Denominationalism宗派主义

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Denominations are associations of congregations, though sometimes it might be said that congregations are localized subdivisions of denominations, that have a common heritage. Moreover, a true denomination does not claim to be the only legitimate expression of the church. A denominational heritage normally includes doctrinal or experiential or organizational emphases and also frequently includes common ethnicity, language, social class, and geographical origin.面额是教会团体的,虽然有时可以说,教会是局部细分的面额,即有一个共同的遗产。 此外,一个真正的面额不声称自己是唯一合法的教会表达。一个教派通常包括理论遗产或经验或组织的重点,还经常包括普通种族,语言,社会阶层和地理来源。 However, many or all of these once common features have usually evolved into considerable contemporary diversity, especially in older and larger denominations.然而,许多这些曾经或共同的特点都相当大,通常演变成当代的多样性,特别是在老年人和更大面额。This often results in as wide a range of differences within a denomination, despite organizational unity, as exists between denominations.在尽可能广泛的范围内组织一个宗派的分歧,尽管统一,这往往结果,教派之间存在。

The term "denomination" in general refers to anything distinguished by a name.所谓“教”是指任何一个杰出的名字一般。In religious contexts the designation has traditionally applied both to broad movements within Protestantism, such as Baptists and Methodists, and also to the numerous independent branches of such movements that have developed over the years primarily because of geographical expansion and theological controversy.在宗教背景的指定历来同时适用于广泛的范围内新教运动,如浸信会和卫理,同时还以众多的独立的运动,这样主要是因为拥有地域扩张和神学的争论多年来发展分支机构。

Even though denominations within Protestantism have come to be the largest expression of organized Christianity beyond the level of the congregation, there has never been much theological reflection on denominationalism.即使在新教教派来到超出了众一级最大的基督教组织的表达,从未有过太多的宗派主义的神学思考。 A look at theology textbooks or church creeds confirms this.在教会的教义神学课本或看证实了这一点。Probably the simplest explanation for this omission is that the Bible in no way envisages the organization of the church into denominations. It instead assumes the opposite, that all Christians, except those being disciplined, will be in full fellowship with all others. Any tendencies to the contrary were roundly denounced (1 Cor. 1:10 - 13).也许最简单的解释这个遗漏的,是没有办法的圣经设想教派的教会组织成。 它,而不是相反的假设,即,除了那些所有的基督徒被纪律处分,将与所有其他人全额奖学金。任何倾向相反的全面谴责(1肺心病1:10 - 13。)。Paul could write a letter to the Christians meeting in various places in Rome or Galatia with every assurance that all would receive its message.保罗可以写了一封信给在罗马或加拉太各地保证每一个基督徒都将收到会议,它的消息。Today, for any city or country, he would have to place the letter as an advertisement in the secular media and hope.今天,任何城市或国家,他将不得不把作为一个世俗的广告媒体和希望的信。

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Denominationalism is a comparatively recent phenomenon. The theological distinction between the church visible and invisible, made by Wycliffe and Hus and elaborated by the Protestant Reformers, underlies the practice and defense of denominationalism that emerged among seventeenth century English Puritans, who agreed on most things but not on the crucial issue of how the church should be organized. 宗派主义是一个比较近期的现象。改革者,神学,教会之间的区别有形和无形的,由威克里夫和胡斯和阐述的新教基础的做法和宗派主义辩护之间出现的清教徒十七世纪的英国,谁同意的事情,但最没有关于如何教会应该是有组织的关键问题。 The eighteenth century revivals associated with Wesley and Whitefield greatly encouraged the practice, especially in America, where it became dominant.十八世纪,韦斯利和Whitefield的复兴极大地鼓舞了相关的实践,特别是在美国,在那里成为占主导地位。

Although a true denomination never claims to be the only legitimate institutional expression of the church universal, it frequently thinks itself to be the best expression, the most faithful to the Scriptures and to the present activity of the Holy Spirit.虽然从来没有一个真正的面额声称自己是唯一合法机构,教会普遍的表达,它常常认为自己是最好的表达,最忠实于圣经和对圣灵目前的活动。 Had it not thought so, at least when beginning, why else would it have gone through the trauma of separating from (or not joining with) an older denomination?如果不是这样认为,至少开始的时候,否则为什么它已经通过相分离(或不加入含)旧面额创伤到哪里去了? A true denomination does not, however, make exclusive claims upon its members.没有一个真正的面额,但是,请根据其成员的独家索赔。 It frees them to cooperate with Christians from other denominations in various specialized ministries.它可以让他们配合各专门部委从其他教派的基督徒。

In theory denominationalism is sharply contrasted with two much older approaches, catholicism and sectarianism. That catholic or sectarian groups are often called denominations reflects either an excessively loose use of the designation or historical development within the group. 从理论上讲宗派主义是鲜明对照的方法有两个老得多,天主教和宗派主义。,天主教或宗派团体通常称为面额反映要么是过于宽松的指定使用或本集团内的历史发展。

