Religious Cults邪教

General Information一般资料

There is no definition of cult that is universally accepted by sociologists and psychologists of religion.没有邪教的定义,普遍由社会学家和心理学家的宗教所接受。The term cult is popularly applied to groups characterized by some kind of faddish devotion to a person or practice that is significantly apart from the cultural mainstream.邪教一词是普遍适用于某些种类的风行奉献给一个人或做法,除了显着特点的文化主流群体。For example, certain kinds of activities may take on cultlike ritualistic characteristics (recent widespread interest in intense physical exercise has been termed the physical fitness cult).例如,某些类型的活动可采取cultlike仪式的特点(最近在激烈的广泛关注,体育锻炼被称为体能邪教)。

Movie stars, entertainers, and other public figures sometimes generate passionate bands of followers that are called cults (the Elvis Presley cult, to cite one).电影明星,演艺人员,以及其他公众人物有时会产生被称为邪教的追随者热情带(猫王邪教,举一个)。Groups that form around a set of esoteric beliefs - not necessarily religious - may also be termed cults (for example, flying saucer cults).组周围形成了一套深奥的信仰 - 不一定宗教 - 可能也被称为邪教(例如,飞碟邪教)。When applied to religious groups, cult retains much of this popular usage but takes on more specific meaning, especially when contrasted with other kinds of religious organizations.当应用到宗教团体,邪教保留了这个流行的用法很多,但需要更多的具体含义,特别是与其他类型的宗教组织的对比。

Cults and Other Forms of Religious Organization邪教与宗教组织的其他形式

The most commonly used classification of religious organizations is as churches or sects.宗教组织的最常用的分类是教会或教派。Although there have been numerous modifications of the original distinction, the following points are generally retained.尽管有众多的原始区分修改,以下几点是一般保留。

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Church refers to a religious organization claiming a monopoly on knowledge of the sacred, having a highly structured or formalized dogma and hierarchy, but also being flexible about membership requirements as the organization attempts to minister to the secular society of which it is a part.教会指的是一个宗教组织声称对知识垄断的神圣,具有高度结构化或形式化的教条和层次结构,而且还正在对会员资格的要求灵活,因为该组织企图部长向世俗社会的,它是一个组成部分。

Sects, on the other hand, are protests against church attempts to accommodate to secular society.教派,另一方面,是反对教会的企图抗议为了适应世俗社会。A sect views itself as a defender of doctrinal purity, protesting what it interprets as ecclesiastical laxity and excesses.一个教派看作是捍卫自己的理论纯度,抗议它教会松弛和过度解释。As protectors of the true faith, sects tend to withdraw from the mainstream of worldly activities, to stress strict behavior codes, and to demand proof of commitment.作为保护者的真信仰,教派往往退出世俗活动的主流,强调严格的行为守则,并要求承诺的证明。

Cults have some of the same characteristics as sects.邪教的教派有一些相同的特点。In fact, some scholars prefer not to make a distinction.事实上,有些学者倾向于不作区分。There are, however, some noteworthy differences.但也有一些值得注意的差异。Cults do not, at least initially, view themselves as rebelling against established churches.邪教不这样做,至少在最初阶段,根据既定的教会视为反叛自己。Actually, the practices of cults are often considered to enrich the life of the parent church of which they may be a part.实际上,邪教的做法往往被认为是丰富的父母教会生活的,他们可能是一个组成部分。Cults do not ordinarily stress doctrinal issues or theological argument and refinement as much as they emphasize the individual's experience of a more personal and intense relationship with the divine.邪教一般不强调理论问题或神学的论点,因为他们非常强调个人与神的一个更加个性化和紧张关系的经验和完善。Most of these groups are ephemeral, seldom lasting beyond a single generation; transient; and with fluctuating membership.这些团体大多是短暂的,很少能持久超越单一的产生;短暂,以及与波动成员。

Mysticism is frequently a strong element in cult groups.在神秘主义往往是一个邪教组织的强烈元素。 Religious orders such as the Franciscans began as cults built around the presence of a charismatic leader who emphasized a life style dedicated to attaining high levels of spirituality. Mormonism began as a cult, became a sect, and eventually evolved into a church. All the great world religions followed this same pattern of development as they accumulated members and formalized hierarchy and dogma.方济各宗教命令,如开始作为一个邪教邪教围绕建成一个具有超凡魅力的领袖存在谁强调一种生活方式,致力于实现高层次的精神开始摩门教,成为一个教派,并最终演变成一个教堂。所有伟大世界宗教的发展同样遵循了这一模式,因为它们积累成员和形式化层次和教条。

