General Information一般资料

Crucifixion was a method of execution used by the Romans to punish slaves and foreigners.十字架上的执行方法是由罗马人用来惩罚奴隶和外国人。Hung from a crossbar astride an upright peg, the naked victim was allowed to hang as a public spectacle until dead. No vital organs were damaged, and death was slow agony.吊在横梁垂直横跨一挂,赤裸的受害人被允许作为公共眼镜挂到死。 没有重要器官受损,死亡是缓慢的痛苦。 Prior to crucifixion, the victim was scourged and made to carry the crossbar to the execution site. 在此之前受难,受害人鞭打并进行了横梁到刑场。The crucifixion of Jesus Christ followed this order of events (Mark 15:15; John 19:17). 受难的基督耶稣遵循这个事件的顺序为 (马克15:15,约翰福音19:17)。

Though closely associated with Rome, crucifixion originated with the Phoenicians and Persians.虽然密切相关,与罗马,腓尼基人和波斯人起源受难。It was practiced from the 6th century BC until the 4th century AD.这是实行从公元前6世纪到公元4世纪。The Roman emperor Constantine I banned crucifixion in 337.罗马皇帝君士坦丁一世禁止在337受难。

Because Jesus was crucified, the Cross has assumed theological significance for Christians.因为耶稣被钉在十字架,十字架承担了基督徒的神学意义。It symbolizes reconciliation with God through faith in Christ (1 Cor. 1:18 - 25), whose life, death, and Resurrection are proof of God's forgiveness of human sin. 它象征着基督信仰在和解与上帝通过(1肺心病- 。1:18 25),他的生命,死亡和复活是人类罪恶证明神的宽恕。

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(Editor's Comments)(编者的评论)

There appear to be a number of misconceptions regarding the Crucifixion of Jesus.似乎有一个关于耶稣受难误解。 Jesus was NOT the first nor the only person to be crucified.耶稣不是第一,也不是唯一的人被钉在十字架上。The Romans had used that method of execution for at least 70 years before Jesus was Crucified.罗马人用那至少在70年之前,耶稣被钉在十字架的执行方法。In around 40 BC, in Rome, a historian recorded that 2,000 people were crucified in a single day, for the entertainment of Quintilius Varus!在大约40年,在罗马,记录了2000人钉在十字架上一次单日为Quintilius翻娱乐,历史学家!About 40 years after Jesus' Crucifixion, the Romans crucified around 500 per day in 70 AD.大约40年后,耶稣受难,罗马人钉在十字架上,每天大约在公元70 500人。

Even by Jesus' time, it is clear that they had developed "efficient" methods.即使是耶稣的时候,很显然,他们研制的“高效”方法。For example, on that day of the 2,000 crucifixions, it seems unlikely that the workers would have had the time to dig 2,000 holes and built 2,000 crosses, just for practical reasons.例如,在那一块2000十字架上的日子,这似乎不大可能,工人将不得不向洞挖2000跨越时间和内置2000只为现实的原因。 The following articles indicate that it was extremely common for the upright pole to be left in place, at the standard location for the crucifixions, and that Jesus (and the others) almost certainly carried just the horizontal cross-bar, still a heavy burden.下面的文章指出,这是极为常见的直立杆被留在放置在标准的十字架上的位置,和耶稣(以及其他的)几乎可以肯定,仅仅进行横向交叉杆,仍是​​一个沉重的负担。 Once there, the execution crew would have lifted Jesus and the cross-bar up onto the already vertical pole.一旦发生,执行人员将已解除耶稣和横杆上已经注册的垂直杆。

Most modern depictions of the Crucifixion show Jesus being quite high up, but that almost certainly was not the case.大多数现代的描写显示的受难耶稣被相当高了,但几乎可以肯定并非如此。Victims of crucifixion generally had their feet just a foot or two above the ground.受害者一般的十字架上有自己的脚刚一英尺或两个以上的地面。Also, part of the "punishment" of crucifixion (and a visible example of that punishment for the community as a whole) was that it was generally an extended process.此外,在“惩罚”的十字架(和一,对于整个社会的惩罚明显的例子)的一部分,是人们普遍延长的过程。One of the articles below even mention that some crosses had a small "seat" area to partially support the weight of the body, with the intent of extending the suffering further.在下面的文章甚至提到,一些曾与十字架的苦难进一步延长意图一小“座位”地区部分地支持身体的重量。

These matters are confirmed by a variety of Jewish laws of the time.这些问题都证实了当时犹太人的各种法律。Several dealt with the "official" ways of determining the moment of death such that the body could be taken down.几个处理的“官方”确定死亡的一刻,这样的机构可以被拆除的方法。Yev.Yev。120b mentions that one of those methods of confirmation was when stray animals began to feed on the flesh of the feet and legs, which could be reached because of the legs being close to the ground.120B型提到,确认这些方法之一是开始时,流浪动物饲料上的脚和腿,这可能是由于贴近地面的腿达成的肉。Oho.啊哈。3:5 mentions ways of determining when the blood had become impure.3:5提到决定何时已成为不纯的血的方法。Many other laws associated with crucifixion existed in Jewish law of the time.与其他许多法律相关的受难存在于当时的犹太法律。Tosef, Git 7:1, Git 70b, describe how a person could get a divorce from a person being crucified. Tosef,Git的7:1,Git的70B条,描述一个人如何能够从一个人被钉在十字架离婚。Interestingly, Yev.有趣的是,Yev。16:3, 15c, apparently allowed the possibility that a rich matron could "redeem" a person being crucified to become her husband!16时03分,15C条,显然允许的可能性,丰富的护士长可以“赎回”一个人被钉在十字架上,成为她的丈夫!

