉罕(创15:18),大卫(2萨姆7;。23:5)适合这种模式。 In each of these cases, it is God alone who binds himself by a solemn oath to keep the covenant.在这些情况下,谁是上帝单独由一个庄严的宣誓结合自己保持的约。

The Mosaic covenant (Ex. 19 - 24; Deut.; Josh. 24) seems to have been modeled on another type of ancient covenant, the political treaty between a powerful king and his weaker vassal.摩西的盟约(出埃及记19 - 24;。。申;乔希24),似乎已在另一个古老的盟约,与一个强大的国王和他的政治条约较弱的附庸型为蓝本。Following the standard form of such treaties, God, the suzerain, reminds Israel, the vassal, how God has saved it, and Israel in response accepts the covenant stipulations.随着这些条约的标准形式,上帝,宗主国,提醒在回应以色列的附庸,神是怎么挽救了它,以色列接受该公约的规定。 Israel is promised a blessing for obedience and a curse for breaking the covenant.以色列答应了服从祝福和诅咒打破盟约。

These two different conceptions of covenant, one stressing promise, the other obligation, eventually modified one another.这两种不同的契约观念,一讲承诺,其他的义务,最终修改彼此。 Jesus Christ added a third model, that of a last will and testament.耶稣基督增加了第三种模式,即最后的遗嘱。At the Last Supper, he interpreted his own life and death as the perfect covenant (Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20). The idea of a covenant between God and humankind lies at the heart of the Bible. This idea explains the selection of the word testament, a synonym for covenant, in naming the two parts of the Bible.在最后的晚餐,他解释14:24,路加福音22:20)他自己的生活和死亡的最完美的盟约(马太26:28;马克。 思想的人类和上帝之间的契约在于在圣经的心。这个想法解释了这个词的遗嘱选择,在命名的两个部分的圣经为公约的代名词。

JJM Roberts朱镇模罗伯茨

Bibliography 参考书目
DR Hillers, Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea (1969); GE Mendenhall, The Tenth Generation: The Origins of the Biblical Tradition (1973); AW Pink, The Divine Covenants (1984).何培土,盟约:一个圣经的思想(1969年)历史,葛门登霍尔,第十代:对圣经的传统(1973年)的起源,胡粉红色,(1984)神圣盟约。


Covenant (noun)盟约(名词)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Covenant primarily signifies "a disposition of property by will or otherwise."公约主要标志“的财产将要或以其他方式处置。”In its use in the Septuagint, it is the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning a "covenant" or agreement (from a verb signifying "to cut or divide," in allusion to a sacrificial custom in connection with "covenant-making," eg, Gen. 15:10, "divided" Jer. 34:18-19).在其七十使用,它是一个希伯来字,意思是渲染“公约”或协议,标志着从一个动词(“削减或鸿沟”在提到在连接到一个祭祀习俗与“约制”,例如将军15:10,“分裂”哲。34:18-19)。 In contradistinction to the English word "covenant" (lit., "a coming together"), which signifies a mutual undertaking between two parties or more, each binding himself to fulfill obligations, it does not in itself contain the idea of joint obligation, it mostly signifies an obligation undertaken by a single person.在对比了英文单词“公约”(大戏,“一合”),这标志着两党之间的相互承诺或以上,每个绑定履行自己的义务,它本身并不包含承担连带责任的想法,它主要由一个人意味着承担的义务。

For instance, in Gal.例如,在半乳糖。3:17 it is used as an alternative to a "promise" (vv. 16-18).3:17这是用来作为一种“承诺”另类(vv. 16-18)。God enjoined upon Abraham the rite of circumcision, but His promise to Abraham, here called a "covenant," was not conditional upon the observance of circumcision, though a penalty attached to its nonobservance.神受命后,亚伯拉罕的割礼仪式,但他的许亚伯拉罕,这里所谓的“公约”,是不遵守割礼后,有条件的,虽然刑罚重视其nonobservance。 "

The NT uses of the word may be analyzed as follows: (a) a promise or undertaking, human or divine, Gal.新台币使用可分析如下字:(一)保证或承诺,人或神,半乳糖。3:15; (b) a promise or undertaking on the part of God, Luke 1:72; Acts 3:25; Rom. 3:15;(二)的承诺或对上帝的承诺的一部分,卢克1:72,徒3:25;光盘。9:4; 11:27; Gal.9:4; 11:27;半乳糖。3:17; Eph. 3:17;弗。2:12; Heb. 2:12;河北。7:22; 8:6, 8, 10; 10:16; (c) an agreement, a mutual undertaking, between God and Israel, see Deut.7:22,8:6,8,10; 10:16;(c)一个协议,双方共同承担上帝与以色列人之间,见申。29-30 (described as a 'commandment,' Heb. 7:18, cf. v. 22); Heb.29-30(形容为'命令,'希伯来书7:18,比照诉22。。);河北。 8:9; 9:20; (d) by metonymy, the token of the covenant, or promise, made to Abraham, Acts 7:8; (e) by metonymy, the record of the covenant, 2 Cor.8:9; 9:20;(四)转喻,该公约,或承诺向亚伯拉罕,徒7:8,令牌;(e)由转喻,该公约的纪录,2肺心病。3:14; Heb.3:14;河北。9:4; cf.9:4;比照。Rev. 11:19; (f) the basis, established by the death of Christ, on which the salvation of men is secured, Matt.启示录11:19;(六)为基础,以基督的,对其中的人得救是有担保,马特死亡成立。26:28; Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20; 1 Cor.26:28,马可福音14:24,路加福音22:20,1肺心病。11:25; 2 Cor.11:25; 2肺心病。3:6; Heb. 3:6;河北。10:29; 12:24; 13:20.10:29,12:24,13:20。"This covenant is called the 'new,' Heb. 9:15, the 'second,' 8:7, the 'better,' 7:22. In Heb. 9:16-17, the translation is much disputed. There does not seem to be any sufficient reason for departing in these verses from the word used everywhere else. The English word 'Testament' is taken from the titles prefixed to the Latin Versions." “这个公约是所谓的'新'河北。9:15,'第二'8:7时,'好,'7:22。在河北。9:16-17,翻译是非常有争议的。有似乎没有任何在这些经文从字出发充分的理由在其他地方使用。英文字'圣经'是取自拉丁文前缀版本的标题。“


Covenant (verb)盟约(动词)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Covenant, lit., "to put together," is used only in the middle voice in the NT, and, means "to determine, agree," John 9:22 and Acts 23:20; "to assent," Acts 24:9; "to covenant," Luke 22:5. 。公约,点燃,“拼”,是用声音在中间只在新台币,并指“决定,同意,”约翰9:22和23:20的行为;“地赞同,”行为24: 9,“盟约,”卢克22:5。Note: In Matt.注:在马特。26:15 the KJV translates histemi, "to place (in the balances)," ie, to weigh, "they covenanted with"; RV, "they weighed unto." 26:15翻译histemi的新译“,以地方(在余额),”也就是说,衡量“,他们就给了”,风疹病毒,“他们给了你们。”


.

Covenant Theology盟约神学

Advanced Information先进的信息

The doctrine of the covenant was one of the theological contributions that came to the church through the Reformation of the sixteenth century.该公约的学说是到这里来,通过十六世纪的宗教改革神学对教会的贡献之一。Undeveloped earlier, it made its appearance in the writings of Zwingli and Bullinger, who were driven to the subject by Anabaptists in and around Zurich.欠发达较早,它作出的茨温利和布凌格著作,谁是由在苏黎世再洗礼派和周围的主题它的外观。From them it passed to Calvin and other Reformers, was further developed by their successors, and played a dominant role in much Reformed theology of the seventeenth century when it came to be known as covenant, or federal, theology.他们通过向卡尔文和其他改革者,得到了进一步发展由他们的继承人,并发挥在很多改革神学的十七世纪最重要的角色时,后来被称为盟约,或联邦,神学而闻名。 Covenant theology sees the relation of God to mankind as a compact which God established as a reflection of the relationship existing between the three persons of the Holy Trinity.盟约神学认为上帝给人类的关系作为紧凑而上帝作为三位一体之间的三人设立反映了现有的关系。

This emphasis on God's covenantal dealings with the human race tended to lessen what appeared to some to be harshness in the earlier Reformed theology which emanated from Geneva, with its emphasis on the divine sovereignty and predestination.这种对上帝的covenantal打交道的人的种族倾向淡化重点似乎有些在以前的改革神学,它是由日内瓦的苛刻与对神的主权和宿命重点。 From Switzerland covenant theology passed over into Germany, and from there into the Netherlands and the British Isles.从瑞士盟约神学通过到德国,再从那里进入荷兰和英伦三岛。Among its early and most influential advocates were, besides Zwingli and Bullinger, Olevianus (Concerning the Nature of the Covenant of Grace Between God and the Elect, 1585), Cocceius (Doctrine of the Covenant and Testaments of God, 1648), and Witsius (The Oeconomy of the Covenants, 1685).在其早期和最有影响力的倡导者,除了zwingli和布凌格,Olevianus(关于与上帝的选,1585年的盟约的恩典性质),Cocceius(该公约和圣经的上帝,1648年学说),和Witsius(该公约,1685)Oeconomy。 It was taken up into the Westminister Confession and came to have an important place in the theology of Scotland and New England.它被带到了进入西敏寺招供,并有一个在新英格兰,苏格兰和神学的重要场所。

.

The Covenant of Works盟约的作品

Having created man in his own image as a free creature with knowledge, righteousness, and holiness, God entered into covenant with Adam that he might bestow upon him further blessing.在创造一个有知识,义,和圣洁自由的动物,在他自己的形象造人,上帝订立与亚当表示,他可能赐给他进一步祝福成约。 Called variously the Edenic covenant, the covenant of nature, the covenant of life, or preferably the Covenant of Works , this pact consisted of (1) a promise of eternal life upon the condition of perfect obedience throughout a probationary period; (2) the threat of death upon disobedience; and (3) the sacrament of the tree of life, or, in addition, the sacraments of paradise and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.所谓不同的Edenic盟约,盟约的性质,生活公约,或最好的作品盟约 ,这个协议包括:(1)在试用期间条件的完善,服从整个生命永恒的承诺;(2)死亡威胁后,抗命;及(3)中除了生命树,或者,天堂圣礼和对善恶树圣礼。 Although the term "covenant" is not mentioned in the first chapters of Genesis, it is held that all the elements of a covenant are present even though the promise of eternal life is there by implication only.虽然“盟约”,是不是在创世纪第一章提到的,它是认为所有元素的一个公约是目前即使是永恒的生命的承诺是有含意而已。Before the fall Adam was perfect but could still have sinned; had he retained his perfection throughout the probationary period, he would have been confirmed in righteousness and been unable to sin.垮台前亚当是十全十美的,但仍然可以去犯罪,如果他留在整个试用期间他的完美,他将已被确认为正义和一直无法罪。

Inasmuch as he was acting not only for himself but representatively for mankind, Adam was a public person.因为他不仅为自己,但代表性,为人类,亚当是一个公众人物。His fall therefore affected the entire human race that was to come after him; all are now conceived and born in sin.他的下降,因此影响到整个人类的,那就是让他,全都是现在设想和生于罪。Without a special intervention of God there would be no hope; all would be lost forever.如果没有特别的干预,上帝就没有希望,一切将永远消失。

The good news, however, is that God has intervened in behalf of mankind with another covenant. Unlike the earlier covenant of works, whose mandate was "Do this and you shall live" (cf. Rom. 10:5; Gal. 3:12), the covenant of grace is bestowed on men in their sinful condition with the promise that, in spite of their inability to keep any of the commandments of God, out of sheer grace he forgives their sin and accepts them as his children through the merits of his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, on the condition of Faith.好消息,然而,就是上帝的盟约,在代表人类干预与另一半乳糖不同于公约的早期作品,其任务是“做这做,你将生活”(参见。光盘。10:5 3;: 12),恩典之约的是上帝赐予的状况,对男性在其罪孽深重的承诺,尽管他们无法向任何遵守诫命,出于纯粹的恩典,他宽恕他们的罪过,并接纳他们为他的孩子们通过,优点,他的儿子,主耶稣基督的信仰状况。