Contemporary Cults当代邪教

Cults are as old as recorded history, but contemporary interest in cults became amplified during the late 1960s and early 1970s as numbers of educated middle class youths abandoned traditional religions and embraced beliefs and practices that were either culturally unprecedented (Eastern religions) or seemed to be throwbacks to an earlier era (Fundamentalist Christianity).邪教是有记载的历史一样古老,但在当代邪教的兴趣成为20世纪60年代中后期,作为受过教育的中产阶级青年摒弃了传统的宗教和信奉的信仰和习俗,这些可能文化空前(东方宗教)或70年代初的数字似乎是扩增返祖到一个较早的时代(原教旨主义基督教)。 During this period, young people were increasingly found living in various types of religious communes and engaging in unconventional behavior, such as speaking in tongues (glossolalia), faith healing, meditating (often under the tutelage of a spiritual leader or guru), and following leaders that conventional society tended to look upon with suspicion and distaste.在此期间,年轻人越来越多地发现生活中的宗教公社各类从事非传统的行为,如舌头(方言),信仰愈合说,打坐(通常由一位精神领袖或大师监护),并按照传统社会的领导人,往往看在怀疑和厌恶。 Interest in cults turned to a combination of fascination and revulsion upon the mass suicide of the Jones cult in November 1978.在邪教的兴趣转向了魅力和后,琼斯在1978年11月邪教集体自杀反感的组合。

Modern cults come in a bewildering variety of ideologies, practices, and forms of leadership.现代邪教来在思想,实践和领导形式五花八门。They range from those adhering to a sort of biblical Christianity to those seeking satori (sudden enlightenment) via the pursuits of Zen Buddhism.它们的范围从那些坚持基督教的圣经排序那些寻求顿悟(顿悟)经禅的追求。 Some cults have a flexible, functional leadership, such as many groups in the Charismatic Movement emanating from the mainline Christian religions, and others have mentors who control and orchestrate cult events, such as the Reverend Sun Myung Moon, leader of the Unification church.一些邪教组织有一个灵活的,如许多有魅力的运动,从主线基督宗教所产生的功能组别的领导下,和其他人的导师谁控制和协调邪教活动,如文鲜明牧师,教会领袖的统一。 Some Hindu gurus, such as Bhagwan Shree Rajineesh of the Rajineeshee sect have been believed by their followers to be living embodiments of God.一些印度教大师如巴格什里Rajineesh的Rajineeshee教派,一直相信:他们的追随者是活生生的神的化身。

The common denominator of all the modern cults is an emphasis on community and on direct experience of the divine.现代的所有邪教的共同特点是对社会和对神圣的直接经验的重视。In a cult, participants often find a level of social support and acceptance that rivals what may be found in a nuclear family.在一个邪教组织,参加者往往是社会的支持和认同,即什么可以在一个核心家庭找到对手的水平。Cult activity, which is often esoteric and defined as direct contact with the divine, generates a sense of belonging to something profound and of being a somebody.邪教活动,这往往是深奥,作为与神直接接触的定义,产生一种归属感和深刻的东西是一个人的感觉。The modern cult may be viewed as a cultural island that gives adherents an identity and a sense of meaning in a world that has somehow failed to provide them these things.现代邪教可以被看作是一种文化岛,让信徒的形象和在一个具有某种没有向他们提供这些东西世界的意义感。