Also, a modern misconception is that the spikes were driven through the hands.此外,一个现代化的误解是,穗通过手驱动。The Romans had discovered much earlier that the skin would just tear away and the person would fall from the cross.罗马人发现了更早的皮肤只会撕裂的人才会被从十字架上。The spikes were certainly driven through the wrist area, between some bones there.穗一定的驱动,通过手腕地区,在一些骨头那里。

Finally, as a confirmation of the reality of the Crucifixion of Jesus, Jewish records record the event.最后,作为耶稣的,记录犹太人受难的现实记录事件的确认。In the Talmud, Sanh.在犹太法典,葬身。7:4 refers to Him being subjected to halakhah , being "hanged alive".7:4指他受到哈拉哈 ,被“绞死活着”。This, along with stoning, was the legal punishment for "leading others astray or practicing sorcery".正因如此,再加上用石头砸死,是法律惩罚“领导别人误入歧途或练巫术”。Sanh.葬身。6:4 also refers to the event. 6:4还提到该事件。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Crucifixion was a common mode of punishment among heathen nations in early times.十字架上,是一个异教徒的国家之间在早期常见的惩罚方式。It is not certain whether it was known among the ancient Jews; probably it was not.这是不能肯定是否是已知的古代犹太人中,很可能不是这样的。The modes of capital punishment according to the Mosaic law were, by the sword (Ex. 21), strangling, fire (Lev. 20), and stoning (Deut. 21).死刑的模式根据被镶嵌法,用剑(出21),绞杀,消防(利未记20),并用石头砸死(申命记21)。This was regarded as the most horrible form of death, and to a Jew it would acquire greater horror from the curse in Deut.这是作为死亡的最可怕的形式把,并在犹太人将获得更大的恐怖诅咒在申命记。21:23.21:23。This punishment began by subjecting the sufferer to scourging.遭受这种惩罚的受害者首先要鞭打。In the case of our Lord, however, his scourging was rather before the sentence was passed upon him, and was inflicted by Pilate for the purpose, probably, of exciting pity and procuring his escape from further punishment (Luke 23:22; John 19:1).在我们的主的情况下,然而,他的鞭子是相当前一句是通过在他身上,造成被彼拉多为宗旨,也许令人振奋的惋惜和采购进一步惩罚他逃跑(路加福音23:22;约翰19 :1)。

The condemned one carried his own cross to the place of execution, which was outside the city, in some conspicuous place set apart for the purpose.该谴责带着他自己的一个交叉到地方执行,这是在城外的目的除了为一些比较突出的地方。Before the nailing to the cross took place, a medicated cup of vinegar mixed with gall and myrrh (the sopor) was given, for the purpose of deadening the pangs of the sufferer.前钉在十字架上为这次的隔阻了患者的痛苦目的的地方,一个药杯醋胆和没药(即sopor)混合给予。Our Lord refused this cup, that his senses might be clear (Matt. 27:34).我们的主拒绝这一杯,他的感觉可能是明确的(太27:34)。 The spongeful of vinegar, sour wine, posca, the common drink of the Roman soldiers, which was put on a hyssop stalk and offered to our Lord in contemptuous pity (Matt. 27:48; Luke 23:36), he tasted to allay the agonies of his thirst (John 19:29).醋的,酸酒,posca,罗马士兵,这是把一个牛膝草秆和轻蔑的怜悯提供给我们的主共同喝spongeful(太27:48;路加福音23:36),以减轻他尝到他口渴的痛苦(约翰19:29)。 The accounts given of the crucifixion of our Lord are in entire agreement with the customs and practices of the Roman in such cases.我们的主的十字架上给出的账户是与海关和罗马的做法在这种情况下达成的全部协议。He was crucified between two "malefactors" (Isa. 53:12; Luke 23:32), and was watched by a party of four soldiers (John 19:23; Matt. 27:36, 54), with their centurion.他被钉在十字架上两个“坏人”(以赛亚书53:12;路加福音23:32),并通过党的四名士兵观看(约19:23;。马特27:36,54),他们的百夫长。

The "breaking of the legs" of the malefactors was intended to hasten death, and put them out of misery (John 19:31); but the unusual rapidity of our Lord's death (19:33) was due to his previous sufferings and his great mental anguish.作者:坏人“的腿断”的目的是加速死亡,并把他们的痛苦了(约19:31),但我们的上帝的死亡(19:33)不寻常的速度,是因为他和他以前的苦难伟大的精神痛苦。 The omission of the breaking of his legs was the fulfilment of a type (Ex. 12:46).作者打破了他的双腿遗漏是一个类型(出埃及记12:46)履行。He literally died of a broken heart, a ruptured heart, and hence the flowing of blood and water from the wound made by the soldier's spear (John 19:34).他从字面上死于心碎,心脏破裂,因此血和水流从士兵的矛(约翰19时34分)所作的伤口。Our Lord uttered seven memorable words from the cross, namely, (1) Luke 23:34; (2) 23:43; (3) John 19:26; (4) Matt.我们的主从十字架上发出七个难忘的话,即(1)路加福音23:34;(2)23:43,(3)约翰19:26;(4)马特。 27:46, Mark 15:34; (5) John 19:28; (6) 19:30; (7) Luke 23:46. 27:46,马可福音15:34;(5)约翰19:28;(六)19:30(7)路加福音23:46。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)

