General Information一般资料

Determinism is the theory that all human action is caused entirely by preceding events, and not by the exercise of the Will. In philosophy, the theory is based on the metaphysical principle that an uncaused event is impossible. 宿命论是理论,所有的人的行动完全是由于前款活动,并不会受的行使。在哲学,理论是不可能的基础上,形而上学的原则,即一个uncaused事件。 The success of scientists in discovering causes of certain behavior and in some cases effecting its control tends to support this principle.科学家在发现某种行为的原因,在某些情况下影响其控制的成功倾向支持这一原则。

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Disagreement exists about the proper formulation of determinism - a central issue in philosophy that never ceases to be controversial. Physical determinism, which has its origin in the Atomism of Democritus and Lucretius, is the theory that human interaction can be reduced to relationships between biological, chemical, or physical entities; this formulation is fundamental to modern Sociobiology and neuropsychology.对存在的分歧决定适当的制定-中央哲学这一问题,从未停止争议。一个物理宿命论,它有它的起源和卢克莱修的德谟克利特原子论,是生物学的理论,人类之间的互动可以减少对关系,化学或物理实体,这个提法是根本,以现代生物学和神经心理学。 The historical determinism of Karl Marx, on the other hand, is transpersonal and primarily economic.卡尔马克思的历史决定论 ,另一方面,是超和主要经济。In contrast to these two formulations, psychological determinism - the philosophical basis of psychoanalysis - is the theory that the purposes, needs, and desires of individuals are central to an explanation of human behavior.与此相反,这两个提法, 心理宿命论 -精神分析的哲学基础-是理论的目的,需要和个人愿望,是中,以解释人类的行为。The recent behavioral determinism of BF Skinner is a modification of this view, in that Skinner reduces all internal psychological states to publicly observable behavior.最近斯金纳行为决定论是一种行为矫正的这一观点,在这斯金纳降低所有内部的心理状态,以公开观察。 His stimulus - response account also uses modern statistical and probabilistic analyses of causation.他的刺激 - 反应帐户还利用现代统计和概率因果关系分析。

Jean Paul Sartre and other contemporary philosophers have argued that determinism is controverted by introspection, which reveals actions to be the result of our own choices and not necessitated by previous events or external factors.萨特和其他当代哲学家争辩说,宿命论是controverted通过反思,从而揭示了行动,是我们自己选择的结果,而不是由以前的事件或外部因素所必需的。 Determinists respond that such experiences of freedom are illusions and that introspection is an unreliable and unscientific method for understanding human behavior.决定论回应时表示,这种经验的自由,是幻想和反思,是一个不可靠的,为了解人类行为,不科学的方法。

This view has been modified within the scientific community, however, with the enunciation of the Uncertainty Principle by the physicist Werner Heisenberg.这一观点已被修改在科学界,然而,随着不确定性原理,由物理学家维尔纳海森堡的阐述。Ramifications of his work in quantum mechanics led Heisenberg to assert that the scientist, as much a participant as an observer, interferes with the neutrality and very nature of the object in question.他在量子力学的工作海森堡为首的断言,因为许多科学家作为观察员参加,与有问题的对象,中立性和非常自然的干扰。 His work also questions whether it is possible to determine an objective framework through which one can distinguish cause from effect, and whether one can know an objective effect if one is always a part of its cause.他的工作还质疑,它是否有可能确定一个客观的框架,通过它人们可以区分影响的原因,以及是否可以知客观效果,如果始终是其事业的一部分。

Determinism is sometimes confused with Predestination and Fatalism, but as such it asserts neither that human affairs have been prearranged by a being outside the causal order nor that a person has an unavoidable fate. 宿命论是有时混淆宿命和宿命论的,但因为如此,它断言,既不是人的事务已预先安排的命运不可避免的一个被外面的因果秩序,又没有一个人有一个。