Catholic or national churches at the period of their greatest growth are almost always supported, that is "established," by the civil government, whether imperial or tribal or, most commonly in recent centuries, national.天主教或几乎总是支持他们最大的增长期,即“建立”,由国家教会的文官政府,无论是帝王或部落,或在最近几个世纪最常见的是,国家。 Such churches usually have been able to survive even after that official support is withdrawn when the government became Muslim, Marxist, or secular.这样的教堂时,通常都能够生存下来之后,官方的支持,甚至被撤销,当政府成为穆斯林,马克思主义,还是世俗。Catholic (from a Greek word for "the whole") churches see themselves as properly embracing from infancy all Christians within their territories, in contrast with the voluntary nature of individual affiliation with a denomination.天主教(来自希腊字“全”)教会认为适当的拥抱从婴儿在其领土内所有的基督徒与此相反,个别的联系与面额自愿性质​​本身。 When catholic churches, of which the Armenians have the oldest, are dispersed, then the basis for association becomes ethnic rather than territorial.当天主教教堂,其中最古老的亚美尼亚人,是分散的,那么该协会的基础上,而不是成为民族的领土。Over the centuries catholic churches have usually recognized each other as having jurisdiction over the Christians of their respective territories or peoples.几个世纪以来天主教教堂通常被认为具有对各自领土或人民的基督徒管辖对方。(The largest of them, the coalition mostly of southwest Europeans and their derivative national churches known as Roman Catholicism, has been recognizing others only in this century since its claims were universal.) (他们中最大的,主要是欧洲人和西南部著名的罗马天主教教堂及其衍生的国家联盟,一直只承认在本世纪以来,索赔人是普遍的。)

This mutual recognition is facilitated by the catholic view, except in northwest Europe where the national churches became Protestant in theology, that the churches in each place are properly governed only by bishops in a supposedly traceable succession from the apostles.这种相互承认是促进了天主教会认为,除非在西北欧国家的教会成为新教神学,即在每个地方教会的主教得到妥善管据说只有在继承自使徒溯源。 In recent decades, and especially in countries outside their homelands, most such churches have become in practice increasingly like denominations.在,特别是在家乡以外的国家近几十年来,大多数这样的教堂在实践中已成为越来越像教派。That is, they have been willing to concede some legitimacy to and encourage their members to cooperate with other than catholic or national eccelsiastical bodies.也就是说,他们都愿意承认一些合法性,并鼓励其成员与其他国家合作,不是天主教或eccelsiastical机构。

In theory denominationalism is also sharply distinguishable from sectarianism. Each Christian sect sees itself as the only legitimate institutional expression of the followers of Christ. Unlike catholic churches the sects have never embraced more than a small percentage of any population (with the possible exception of some short lived medieval sects). Sects are frequently distinguished not only by their exclusive organizational claims but also by their disagreement with the fourth century understanding of the doctrine of the Trinity that is traditionally adhered to by all catholic churches and Protestant denominations. (Such professedly Christian movements as Spiritualism and New Thought may be said to be divided into denominations even as Protestantism is, but it is too confusing to blend these differing kinds of denominations given their widely divergent theologies.) Some sects, especially when they are Trinitarian, have been evolving into denominations.宗派主义是在理论上也大幅宗派主义区别从。 每一个基督徒教派认为自己作为唯一的基督信徒的合法体制的表达。不像天主教教会的教派从来没有接受人口超过任何一个小的百分比(与一些可能的例外短暂的中世纪的教派)。 教派经常面额区别,不仅他们独有的组织声称,但他们的分歧也由新教和天主教教堂的所有四世纪通过了解学说的三位一体的传统坚持。(这些自称基督徒为唯心论和新思维运动可以说成是新教教派甚至分歧,但实在是太混乱,融入大相径庭给予他们这些不同种类的神学教派。)一些教派,尤其是当他们是三位一体的,已发生变化进入教派。 Conversely, some denominational branches so focus their energies on their distinctive beliefs and practices that they might as well be sects.相反,一些教派分支等专注于自己独特的信仰和习俗,他们很可能会成为教派他们的能量。

Besides attracting to its ranks the once clearly distinct catholic churches and some sects, denominationalism has brought forth several other institutional responses. These are related in various ways to the obvious discrepancy between denominational distinctiveness (or rivalry) and the biblical portrayal of a unity of all Christians as close as that of the Father and the Son, a unity perceived not just by faith but observable by the world (John 17:20 - 23).除了 ​​吸引到它的队伍一次明显不同天主教教会和一些教派,也带来了一些宗派主义其他机构的反应。 这些都是在不同的方面涉及到所有教派之间的差异明显的独特性(或竞争)的团结和圣经的写照基督教徒关闭23,该观察由父亲和儿子的信心,但一个团结的感知不仅是世界 (约翰17:20 - 。