The Covenant of Redemption公约的赎回

According to covenant theology, the covenant of grace, established in history, is founded on still another covenant, the covenant of redemption, which is defined as the eternal pact between God the Father and God the Son concerning the salvation of mankind.根据盟约神学,该公约的宽限期,在既定的历史,是建立在还有一项公约,公约的赎回,这被看作是与上帝圣父和圣子永恒的有关人类的拯救协议定义。 Scripture teaches that within the Godhead there are three persons, the same in essence, glory, and power, objective to each other.圣经教导我们,在神的源头有三个人,同时在本质上,荣耀,权力,客观对方。The Father loves the Son, commissions him, gives him a people, the right to judge, and authority over all mankind (John 3:16; 5:20, 22, 36; 10:17 - 18; 17:2, 4, 6, 9, 24; Ps. 2:7 - 8; Heb. 1:8 - 13); the Son loves the Father, delights to do his will, and has shared his glory forever (Heb. 10:7; John 5:19; 17:5).父亲爱儿子,佣金他,让他一个人,正确的判断,以及全人类(约翰3:16权威; 5:20,22,36; 10:17 - 18; 17时02分,4, 6,9,24岁;诗2:7 - 8;。希伯来书1:8 - 13);。儿子深爱着父亲,愉悦把自己的意志,并分享他的荣耀永远(希伯来书10:7,约翰5 :19; 17:5)。The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit commune with each other; this is one of the meanings of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity.父亲,儿子,和圣灵公社与对方,这是对基督教教义的三位一体的意义之一。

On this foundation covenant theology affirms that God the Father and God the Son covenanted together for the redemption of the human race, the Father appointing the Son to be the mediator, the Second Adam, whose life would be given for the salvation of the world, and the Son accepting the commission, promising that he would do the work which the Father had given him to do and fulfill all righteousness by obeying the law of God.在此基础上圣约神学申明上帝的父亲和上帝的儿子covenanted人类种族,委任儿子成为调停者的父亲一起赎回,第二个亚当,他们的生活会是为救赎的世界,和儿子接受的委托,希望他会做的工作,父亲给了他这样做,并履行遵守法律的上帝所有正义的工作。 Thus before the foundation of the world, within the eternal being of God, it had been determined that creation would not be destroyed by sin, but that rebellion and iniquity would be overcome by God's grace, that Christ would become the new head of humanity, the Savior of the world, and that God would be glorified.所以才在世界的基础在上帝永恒的福祉,它已被确定,创造不会被破坏罪过,但暴动和邪恶中,将上帝的恩典,基督将成为新的主管人道克服,世界的救主,上帝将荣耀。

.

The Covenant of Grace该公约的宽限期

This covenant has been made by God with mankind.这个公约已经取得了神与人类。In it he offers life and salvation through Christ to all who believe. Inasmuch as none can believe without the special grace of God, it is more exact to say that the covenant of grace is made by God with believers, or the elect. Jesus said that all those whom the Father had given him would come to him and that those who come would surely be accepted (John 6:37).在它提供的,他的生活和基督得救所有谁相信。 因为没有人能够相信,如果没有特别的恩赐,它是更确切的说,恩典之约的,是由上帝与信徒,或选出。耶稣说:所有这些人的父亲给了他会来,他和那些谁来一定会被接受(约翰福音6:37)。 Herein is seen the close relation between the covenant of grace and the covenant of redemption, with the former resting on the latter.这里是看到了该公约的宽限期和赎回公约与前者对后者休息,密切的关系。From eternity the Father has given a people to the Son; to them was given the promised Holy Spirit so that they might live in fellowship with God.从永恒父亲打了一个人的儿子,给他们提供所承诺的圣灵,使他们有可能生活在神的交通。Christ is the mediator of the covenant of grace inasmuch as he has borne the guilt of sinners and restored them to a saving relationship to God (Heb. 8:6; 9:15; 12:24).基督是该公约的宽限期调停因为他已经证明他有罪的罪人,并恢复他们节省了关系,神(希伯来书8:6; 9:15; 12:24)。He is mediator, not only in the sense of arbitrator, although that is the sense in which the word is used in 1 Tim.他是调解员,只有在仲裁员的感觉,尽管这是在其中的字是用在一添意义。2:5, but in the sense of having fulfilled all the conditions necessary for procuring eternal salvation for his people.2:5,但在意义上的完成了所有的条件,采购为他的人民永远得救所必需的。

Thus Heb.因此希伯来书。7:22 calls Jesus the "surety" or "guarantee" of the new covenant, which is better than that which came through Moses.7:22来电耶稣的“担保人”或“保证”的新约,这是比这更好的通过摩西。Within the context of this last passage repeated mention is made of God's promise to Christ and his people.在这最后一段中反复提到的是上帝的诺言,以基督和他的人民。He will be their God and they will be his people.他将他们的神和他们的将是他的人。He will bestow on them the grace they need to confess his name and live with him forever; in humble dependence on him for their every need, they will live in trustful obedience from day to day.他会赐给他们的恩典,他们需要交代自己的名字和他同住永远,在他简陋的依赖自己的每一个需要,他们将生活在相互信任的服从,从日常。 This latter, called faith in Scripture, is the sole condition of the covenant, and even it is a gift of God (Eph. 2:8 - 9).这后者, 所谓的信念在经文中,是该公约的唯一条件,甚至是上帝礼物 (弗2:8 - 9)。

Although the covenant of grace includes various dispensations of history, it is essentially one.虽然该公约的宽限期,包括各种dispensations历史,它基本上是一个。From the promise in the garden (Gen. 3:15), through the covenant made with Noah (Gen. 6 - 9), to the day that the covenant was established with Abraham, there is abundant evidence of God's grace.从通过该公约与挪亚承诺在花园里(创3:15),(创6 - 9),以该公约设立的亚伯拉罕一天,是神的恩典丰富的证据。 With Abraham a new beginning is made which the later, Sinaitic covenant implements and strengthens.亚伯拉罕一个新的开端,是其中后,西乃半岛公约的实施和加强。At Sinai the covenant assumes a national form and stress is laid on the law of God.在西奈盟约假设一个国家的形式和强调的是对上帝的法律规定。This is not intended to alter the gracious character of the covenant, however (Gal. 3:17 - 18), but it is to serve to train Israel until the time would come when God himself would appear in its midst.这是不打算改变大方性格的盟约,但是,(加拉太书3:17 - 18),但它是为了向以色列火车到时候会来的时候,上帝会出现在它的中间。In Jesus the new form of the covenant that had been promised by the prophets is manifest, and that which was of a temporary nature in the old form of the covenant disappears (Jer. 31:31 - 34; Heb. 8). While there is unity and continuity in the covenant of grace throughout history, the coming of Christ and the subsequent gift of the Holy Spirit have brought rich gifts unknown in an earlier age.在耶稣的先知,新形式的契约承诺,已经是明显的,并认为这是一个临时性质的旧形式的盟约的消失(耶31:31 - 34;希伯来书8。) 那里尽管是团结和年龄连续性,该公约的宽限期,在整个历史上,在未来的基督和圣随后礼物带来了丰富的精神早在一个未知的礼物。

These are a foretaste of future blessedness when this present world passes away and the Holy City, the New Jerusalem, comes down out of heaven from God (Rev. 21:2).这是一个预示着未来的幸福时,这个目前世界逝世和圣城新耶路撒冷,归结出与神(启示录21:2)的天堂。

ME OsterhavenME的Osterhaven
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
L Berkhof, Systematic Theology; C Hodge, Systematic Theology, II; H Heppe, Reformed Dogmatics; H Bavinck, Our Reasonable Faith; G Schrenk, Gottesreich und Bund in alteren Protestantismus; HH Wolf, Die Einheit des Bundes.L伯克霍夫的,有系统的神学; ç Ho​​dge的,有系统的神学,二; ħ黑珀,归正教义; h巴文克,我们合理的信仰; Ğ雪岭,Gottesreich有限公司在alteren Protestantismus外滩HH狼,模具Einheit德的Bundes。


Covenant公约

General Information一般资料

Covenant, in Old Testament theology, is a compact between God and his worshipers. Covenants were originally developed by the civilizations of the ancient Middle East as a means of regulating relations between social or political entities. 约,在旧约神学,是一个礼拜紧凑之间的上帝和他的。公约最初实体制定规范关系的政治社会或文明的一种手段,作为古老的中东。The earliest evidence for covenants comes from Sumer in the 3rd millennium BC.对于公约的最早的证据是在公元前三千年的苏美尔。 In the late Bronze Age (14th century to 13th century BC), covenants were used by the Hittites to define the reciprocal obligations of suzerain and vassal.在青铜时代晚期(14世纪至公元前13世纪),公约,使用了赫来定义宗藩的相互义务。Covenants often took the form of military treaties and were used to specify the terms of peace between a victor and a defeated foe.公约往往采取的军事条约的形式和被用来指定一个胜利者之间打败敌人和和平的条件。

The earliest covenant recorded in the Old Testament occurs in Genesis 15:12-21, in which Yahweh pledges himself unconditionally to grant the land of Palestine to Abraham's descendants.公约最早记载在旧约创世纪15:12-21,其中雅威承诺无条件地给予自己的巴勒斯坦土地,亚伯拉罕的后裔发生。 Similarly, in 2 Samuel 7:13-17, Yahweh promises to establish the dynasty of King David forever.同样,在撒下7:13-17,雅威承诺建立王朝的大卫王永远。This type of unilateral pledge is called a promissory covenant, in contrast to the obligatory covenant, such as that made between Yahweh and Moses, in which both parties bind themselves to abide by certain stipulations.这种类型的单方面承诺被称为本票公约,在对比的是强制性的公约,例如,使得耶和华和摩西之间,其中双方约束自己,遵守某些规定。 Exodus 24:7 relates that Moses took "the book of the covenant, and read it in the hearing of the people; and they said, 'All that the Lord has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient.'!"摩西出埃及记24:7叙述说了“的约书,并阅读它的人听;'。凡耶和华所说的,我们会做的,我们会听话',他们说!” Contemporary scholars believe that "the book of the covenant" includes the section in Exodus from 20:23 through 23:33.当代学者认为,“该公约书”包括在外流,从20:23到23:33节。

From these and other passages in the Pentateuch has arisen the conception of a covenant between Yahweh and the people of Israel, whereby the Israelites were to enjoy the blessing and protection of Yahweh in return for remaining obedient and faithful to him.从这些和其他的五通道出现了一个耶和华和以色列之间,即以色列人被享受剩余服从和忠于他的祝福和回报雅威公约保护的人的概念。 After the Jews were driven out of Palestine and scattered over the earth, the covenant between the Jews and Yahweh was interpreted by them to include an eventual restoration of their ancient homeland.之后,犹太人被赶出巴勒斯坦和散落在地上,犹太人之间的理解和雅威约是由他们包括他们的古老家园的最终恢复。

According to Christian theology, Jesus Christ, by his death on the cross, made a covenant for the redemption of humanity. Theologians differ about the precise meaning of this covenant, sometimes called the New Covenant or the Covenant of the New Testament. Some believe that Christ's voluntary sacrifice redeemed all; others contend that only those who earn their redemption by faith alone, or by faith and good works, can or will be saved. 根据基督教神学,耶稣基督,他在十字架上的死亡中,提出了人类契约为赎回。神学家不同,对本公约的确切含义,有时也被称为新公约遗嘱公约新的。有人认为,基督的自愿献身赎回全部;另一些人认为只有那些谁赚其赎回所信仰单,或由信仰和好的作品,能够或者将会被保存。