Cross, Crucifixion十字架,十字架

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Greek word for "cross," stauros, literally refers to an upright, pointed stake or pale.为“十字架”,stauros希腊字,字面上是指一个正直,指出股权或苍白。The word xylon is usually "wood" or "tree."木质字通常是“木”或“树”。In the NT and in some other literature of the time both frequently refer to a particularly cruel and degrading form of capital punishment known as crucifixion.在NT和一些其他的时间都经常提到文学的资本特别残忍和有辱人格的惩罚形式受难而闻名。In both canonical and later Christian literature "cross" and "crucifixion" take on a particularly important significance because of their connection with the death of Jesus and his expectations of his disciples.在这两种典型和后来的基督教文学“十字”和“十字架上”接受,因为他们与耶稣的死和他的门徒的期望方面特别重要的意义。 Any understanding of crucifixion in the ancient world must include the facts related to the act itself, its effect upon the victim, and the sociocultural implications attached to it.十字架上的任何在古代世界的认识,必须包括有关行为本身,及其对受害者影响的事实,和与它相连的社会文化影响。

Method of Crucifixion方法受难

Crucifixion involved elevating the condemned upon a pole, some form of frame or scaffolding, or a natural tree, thus exposing him to public view and derision.受难涉及提高后一杆谴责,一些框架或棚架,或自然树的形式,从而使他对公众意见,并嘲笑。In many cases the individual was put to death through some other means and all or a part of the body (usually the head) then elevated.在许多情况下,个人被置于死亡通过一些其他手段,全部或机构(通常是头部)的一部分,然后升高。In other circumstances it became the actual means of execution.在其他情况下,它成为执行的实际手段。Because of both the effect of crucifixion upon the body and the lengthy period which usually elapsed before death, it represented the most painful, cruel, and barbaric form of execution.因为无论是在身体和漫长的时期死亡前通常经过十字架的影响,它代表了最痛苦的执行,残酷,野蛮的形式。Its roots are lost in history.其根源是失去了历史。In one form or another it is known to have been practiced by many groups (such as the Indians, Scythians, Celts, Germani, Britanni, and Taurians) but is most closely associated with the Persians, Carthaginians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and especially the Romans.在这种或那种形式是已知有许多团体实行(如印度人,斯基泰,凯尔特人,Germani,Britanni和Taurians),但最密切与波斯人,迦太基人,腓尼基人,希腊人相关,特别是罗马人。 Some evidence suggests that it may have been associated with religious human sacrifice as well as a means of punishment.一些证据表明,它可能已经与宗教人的牺牲,以及相关的惩罚手段。

Earlier forms probably involved impaling the condemned on a single pole or suspending him by wedging the head between a "Y" at one end of the implement.早期形式可能涉及刺穿了谴责单极或暂停在一个由楔入结束的实施之间的一个“Y”他的头部。By NT times there seem to have been several different forms of "crosses" commonly used by the Romans.由新台币时代似乎已经出现的“十字架”,普遍被罗马人用几种不同的形式。In addition to the single pole (crux simplex), most involved the use of at least two separate pieces of wood to construct a frame.除了单杆(症结单纯形),大部分涉及至少两个独立的部分用木材建造一个框架。However, crucifixion gave executioners opportunity to use their most cruel and sadistic creativity; victims were occasionally hung in grotesque positions by a variety of means.然而,在十字架上了刽子手机会,利用自己最残忍的虐待狂创造性;受害者是偶尔挂在怪诞的位置由各种手段。The two cross forms most likely used for the execution of Jesus are the St. Anthony's cross (crux commissa), shaped like a "T," or the Latin cross (crux immissa), on which the vertical piece rises above both the horizontal cross-bar (patibulum) and the head of the victim; the statement in Matt.两条过形式最有可能用于执行是耶稣圣安东尼交叉(症结commissa),形状像一个的“T”或拉丁美洲两岸(症结immissa),对其中的一块垂直上升超过两个横向交叉杆(patibulum)和受害人的头;在马特的声明。 27:37 (cf. Luke 23:38) that the inscription was placed "over his head" and most ancient tradition favor the latter.27:37(参见路加福音23:38),该碑文是放在“在他的头上”,最古老的传统,有利于后者。

Detailed descriptions of crucifixion are few; writers seem to have avoided the subject.十字架上的详细描述的少;作家似乎已经避免这个问题。Recent archaeological discoveries, including skeletal remains of a crucifixion in first century Palestine (at Giv'at ha-Mivtar in Jerusalem), have added considerably to knowledge of the act. It seems that the Gospel accounts of the death of Jesus describe a standard Roman procedure for crucifixion.最近的考古发现,包括受难遗骸在第一世纪巴勒斯坦(在吉瓦特公顷Mivtar在耶路撒冷),大大增加了采取行动的知识。 看来,死亡的耶稣福音的账户描述一个标准的罗马程序受难。After the pronouncement of sentence, the condemned was required to carry the horizontal piece to the place of execution, always outside the city. The leader of the four-man execution squad led the procession bearing a sign detailing the reason for the execution. 宣判后,判决的,死刑犯被要求进行横向一块地方的执行,城市总是之外。班长的四男子轴承执行走在游行队伍的标志,详细说明履行的理由的。 There the victim was flogged (this seems to have preceded condemnation in the case of Jesus, possibly to elicit sympathy). The victim's outstretched arms were affixed to the cross-bar by either nails or ropes.有受害人被鞭打(这似乎已在前面耶稣谴责的情况下,可能是为了引起同情)。 受害者伸出的手臂贴在跨绳杆钉子或任何一方。This was then raised and secured to the perpendicular pole (which in some areas may have been left in place permanently, both for convenience and as a warning). A small board or peg may have been provided as sort of a seat to bear some of the weight of the condemned (this actually may have prolonged suffering by prohibiting suffocation). 这是当时提出和担保,以垂直杆(在某些地区可能已被永久地留在地方的警告,同时为方便起见,并作为)。一个小挂板或座位可能已经提供了一个作为排序的承担一些对重量的谴责(这实际上可能延长禁止窒息症)。 The feet were then secured in a manner forcing the knees into a bent position. Contrary to popular contemporary opinion, crosses were not high; the feet were probably only a few inches above the ground. The sign describing the accusation was secured to the cross.脚,然后固定在一地迫使膝盖弯曲成一个位置。当代流行的观点相反,十字架不高脚,地面大概只有几英寸以上的十字架符号描述的指控被带到了。