Several factors have been suggested as contributing to the quests of modern youths for meaning and identity via cults.有几个因素导致这一结果的意义和利用邪教组织标识的现代青年的任务。Each of these factors relates to a disenchantment with, or loss of meaning of, traditional ways of viewing reality.这些因素涉及到每一个不满意,或对,审视现实的传统方式意义的丧失。A list of these contributing elements would include the following: the turmoil of the 1960s, including the unpopular Vietnam War, the assassinations of several popular national leaders, and growing evidence of top level political incompetence and corruption; continued widespread drug use among youths, which tends to disrupt family relations and fosters the formation of drug subcultures stressing esoteric experience; the rapid expansion of technological innovations such as computers, and social organizations, such as bureaucracies, that tend to erode the individual's sense of being in control of his or her own destiny; the apparent failure of traditional religions to solve problems of war, hunger, and alienation; the growth of humanistic education that tends to discredit traditional ways of believing and behaving; the threat of ecological and nuclear disaster; and finally, affluence, which provides the means to pursue alternative life styles.对这些元素的贡献名单将包括以下内容:20世纪60年代,包括不受欢迎的越南战争,对几种流行的国家领导人的暗杀,以及​​越来越多的高层政治上的无能和腐败的证据风暴;青少年之间继续进行广泛的药物使用,这往往会破坏家庭关系和促进药物的讲深奥的经验,亚文化的形成,科技创新成果,如计算机,社会团体,如官僚机构,这往往削弱了个人在他或她自己的控制幸福感迅速扩张命运的传统宗教显然没有能够解决战争,饥饿和异化问题,人本主义教育的发展趋于抹黑相信和传统的行为方式;生态和核灾难的威胁,最后,富裕,它提供追求另类的手段生活方式。

Cults are challenges to conventional society.邪教是传统社会的挑战。As such, they engender intense questions concerning their possible impact.因此,它们产生强烈的问题,有关其可能造成的影响。The modern cults have clearly raised anew the legal issue of how far a society is willing to go to guarantee religious freedom.现代邪教已经明确提出了重新多远一个社会愿意去保障宗教自由的法律问题。Some of the cults have been accused of brainwashing members and thereby violating the 1st Amendment to the Constitution.邪教一些成员被指控洗脑,从而违反了宪法第一修正案。Court cases involving young people who were forcefully removed from cults by parents are still being decided.法院案件涉及谁被强行拆除的父母从邪教的年轻人仍在决定。Future court decisions could significantly modify traditional protection of religious diversity in the United States.未来的法院决定可以大大改变传统的美国宗教多样性的保护。Some cults, Hare Krishna being one, have established a legal defense and public education organization to fight for their rights to exist and practice what they believe.一些邪教组织,克利须那是一,已经建立了法律辩护和教育机构公开争取自己的权利的存在和实践他们所相信。

Other impacts are less clear.其他影响不太明显。This wave of cults could crumble into the dust of history as so many others have.这波可能压垮邪教进历史的尘埃因为许多其他人。 Conversely, this age could also be one of those historical junctures that produces an enduring change in theories of human nature and in the structure of social organizations.相反,这个年龄也可以对那些产生于对人性的理论与社会组织结构的持久变化的历史关头之一。If so, the new cults provide some idea of the nature of that change.如果是这样,新的邪教组织提供了一些对这种变化的性质的想法。Almost all of them represent an emotional and personal approach to religious experience; they emphasize continued adaptation in a changing world; they stress the attainment of individual power and excellence via the pursuit of cult practices; and they often stress the necessity of harmony between humankind and other aspects of nature.几乎所有的人都代表着一个宗教情感和个人经验的方法,他们强调,在不断适应不断变化的世界,他们强调通过邪教的做法追求卓越的个人能力和素养,他们往往强调人类与和谐的必要性大自然的其他方面。 As such, contemporary cults reinforce many traditional American values, such as independence, achievement, self mastery, and conservation or ecology, that have lost ground in the face of affluence and self seeking.因此,加强当代邪教许多传统的美国价值观,如独立性,成就感,自我控制,并保护和生态环境,已失去了在面对和自我追求富裕地面。 Just as the Protestant Ethic supported early capitalism, the general ethic of the cults may be the stabilizing element in future society.正如早期资本主义新教伦理的支持,对邪教的一般伦理,可能成为未来社会的稳定因素。If so, cult members may well be the leaders of that new age.如果是这样,邪教组织成员,很可能是新时代的领导人。Clearly, however, an historical verdict must be awaited.但是很显然,一个历史的裁决必须等待。