Covenant公约

Advanced Information先进的信息

A covenant is a contract or agreement between two parties.一个公约是一项合同或双方之间的协议。In the Old Testament the Hebrew word berith is always thus translated.在旧约的希伯来文翻译贝里斯是一直如此。Berith is derived from a root which means "to cut," and hence a covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them, in making a covenant (Gen. 15; Jer. 34:18, 19).贝里斯是来自一个根,意思是“减少”,因此一公约是一个“切割”,参照切割或动物分为两部分,它们之间的缔约双方传球,在作出盟约(根。月15日;耶34:18,19)。。

The corresponding word in the New Testament Greek is diatheke, which is, however, rendered "testament" generally in the Authorized Version.相应的词在新约希腊是diatheke,这是,但是,立下“遗嘱”中的一般授权版本。It ought to be rendered, just as the word berith of the Old Testament, "covenant."它应该提供同样的旧约,字贝里斯,“公约”。 This word is used (1) of a covenant or compact between man and man (Gen. 21: 32), or between tribes or nations (1 Sam. 11:1; Josh. 9:6, 15).这个词是用来(1)一个公约或人与人之间的紧凑型(创21:32)之间,或部落或国家(1萨姆11:1;乔希9:6,15。。)。 In entering into a convenant, Jehovah was solemnly called on to witness the transaction (Gen. 31:50), and hence it was called a "covenant of the Lord" (1 Sam. 20:8).在进入到一个盟约,耶和华是郑重呼吁见证交易(创31:50),因此它被称为“主公约”(1萨姆。20:8)。The marriage compact is called "the covenant of God" (Prov. 2:17), because the marriage was made in God's name.紧凑的婚姻被称为“上帝的盟约”(箴2:17),因为婚姻是上帝的名义作出。Wicked men are spoken of as acting as if they had made a "covenant with death" not to destroy them, or with hell not to devour them (Isa. 28:15, 18).坏人是口语的,因为如果他们充当了一个“死亡契约”,不破坏它们,或与地狱不吃掉他们(以赛亚书28:15,18)。

(2.) The word is used with reference to God's revelation of himself in the way of promise or of favour to men.(2。)这个词是用来参考,以上帝的启示,在对自己的承诺方式或男性的青睐。Thus God's promise to Noah after the Flood is called a covenant (Gen. 9; Jer.l 33:20, "my covenant").因此,上帝的承诺诺亚大洪水过后被称为盟约(创9; Jer.l 33:20,“我的公约”)。We have an account of God's covernant with Abraham (Gen. 17, comp. Lev. 26:42), of the covenant of the priesthood (Num. 25:12, 13; Deut. 33:9; Neh. 13:29), and of the covenant of Sinai (Ex. 34:27, 28; Lev. 26:15), which was afterwards renewed at different times in the history of Israel (Deut. 29; Josh. 24; 2 Chr. 15; 23; 29; 34; Ezra 10; Neh. 9).我们有一个上帝的covernant与亚伯拉罕的帐户,该公约的神职人员(创17,比赛列弗26:42。。)(民数记25:12,13;申命记33:9。。尼13:29)和西奈的盟约(出埃及记34:27,28;。利未记26:15),这是后来在历史上的以色列(申命记29个不同的时间延长;乔希24; 2。染色体15; 23。 ; 29; 34;以斯拉10;尼9)。。In conformity with human custom, God's covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath (Deut. 4:31; Ps. 89:3), and to be accompanied by a sign (Gen. 9; 17).在与人类的习惯一致,上帝的盟约,据说是用宣誓确认(申命记16:31;。诗89:3),并通过一个标志陪同(创9; 17)。 Hence the covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise" (Ps. 89:3, 4; 105:8-11; Heb. 6:13-20; Luke 1:68-75).因此,该公约被称为上帝的“律师”,“誓言”,“诺言”(诗篇89:3,4; 105:8-11;希伯来书6:13-20。路加福音1:68-75)。God's covenant consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing (Isa. 59:21; Jer. 31:33, 34).上帝的盟约包括全在赠与的祝福(以赛亚书59:21;。耶31:33,34)。The term covenant is also used to designate the regular succession of day and night (Jer. 33:20), the Sabbath (Ex. 31:16), circumcision (Gen. 17:9, 10), and in general any ordinance of God (Jer. 34:13, 14).契约一词也被用来指定白天和夜间(耶33:20)定期继承,安息日(出31:16),割礼(创17:9,10),和一般的任何条例神(耶利米书34:13,14)。 A "covenant of salt" signifies an everlasting covenant, in the sealing or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity, is used (Num. 18:19; Lev. 2:13; 2 Chr. 13:5).一个“盐公约”,标志着一个永恒的约,在密封的盐或批准作为永久标志,是用(民数记18:19,利未记14:13; 2。染色体13:5。)。

Covenant of Works公约工程

The Covenant of Works was the constitution under which Adam was placed at his creation.盟约的作品是在何种情况下亚当在他的创作置于宪法。In this covenant, (1.) The contracting parties were (a) God the moral Governor, and (b) Adam, a free moral agent, and representative of all his natural posterity (Rom. 5:12-19).在这个公约,(1。)缔约双方分别为:(一)神的道德总督,及(b)亚当,一个自由的道德代理人,并代表他的所有自然后代(罗马书5:12-19)。 (2.) The promise was "life" (Matt. 19:16, 17; Gal. 3:12).。(2)本承诺是“生命”(太19:16,17;加拉太3:12。)。(3.) The condition was perfect obedience to the law, the test in this case being abstaining from eating the fruit of the "tree of knowledge," etc. (4.) The penalty was death (Gen. 2:16, 17).(3。)条件是完美的服从法律,在这种情况下,测试是从吃的水果弃权“知识树”等(4。)的刑罚是死刑(创2:16,17 )。

This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made with man in his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life, because "life" was the promise attached to obedience; and a legal covenant, because it demanded perfect obedience to the law.这个公约也被称为自然的盟约,与他的人在自然或unfallen状态;生命的约,因为“生命”是重视服从的承诺;和法律公约,因为它要求完全服从法律。 The "tree of life" was the outward sign and seal of that life which was promised in the covenant, and hence it is usually called the seal of that covenant. This covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as Christ has fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people, and now offers salvation on the condition of faith. It is still in force, however, as it rests on the immutable justice of God, and is binding on all who have not fled to Christ and accepted his righteousness. “生命树”,是对外签署并盖章的契约,这种生活在原先许诺的约,因此,它通常是所谓的印章。 废止这个公约是根据福音,因为基督已经完成了所有的条件在代表他的人民,现在提供信得救的条件。它仍然是有效的,但是,因为它建立在正义的上帝的永恒不变的,是正义都具有约束力谁没有逃到基督并接受了他。

Covenant of Grace盟约的恩典

The eternal plan of redemption entered into by the three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by them in its several parts.永恒计划的赎回所订立的神体的三个人,他们进行了在其几部分组成。In it the Father represented the Godhead in its indivisible sovereignty, and the Son his people as their surety (John 17:4, 6, 9; Isa. 42:6; Ps. 89:3).在它的父亲代表了其不可分割的主权神格,和儿子他的人作为他们的保证人(约翰17时04分,6,9;赛42:6。诗89:3)。。

The conditions of this covenant were,:这约的条件为:

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯顿图解词典)


.

Covenanters盟约

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Covenanters were Scottish Presbyterians of the 17th century who subscribed to covenants (or bonds), the most famous being the National Covenant of 1638 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643.盟约是谁在17世纪签署公约(或债券)苏格兰长老会,最著名的是1638年国家公约,并庄严联赛和1643年公约。The National Covenant opposed the new liturgy introduced (1637) by King Charles I. This led to the abolition of episcopacy in Scotland and the Bishops' Wars (1639-41), in which the Scots successfully defended their religious freedom against Charles.该公约的国家反对新的礼仪介绍了由国王查理一世(1637)这导致了在苏格兰取消主教和主教'战争(1639至1641年),其中苏格兰人成功捍卫他们对查尔斯的宗教自由。

In the Solemn League and Covenant, the Scots pledged their support to the English parliamentarians in the English Civil War with the hope that Presbyterianism would become the established church in England.上述庄严联赛和盟约,苏格兰人承诺支持在英国内战,希望英国国会议员的长老会成为英格兰国教。This hope was not fulfilled.这个愿望没有实现。In fact, after the Restoration (1660), King Charles II restored the episcopacy and denounced the covenants as unlawful.事实上,在明治维新(1660年),国王查尔斯二世恢复之故,并谴责为非法的条款。Three revolts of the Covenanters (1666, 1679, 1685) were harshly repressed.三个盟约(1666,1679,1685)起义被严厉镇压。 After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, William III reestablished the Presbyterian church in Scotland but did not renew the covenants.1688年后的光荣革命,威廉三世重新确立在苏格兰长老教会,但没有续签公约。

Charles H. Haws查尔斯H豪斯

Bibliography 参考书目
Cowan, IB, Scottish Covenanters (1976); Stevenson, D., The Scottish Revolution, 1637-44 (1973).考恩,兴业,苏格兰盟约(1976年);史蒂文森博士,苏格兰革命,1637年至1644年(1973年)。


Covenant of Works公约工程

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Covenant of Works, was entered into by God with Adam as the representative of the human race (comp. Gen. 9:11, 12; 17: 1-21), so styled because perfect obedience was its condition, thus distinguishing it from the covenant of grace.盟约的作品,是进入了神​​与亚当作为人类代表(可比创9:11,12,17:1-21),所以风格完美的服从是因为它的条件,从而区分它从该公约的宽限期。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Palestinian Covenant巴勒斯坦公约

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经M灰色研究评论詹姆斯

Deuteronomy Chapters 29-30申命记29-30章

The Terms of the Covenant该公约的条款

c.30 The Scofield Bible analyzes the Palestinian covenant into seven parts, as follows: Verse 1. 30斯科菲尔德圣经分为七个部分分析了巴勒斯坦盟约,具体如下:1节。Disperson for disobedience. Disperson不听话。Compare c.比较角28:63-68 and Gen. 15:18.28:63-68和将军15:18。" 2. Further repentence while in dispersion. " 3.“2。悔过书,而在进一步的扩散。”3。Return of the Lord (compare Amos 9:9-14; Acts 15:14-17).返回主(比较阿莫斯9:9-14,徒15:14-17)。" 5. Restoration to the land (compare Isa. 11:11, 12; Jer. 23:3-8; Ezek. 37:21-25). " 6. “5。恢复土地(比较伊萨11:​​11,12;。耶23:3-8;。以西结书37:21-25)。。”6。National conversion (compare Hos. 2:14-16; Rom. 11:26, 27).全国转换(比较居屋2:14-16。罗马书11:26,27。)。" 7. Judgment on Israel's oppressors (compare Isa. 14:1, 2; Joel 3:1-8; Matt. 25:31-46). " 9. “7。裁判法对以色列的压迫者(比较伊萨14时01分,2;。乔尔3:1-8;。马特25:31-46)。”9。National prosperity (compare Amos 9:11-14).国家的繁荣(比较阿莫斯9:11-14)。

We are not to suppose that the promises were fulfilled by Israel's restoration from the Babylonian captivity.我们可千万别以为承诺是由以色列从巴比伦被掳恢复履行。It will be recalled that she was not then scattered "among all the nations" or "unto the utmost parts of heaven."人们还记得,她当时未散,“在所有的国家”或“你们的天堂极。”Moreover, when God recalled them from Babylon, they were not all brought back nor multiplied above their fathers (5), nor were their hearts circumcised to love the Lord (6).此外,当他们从巴比伦神回忆,他们没有退缩,更上面都带来了他们的父亲乘以(5),也没有被割礼爱主(6)他们的心。It may be said that there was a foreshadowing of the ultimate fulfilment of the prophecy at that time, but nothing more.可以说,有对当时的预言最终实现了伏笔,但仅此而已。The complete accomplishment is yet to come.完整的成绩还在后头。Israel is yet to be converted to Jesus Christ as her Messiah, and returned to her land in accordance with what all the prophets teach.以色列尚未转换为她的救世主耶稣基督,并返回与先知教什么都按照自己的土地。

Questions 1.问题 1。Name and distinguish between the two covenants mentioned.名称和区分上述两个公约。2.2。How many of the Scripture references have you examined under the paragraph "The Need of Eye Salve"?如何将许多经文参考你检查下段“药膏需要的眼”?3.3。Name the seven features of the Palestinian covenant.姓名的巴勒斯坦公约的七个特点。4.4。Why was not the restoration from Babylon the fulfilment of these promises?为什么不从巴比伦以恢复履行这些承诺?5.5。When will they be fulfilled?什么时候能完成?