Death usually came slowly; it was not unusual for persons to survive for days on the cross. Exposure, disease, hunger, shock, and exhaustion were the usual immediate causes of death. 通常慢慢地死亡,这是不寻常的人的生存跨天就死亡暴露,疾病,饥饿,休克,被直接原因和疲惫的样子。Occasionally death was "mercifully" hastened by breaking the legs of the condemned.有时候死是“慈悲”赶紧打破了谴责的腿。 In Jesus' case death came much more swiftly than usual.在耶稣的情况下死了比平常更为迅速。A spear was thrust into his side to assure he was really dead before the body was removed (John 19:31-37). Bodies of the crucified were often left unburied and eaten by carnivorous birds and beasts, thus adding to the disgrace.矛是推力到他身边,以确保他真的死了的尸体被移走前(约19:31-37)。 钉在十字架上的机构,往往被留下埋葬和野兽吃掉了食肉鸟类,从而增加了耻辱。

The social stigma and disgrace associated with crucifixion in the ancient world can hardly be overstated.社会歧视和耻辱,在古代世界受难相关难以被夸大了。It was usually reserved for slaves, criminals of the worst sort from the lowest levels of society, military deserters, and especially traitors.它通常是预留作奴隶,从社会的最低层,逃兵,特别是汉奸最坏的罪犯。In only rare cases were Roman citizens, no matter what their crime, crucified.在只有极少数情况下是罗马公民,不管他们的罪行,钉在十字架上。Among the Jews it carried an additional stigma. Deut.其中犹太人它进行额外的耻辱。 申命记。21:23, "A hanged man is accursed by God," was understood to mean that the very method of death brought a divine curse upon the crucified. Thus, the idea of a crucified Messiah posed a special problem for such Jews as Paul (cf. Gal. 3:13; 1 Cor. 1:27-29). 21:23,“一个被绞死的人是由神诅咒”被理解为对死亡的方法,带来了一个非常神圣的诅咒,被钉十字架时。因此,理想中的弥赛亚钉在十字架上的犹太人保罗提出这样的问题的一个特殊的(比照加拉太书3:13;。。林前1:27-29)。。

Significance of the Cross十字架的意义

NT writers assume the historicity of the crucifixion of Jesus and focus their attention upon its significance.新台币作家承担的十字架上的耶稣,并侧重于历史性的意义他们的注意力。In it they understand that he, "who was in the form of God, did not consider equality with God a thing to be grasped at," was willing to "humble himself," take "on the form of a servant," and endure "even the death on the cross" (Phil. 2:6-8).参与其中的人了解他,“谁在形式上的上帝,没有考虑到与神同等为强夺的事情,”愿意“谦虚自己,”吃“对形式的仆人”,并忍受“即使是死在十字架上”(腓2:6-8)。 This demonstrates the ultimate of humiliation and degradation.这表明了屈辱和退化的最终。Yet, they affirm, the crucifixion of Jesus, the Messiah (Christ), was the will and act of God with eternal and cosmic significance.然而,他们确认,在十字架上的耶稣,弥赛亚(基督),是神的意志和行为与永恒和宇宙的意义。At the simplest level, the crucifixion of Jesus was the means by which God provided salvation, the forgiveness of sins (cf. 1 Cor. 15:3).在最简单的层面上,十字架上的耶稣是神的手段提供救恩,罪得赦免(参见一肺心病。15:3)。 Christ crucified becomes the summary of the Christian message (1 Cor. 2:2).基督钉在十字架上成为基督教的信息(1肺心病。2:2)的总结。 The cross of Jesus, the beloved Son of God, is the supreme demonstration of the love God has for sinful man (cf. John 3:16; 15:16). In Jesus' death God deals concretely with the sin and guilt which offends his holiness and separates man from his Creator.耶稣的十字架,神的爱子,是爱的最高示威神人的罪恶(参见约翰3:16; 15:16)。 在耶稣的死亡与神的具体交易罪和内疚的冒犯他的圣洁和分离男子从他的创造者。Because of the cross God becomes both the righteous and just Judge and, at the same time, the one who makes forgiveness available and justifies believers (cf. Rom. 3:26). 由于两岸都成为神的正义和公正的法官同时,并在上,谁可以让宽恕,并证明信徒 (见光盘。3:26)。The condemning legal demands set against man have been "canceled," nailed to the cross (Col. 2:14).对付人的法律要求,设置的谴责已被“取消了,”被钉在十字架上(西2:14)。The word of the cross is God's word of reconciliation (II Cor. 5:19).十字架的字是神的和解字(二肺心病。5:19)。