Richard J Bord理查德J生产型

Bibliography 参考书目
W Appel, Cults in America (1983); JA Beckford, Cult Controversies (1985); JE Biersdorf, Hunger for Experience (1975); H Bridges, American Mysticism (1970); C Edwards, Crazy for God: The Nightmare of Cult Life (1979); J Ellul, The New Demons (1975); RS Ellwood and H Partin, Religious and Spiritual Groups in Modern America (1988); F Fitzgerald, Cities on a Hill (1986); H Gardner, The Children of Prosperity (1978); CY Glock and RN Bellah, eds., The New Religious Consciousness (1976); I Hexham and K Poewe, Understanding Cults and New Religions (1986); JG Melton, The Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America (1986); J Needleman, The New Religions (1970); R Quebedeaux, The New Charismatics (1976); T Robbins, ed., Cults, Culture and the Law (1985). W阿佩尔,邪教在美国(1983年);茉莉贝克福德,邪教争议(1985年);乙脑Biersdorf,因为经验饥饿(1975年); H桥,美国的神秘主义(1970条),c爱德华兹疯狂上帝:恶梦的邪教生活(1979年); Ĵ埃吕尔,在新的恶魔(1975年);遥感埃尔伍德和H帕尔,宗教和精神团体在现代美国(1988年),女杰拉德,在山(1986年)城市,高h加德纳,繁荣的儿童( 1978年);赛扬格洛克和RN贝拉,合编,新的宗教意识(1976年);。我赫克瑟姆和K Poewe,了解邪教和(1986)新宗教; JG麦尔登,在美国的邪教(1986)百科知识手册; Ĵ裁缝,新宗教(1970)与r quebedeaux,新灵恩(1976年)和t罗宾斯,教育署,邪教,文化和法律(1985年)。。


Cults邪教

Advanced Information先进的信息

Defining a cult is far more difficult than is often appreciated.邪教的定义是困难得多比通常赞赏。 Many evangelical Christians support the activities of Jews for Jesus and see them as a legitimate missionary group.很多福音派基督徒支持耶稣对犹太人的活动,并认为这是一个合法的传教组中。But members of the Jewish community regard them as an evil and deceptive cult, a fact that well illustrates the problems surrounding the word.但是,犹太社区成员视为邪恶的和欺骗性的邪教组织,这个事实正好说明了问题的原委字他们。In its modern form the word "cult" was originally used by Ernst Troeltsch in his classic work, The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches (1912), where he classifies religious groups in terms of church, sect, and cult.在其现代形式改为“邪教组织”最初是由Ernst特勒尔奇用在他的经典作品,社会的基督教教堂(1912年),在那里他归类在教会,教派,宗教和邪教团体教学条件。

For Troeltsch the cult represents a mystical or spiritual form of religion that appeals to intellectuals and the educated classes.对于特勒尔奇邪教是一个神秘的宗教或精神形式,知识分子和受过教育的阶级上诉。At the heart of the cult is a spirituality which seeks to enliven a dead orthodoxy.在邪教的核心是一个灵性,旨在搞活死的正统。Thus for Troeltsch the early Luther, many Puritans, and pietism can be seen as examples of cultic religion.因此,对于特勒尔奇早期路德,许多清教徒和虔诚主义可以被看作是邪教宗教的例子。Although Troeltsch's ideas about the distinction between church and sect generated a vigorous debate, little attention has been paid to his views on the cult.尽管有关教会和教派之间产生了激烈的辩论区别特勒尔奇的思想,很少注意已经支付给了邪教的看法。However, several liberal writers influenced by Troeltsch have seen evangelical Christianity in terms of a cult.然而,一些自由作家的影响特勒尔奇看到福音派基督教邪教条款。

More important for the modern usage of the word "cult" has been the development of evangelical polemics against groups which they have seen as heretical.更多的单词“邪教组织”现代用法的重要已针对他们所看到的邪教团体的福音派论战的发展。The classic work on this subject, which probably gave the word its modern usage, is Jan van Baalen's The Chaos of Cults (1938).关于这个问题的经典之作,这可能给其现代用法字,是扬凡Baalen的邪教的混沌(1938)。In this work van Baalen expounds the beliefs of various religious groups such as theosophy, Christian Science, Mormonism, and Jehovah's Witnesses and subjects them to a rigorous theological critique from an evangelical perspective.在这项工作中阐述了面包车Baalen如神智学信仰不同宗教的团体,基督教科学,摩门教,耶和华见证会和他们是一个严峻的课题,从一个福音神学的批判观点。 In the last twenty years a large number of evangelical books dealing with cults have appeared.在过去的二十多年的福音与处理邪教书籍大量出现。Over the course of time these have increasingly concentrated on the allegedly fraudulent claims of the cults, the immoralities of their leaders, and the ways in which their followers are deceived.随着时间的推移越来​​越对这些邪教涉嫌骗取,他们的领导人immoralities,以及他们的追随者中,有欺骗的方式​​集中。 As a result, in many cases a transition has occurred from a theological argument refuting the claims of various religious groups to a reliance upon psychological arguments which suggest that members of these groups are in some way brainwashed.因此,在许多情况下已经发生转变,从一个神学反驳不同宗教的团体声称,一经这表明,这些群体的成员在某些参数的依赖心理的方式洗脑的说法。