Covenanters盟约

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The name given to the subscribers (practically the whole Scottish nation) of the two Covenants, the National Covenant of 1638 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643.考虑到用户(几乎整个苏格兰民族)的两条公约的名称,1638年国家公约,并庄严联赛和1643年公约。Though the covenants as national bonds ceased with the conquest of Scotland by Cromwell, a number continued to uphold them right through the period following the Restoration, and these too are known as Covenanters.虽然该公约作为国债与苏格兰克伦威尔征服停止,继续坚持一个数字他们的权利通过以下方式恢复时期,这些也都是著名的盟约。 The object of the Covenants was to band the whole nation together in defense of its religion against the attempts of the king to impose upon it an episcopal system of church government and a new and less anti-Roman liturgy.该公约的目的是乐队在其对宗教的企图王全民族的国防合作,对它施加一个主教的教会,政府系统和一个新的,少的反罗马礼仪。 The struggle that ensued was a struggle for supremacy, viz.: as to who should have the last word, the King or the Kirk, in deciding the religion of the country.随后进行的斗争,这一个至高无上的地位,即斗争:。至于谁应该有最后的发言权,国王或柯克,在决定该国的宗教。How this struggle arose must first be briefly explained.这场斗争中如何出现,必须先简要解释。

The causes of this Protestant conflict between Church and State must be sought in the circumstances of the Scottish Reformation.这种新教教会和国家之间冲突的原因必须寻求在苏格兰的改革的情况。(For a summary of the history of the Scottish reformation down to 1601 see ch. ii of Gardiner's "History of England".) Owing to the fact that Scotland, unlike England, has accepted Protestantism, not at the dictates of her rulers, but in opposition to them, the reformation was not merely an ecclesiastical revolution, but a rebellion. (有关的苏格兰宗教改革史概要下降到1601年看到通道。作者加德纳的“英国史”二。)由于这一事实,即苏格兰,与英格兰不同,已接受没有她的统治者支配新教,但在反对对他们来说,改革不仅是一个宗教革命,而是一场叛乱。 It was, therefore, perhaps no mere chance that made the Scottish nation, under the guidance of John Knox and later Andrew Melville, adopt that form of Protestantism which was, in its doctrine, farthest removed from Rome, to which their French regents adhered, and which in its theory of church government was most democratic.这是,因此,也许没有任何偶然,使得苏格兰民族,下约翰诺克斯后来安德鲁梅尔维尔指导,采用这一形式的新教在它的教义,从罗马移除最远,以法国的摄政王,他们的坚持,并在其教会,政府理论的最民主的。 Presbyterianism meant the subordination of the State to the Kirk, as Melville plainly told James VI at Cupar in 1596, on the famous occasion when he seized his sovereign by the sleeve and called him "God's silly vassal".长老意味着该国的从属柯克,梅尔维尔赤裸裸地告诉库珀詹姆斯六世在1596年,在著名的场合时,他抓住他的袖子主权,叫他“上帝的无聊的附庸”。 In the church, king and beggar were on an equal footing and of equal importance; king or beggar might equally and without distinction be excommunicated, and be submitted to a degrading ceremonial if he wished to be released from the censure; in this system the preacher was supreme.在教会,国王和乞丐是平等和同等的重要性;国王或乞丐,可能同样被驱逐和不加区分,并提交给一个有辱人格的礼仪,如果他希望被释放的谴责,在这种制度的布道者是至高无上的。 The civil power was to be the secular arm, the instrument, of the Kirk, and was required to inflict the penalties which the preacher imposed on such as contemned the censure and discipline of the Church.公务员的权力是被世俗手臂,仪器的柯克,并须以引起所唾弃,如传教士的谴责和教会的纪律处罚。The Kirk, therefore, believed that the Presbyterian system, with its preachers, lay elders, and deacons, kirk sessions, synods, and general assemblies, was the one, Divinely appointed means to salvation, claimed to be absolute and supreme.柯克,因此相信该长老会制度,它的传教士,奠定长老,和执事,柯克会议,主教会议,和一般的集会,是一,神委任方式来救赎,声称自己是绝对的,至高无上的。 Such a theory of the Divine right of Presbytery was not likely to meet with the approval of the kings of the Stuart line with their exaggerated idea of their own right Divine and prerogative.这种神圣的权利理论中会不太可能会见线的斯图亚特国王与他们自己的神圣权利和特权思想夸张的批准。Nor could a church where the ministers and their elders in the kirk assemblies judged, censured, and punished all offenders high or low, craftsman or nobleman, be pleasing to an aristocracy that looked with feudal contempt on all forms of labour.也不能一凡部长和他们的长辈的柯克集会判断,谴责和惩罚所有罪犯高或低,技工或贵族,令人高兴的是一个贵族,与一切形式的封建蔑视劳动望着教堂。 Both noble and king were therefore anxious to humble the ministers and deprive them of some of their influence.既高贵和国王,因此急于进行谦卑的部长和剥夺了一些他们自己的影响力。James VI was soon taught the spirit of the Presbyterian clergy; in 1592 he was compelled formally to sanction the establishment of Presbytery; he was threatened with rebellion if he failed to rule according to the Gospel as interpreted by the ministers.詹姆士六世很快就被教的长老会牧师的精神,在1592年,他被迫正式批准设立的长老,他的叛逆是受到威胁,如果他没有按照规则由部长解释了福音。 If his kingly authority was to endure, James saw that he must seek for some means by which he could check their excessive claims.如果他的王道管理局忍受,詹姆斯认为,他必须寻找一些方法,使他可以检查其过分要求。He first tried to draw together the two separate representative institutions in Scotland - the Parliament, representing the king and the nobility, and the General Assembly, representing the Kirk and the majority of the nation - by granting the clergy a vote in Parliament.他首先试图汇集在苏格兰两个独立的代表机构 - 议会,代表国王和贵族,和大会代表柯克和民族的大多数 - 通过给予神职人员在议会表决。Owing, however, to the hostility of clergy and nobility, the scheme fell through.然而,由于对神职人员和贵族的敌意,这项计划告吹。James now adopted that policy which was to be so fruitful of disaster;he determined to re-introduce episcopacy in Scotland as the only possible means of brining the clergy to submit to his own authority.詹姆斯目前采用这种政策是如此丰硕的灾难,他决心要重新引入苏格兰作为盐渍神职人员服从自己的权威唯一可能的手段主教。 He had already gone some way towards accomplishing his object when his accession to the English throne still further strengthened his resolve.他已经完成了一些对他的对象时,他加入了英国王位还进一步加强了他的决心的方式。 For he considered the assimilation of the two Churches both in their form of government and in their doctrine essential to the furtherance of his great design, the union of the two kingdoms.因为他认为无论是在他们的政府形式,并在其学说必不可少的,他的伟大的设计,这两个王国联合推进的两个教会同化。

By 1612, James had succeeded in carrying out the first part of his policy, the re-establishment of diocesan episcopacy.到1612年,詹姆斯曾成功地贯彻他的政策,重新建立教区主教的第一部分。Before his death he had also gone a long way towards effecting changes in the ritual and doctrine of Presbyterianism.他去世之前,他也影响了一对在祭祀和长老会教义的变化很长的路要走。On Black Saturday, 4 Aug., 1621, the Five Articles of Perth were ratified by the Estates.在黑色星期六,1621年8月4日,五篇文章珀斯被批准的遗产。Imposed as these were upon an unwilling nation by means of a packed Assembly and Parliament, they were to be the source of much trouble and bloodshed in Scotland.强加在不情愿的,因为这些国家进行的一项包装大会和议会的方式,他们是比较麻烦的来源及在苏格兰流血。Distrust of their rulers, hatred of bishops, and hatred of all ecclesiastical changes was the legacy bequeathed by James to his son.他们的统治者,仇恨的主教,以及所有教会的变化仇恨不信任是由詹姆斯的遗产遗赠给他的儿子。James had sowed the wind, and Charles I was soon to reap the whirlwind.詹姆斯曾播下了风,我和查尔斯即将收获的旋风。Charles' very first action, his "matching himself with the daughter of Heth", ie, France (see Leighton, "Sion's Plea against Prelacy" quoted by Gardiner, "Hist. of England, ed. 1884, VII, 146), aroused suspicion as to his orthodoxy, and in the light of that suspicion every act of his religious policy was interpreted, wrongly we know, as some subtle means of favoring popery. His wisest course would have been to annul the hated Five Articles of Perth, which to Scotchmen were but so many injunctions to commit idolatry. In spite of concessions, however, he let it be known that the articles were to remain (Row, Historie of the Kirk of Scotland, p. 340; Balfour, Annals, II, 142; Privy Council Register, NS, I, 91-93). Further, he took the unwise step of increasing the powers of the bishops; five were given a place in the Privy Council; and the Archbishop Spottiswoode was made President of the Exchequer and ordered as Primate to take precedence of every other subject. This proceeding not only roused the indignation of Protestants, who in the words of Row, considered bishops "bellie-gods", but it further offended the aristocracy, who felt themselves thus slighted. But a persecution of the Kirk and its preachers would not have brought about as rebellion. Charles could always count on his subservient bishops, and on the nobles ever willing to humble the ministers. But he now took a step which alienated his only allies. James had always been careful to keep the nobles on his side by lavish grants of the old church lands. By the Act of Revocation, which passed the Privy Seal, 12 October, 1625 (Privy Council Register I, 193), Charles I touched the pockets of the nobility, raised at once a serious opposition, and led the barons to form an alliance with the Kirk against the common enemy, the king. It was a fatal step and proved "the ground-stone of all the mischief that followed after, both to this king's government and family (Balfour, Annals, II, 128).查尔斯的第一个动作,他的“匹配与赫人的女儿自己”,即法国(见顿,“锡永的认罪对Prelacy”的加德纳引述,“历史。英格兰,教育署。1884年,第七章,146条),引起怀疑,以他的正统,并在每一个他的宗教政策的行为被解释,因为我们知道错偏袒popery一些微妙的手段,怀疑光。他最明智的做法将被废止可恨的五珀斯,文章,到scotchmen人,但这么多的偶像崇拜在禁令实施的优惠尽管如此,他让人们知道,这些条款却被留(行,对苏格兰柯克Historie,第340;。贝尔福,县志,二,142 ;。枢密院登记,生理盐水,我,91-93)此外,他获得了越来越多的主教的权力不明智的步骤;五人给予在枢密院的地方;和大主教描绘了被任命为总统和英国财政大臣作为灵长类下令采取其他每个优先主题。一点出发,不仅激起了新教徒的愤怒,谁在列的话,认为主教“bellie神来”,但它进一步得罪了贵族,谁觉得自己这样轻视。但一个传教士的柯克和迫害就不会带来作为叛乱。查尔斯总是可以指望他屈从主教,并在贵族永远愿意谦卑的部长。但他现在采取这一步骤疏远他唯一的盟友。詹姆斯一直小心翼翼地保持在他身边的老教堂的土地授予贵族奢华到撤销法案,通过枢密院印章,1625年10月12日(枢密院登记我,193),查尔斯。我摸着口袋贵族,在一次严重的反对派提出的,并带领大亨,形成反对共同敌人的联盟与柯克,国王。这是一个致命的一步,证明了“地面石材随后所有的恶作剧后,都这个国王的政府和家庭(鲍尔弗,县志,二,128)。 Thus, before he had set foot in Scotland, Charles had offended every class of his people.因此,在他所设定的脚在苏格兰,查尔斯得罪了他的每类人。His visit to Scotland made matters worse; Scotchmen were horrified to see at the coronation service such "popish rags" as "white rochets and white sleeves and copes of gold having blue silk to their foot" worn by the presiding bishops which "bred great fear of inbringing of popery" (Spaulding, Hist. of the Troubles in England and Scotland, 1624-45, I, 36).他前往苏格兰使事情变得更糟; scotchmen人震惊地看到在加冕服务,例如“popish抹布”为“白rochets和白袖子,黄金有蓝色丝绸科佩斯他们的脚”的主持主教,其中“孕育巨大的恐惧穿对inbringing的popery“(斯波尔丁,历史在英格兰和苏格兰,1624年至1645年,我36故障。)。 Acts, too, were passed through Parliament which plainly showed the king's determination to change the ecclesiastical system of Scotland.行为,也被议会通过,显然表明这国王的决心改变了苏格兰教会系统。 Scotland was therefore ready for an explosion.因此,对于苏格兰爆炸做好准备。