The cross is also the symbol of discipleship.十字架也是门徒的象征。To first century Palestinians, who often witnessed the condemned carrying the crossbar to the site of their final torture, Jesus' word, "If any man will come after me, let him take up his cross and follow me" (Mark 8:34; cf. Matt. 10:38; Luke 14:27), must have come with a jolting, graphic impact.为了一世纪的巴勒斯坦人,谴责谁经常目睹携带横梁到他们的最后折磨的网站,耶稣的话,“若有人要跟从我,让他背起他的十字架跟从我”(马克20:34;比照马特10:38;。。路加福音14:27),必须拿出一个颠簸,图形的影响。 Jesus insists that the humiliation and suffering that culminated in his crucifixion were to characterize the experience of his followers.耶稣坚持认为,在屈辱和痛苦,最终导致了他的十字架来刻画他的追随者的经验。"It is," he says, "for the disciple to be like his teacher" (Matt. 10:24). “是的,”他说,“为弟子要像他的老师”(马太福音10:24)。Crucifixion becomes a part of the identification between Christ and the believer who is "crucified with Christ" (Gal. 2:20).十字架上,成为本之间的基督和谁是(加拉太书2:20)“与基督钉在十字架上”信徒认同的一部分。The negative side of the characteristics of the new life of the Christian consists in having "crucified" sinful natures and desires (Gal. 5:24).作者对新生活的基督教的特点在于有消极的一面“钉在十字架上”罪孽深重的天性和欲望(加拉太书5:24)。

When understood in its historical, social context, Paul's statement that the proclamation of Christ crucified is a "stumbling block" or "scandal" (skandalon) to the Jews and "foolishness" (moria) to the Gentiles is both logical and clear.当它的历史,社会背景的理解,保罗的声明中表示,宣讲基督钉在十字架上是一个“绊脚石”或“丑闻”(skandalon)向犹太人和“愚蠢”(莫里亚)向外邦人既合乎逻辑的,明确的。 Yet for Christians it remains an act and demonstration "of the power and wisdom of God" (1 Cor. 1:23-24).然而,它仍是一个基督徒的行为与示范“的力量和神的智慧”(1肺心病。1:23-24)。

JJ Scott, Jr.杰杰斯科特,小
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
B. Siede et al., NIDNTT, I, 389-405; JF Strange, IDB Supplement, 199-200; M. Hengel, Crucifixion.二Siede等,NIDNTT,我,389-405。怡富奇怪,美洲开发银行补充,199-200;米亨格尔,在十字架上。

Crucify (verb)钉死(动词)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Crucify signifies (a) "the act of crucifixion," eg, Matt.钉死标志着(一)“的十字架上的行为”,例如,马特。 20:19; (b) metaphorically, "the putting off of the flesh with its passions and lusts," a condition fulfilled in the case of those who are "of Christ Jesus," Gal. 20:19;(二)比喻,“这水所表明的激情与情欲,肉体关”在这些谁是“基督耶稣”,半乳糖案件履行的条件。5:24, RV; so of the relationship between the believer and the world, 6:14. 5:24,风疹病毒,所以之间的信徒和世界6:14的关系。

Crucify (verb)钉死(动词)

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"to crucify with" (su, "for," sun, "with"), is used (a) of actual "crucifixion" in company with another, Matt.(苏,“因为,”太阳“与”)“同钉在十字架上”,是用(a)在与另一公司,马特实际的“十字架”。 27:44; Mark 15:32; John 19:32 (b) metaphorically, of spiritual identification with Christ in His death, Rom.27:44,马可福音15:32;约翰19:32(二)比喻,与基督的精神鉴定在他死后,光盘。6:6, and Gal.6:6,和半乳糖。 2:20.2:20。

Crucify (verb)钉死(动词)

Advanced Information先进的信息

(ana, again) is used in Heb.(全日空,再次)用于河北。6:6 of Hebrew apostates, who as merely nominal Christians, in turning back to Judaism, were thereby virtually guilty of "crucifying" Christ again. 6:6的希伯来语叛教者,谁作为有名无实的基督徒,犹太教回头,从而几乎被“钉死”基督再次犯罪。


Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Crucifixion was the act of putting to death by nailing or binding to a cross.受难的是把钉在十字架上或有约束力的死法。Among the modes of Capital Punishment known to the Jewish penal law, crucifixion is not found; the "hanging" of criminals "on a tree," mentioned in Deut.在已知的犹太刑法死刑的方式,在十字架上是没有找到;的“挂”罪犯“在一棵树上”,在申提及。xxi.二十一。22, was resorted to in New Testament times only after lapidation (Sanh. vi. 4; Sifre, ii. 221, ed. Friedmann, Vienna, 1864).22,被诉诸了新约时代后,才投石(sanh.六4;。Sifre,二221,教育署弗里德曼,维也纳,1864年。。)。 A Jewish court could not have passed a sentence of death by crucifixion without violating the Jewish law.一个犹太通过法院不能在不违反法律的犹太一个由十字架死刑。The Roman penal code recognized this cruel penalty from remote times (Aurelius Victor Cæsar, 41).罗马刑法认识到这一点,从(奥勒维克多凯撒,41)远程次残酷的刑罚。It may have developed out of the primitive custom of "hanging" ("arbori suspendere") on the "arbor infelix," which was dedicated to the gods of the nether world.它可能已开发出的“挂”原始习俗(“arbori suspendere”)上的“乔木infelix”,这是奉献给阴间的神。 Seneca ("Epistola," 101) still calls the cross "infelix lignum."塞涅卡(“书信集”101)仍呼吁两岸“infelix木材。”Trees were often used for crucifying convicts (Tertullian, "Apologia," viii. 16).树木被经常用于钉死罪犯(良,“纵容”,八。16)。Originally only slaves were crucified; hence "death on the cross" and "supplicium servile" were used indiscriminately (Tacitus, "Historia," iv. 3, 11).原本只是奴隶被钉在十字架上,因此与“supplicium奴性”,“死在十字架上”是乱用(佗,“历史,”四三,11。)。 Later, provincial freedmen of obscure station ("humiles") were added to the class liable to this sentence.后来,晦涩站(“humiles”)省级自由民被添加到类可被这句话。Roman citizens were exempt under all circumstances (Cicero, "Verr." i. 7; iii. 2, 24, 26; iv. 10 et seq.).罗马公民在任何情况下豁免(西塞罗,一7“Verr。”;三,二,24,26;。四,10起。。)。The following crimes entailed this penalty: piracy, highway robbery, assassination, forgery, false testimony, mutiny, high treason, rebellion (see Pauly-Wissowa, "Real-Encyc." sv "Crux"; Josephus, "BJ" v. 11, § 1).下列罪行牵涉这种惩罚:盗版,拦路抢劫,暗杀,伪造,虚假的证词,叛变,叛国,叛乱(见保利-维索瓦,“实时encyc。”希沃特“症结”,约瑟夫,“BJ的”诉11 ,§ 1)。Soldiers that deserted to the enemy and slaves who denounced their masters ("delatio domini")were also punished by death on the cross.这冷清的敌人和奴隶谁谴责他们的主人(“delatio多米尼”)处以士兵也死在十字架上。