One response has been to oppose denominations and urge all true Christians to leave them and meet simply as churches of Christ, Christian churches, churches of God, disciples, brethren, Bible churches, evangelical churches, and similar inclusive names.一个反应就是反对教派,并敦促所有真正的基督徒离开他们并举行基督教教堂,基督教堂,神,弟子,弟兄们,圣经教会,福音派教堂,教堂及类似名称包括简单。 Despite obvious appeal in times of denominational confusion, strife, and declension, the reality is that no such movement has anywhere attracted most Christians to itself.尽管在宗派混乱,纷争,变格次明显的吸引力,但现实是,没有这样的运动已经吸引了大多数的基督徒到任何地方本身。Instead this has been just another way of increasing the number of denominations, and sects, usually with the group's reluctance to admit it.相反这只是增加了通常与本集团不愿承认它的面额数字,和教派,另一种方式。

Another response has been for local congregations to remain organizationally independent but to engage in cooperative endeavors with other Christian organizations near and far that have a variety of denominational links.另一种反应是当地教会组织上保持独立,但从事与其他基督教组织近及远,有各种教派的联系合作努力。In fact many congregations that have historical and legal ties to a denomination are functioning as if they did not.事实上,这有历史和法律关系提高到一个面额为许多教友正在运作,如果他们没有这样做。(Conversely, an independent congregation that isolates itself is in effect just a small sect.) (反之,一个独立的教会的分离本身。实际上只是一个小教派)

The practicality of congregational independency has been enhanced in this century by the growing numbers and kinds of nondenominational specialized ministries such as home and foreign missions; colleges and seminaries; camp and conference grounds; publishers of magazines, books, and Sunday school curricula; evangelistic teams; youth organizations; radio and television broadcasters; occupational fellowships; and many others. Such ministries stress the doctrines and practices held in common by all or at least many denominational families, perform many functions that once were handled mostly by denominational agencies, and enable both denominational and independent congregations to experience broader fellowship. Perhaps a biblical precedent could be the evangelistic team of "Paul and his company" (Acts 13:13).公理的独立性的实用性得到了增强,在这个人数不断增加,以及诸如家庭和外国使团nondenominational专门部委种世纪学院和神学院;营地和会议的理由,杂志,图书出版商,周日学校课程;布道队,青年团体,电台和电视台;职业奖学金等。 应力等部委全部或至少许多家庭教会的教义和做法共同举办的,执行机构的许多职能教派曾经被处理的居多,并同时启用宗派和独立的教会,体验更广泛的友谊。圣经的先例,也许可以成为球队的布道“保罗和他的公司”(徒13:13)。 Such organizations have at least as much validity as do the denominations whose leaders frequently disparage them, but only as helpful supplements to and extensions of a vibrant congregational life rather than as a replacement for it.这些组织至少有尽可能多的教派一样的效力,其领导人经常贬低他们,但只能作为有益补充和充满活力的生活extensions公理,而不是作为它的替代品。

Yet another response to denominationalism has been the attempt to promote more visible unity in this century through ecumenicity.又一宗派主义的反应是试图推动这方面更为明显,通过ecumenicity世纪的团结。The ecumenical movement has seen many denominational mergers, sometimes across family lines, as well as denominational cooperation at the higher official levels through councils of churches. Generally speaking, the nondenominational specialized ministries are unambiguously evangelical in theology, while the promoters of conciliar ecumenism are not.合一运动已经得到了许多宗派家系合并,有时跨越,以及官方层面的合作在更高的宗派教会议会的通过。 一般而言,nondenominational专门部委是明确的福音派神学中,而大公合一的推动者不。

Denominational identity is not nearly so accurate a predicter of theological stance, worship style, organizational preference, or social class as it once was. There is no indication that denominations will soon disappear, but neither does it appear that anyone is eager to justify them theologically. 教派的身份却变得不那么准确的类predicter的神学立场,风格,信仰组织偏好,或社会,因为它曾经是。没有迹象表明面值很快消失,但它似乎也没有任何人证明他们是渴望神学。 The trend seems to be toward a new kind of denominationalism, one that is no longer based primarily on associations of congregations with a common heritage.这种趋势似乎是走向一个宗派主义,一个新的已不再是一种主要基于同一个教会团体的共同遗产。Such associations will no doubt continue, but increasing emphasis seems likely to be placed directly on the local congregation of whatever, if any, denomination, and on the network of specialized ministries supported by and extending the outreach of congregations and their members.这些协会将毫无疑问会继续,但越来越多的重视似乎是放在什么,如果有的话,直接面额地方聚集,并在专门部委支持的网络,以及扩大教会和其成员范围。

DG Tinder危险品廷德

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
RE Richey, ed., Denominationalism; RP Scherer, ed., American Denominational Organization; HR Niebuhr, The Social Sources of Denominationalism.稀土里奇,海关,宗派主义;。反相舍雷尔,教育署,美国宗派组织。人力资源尼布尔的宗派主义的社会资源。


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