The spark was the New Service Book.火花是新的服务预订。Both Charles and Laud had been shocked at the bare walls and pillars of the churches, all clad with dust, sweepings, and cobwebs; at the trafficking which went on in the Scottish churches; at the lengthy "conceived prayers" often spoken by ignorant men and not infrequently as seditious as the sermons (Baillie, OSB, writing in 1627, cited by William Kintoch, "Studies in Scottish Ecclesiastical History", pp. 23, 24; also, "Large Declaration", p. 16).查尔斯和劳德都被震惊了光秃秃的墙壁和支柱的教会,所有的灰尘,碎屑,和蜘蛛网包,在贩卖去了苏格兰教堂上,在冗长的“构思的祈祷”,往往由无知的人们发言而不是偶尔作为煽动性的布道(贝利,定向结构刨花板,在1627年撰写,由威廉Kintoch引用,“在苏格兰教会史研究”,第23,24;另外,“大宣言”,第16页)。 The king desired to have decency, orderliness, uniformity.国王想要有体面,有序,均匀。Hence he ordered a new service book, prepared by himself and Laud, to be adopted by Scotland.因此,他下令进行新的服务预订,由他本人和劳德准备,由苏格兰通过。The imposition of the New Service Book was a piece of sheer despotism on the part of the king; it had no ecclesiastical sanction whatever, for the General Assembly, and even the bishops as a body, had not been consulted; neither had it any lay authority, for it had not the approval of Parliament; it went counter to all the religious feeling of the majority of the Scottish people; it offended their national sentiment, for it was English.新的服务预定实施是对国王的专制一块纯粹的部分,它没有任何教会的制裁,为大会,甚至作为一个机构的主教,他一直没有协商;它也没有任何业外人士权威,因为它已经不是议会的批准,它违反了所有的苏格兰大多数人的宗教感情,这得罪了他们的民族感情,因为它是英语。 Rowe summed up the objections to it by calling it a "Popish-English-Scotish-Mass-Service-Book" (op. cit., p. 398).罗总结了反对它通过调用它是“Popish英语的Scotish质谱服务书”(同前。,第398页)。There could, therefore, be very little doubt as to how Scotland would receive the new liturgy.有可能,因此,必须非常苏格兰如何将收到新的礼仪毫无疑问的。The famous riot at St. Giles, Edinburgh, 23 July, 1637 (account of it in the King's "Large Declaration", and Gordon's "Hist. of Scots Affairs", I, 7), when at the solemn inauguration of the new service, somebody, probably a woman, threw the stool at the deacon's head, was but an indication of the general feeling of the country.在圣贾尔斯,爱丁堡,1637年7月23日(可以把它考虑在国王的“大宣言”,和戈登的“历史。苏格兰事务”,我,7),著名的骚乱时,在新服务的庄严宣誓就职,有人,可能是一个女人,扔在执事的头大便,只不过是一个国家的总体感觉的迹象。 From all classes and ranks, and from every part of the country except the north-east, the petitions came pouring into the Council for the withdrawal of the liturgy.从各阶层和队伍,并从每一个的项目,除了东北部国家的一部分,走进请愿浇筑会的礼仪撤出。Every attempt to enforce the prayer book led to a riot.千方百计执行的祈祷书导致了一场骚乱。In a word, the resistance was general.总之,阻力普遍。The Council was powerless.安理会是无能为力的。It was suggested therefore that each of the four orders - nobles, lairds, burghers, and ministers - should choose four commissioners to represent them and transact business with the Council, and that then the crowd of petitioners should return to their homes.因此,有人建议的四项命令,每 - 贵族,莱厄兹,义民,和部长 - 应该选择四个委员代表他们与安理会和交易业务,而当时的请愿人群应返回自己的家园。Accordingly, four committees, or "Tables" (Row, pp. 465,6) were chosen, the petitioners dispersed, and the riots in Edinburgh ceased.因此,四个委员会,或“表”(行,页465,6)被选定,请愿分散,并在爱丁堡的暴乱停止了。 But this arrangement also gave the opposition the one thing necessary for a successful action, a government.但这项安排也给了反对派的一件事一个成功的行动,政府必要的。The sixteen could, if only united, direct the mobs effectively.十六可以,如果只有团结,直接有效的暴徒。The effect of having a guiding hand was at once seen.至于有一个指导手的作用是在一次看到。The demands of the supplicants became more definite and peremptory and on 21 December the Tables presented the Council a collective "Supplication" which not only demanded the recall of the liturgy, but, further, the removal of the bishops from the council on the ground that, as they were parties in the case, they should not be judges (Balfour, Annals, II, 244-5: Rothes, Relation, etc., pp. 26 sqq., gives an account of the formation of the "Tables").对求助者的需求变得更为明确和蛮横和12月21日的表中提出理事会的一个集体“恳求”,这不仅要求召回的礼仪,但进一步的主教从安理会取消,理由是,因为它们是本案当事人,他们不应该被法官(鲍尔弗,县志,二,244-5:。罗西斯,关系,等等,第26 sqq,给出了一个的“统计表”的形成帐户) 。The supplicants, in other words, look upon the quarrel between king and subjects as a lawsuit.该求助者,换句话说,看不起国王之间的争吵,并作为诉讼主体。

Charles' answer to the "Supplication" was read at Sterling, on 19 February, 1638.查尔斯的回答:“恳求”的阅读英镑,在1638年2月19日。He defended the prayer book and declared all protesting meetings illegal and treasonable.他捍卫了祈祷书,并宣布所有的抗议会议的非法和叛逆性。A counter proclamation had been deliberately prepared by the supplicants and no sooner had the king's answer been read than Lords Home and Lindsay, in the name of the four orders, lodged a formal protestation.宣布了一个反故意编写的求助者,也没有刚国王的回答是阅读比上议院家庭和林赛在四项命令提出正式抗议的名字,。 The same form was gone through in Linlithgow and Edinburgh.同样的形式是经历了林利斯哥和爱丁堡。By these formal protestations, the petitioners were virtually setting up a government against the government, and as there was no middle party to appeal to, it became necessary to prove to the king that the supplicants, and not he, had the nation behind them.通过这些正式的抗议,请愿者几乎反对政府设立一个政府,因为没有中间党派呼吁,有必要证明给国王的求助者,而不是他本人生前背后的国家。 The means was ready to hand.该方法是准备手。The nobility and gentry of Scotland had been in the habit for entering into "bands" for mutual protection.苏格兰贵族和士绅已在习惯,到“带”相互保护进入。Archibald Johnson of Warristoun is said to have suggested that such a band or covenant now be adopted, but not as heretofore by nobles and lairds only, but by the whole Scottish people; it was to be a national covenant, taking as its basis the Negative Confession of Faith which had been drawn up by the order of James VI in 1581.阿奇博尔德的Warristoun约翰逊已暗示说,这种带或契约现在获得通过,但不作为迄今为止唯一由贵族和莱厄兹,而是由整个苏格兰人民,这将是一个国家公约,因为它的基础,以负信条其中已制定了由詹姆斯六世在1581年的顺序。 The great document was composed.伟大的文件组成。After reciting the reason of the band, that the innovations and evils contained in the supplications had no warrant in the word of God, they promise and swear to continue in the profession and obedience of the aforesaid religion, that we shall defend the same, and resist all those contrary errors and corruptions, according to our vocation, and to the uttermost of that power which God has put in our hands all the days of our life". Yet, whilst uttering oaths that seem scarcely compatible with loyalty to the king, they likewise promised and swore that we shall, to the utmost of our power with our means and lives, stand to the defense of our dread sovereign, his person and authority, in defense of the foresaid true religion, liberties and laws of the kingdom" (Large Declaration, p. 57), and they further swore to mutual defense and assistance.后念乐队的原因,即创新和邪恶的恳求没有包含在上帝的话保证,他们承诺,发誓继续在专业和服从上述宗教,我们就要为保卫相同,抵制一切违反这些错误和损坏,根据我们的天职,并以该神已经在我们手里,我们的生活“的日子把权力极处。然而,几乎同时,似乎与忠于国王兼容说出誓言,他们同样承诺,并发誓说,我们应在我们与我们的生活的手段和权力至上,站到我们的恐惧的宗主国,其人身和权威,在前述真正的宗教,自由和王国的法律抗辩“ (大宣言,第57页),他们发誓要进一步共同防御和援助。In these professions of loyalty, the Covenanters, for so we must now call the supplicants, were probably sincere; during the whole course of the struggle the great majority never wished to touch the throne, they only wished to carry out their own idea of the strictly limited nature of the king's authority.在忠诚度,盟约的,所以我们必须现在所谓的求助者,这些行业很可能是抱有诚意的;期间的绝大多数人从来没有想触摸宝座斗争的全过程,他们只希望他们对贯彻自己的想法严格的有限性,国王的权威。 Charles was the king, and they would obey, if he did as they commanded.查尔斯是国王,他们将服从,如果他还是像指挥。

The success of the Covenant was great and immediate.该公约的成功是伟大的,立竿见影。It was completed on 28 February and carried for signature to Greyfriars church.这是2月28日完成并签署格雷弗赖尔斯教堂。 Tradition tells how the parchment was unrolled on a tombstone in the churchyard and how the people came in crowds weeping with emotion to sign the band.传统告诉如何展开羊皮纸是在墓地上的墓碑,以及如何与人的情感哭着要赶快带群众来了。This strange seen was soon witnessed in almost every parish in Scotland, if we except the Highlands and the North-East.这种奇怪的出现很快就被目击在几乎每一个教区在苏格兰,如果我们除了高地和东北部。Several copies of the Covenant were distributed for signature.该公约的若干份分发签名。"Gentlemen and noblemen carried copies of it in portmantles and pockets requiring subscriptions thereunto, and using their utmost endeavours with their friends in private for to subscribe." “君子和贵族携带其副本,并要求在portmantles订阅地偿还的口袋,并利用自己的最大努力,在私人与朋友进行认购。”"And such was the zeal of many subscribers, that for a while many subscribed with tears on their cheeks" and it is even said that some did draw their blood, and use it in place of ink to underwrite their name" (Gordon, Scots Affairs, I, 46). “而这样的是许多用户的热情,在一段时期里许多认购他们的脸颊上的眼泪”,它甚至说,有些人把他们的血液,并用墨水将它放在包​​销他们的名字“(戈登,苏格兰人事务,我46)。