Mode of Execution.模式执行。

The crosses used were of different shapes.在交叉使用不同形状的。Some were in the form of a , others in that of a St. Andrew's cross, , while others again were in four parts, .一些在一个形式是,在一个圣安德鲁十字架,其他人,而另一些又被分为四个部分。The more common kind consisted of a stake ("palus") firmly embedded in the ground ("crucem figere") before the condemned arrived at the place of execution (Cicero, "Verr." v. 12; Josephus, "BJ" vii. 6, § 4) and a cross-beam ("patibulum"), bearing the "titulus"-the inscription naming the crime (Matt. xxvii. 37; Luke xxiii. 38; Suetonius, "Cal." 38).较常见的种类包括一个股份(“帕卢什”)坚定地在地面上(“crucem figere”)嵌入式谴责前到达了刑场(西塞罗,诉12“Verr。”;约瑟夫,“BJ的”七。6,§ 4)和交叉梁(“patibulum”),印有“titulus”-题词命名的犯罪(太二十七37;。路加福音二十三38;。苏埃托尼乌斯,“卡尔。”38)。 It was this cross-beam, not the heavy stake, which the condemned was compelled to carry to the scene of execution (Plutarch, "De Sera Num. Vind." 9; Matt. ib.; John xix. 17; See Cross).正是这种跨梁,不重的股份,其中谴责被迫进行到执行现场(普鲁塔克,“德色拉寺序号Vind。。”9。马特兴业。。约翰十九17;见十字) 。The cross was not very high, and the sentenced man could without difficulty be drawn up with ropes ("in crucem tollere, agere, dare, ferre").十字架不是很高,被判刑人可以毫无困难地用绳子制定(“在crucem tollere,杰尔,敢做,费雷”)。 His hands and feet were fastened with nails to the cross-beam and stake (Tertullian, "Adv. Judæos," 10; Seneca, "Vita Beata," 19); though it has been held that, as in Egypt, the hands and feet were merely bound with ropes (see Winer, "BR" i. 678).他的手和脚被钉在十字架上与束和股份钉(良,“副Judæos。”第10条;塞内卡,“简历贝娅塔,”19),虽然它已举办了,如埃及,手和只脚用绳子约束(见温纳,“商业登记”一678)。 The execution was always preceded by flagellation (Livy, xxxiv. 26; Josephus, "BJ" ii. 14, § 9; v. 11, § 1); and on his way to his doom, led through the most populous streets, the delinquent was exposed to insult and injury.在执行之前,总是自虐(李维,三十四26;。约瑟夫,“BJ的”二14 § 9。诉11,§ 1),以及关于他的方式他的厄运,通过人口最多的街道,导致拖欠暴露于侮辱和伤害。Upon arrival at the stake, his clothes were removed, and the execution took place.抵达后,在股权,他的衣服被拆除,并执行发生。 Death was probably caused by starvation or exhaustion, the cramped position of the body causing fearful tortures, and ultimately gradual paralysis.死亡可能是由于饥饿或疲劳,对身体造成可怕的折磨局促的位置,并最终逐渐瘫痪。 Whether a foot-rest was provided is open to doubt; but usually the body was placed astride a board ("sedile").无论是脚休息提供了置疑,但通常的尸体被放在骑着一板(“sedile”)。The agony lasted at least twelve hours, in some cases as long as three days.持续的痛苦,至少在某些情况下十二个小时,只要三天长。 To hasten death the legs were broken, and this was considered an act of clemency (Cicero, "Phil." xiii. 27).加速死亡的双腿被打断,这被认为是一个宽大的行为(西塞罗,“菲尔。”十三。27)。The body remained on the cross, food for birds of prey until it rotted, or was cast before wild beasts.该机构仍然在十字架上,为猎物,直到它腐烂,或者是在野兽投鸟类提供食物。Special permission to remove the body was occasionally granted.特别许可,清除体内偶尔被理所当然的。Officers (carnifex and triumviri) and soldiers were in charge.主任(carnifex和triumviri)和士兵负责。

