Covenant Theology盟约神学

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The doctrine of the covenant was one of the theological contributions that came to the church through the Reformation of the sixteenth century.该公约的学说是到这里来,通过十六世纪的宗教改革神学对教会的贡献之一。Undeveloped earlier, it made its appearance in the writings of Zwingli and Bullinger, who were driven to the subject by Anabaptists in and around Zurich.欠发达较早,它作出的茨温利和布凌格著作,谁是由在苏黎世再洗礼派和周围的主题它的外观。From them it passed to Calvin and other Reformers, was further developed by their successors, and played a dominant role in much Reformed theology of the seventeenth century when it came to be known as covenant, or federal, theology. Covenant theology sees the relation of God to mankind as a compact which God established as a reflection of the relationship existing between the three persons of the Holy Trinity.他们通过向卡尔文和其他改革者,得到了进一步发展他们的接班人,并播放了十七世纪的主导作用时,在很多改革神学,神学,它后来被称为盟约,或联邦。 盟约神学认为的关系上帝三位一体人类作为紧凑而圣洁的神设立了作为一个人的反映三者之间的关系存在。

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This emphasis on God's covenantal dealings with the human race tended to lessen what appeared to some to be harshness in the earlier Reformed theology which emanated from Geneva, with its emphasis on the divine sovereignty and predestination.这种对上帝的covenantal打交道的人的种族倾向淡化重点似乎有些在以前的改革神学,它是由日内瓦的苛刻与对神的主权和宿命重点。 From Switzerland covenant theology passed over into Germany, and from there into the Netherlands and the British Isles.从瑞士盟约神学通过到德国,再从那里进入荷兰和英伦三岛。Among its early and most influential advocates were, besides Zwingli and Bullinger, Olevianus (Concerning the Nature of the Covenant of Grace Between God and the Elect, 1585), Cocceius (Doctrine of the Covenant and Testaments of God, 1648), and Witsius (The Oeconomy of the Covenants, 1685).在其早期和最有影响力的倡导者,除了zwingli和布凌格,Olevianus(关于与上帝的选,1585年的盟约的恩典性质),Cocceius(该公约和圣经的上帝,1648年学说),和Witsius(该公约,1685)Oeconomy。 It was taken up into the Westminister Confession and came to have an important place in the theology of Scotland and New England.它被带到了进入西敏寺招供,并有一个在新英格兰,苏格兰和神学的重要场所。

The Covenant of Works盟约的作品

Having created man in his own image as a free creature with knowledge, righteousness, and holiness, God entered into covenant with Adam that he might bestow upon him further blessing.在创造一个有知识,义,和圣洁自由的动物,在他自己的形象造人,上帝订立与亚当表示,他可能赐给他进一步祝福成约。 Called variously the Edenic covenant, the covenant of nature, the covenant of life, or preferably the covenant of works, this pact consisted of (1) a promise of eternal life upon the condition of perfect obedience throughout a probationary period; (2) the threat of death upon disobedience; and (3) the sacrament of the tree of life, or, in addition, the sacraments of paradise and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.所谓不同的Edenic盟约,盟约的性质,生活公约,或最好的作品盟约,这个协议包括:(1)承诺服从永恒的完美生活条件后,整个试用期;(2)死亡威胁后,抗命;及(3)中除了生命树,或者,天堂圣礼和对善恶树圣礼。 Although the term "covenant" is not mentioned in the first chapters of Genesis, it is held that all the elements of a covenant are present even though the promise of eternal life is there by implication only.虽然“盟约”,是不是在创世纪第一章提到的,它是认为所有元素的一个公约是目前即使是永恒的生命的承诺是有含意而已。Before the fall Adam was perfect but could still have sinned; had he retained his perfection throughout the probationary period, he would have been confirmed in righteousness and been unable to sin.垮台前亚当是十全十美的,但仍然可以去犯罪,如果他留在整个试用期间他的完美,他将已被确认为正义和一直无法罪。

Inasmuch as he was acting not only for himself but representatively for mankind, Adam was a public person.因为他不仅为自己,但代表性,为人类,亚当是一个公众人物。His fall therefore affected the entire human race that was to come after him; all are now conceived and born in sin.他的下降,因此影响到整个人类的,那就是让他,全都是现在设想和生于罪。Without a special intervention of God there would be no hope; all would be lost forever.如果没有特别的干预,上帝就没有希望,一切将永远消失。