Not all, however, were willing subscribers to the Covenant.并非所有的,但是,在公约愿意订户。For many persuasion was sufficient to make them join the cause; other required rougher treatment.对于许多劝导,足以使他们加入的原因,其他需要粗暴的对待。All those who refused to sign were not only looked upon as ungodly, but as traitors to their country, as ready to help the foreign invader.所有这些谁拒绝签署不仅看成是恶人,但作为自己国家的叛徒,为愿意帮助外国侵略者。And as the greater that the number of subscribers grew, the more imperious they were in exacting subscriptions from others who refused to subscribe, so that by degrees they proceeded to contumelies and reproaches, and some were threatened and beaten who durst refuse, especially in the greatest cities" (Ibid, p. 45). No blood, however, was shed until the outbreak of the war. Ministers who refused to sign were silenced, ill-treated, and driven from their homes. Toleration and freedom of conscience was hated by both parties and by none more fanatically than the Scottish Presbyterians. Scotland was in truth a covenanted nation. A few great land-owners, a few of the clergy, especially the Doctors of Aberdeen who feared that their quiet studies and intellectual freedom would be overwhelmed, stood aloof from the movement. Many, no doubt, signed in ignorance of what they were doing, some because they were frightened, but more still because they were swayed by an overpowering excitement and frenzy. Neither side could now retreat, but Charles was not ready for war.而随着更多的用户数量的增长,更加专横,他们从其他人谁在严格拒绝认购,认购的程度,使他们前往contumelies和责备,有的被威胁和殴打谁德斯特垃圾,尤其是在中,最伟大的城市“(同上,第45页)。没有血,但是,棚,直到战争爆发。部长拒绝签字谁被压制,虐待,并从他们赶出家园。容忍和良心的自由是恨双方并没有更狂热比苏格兰长老。苏格兰是真理立约的国家。一个少数大土地所有者,神职人员,特别是香港仔的医生谁担心他们安静的学习和智力的自由会受到一些不堪重负,从运动中站在超然。许多人,毫无疑问,在他们做些什么无知签署的,有些是因为他们害怕,但更多的还是因为它们不徇私情一个压倒的兴奋和狂热。任何一方都不可以现在撤退,但查尔斯不是为战争做好了准备。

So to gain time he made a show of concession and promised a General Assembly.因此,为了争取时间,他做出了让步,并承诺展示大会。The Assembly met at Glasgow 21 Nov., and immediately brought matters to a head.大会在格拉斯哥11月21日举行,并立即把事情的消息。It attacked the bishops, accusing them of all manner of crimes; in consequence Hamilton, as commissioner, dissolved it.它抨击主教,指责他们所有的犯罪方式,在汉密尔顿的后果,作为廉政专员,解散它。Nothing daunted, the Assembly then resolved that it was entitled to remain in session and competent to judge the bishops, and it proceeded to pull down the whole ecclesiastical edifice built up by James and Charles.没有气馁,大会然后解决它有权继续开会,并有能力判断主教,并着手拉下全教会大厦建成了由詹姆斯和查尔斯。The Service Book, Book of Canons, the Articles of Perth were swept away; the episcopacy was declared forever abolished and all assemblies held under episcopal jurisdiction were null and void; the bishops were all ejected and some excommunicated; Presbyterian government was again establis hed.本服务书,书的大炮,珀斯的章程,冲走;之故被宣布永远废除主教管辖下举行的所有组合后无效;主教都跳伞和一些驱逐;长老政府再次establis亨达。

War was now inevitable.现在战争不可避免。In spite of their protestations of loyalty, the Covenanters had practically set up a theory in opposition to the monarchy.在他们的抗议忠诚尽管如此,盟约实际上已经成立了反对君主制的理论。The question at issue, as Charles pointed out in his proclamation, was whether he was to be king or not?有争议的问题,因为查尔斯指出,在他宣布,他是否是被国王或没有?Toleration was the only basis of compromise possible; but toleration was deemed a heresy by both parties, and hence there was no other course but to fight it out.宽容是妥协的基础上才有可能,但容忍被认为是异端邪说双方,因此目前还没有其它课程,但打出来。In two short wars, known as the Bishops' Wars, the Covenanters in arms brought the king to his knees, and for the next ten years Charles was only nominally sovereign of Scotland.在两个短的主教战争称为战争,在武器盟约所带来的国王对他的膝盖,并为未来十年查尔斯只是名义上的苏格兰主权。 A united nation could not be made to change its religion at the command of a king.一个团结的民族,无法作出改变在一个国王的命令它的宗教。The triumph of the Covenants, however, was destined to be short-lived.该公约的胜利,然而,注定是短命的。The outbreak of the Civil War in England was soon to break the Covenanting party in twain.在英格兰的内战爆发不久就打破吐温Covenanting党。Men were to be divided between their allegiance to monarchy and their allegiance to the Covenant.男人们之间必须效忠王室的向心力和公约分歧。Scotchmen in spite of their past actions still firmly adhered to the monarchical form of government, and there cannot be much doubt that they would much rather have acted as mediators between the king and his Parliament than have interfered actively.在他们过去的行为,尽管Scotchmen依然牢牢坚持政府君主制形式,不能有很大的疑问,他们宁愿有之间的国王和他的议会调解员积极采取行动比都干扰。 But the royalist successes of 1643 alarmed them.但是,1643年他们保皇党的成功感到震惊。Presbyterianism would not endure long in Scotland if Charles won.长老会不会忍受长期在苏格兰如果查尔斯韩元。For this reason the majority of the nation sided with the Parliament, but it was with reluctance that the Covenanters agreed to give the English brotherly assistance.基于这个原因,与议会多数国家的片面,但它是,勉强同意让盟约英语兄弟般的援助。This assistance they were determined to give only on one condition, namely that England should reform its religion according to the Scottish pattern.这种援助他们决定只给一个条件,即英国应改革其宗教根据苏格兰的模式。To this end England and Scotland entered into the Solemn League and Covenant (17 Aug., 1643).为此,英格兰和苏格兰成为庄严联赛和公约(1643年8月17日)进入。It would have been well for Scotland if she had never entered the League to enforce her own church system on England.这本来是苏格兰的好,如果她从来没有进入联盟执行她自己在英格兰教会制度。If she had been satisfied with a simple alliance and assistance, all would have been well.如果她是一个简单的联盟和援助感到满意,现在都应该很好。But by materially helping the English Parliament to win at Marsten Moor she had helped to place the decision of affairs of state in the hands of the army, which was predominantly Independent, and hated presbyters as much as bishops.If the Scotch had recrossed the Tweed in 1646 and had left the Parliament and the army to fight out for themselves the question of ecclesiastical government, England would not have interfered with their religion; but the Covenanters thought it their duty to extirpate idolatry and Baal-worship and establish the true religion in England, and so came in conflict with those who wielded the sword.但是,物质上帮助英国议会在马斯滕摩尔赢得她帮助放置在军队,这是主要的独立的手中,对国家事务的决定,并痛恨长老多达bishops.If苏格兰有recrossed特威德在1646年,并已离开了议会和军队争取为自己的教会,政府的问题,英国就不会干涉他们的信仰,不过,这个盟约认为他们有责任消灭偶像崇拜与巴力崇拜,并建立真正的宗教英格兰,所以排在冲突与那些谁挥舞剑。 The result was that England not only did not become Presbyterian, but Scotland herself became a conquered country.其结果是,英国不仅没有成为长老,但苏格兰自己成为一个被征服的国家。In military matters the Covenanters were successful in England, but in their own country they were sorely tried for a year (1644) by the brilliant career of Montrose (an account of the career of Montrose in given in A. Lang, Hist. of Scot., III, v).在军事问题上的盟约成功在英国,但在他们自己的国家,他们迫切一年(1644)试图通过职业生涯辉煌的蒙特罗斯(一个职业生涯的蒙特罗斯帐户在A郎,历史给予苏格兰人。 。,三,五)。On account of the nature of the troops engaged, the encounters were fought with a vindictive ferocity unknown in the English part of the Civil War.对受聘性质的部队,被打的遭遇与在南北战争的英文部分的报复性的猛烈程度不明。Not only was the number of slain very great, but both sides slaked their thirst for vengeance in plunder, murder, and wholesale massacres.不仅是被杀很大,但双方在二水,三水发酵掠夺,杀人复仇的渴望,和批发大屠杀人数。In this respect the Covenanters must bear the greater share of the blame.在这方面,盟约必须承担的责任更大的份额。The Catholic Celts whom Montrose led undoubtedly committed outrages, especially against their personal enemies the Campbells, during the winter campaigns of Inverlochy (Patrick Gordon, Britane's Distemper, pp. 95 sqq.), but restrained by Montrose, they never perpetrated such perfidy as the Covenanters after Philiphaugh, and the slaughter of three hundred women, "married wives of the Irish".天主教凯尔特人无疑是其中蒙特罗斯领导对他们的承诺,特别是个人的敌人的暴行,因弗勒希期间的冬季运动(帕特里克戈登,Britane的犬瘟热,第95 sqq。)金宝,但蒙特罗斯制止,他们从来没有犯下这种背信弃义的作为盟约后Philiphaugh,以及三百妇女,“妻子结婚的爱尔兰”屠杀。 Montrose's success and the fact that he was a leader of Scoto-Irish lashed the hatred of the preachers into fury.蒙特罗斯的成就和事实,即他是Scoto,爱尔兰领导人抨击了仇恨的传教士到愤怒。They raved for the blood of the Malignants.他们妄言的Malignants的血液。The preachers, with a fanaticism revoltingly blasphemous, and as ferocious as that of Islam, believed that more blood must be shed to propitiate the Deity (Balfour, Annals, III, 311).一个狂热revoltingly亵渎的,又象是对伊斯兰教相信会有更多的血液必须棚propitiate神(鲍尔弗,县志,三,311),凶猛的传教士。