This cruel way of carrying into effect the sentence of death was introduced into Palestine by the Romans.这种施行死刑残忍的方式被引入到巴勒斯坦被罗马人。Josephus brands the first crucifixion as an act of unusual cruelty ("Ant." xiii. 14, § 2), and as illegal.约瑟夫品牌作为一个不同寻常的残酷行为的第一个受难(“蚂蚁”。十三。14,§ 2),并为非法。But many Jews underwent this extreme penalty (ib. xx. 6, § 2; "Vita," § 75; "BJ" ii. 12, § 6; 14, § 9; v. 11, § 1; Philo, ii. 529).但许多犹太人经历了这一极端刑罚(同上二十六日§ 2。“简历,”§ 75,“BJ的”二12 § 6。14 § 9;诉11,§ 1;斐洛,二。 529)。

During the times of unrest which preceded the rise in open rebellion against Rome (about 30-66 BC), "rebels" met with short shrift at the hands of the oppressor.动乱期间对罗马之前举行的公开叛乱上升(约30-66年),“造反派”短冷遇会见了压迫者手中的时间。They were crucified as traitors.他们被钉在十字架上为叛徒。The sons of Judas the Galilean were among those who suffered this fate.犹大的儿子是伽利略在那些谁遭受这样的命运。The details given in the New Testament accounts (Matt. xxvii. and parallels) of the crucifixion of Jesus agree on the whole with the procedure in vogue under Roman law.在新约户口(二十七。和平行线)的耶稣受难所填报的资料同意与盛行根据罗马法整个过程。Two modifications are worthy of note: (1) In order to make him insensible to pain, a drink (ὁξος, Matt. xxvii. 34, 48; John xix. 29) was given him.两处修改是值得注意的:(1)为了让他痛苦无动于衷,饮料(ὁξος,马特二十七34,48;约翰十九29。。。)赐给他。 This was in accordance with the humane Jewish provision (see Maimonides, "Yad," Sanh. xiii. 2; Sanh. 43a).这是与人道犹太按照规定(见迈蒙尼德,“亚”葬身十三2;。。葬身第43A条。)。The beverage was a mixture of myrrh () and wine, given "so that the delinquent might lose clear consciousness through the ensuing intoxication."饮料是一个没药()和酒混合,因为“这样的犯罪可能会失去通过随后的中毒意识清楚。” (2) Contrary to the Roman practise of leaving the body on the cross, that of Jesus was removed and buried, the latter act in keeping with Jewish law and custom. (二)违反离开身体在十字架上的罗马的做法,就是耶稣被拆除和掩埋,在犹太法律和习俗保持后者的行为。These exceptions, however, exhaust the incidents in the crucifixion of Jesus that might point to a participation therein, and a regulation thereof, by Jews or Jewish law.这些例外,但是,排在十字架上的耶稣的事件可能指向一个参与其中,和规例的犹太人或犹太人及其法律。The mode and manner of Jesus' death undoubtedly point to Roman customs and laws as the directive power.该模式和耶稣的死无疑点,以罗马习俗和法律的权力指令的方式。

From the Jewish point of view, the crime of which Jesus was convicted by the Jewish priests is greatly in doubt (see Jesus).从犹太人的角度来看,其耶稣的犹太祭司犯罪定罪是无疑大大(见耶稣)。 If it was blasphemy, lapidation should, according to Jewish law, have been the penalty, with suspension from the gallows after death (Mishnah Sanh. iii. 4; Sifre, iii. 221).如果这是亵渎,投石要根据犹太法律,已与悬挂的刑罚,从​​死后绞刑(米示拿葬身三4;。。。Sifre,三221)。 Nor were any of the well-known measures taken (Sanh. vi.)which provide before execution for the contingency of a reversal of the sentence.也没有采取(sanh.六。)著名的措施,前一个句子的逆转提供任何应急执行。 Neither was the "cross"-ie, the gallows for hanging-constructed as usual after lapidation, and as ordained in Sanhedrin vi.无论是“跨”,即对吊投石后像往常一样,在公会和第六受戒兴建的绞刑架。4.4。His hands were not bound as prescribed; the "cross" was not buried with his body (Maimonides, "Yad," Sanh. xv. 9).他的双手不应受到约束,规定,“跨”不符合他的身体埋(迈蒙尼德,“亚”葬身十五9。。)。Whether the Jewish law would have tolerated a threefold execution at one and the same time is more than uncertain (Sanh. vi. 4; Sifre, ii. 221).无论是犹太人的法律会容忍了三倍,在​​一个执行和相同的时间较不确定以上(sanh.六4;。Sifre,二221。)。

Date of Jesus' Crucifixion.日期耶稣受难。

The greatest difficulty from the point of view of the Jewish penal procedure is presented by the day and time of the execution.从犹太人的刑事程序的角度来看最大的困难,提出了一天的执行时间。 According to the Gospels, Jesus died on Friday, the eve of Sabbath.据福音书,耶稣死在周五,安息日前夕。