The good news, however, is that God has intervened in behalf of mankind with another covenant. Unlike the earlier covenant of works, whose mandate was "Do this and you shall live" (cf. Rom. 10:5; Gal. 3:12), the covenant of grace is bestowed on men in their sinful condition with the promise that, in spite of their inability to keep any of the commandments of God, out of sheer grace he forgives their sin and accepts them as his children through the merits of his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, on the condition of Faith.好消息,然而,就是上帝的盟约,在代表人类干预与另一半乳糖不同于公约的早期作品,其任务是“做这做,你将生活”(参见。光盘。10:5 3;: 12),恩典之约的是上帝赐予的状况,对男性在其罪孽深重的承诺,尽管他们无法向任何遵守诫命,出于纯粹的恩典,他宽恕他们的罪过,并接纳他们为他的孩子们通过,优点,他的儿子,主耶稣基督的信仰状况。

The Covenant of Redemption公约的赎回

According to covenant theology, the covenant of grace, established in history, is founded on still another covenant, the covenant of redemption, which is defined as the eternal pact between God the Father and God the Son concerning the salvation of mankind.根据盟约神学,该公约的宽限期,在既定的历史,是建立在还有一项公约,公约的赎回,这被看作是与上帝圣父和圣子永恒的有关人类的拯救协议定义。 Scripture teaches that within the Godhead there are three persons, the same in essence, glory, and power, objective to each other.圣经教导我们,在神的源头有三个人,同时在本质上,荣耀,权力,客观对方。The Father loves the Son, commissions him, gives him a people, the right to judge, and authority over all mankind (John 3:16; 5:20, 22, 36; 10:17 - 18; 17:2, 4, 6, 9, 24; Ps. 2:7 - 8; Heb. 1:8 - 13); the Son loves the Father, delights to do his will, and has shared his glory forever (Heb. 10:7; John 5:19; 17:5).父亲爱儿子,佣金他,让他一个人,正确的判断,以及全人类(约翰3:16权威; 5:20,22,36; 10:17 - 18; 17时02分,4, 6,9,24岁;诗2:7 - 8;。希伯来书1:8 - 13);。儿子深爱着父亲,愉悦把自己的意志,并分享他的荣耀永远(希伯来书10:7,约翰5 :19; 17:5)。The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit commune with each other; this is one of the meanings of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity.父亲,儿子,和圣灵公社与对方,这是对基督教教义的三位一体的意义之一。

On this foundation covenant theology affirms that God the Father and God the Son covenanted together for the redemption of the human race, the Father appointing the Son to be the mediator, the Second Adam, whose life would be given for the salvation of the world, and the Son accepting the commission, promising that he would do the work which the Father had given him to do and fulfill all righteousness by obeying the law of God.在此基础上圣约神学申明上帝的父亲和上帝的儿子covenanted人类种族,委任儿子成为调停者的父亲一起赎回,第二个亚当,他们的生活会是为救赎的世界,和儿子接受的委托,希望他会做的工作,父亲给了他这样做,并履行遵守法律的上帝所有正义的工作。 Thus before the foundation of the world, within the eternal being of God, it had been determined that creation would not be destroyed by sin, but that rebellion and iniquity would be overcome by God's grace, that Christ would become the new head of humanity, the Savior of the world, and that God would be glorified.所以才在世界的基础在上帝永恒的福祉,它已被确定,创造不会被破坏罪过,但暴动和邪恶中,将上帝的恩典,基督将成为新的主管人道克服,世界的救主,上帝将荣耀。

The Covenant of Grace该公约的宽限期

This covenant has been made by God with mankind.这个公约已经取得了神与人类。In it he offers life and salvation through Christ to all who believe. Inasmuch as none can believe without the special grace of God, it is more exact to say that the covenant of grace is made by God with believers, or the elect. Jesus said that all those whom the Father had given him would come to him and that those who come would surely be accepted (John 6:37).在它提供的,他的生活和基督得救所有谁相信。 因为没有人能够相信,如果没有特别的恩赐,它是更确切的说,恩典之约的,是由上帝与信徒,或选出。耶稣说:所有这些人的父亲给了他会来,他和那些谁来一定会被接受(约翰福音6:37)。 Herein is seen the close relation between the covenant of grace and the covenant of redemption, with the former resting on the latter.这里是看到了该公约的宽限期和赎回公约与前者对后者休息,密切的关系。From eternity the Father has given a people to the Son; to them was given the promised Holy Spirit so that they might live in fellowship with God.从永恒父亲打了一个人的儿子,给他们提供所承诺的圣灵,使他们有可能生活在神的交通。Christ is the mediator of the covenant of grace inasmuch as he has borne the guilt of sinners and restored them to a saving relationship to God (Heb. 8:6; 9:15; 12:24).基督是该公约的宽限期调停因为他已经证明他有罪的罪人,并恢复他们节省了关系,神(希伯来书8:6; 9:15; 12:24)。He is mediator, not only in the sense of arbitrator, although that is the sense in which the word is used in 1 Tim.他是调解员,只有在仲裁员的感觉,尽管这是在其中的字是用在一添意义。2:5, but in the sense of having fulfilled all the conditions necessary for procuring eternal salvation for his people.2:5,但在意义上的完成了所有的条件,采购为他的人民永远得救所必需的。