This development poses a great danger for evangelical Christianity as can be seen from William Sargent's The Battle for the Mind (1957).这种发展带来了很大的危险基督教福音派,可从威廉萨金特见过的为心灵之战(1957年)。In this book Sargent takes evangelical conversion as a classic example of brainwashing.在这本书萨金特以此为福音的洗脑转化的典型例子。More recently this argument has been developed by Jim Siegelman and Flo Conway in their popular book Snapping (1979), where the experience of born again Christians is compared to the process by which people join groups like the Moonies.最近这种说法已经开发的吉姆席格曼和弗洛康威在其畅销书斯纳(1979),那里的重生基督徒的经验进行比较的过程,人们喜欢Moonies团体加入。 Such books as these and stories in the media about brainwashing have led to considerable pressure on governments in various American states, Canada, Britain, and Germany for anticonversion laws.因为这些大约在洗脑,导致相当大的压力,很多美国的州,加拿大,英国,德国政府对anticonversion法律的媒体故事等书籍。 These laws are supposedly aimed at groups like the Moonies.据称,这些法律是为了在诸如Moonies组。But because of their lack of definition (cf. the Lasher Amendment, State of New York in Assembly, March 25, 1980) they are in practice aimed at any form of change of life style brought about by a religious conversion.但是,由于他们带来缺乏定义(参看拉舍修正案,纽约州议会,1980年3月25日),他们在任何的生活方式变化的形式,旨在通过实践是关于一个宗教的转换。

Today the real problem of cults is the propaganda value of the word "cult" in a secular society.今天,真正的问题是邪教这个词的“邪教”在一个世俗社会的宣传价值。Although there are reliable statistics to show that the total membership of groups like the Children of God, the Unification Church (Moonies), and Hare Krishna is less than 35,000 in the United States and even fewer in other Western countries, these groups are presented as a major threat to society.虽然有可靠的统计数据表明,像神的儿女,统一教会(Moonies)和克里希纳团体会员总数少于35000美国和其他西方国家甚至更少,这些群体被作为对社会的重大威胁。 As a result secularists are able to urge the acceptance of laws which replace religious freedom by a grudgingly granted religious toleration.因此世俗能够敦促法例取代一勉强获得宗教自由宗教自由接受。Rather than persisting with the use of a word which has now become a propaganda weapon, the academic practice of calling such groups "new religious movements" should be followed.而不是一个如今已成为宣传武器,调用这些团体的学术实践一词的使用坚持“新宗教运动”,应遵循。An alternative to this neutral terminology available for Christians who oppose such groups on theological grounds would be to revive the usage of "heretic" or simply call such groups "spiritual counterfeits."一种替代这个中性术语为基督徒谁反对这类群体对神学的理由,将恢复对“邪教”或简单的用法称这种群体提供“精神的假冒产品。” Such a procedure would move the debate away from psychological theories that can be used by secularists against Christianity to the arena of theological discussion and religious argument.这样的程序会动议辩论远离可用于对基督教的世俗主义对宗教神学的讨论和争论上的心理学理论。

I Hexham余赫克瑟姆
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
M Hill, Sociology of Religion; WR Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults; HW Richardson, ed., New Religions and Mental Health; CY Glock and RN Bellah, eds., The New Religious Consciousness; II Zaretzky and MP Leone, eds., Religious Movements in Contemporary America; T Robbins and D Anthony, eds., In Gods We Trust; RS Ellwood, Religious and Spiritual Groups in Modern America; J Needleman and G Baker, eds., Understanding the New Religions. M山,宗教社会学;西铁马丁,邪教王国。硬件理查森,教育署,新兴宗教和心理健康。赛扬格洛克和RN贝拉,合编,新的宗教意识;二Zaretzky和MP塞拉利昂,合编。 ,宗教运动在当代美国和t罗宾斯和D安东尼合编,在神我们信任;。遥感埃尔伍德,在现代美国宗教和精神团体; Ĵ裁缝和G贝克合编,了解新宗教。。


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