The victory of Philiphaugh (13 Sept., 1645), removed the immediate danger to the Covenanters and likewise extinguished the last glimmer of hope for the Royalist cause, which had suffered irreparable defeat a few weeks earlier at Naseby.对Philiphaugh胜利(1645年9月13日),去掉了即时危险的盟约,并同样为扑灭了保皇党的事业,曾遭受了不可弥补的失败几个星期前最后一丝希望在内斯比。 But the very triumph of the Parliamentary forces in England was fatal to the cause of the Solemn League and Covenant.但是,在英国议会势力的胜利是非常致命的庄严联赛和盟约的原因。The victory had been gained by the army which was not Presbyterian but independent, and capable now of resisting the infliction of an intolerant and tyrannical church government upon itself and upon England.这场胜利已经获得了军队,长老会,但没有独立的,有能力抵抗的一种不宽容和专制的教会,政府对自己并在英国施加了。 When, therefore, the Scottish army recrossed the Tweed, February, 1647, it was with its main purpose unfulfilled.当,因此,苏格兰军队recrossed特威德,二月,1647年,它与它的主要目的没有实现。England had not been thoroughly reformed; heresy, especially in the army, was still rampant.英格兰没有得到彻底改革;异端,特别是在军队,仍十分猖獗。The Solemn League and Covenant had been a failure, and the Scots had fought in vain.庄严联赛和盟约已经失败,而苏格兰人他俩一直战斗。Worse than this, the Covenanters themselves were divided.比这更糟糕的是盟约本身有分歧。The success of the Covenant had been due to the alliance between the Kirk and the nobility.该公约的成功,是由于之间的柯克和贵族的联盟。The latter had joined the cause from jealousy of the authority of the bishops and from fear of the loss of their estates by the Act of Revocation.后者加入了来自权威的主教嫉妒,从他们的遗产法的撤销损失的恐惧的原因。But now, bishops there were none, and the nobility were still in the possession of their estates.但现在,有没有主教,和贵族在其屋仍拥有。Since the causes for further cooperation were thus wanting, the feudal instincts of the nobility, love of monarchical government, contempt for the lower orders to which the majority of the Kirk belonged, naturally reasserted themselves.由于对进一步合作的原因是这样想,贵族的封建本能,君主制的政府,因为较低的订单,其中大部分属于蔑视的柯克,爱自然重新树立自己。 To this must be added their intense jealousy of Argyll, who owed his influence to the support he gave the Kirk.为此必须加上自己的阿盖尔,谁欠他的影响力来支持他给柯克强烈的嫉妒。a Royalist part began thus to be formed among the Covenanters.一开始保皇党因此,与部分之间的盟约形成。The cleavage in their ranks was shown in the dispute over the question of the surrender of Charles I to the Parliament (1646).在他们的行列卵裂结果表明在此过的查尔斯一世投降议会(1646)问题的争端。Hamilton had pressed the Estates to give the king honour and shelter in Scotland, but Argyll, backed by the preachers, opposed him.汉密尔顿按下屋给国王的荣誉和苏格兰住房,但阿盖尔,由传教士的支持下,反对他。 There must be no uncovenanted king in Scotland.不得有在苏格兰uncovenanted王。The breach was widened when Charles fell into the hands of the heretical army.违反扩阔当查尔斯到邪教军队手中。To many, it now seemed best to support the king, for if the army should prove successful, Presbyterianism would be lost.很多人认为,现在看来最好的支持,如果军队要证明是成功的国王,长老会丧失。Accordingly Scottish commissioners Loudoun, Lanark, and Lauderdale visited Charles at Carisbrooke and signed the hopeless and foolish "Engagement" (27 Dec. 1647).因此劳顿,拉纳克,苏格兰和劳德代尔卡里斯布鲁克委员参观了查尔斯,并签署了绝望和愚蠢的“接触”(1647年12月27日)。 In Scotland the Engagers had a large following, and a majority in the Estates.在苏格兰,Engagers了大批追随者,并在屋多数。In the Parliament the Hamiltonian party could carry all before it and was ready to take immediate action for the king.在议会的哈密顿党能进行这一切之前,并准备采取国王立即采取行动。But the Kirk, with Argyll and some ten nobles, remained immovably on the other side.但柯克,与阿盖尔大约十年贵族,仍然不可移的另一边。They would not defile themselves by making common cause with the uncovenanted.他们不会玷污了正与uncovenanted共同的事业。The preachers cursed and thundered against the Engagers and the levies that were being raised for an invasion of England.传教士诅咒和反对Engagers和正在为被入侵的英格兰提出征收打雷。Scotland thus divided against itself had not much chance against the veterans of Cromwell and Lambert.苏格兰从而分裂的没有多少反对克伦威尔和兰伯特退伍军人的机会。After Preston, Wigan, and Warrington (17-19 Aug., 1648) the Scottish Royalist forces were no more.普雷斯顿后,威根,和Warrington(八月17日至19日,1648)苏格兰保皇势力没有更多。The destruction of Hamilton's force was a triumph for the Kirk and the anti-Engagers.在汉密尔顿的破坏力量是一个柯克和反Engagers胜利。But an event now occurred that once more divided the nation.但是现在发生的事件,一旦更加分裂的国家。On 30 January, 1649, Charles I was executed.月30日,1649年,查理一世被处死。Scotchmen of whatever party looked upon the deed as a crime and as a national insult.党的任何Scotchmen地望着为犯罪行为,并作为国家的侮辱。The day after the news reached Scotland, they proclaimed Charles II king, not only of Scotland, but of England and Ireland.到达后的第二天,苏格兰的消息,他们宣布查尔斯二世国王,不仅苏格兰,但英国和爱尔兰。The acceptance of Charles II, however, had been saddled with the condition that he should pledge himself to the two Covenants.查尔斯二世的接受,但是,已经背负的条件,他应该保证自己的两个人权公约。After some hesitation, and after the failure of all his hopes to use Ireland as the basis of an invasion of England Charles II swore to the Covenants, 11 June, 1650.经过一番犹豫,之后他所有的希望未能利用作为一个英国查理二世入侵爱尔兰发誓要根据盟约,1650年6月11号。

To the more extreme portion of the Covenanters, this agreement with the king seemed hypocrisy, an insult to Heaven.到了更极端的盟约的一部分,这似乎与国王达成协议虚伪,一到天堂的侮辱。 They knew he was no true convert to the Covenants, that he had no intention of keeping them, that he had perjured himself, and they refused to have dealings with the king.他们知道他是没有真正转换为盟约,他并没有让他们的意图,他已伪证自己,他们拒绝与国王的交易。Argyll with the more moderate wing, still anxious to avoid a definite rupture with the extremists, had perforce to make concessions to these feelings; he made the unfortunate prince walk through the very depths of humiliation (Peterkin, Records, p. 599).阿盖尔与较温和的翅膀,但仍急于避免与极端分子明确的破裂,曾perforce作出让步,以这种感情,他所作的不幸王子走过屈辱的(彼得金,记录,第599)深处。 This split was to prove fatal.这种分裂是为了证明是致命的。Only a united Scotland could have defeated Cromwell.只有一个团结的苏格兰可以打败克伦威尔。Instead, to propitiate the Deity, Charles was kept apart from the army, and while every available man was wanted to meet the soldiers of Cromwell, the fanatics were "purging" the army of all Royalists and Malignants (op cit. p. 623).相反,要劝神,查尔斯被关除了军队,而每一个可用的人被通缉,以满足克伦威尔的士兵,痴迷者的“净化”的所有保皇党和Malignants军队(前引书。页623) 。To allow them to fight would be to court disaster.为了让他们告上法庭斗争将是一场灾难。How could Jehovah give victory to the children of Israel, if they fought side by side with the idolatrous Amalekites?怎么可能给耶和华以色列的胜利孩子,如果他们并肩战斗,与亚玛力人的偶像崇拜的一面?The purgings of the army went merrily on daily, and the preachers promised in God's name a victory over the erroneous and blasphemous sectaries.军队的日常purgings了欢快,和传教士在上帝的名义承诺过的错误的和亵渎的sectaries胜利。Like the Scots Cromwell also looked upon war as an appeal to the god of battle, and the judgment was delivered at Dunbar, 3 Sept., 1650.就像苏格兰人克伦威尔也都把战争作为神的战斗上诉,该判决是在邓巴,1650年9月3日交付。 "Surely it's probable the Kirk had done their do. I believe their king will set up upon his own score now." “当然这是可能的柯克做了他们的事。我相信他们的国王会成立后,他自己现在就得分。”This was Cromwell's comment upon his victory, and he was right.这是克伦威尔的胜利后,他的评论,他是对的。The route of Dunbar destroyed the ascendancy of the Covenanters.邓巴路线的摧毁了盟约优势。The preachers had promised victory, but Jehovah had sent them defeat.传教士曾许诺的胜利,但耶和华送他们的失败。The extremists, under such leaders as Johnston of Warristoun, James Guthrie, and Patrick Gillespie, attributing their defeat to the unholy alliance with the Malignants grew in vehemence and presented to the Committee of the Estates (30 Oct., 1650) a "Remonstrance" arraigning the whole policy of Argyll's government and refusing to accept Charles as their king "till he should give satisfactory evidence of his real change" (ibid.).根据约翰斯顿的Warristoun作为,詹姆斯格思里,帕特里克吉莱斯皮这样的领导人,极端分子,他们的失败归结到与Malignants增长邪恶联盟激烈并介绍了屋委员会(1650年10月30号)一个“谏” arraigning的阿盖尔的政府整个政策,并拒绝接受他们的国王查尔斯“,直到他应该给他真正的改变满意的证据”(同上)。Seeing his power gone with the "Remonstrants" or "Protesters", Argyll determined definitely to go over to the king; Malignant and Covenanter had joined hands.看到他的力量已经随着“Remonstrants”或“示威”,阿盖尔决心一定去到国王,恶性和科维纳特加入手。In answer to the Remonstrance, the Committee of Estates passed, 25 November, a resolution con demning it and resolved to crown Charles at Scone.在回答有关谏,遗产委员会的通过,11月25日的决议,并决定浓度demning在斯昆加冕查尔斯。On 1 January, 1651, the coronation took place.在1651年1月1日,加冕发生。Cromwell's answer was the battle or Worcester, 3 September, 1651.克伦威尔的回答是战斗或伍斯特市,1651年9月3日。For nine years Scotland was a conquered country kept under by the military saints.九年来苏格兰是一个被征服的国家军队所保存的圣徒下。It was a sad time for the Presbyterians.这是一个令人悲伤的时候了长老会。The English soldiers allowed all Protestants, as long as they did not disturb the peace, to worship in their own way.英国士兵允许所有基督徒,只要他们不扰乱和平,以自己的方式来崇拜。In October, 1651, Monk forbade the preachers to impose oaths and covenants on the lieges, and prohibited civil magistrates from molesting excommunicated persons, or seizing their goods, or boycotting them.十月,1651年,和尚不准讲道强加给lieges宣誓和盟约,并禁止骚扰驱逐的人,或没收其货物,或抵制他们的民事法官。 Lest the Remonstrants or the Revolutioners, who all the while with increasing bitterness quarrelled as to who was the true inheritor of the Covenants, should cause trouble to the commonwealth, the General Assembly was broken up (July, 1653), and all such assemblies forbidden for the future (Kirkton, Secret and True History of the Church of Scotland, p. 54).免得Remonstrants或Revolutioners,谁所有与以谁是真正的继承者的公约争吵越来越多的痛苦,应引起麻烦,英联邦,同时,大会被打破了(七月,1653),以及所有此类禁止集会未来(柯克顿,秘密和苏格兰教会的真实历史,第54页)。