Thus Heb.因此希伯来书。7:22 calls Jesus the "surety" or "guarantee" of the new covenant, which is better than that which came through Moses.7:22来电耶稣的“担保人”或“保证”的新约,这是比这更好的通过摩西。Within the context of this last passage repeated mention is made of God's promise to Christ and his people.在这最后一段中反复提到的是上帝的诺言,以基督和他的人民。He will be their God and they will be his people.他将他们的神和他们的将是他的人。He will bestow on them the grace they need to confess his name and live with him forever; in humble dependence on him for their every need, they will live in trustful obedience from day to day.他会赐给他们的恩典,他们需要交代自己的名字和他同住永远,在他简陋的依赖自己的每一个需要,他们将生活在相互信任的服从,从日常。 This latter, called faith in Scripture, is the sole condition of the covenant, and even it is a gift of God (Eph. 2:8 - 9).这后者, 所谓的信念在经文中,是该公约的唯一条件,甚至是上帝礼物 (弗2:8 - 9)。

Although the covenant of grace includes various dispensations of history, it is essentially one.虽然该公约的宽限期,包括各种dispensations历史,它基本上是一个。From the promise in the garden (Gen. 3:15), through the covenant made with Noah (Gen. 6 - 9), to the day that the covenant was established with Abraham, there is abundant evidence of God's grace.从通过该公约与挪亚承诺在花园里(创3:15),(创6 - 9),以该公约设立的亚伯拉罕一天,是神的恩典丰富的证据。 With Abraham a new beginning is made which the later, Sinaitic covenant implements and strengthens.亚伯拉罕一个新的开端,是其中后,西乃半岛公约的实施和加强。At Sinai the covenant assumes a national form and stress is laid on the law of God.在西奈盟约假设一个国家的形式和强调的是对上帝的法律规定。This is not intended to alter the gracious character of the covenant, however (Gal. 3:17 - 18), but it is to serve to train Israel until the time would come when God himself would appear in its midst.这是不打算改变大方性格的盟约,但是,(加拉太书3:17 - 18),但它是为了向以色列火车到时候会来的时候,上帝会出现在它的中间。In Jesus the new form of the covenant that had been promised by the prophets is manifest, and that which was of a temporary nature in the old form of the covenant disappears (Jer. 31:31 - 34; Heb. 8). While there is unity and continuity in the covenant of grace throughout history, the coming of Christ and the subsequent gift of the Holy Spirit have brought rich gifts unknown in an earlier age.在耶稣的先知,新形式的契约承诺,已经是明显的,并认为这是一个临时性质的旧形式的盟约的消失(耶31:31 - 34;希伯来书8。) 那里尽管是团结和年龄连续性,该公约的宽限期,在整个历史上,在未来的基督和圣随后礼物带来了丰富的精神早在一个未知的礼物。

These are a foretaste of future blessedness when this present world passes away and the Holy City, the New Jerusalem, comes down out of heaven from God (Rev. 21:2).这是一个预示着未来的幸福时,这个目前世界逝世和圣城新耶路撒冷,归结出与神(启示录21:2)的天堂。

ME OsterhavenME的Osterhaven

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
L Berkhof, Systematic Theology; C Hodge, Systematic Theology, II; H Heppe, Reformed Dogmatics; H Bavinck, Our Reasonable Faith; G Schrenk, Gottesreich und Bund in alteren Protestantismus; HH Wolf, Die Einheit des Bundes.L伯克霍夫的,有系统的神学; ç Ho​​dge的,有系统的神学,二; ħ黑珀,归正教义; h巴文克,我们合理的信仰; Ğ雪岭,Gottesreich有限公司在alteren Protestantismus外滩HH狼,模具Einheit德的Bundes。

Also, see:此外,见:
Dispensationalism dispensationalism
Ultradispensationalism ultradispensationalism
Progressive Dispensationalism渐进dispensationalism
Covenant 盟约

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