Yet on that day, in view of the approach of the Sabbath (or holiday), executions lasting until late in the afternoon were almost impossible (Sifre, ii. 221; Sanh. 35b; Mekilta to Wayaḳhel).然而,在这一天,在安息日的(或节假日),处决的持久办法视线范围,直到下午晚些时候在几乎不可能的(Sifre,二221。葬身35B条。Mekilta到Wayaḳhel)。 The Synoptics do not agree with John on the date of the month.该synoptics不同意约翰对月日。According to the latter he died on the 14th of Nisan, as though he were the paschal lamb; but executions were certainly not regular on the eve of a Jewish holiday.根据后者,他死在尼散月14日,仿佛他是逾越节的羔羊,但肯定不是被处决的一个犹太节日前夕规律。According to the Synoptics, the date of his death was the 15th of Nisan (first day of Passover), when again no execution could be held (Mishnah Sanh. iv. 1; and the commentaries: Yer. Sanh. ii. 3; Yer. Beẓ. v. 2; Ket. i. 1).根据天气学,他的死亡日期是尼散月(逾越节的第一天),当再没有执行可以举行(四十五米示拿葬身1;和评注:。。也门里亚尔葬身二3;层。。。 。Beẓ五二。酮一,1)。。This discrepancy has given rise to various attempts at rectification.这种差异,造成了各种尝试在整改。That by Chwolson is the most ingenious, assuming that Jesus died on the 14th, and accounting for the error in Matthew by a mistranslation from the original Hebrew in Matt.由Chwolson这是最巧妙,假设耶稣死在第14届,并在马太由从原来的希伯来文在马特会计错误误译。xxvi.二十六。17 (, due to the omission of the first ; see his "Das Letzte Passamahl Christi," p. 13). 17(由于第一次遗漏;看到他的“资本Letzte Passamahl基督”,第13条)。But even so, the whole artificial construction of the law regarding Passover when the 15th of Nisan was on Saturday, attempted by Chwolson, would not remove the difficulty of an execution occurring on Friday = eve of Sabbath and eve of holiday; and the body could not have been removed as late as the ninth hour (3 PM).但即使如此,整个逾越节的关于尼散月15日,当法律人工建筑,是在以Chwolson企图星期六,不会消除上周五=前夕安息日和节日前夕发生的执行难度,以及机构可没有被删除迟第九小时(下午3时)。 Bodies of delinquents were not buried in private graves (Sanh. vi. 5), while that of Jesus was buried in a sepulcher belonging to Joseph of Arimathea.对违法机构没有葬在私人墓地(sanh.六。五),而耶稣的那是在一个属于亚利马太约瑟墓安葬。Besides this, penal jurisdiction had been taken from the Sanhedrin in capital cases "forty years before the fall of the Temple."除此之外,刑事管辖权已经从公会在死刑案件中“前的秋天,庙四十年。”

These facts show that the crucifixion of Jesus was an act of the Roman government.这些事实表明,十字架上的耶稣是一个罗马政府的行为。That it was customary to liberate one sentenced to death on account of the holiday season is not corroborated by Jewish sources.这是习惯,以解放一判处节假日的帐户不被犹太人的来源证实死亡。But many of the Jews suspected of Messianic ambitions had been nailed to the cross by Rome.但是,许多犹太人的救世主的野心怀疑有被钉在十字架的罗马。The Messiah, "king of the Jews," was a rebel in the estimation of Rome, and rebels were crucified (Suetonius, "Vespas." 4; "Claudius," xxv.; Josephus, "Ant." xx. 5, § 1; 8, § 6; Acts v. 36, 37).弥赛亚,“犹太人的王”,是在罗马估计叛军,叛军被钉在十字架上和(苏埃托尼乌斯,“Vespas。”4,“克劳迪斯,”二十五。约瑟夫“。蚂蚁”× × 5,§。 1,8,§ 6,徒五36,37)。The inscription on the cross of Jesus reveals the crime for which, according to Roman law, Jesus expired.对耶稣的十字架题词揭示了其中的犯罪,根据罗马法,耶稣过期。He was a rebel.他是个叛逆者。 Tacitus ("Annales," 54, 59) reports therefore without comment the fact that Jesus was crucified.塔西佗(“年鉴”,54,59)的报告,因此不加评论的,耶稣被钉在十字架的事实。For Romans no amplification was necessary.罗马人没有放大是必要的。Pontius Pilate's part in the tragedy as told in the Gospels is that of a wretched coward; but this does not agree with his character, as recorded elsewhere (see Süchrer, "Gesch." Index, sv).本丢彼拉多的一部分,在这场悲剧中的福音说的是一个可怜的懦夫,但是这并不同意他的性格,在其他地方所记录(见Süchrer,的“Gesch。”指数,SV)型。 The other incidents in the New Testament report-the rending of the curtain, darkness (eclipse of the sun), the rising of the dead from their graves-are apocalyptic embellishments derived from Jewish Messianic eschatology.在新约中的报告的窗帘,黑暗(日食)渲染的其他事件,从死者中复活的坟墓,从犹太救世主末世派生世界末日装饰。 The so-called writs for the execution (see Mayer, "Die Rechte der Israeliten, Athener, und Römer," iii. 428, note 27) are spurious.为执行所谓令状(见迈耶,“模具Rechte明镜Israeliten,Athener,有限公司罗默,”三。428,注27)是虚假的。

Kaufmann Kohler, Emil G. Hirsch考夫曼科勒,埃米尔g.赫希
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography 参考书目
Ludwig Philipson, Haben die Juden Jesum Gekreuzigt?路德维希菲利普森,Haben死犹太人Jesum Gekreuzigt?2d ed., reprint, 1902; Hirsch, The Crucifixion from the Jewish Point of View, Chicago, 1892; Chwolson, Das Letzte Passamahl Christi, St. Petersburg, 1892; works of Jewish historians, as Grätz, Jost, etc.; Schürer, Gesch.; commentaries on the Gospels.KEGH第2版​​,再版,1902年;。赫希,从视角,芝加哥,1892年犹太受难点; Chwolson,达斯Letzte Passamahl斯蒂,圣彼得堡,1892年的犹太历史学家作品,格拉茨,约斯特等; Schürer ,Gesch。评论的Gospels.KEGH

Also, see:此外,见:
Cross 两岸关系
Seven Words On The Cross七字交叉
Words Inscribed on the Cross写的是汉字,对两岸关系
The Arising of Jesus产生的耶稣

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