Dunbar, Worcester, and the Cromwellian domination destroyed the ascendancy of the Covenanters.邓巴,伍斯特和克伦威尔统治摧毁了盟约优势。But not on that account did the extreme wing, the Remonstrants, abate a jot of their pretensions; they still believed in the eternally binding force of the two Covenants.但不包括在该帐户做了极端势力的Remonstrants,减轻了他们的伪装记,他们仍然相信在两项公约永远约束力。 On the other hand, neither had the king fully learned the lesson from his father's fate.另一方面,也充分吸取了国王,从他父亲的命运的教训。Like him he considered it his right to force his ecclesiastical views upon his people.像他一样,他认为这是他的权利,迫使他的教会的人对他的看法。Episcopacy was restored, but without the prayerbook, and the meetings of the synods were forbidden.主教恢复了,但没有的prayerbook,以及主教会议也被禁止。Partly because he had the support of the nobility and gentry, partly because even many Presbyterians had wearied of the strife, and party because of his dishonesty Charles succeeded in gaining his ends, but at the cost of straining to the utmost his relations with his subjects.部分原因是他曾因为他不诚实的贵族和士绅的支持,部分原因是因为即使有很多长老会厌倦的争斗,和党的查尔斯成功地获得了他的目的,但在紧张与臣民的关系,以最大的成本。 It only required the attempt of James II to introduce hated Catholicism into the country to sweep the Stuarts forever from the throne of Scotland.它只需要的詹姆斯二世企图引入扫国恨天主教的苏格兰王位的斯图亚特永远。 The history of the Covenanters from the Restoration to the Revolution is a history of fierce persecution varied with occasional milder treatment to win the weaker members to the moderate side.该盟约从恢复历史革命是一个温和的治疗,偶尔不同赢得较弱的成员方的中度激烈的迫害的历史。As the Covenanters would no longer meet in the churches, they began to meet in their own homes and have private conventicles.由于盟约将不再满足于教会,他们开始以满足自己的家园和私人conventicles。Against these proceedings an act was passed (1663) declaring preaching by "ousted" ministers seditious, and it was rigorously enforced by quartering soldiers under Sir James Turner in the houses of recusants.针对这些行为是通过(1663)宣布以“驱逐”部长煽动性说教程序,严格执行,它是由驻扎在recusants的房屋下爵士特纳士兵。 (For Turner's methods, see Lauderdale papers, II, 82.) Driven from their homes the Covenanters took to holding their gatherings in the open air, in distant glens, known as field-meetings, or conventicles. (特纳的方法,见劳德代尔论文,二,82。)赶出自己的家园走上了盟约在露天举行的聚会,作为外地开会,或conventicles已知遥远的峡谷,。 The Pentland Rising (1666) was the result of these measures and proved to the Government that its severities had been unsuccessful.在彭特兰崛起(1666)是这些措施的结果,证明了其严重程度已不成功的政府。On the advice of Lauderdale, Charles issued Letters of Indulgence, June, 1669, and again in August, 1672, allowing such "ousted ministers as had lived peaceably and orderly to return to their livings" (Woodrow, Hist. of the Sufferings, etc. II, 130).在劳德代尔建议,查尔斯发出的放纵,六月,1669年英皇,又在八月,1672年,让这样的“罢黜部长,曾经生活平安,有序返回他们的谋生”(伍德罗,历史的苦难,等等。 。二,130)。These indulgences were disastrous to the Conventiclers, for many of the ministers yielded and conformed.这些放纵的部长分别为许多灾难性的Conventiclers,屈服,并符合。Stung by the secessions the remnant became more irreconcilable; their sermons were simply political party orations denunciatory of kings and bishops.由secessions残刺痛变得更加不可调和的,他们的布道演说只是政党国王和主教的非难。They were especially wroth against the indulged ministers; they broke into their houses; bullied and tortured them to force them to swear that they would cease from their ministrations.他们特别对沉迷部长发怒,他们闯进他们的房子;欺凌和折磨他们,强迫他们发誓,他们将停止从他们ministrations。 These Lauderdale determined to crush by a persecution of utmost severity.这些Lauderdale的决心粉碎了一个极为严重的迫害。 Soldiers were quartered in the disaffected districts (the West and South-West), ministers were imprisoned, and finally, as conventicles still increased, a band of half-savage highlanders, "The Highland Host" (Lauderdale Papers, III, 93 sqq.) was let loose on the wretched inhabitants of the Western Lowlands, where they marauded and plundered at will.心怀不满的士兵在该地区(西及南区)驻扎,部长被监禁,最后,还是作为conventicles增加,一个半野蛮人高地乐队“高地主机”(Lauderdale的论文,三,93 sqq。 )是让对西方低地,在那里他们将掠夺和掠夺可怜的居民松动。

The Covenanters now became reckless and wild, for again torn asunder by the "cess" controversy (a dispute arose as to whether it was lawful to pay the tax or "cess" raised for an unlawful object, the carrying on of a Government persecuting the true Kirk) they were but a remnant of the once powerful Kirk, and every year became less capable of effective resistance.盟约现在成了卤莽和野生,为再次四分五裂的“税”的争议(争议便产生了是否是合法缴税或“税”的对象引发的非法,对一国政府迫害的账面真正的柯克)他们不过是一次强有力的柯克残,每年变得不那么有效的抵抗能力。 They patrolled the country in arms protecting conventicles; and their leaders, Welsh, Cameron and others, went about as "soldiers of Christ", organizing rebellion, even murdering the soldiers of Claverhouse, who was engaged in dispersing the conventicles.他们巡逻在该国的武器保护conventicles,他们的领导人,威尔士,卡梅伦等人,前往约为“基督的士兵”,组织叛乱,甚至谋杀的克拉弗豪斯士兵,谁是在分散的conventicles从事。 The murder of Archbishop Sharpe (2 May, 1679), regarded by them as a glorious action and inspired by the spirit of God, was the signal for a general rising in the Western Lowlands.夏普的大主教(1679年5月2日)把它们作为一个光荣的行动,由上帝的精神鼓舞下,谋杀是一个在西方低地普遍上升的信号。 In Rutherglen they publicly burnt the Acts of the Government which had overthrown the Covenants, and at Louden Hill, or Drumclog, defeated the troops under Claverhouse.在拉瑟格伦他们公开烧毁了该公约已经推翻了政府的行为,并在劳登山,或Drumclog,打败下克拉弗豪斯部队。 It was therefore deemed necessary to send a strong force under Monmouth to suppress the rebellion.因此,认为有必要派遣一支强大力量下蒙默思镇压叛乱。At Bothwell Bridge (22 June, 1679) the insurgents were utterly defeated.在博思韦尔桥(1679年6月22日)的武装分子被彻底打败了。 There followed a third Act of Indulgence which again cut deep into the rank of the Covenanters.接着是第三次的放纵行为,再次切入的盟约级深。But in spite of persecutions and secessions a minority continued faithful to the Covenant and the fundamental principles of Presbyterianism.但在迫害和secessions少数继续忠实于公约和长老会的基本原则,尽管。Under the leadership of Richard Cameron and Donald Cargill, and styling themselves the "Society People", they continued to defy the royal authority.由Richard唐纳德卡梅伦和嘉吉公司的领导,造型本身的“社会人”,他们继续违抗王室的权威。At Sanquhar they published a declaration, 22 June 1680, (Wodrow, III, 213) disowning the king on the ground of his "perjury and breach of covenant to God and his Kirk".在桑克尔他们发表声明,1680年6月22日,(伍德罗,三,213)disowning的地面上,他的“伪证和违反公约柯克上帝和他的”国王。 At a conventicle held at Torwood (1680) Cargill solemnly excommunicated the king, the Duke of York, Monmouth, and others (ibid, III, 219).在AT托伍德举行conventicle(1680)嘉吉公司郑​​重驱逐国王,约克,万茂公爵,和其他(同上,三,219页)。 These proceedings served no further purpose than to embitter parties and make the Government all the more determined to extirpate the sect.这些诉讼没有任何进一步的目的服务,而不是怨恨,使所有各方更坚定地消灭该教派的政府。 But what roused the Government more than anything else was the "Apologetical Declaration" (ibid, IV, 148) of October, 1684, inspired by Renwick who had taken up the standard of Cameron.但激起了政府比什么都获得了“护教宣言”的十月,1684年由伦威克灵感,(同上,四,148)谁采取了金马伦标准。 The document threatened that anyone connected with the Government, if caught, would be judged and punished according to his offenses.该文件威胁说,任何人与该政府,如果被捕,将受到审判和惩罚根据他的罪行。These threats were carried out by the Cameronians or Renwickites; they attacked and slew dragoons, and punished such of the conformist ministers as they could get hold of.这些威胁所进行的Cameronians或Renwickites了,他们杀了龙骑兵攻击,而这种惩罚的因循守旧的部长,因为他们可以掌握。 It was at this period that the "killing time" properly began.正是在这一时期,“杀时间”正确开始。Courts of justice were dispensed with and officers having commissions from the Council were empowered to execute anyone who refused to take the oath of abjuration of the Declaration.司法法院免除和人员在从理事会执行委员会是有权拒绝任何人谁采取的宣言abjuration宣誓。With the accession of James II to the English throne the persecution waxed fiercer.随着加入的詹姆斯二世在英国王位的迫害打蜡激烈。An act was passed which made attendance at field-coventicles a capital offense.通过了一项法令,这使得在外地出席- coventicles死罪。Claverhouse carried out his instructions faithfully, may were summarily executed, while many more were shipped off to the American plantations.克拉弗豪斯忠实执行他的指示,可能被处决,同时还有更多的人运到美国的种植园。The last victim for the Covenant was James Renwick (Jan., 1688).对于该公约最后一个受害者是詹姆斯伦威克(一月,1688)。His followers kept to their principles and even at the Revolution they refused to accept an uncovenanted king; one last brief day of triumph and vengeance they had, when they "rabbled" the conformist curates.他的追随者保持自己的原则,即使在革命,他们拒绝接受uncovenanted王最后的胜利和复仇,他们已当他们“rabbled”的顺从苏格拉底短暂的一天。 The day of the Covenants had long since passed.该公约天早就过去了。How much the ancient spirit of Presbyterianism was broken was clearly seen by the subservient letter in which James was thanked for the Indulgence of 1687, for allowing all "to serve God after their own way and manner" (Wodrow, IV, 428, note).多少古老精神的长老显然被打破了屈从的信中,詹姆斯表示感谢,对1687年宽限,让所有“服务后,他们自己的方式和态度上帝”(伍德罗,四,428,注),看到。 The majority had learned to submit to compromise, and thus at the Revolution the Scottish nation forgot the Covenants and was allowed to retain Presbyterianism.大多数人已经学会了服从的妥协,因此,在革命的苏格兰民族忘记了盟约,并获准保留长老。The strife of a century between Kirk and State had come to an end.一个世纪国家之间的柯克和争斗已经到了尽头。Both sides in the struggle had in fact won and lost.在斗争中双方实际上已经获得和丢失。The king had been defeated in his attempt to dictate the religion of his subjects; Presbyterianism became the established religion.国王曾败在他试图支配他的臣民宗教长老会成为既定的宗教。But it had been equally proved that the subjugation of the State to the Church, the supremacy, political as well as ecclesiastical, of the Kirk, was an impossibility.但它受到了同样证明,到教会,至上,政治以及教会,对柯克,是一个国家不可能征服。In this the Covenants had failed.在这盟约已经失败。

Publication information Written by Noel J. Campbell.出版信息撰稿诺埃尔j的坎贝尔。Transcribed by M. Donahue.转录由M.多纳休。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Lang, A History of Scotland (Edinburgh and London, 1904), vol.郎,一个苏格兰(爱丁堡和伦敦,1904年),第二卷历史。III; Hume Brown, History of Scotland (Cambridge, 1905), vol II; Burton, History of Scotland (Edinburgh and London, 1870), vols.三;布朗休谟,苏格兰历史(剑桥,1905年),第二卷;伯顿,苏格兰(爱丁堡和伦敦,1870年)的历史,第一卷和第二卷。 VI and VII; Mathieson, Politics and Religion in Scotland (Glasgow, 1902); Steven, History of the Scottish Church (Edinburgh, 1894-96).第六和第七;梅赛森,政治和宗教的苏格兰(格拉斯哥,1902年);史蒂芬,苏格兰教会(爱丁堡,1894年至1896年)的历史。 - Contemporary authorities: Row, History of the Kirk of Scotland (1558-1637) (Wodrow Society, 1841); Balfour, Annals of Scotland (to 1652) (Edinburgh, 1824); Baillie, Letters and Journal s (1637-1662) (Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh, 1828-29); Gordon, History of Scots Affairs from 1637 to 1641 (Spaulding Club, Aberdeen, 1841); Peterkin, Records of the Kirk of Scotland (from 1638) (Edinburgh, 1837); Wodrow, The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution (Glasgow, 1830); Kirkton, The Secret and True History of the Church of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1837); Lauderdale Papers (1639-1679) (Camden Society, London, 1884-85).- 当代当局:排,柯克的苏格兰(1558年至1637年)(伍德罗协会,1841年)的历史;贝尔福,苏格兰志(至1652年)(爱丁堡,1824年),贝利,信件和日记的(1637年至1662年) (班纳泰恩俱乐部,爱丁堡,1828年至1829年),戈登,苏格兰事务史1637年至1641年(斯波尔丁俱乐部,香港仔,1841年);彼得金,柯克的苏格兰(从1638)(爱丁堡,1837年)记录;伍德罗,从以恢复的苏格兰教会的苦难史的革命(格拉斯哥,1830年);柯克顿,该教会的苏格兰(爱丁堡,1837年)的秘密与真实的历史;劳德代尔文件(1639年至1679年)(卡姆登协会,伦敦,1884年至1885年)。


Also, see:此外,见:
Dispensationalism dispensationalism
Ultradispensationalism ultradispensationalism
Progressive Dispensationalism渐进dispensationalism
Covenant Theology盟约神学

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html