Jesse G Kalin杰西Ğ卡林

Bibliography 参考书目
B Berofsky, Determinism (1971), and Freedom from Necessity (1988); G Dworkin, Determinism, Free Will and Moral Responsibility (1970); RL Franklin, Freewill and Determinism: A Study of Rival Conceptions of Man (1968); W Heisenberg, Physics and Philosophy (1962); S Hook, ed., Determinism and Freedom (1969); JR Lucas, Freedom of the Will (1970); AI Melden, Free Action (1961); J Monod, Chance and Necessity (1972); BF Skinner, Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971); E Squires, The Mystery of the Quantum World (1986); GH Von Wright, Causality and Determinism (1974).乙Berofsky,决定(1971年),和免受必要性(1988)100德沃金,决定论,自由意志与道德责任(1970年);研究部主管富兰克林,任意和宿命论:人的对手的观念,研究(1968年); W海森堡,物理与哲学(1962年);胡克,教育署,宿命论和自由(1969年);。Jr的卢卡斯,自由的意志(1970年);人工智能梅尔尔登,自由行动(1961年); j monod,偶然与必然(1972) ; BF斯金纳超越自由和尊严(1971年),电子商务斯基雷斯,在量子世界之谜(1986年);生长激素冯赖特,因果关系与决定(1974)。

Will (philosophy) (Free Will)将(哲学)(自由意志)

General Information一般资料

In philosophical discussion, will is usually paired with reason as one of two complementary activities of the mind. 在哲学讨论中,通常会搭配的原因之一,考虑两个互补性活动。The will is considered the faculty of choice and decision, whereas the reason is that of deliberation and argument. Thus a rational act would be an exercise of the will performed after due deliberation. 该会被认为是教师的选择和决定,而原因说法是,审议和。因此,一个理性的行为将是一个审议工作后,由于执行了意志。

The will has figured prominently in the thought of many philosophers, among them the 19th century thinkers Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche.该会已想出了许多哲学家的思想突出,其中有19世纪的思想家阿瑟叔本华和尼采。Historically, debate has centered on the issue of the will's freedom, a question of prime importance for the analysis of human action and moral responsibility.从历史上看, 辩论的核心问题上的责任的意志的自由,道德问题的一个行动和人类最重要的分析。

Philosophers have often thought that persons are responsible only for those actions that they have the option either to do or not to do or to will or not to will.哲学家往往以为人只负责对这些行为的,他们有选择,要么做或不做,或会或不会将责任。If all acts, including acts of will, are predetermined, then this option does not appear to exist.如果所有的行为,包括将行为,是既定的,那么,这个方案似乎并不存在。

In the philosophy of mind, the question is whether reasons in the mind are identical with or reducible to events in the brain and, if so, whether physical events determine choices, decisions, and acts.在心灵哲学,问题是,是否原因在他心中是相同或还原事件在大脑中,如果是这样,无论是身体活动确定的选择,决策和行为。 A wide variety of answers has been proposed, including ones derived from Freudian psychoanalysis and the various forms of behaviorism.各种各样的答案已经被提出,其中包括来自弗洛伊德精神分析学和行为主义的各种形式的。 Some philosophers in the analytic tradition have argued that Determinism is a matter of causes and decisions a matter of reasons and that the two are mutually exclusive.在解析传统一些哲学家认为,宿命论,是一个决定的原因和问题的原因,这两个问题,是相互排斥的。The issue remains controversial.这个问题一直存在争议。

GS Davis广深高速戴维斯

Bibliography 参考书目
DM Armstrong, A Materialist Theory of the Mind (1968); WK Frankena, Ethics (1973); A Kenny, Action, Emotion, and Will (1963); K Lehrer, ed., Freedom and Determinism (1976); G Ryle, The Concept of Mind (1949); R Taylor, Action and Purpose (1966).马克阿姆斯特朗,这是一种心灵(1968年)的唯物主义理论;星期Frankena,伦理学(1973年),一个肯尼,动作,情感,意志(1963年);。K表莱勒,海关,自由与决定(1976)100赖尔,概念记(1949)与r泰勒,行动和目的(1966年)。

Brief Definitions简短的定义

General Information一般资料

determinism 决定
The view that every event has a cause and that everything in the universe is absolutely dependent on and governed by causal laws.据认为,每一个事件的原因,并认为宇宙万物是绝对依赖,并受到因果规律支配。Since determinists believe that all events, including human actions, are predetermined, determinism is typically thought to be incompatible with free will.自determinists相信,所有的活动,包括人的行动,是预定的,决定论,是典型的被认为不符合自由意志。
fatalism 宿命论
The belief that "what will be will be," since all past, present, and future events have already been predetermined by God or another all-powerful force.相信“会是怎样将”,因为所有的过去,现在和未来的事件已经预定了上帝或另一种全能的力量。In religion, this view may be called predestination; it holds that whether our souls go to Heaven or Hell is determined before we are born and is independent of our good deeds.在宗教,这种看法可能是所谓的宿命,它认为,无论我们的灵魂去天堂或下地狱的决心面前,我们都是土生土长的,是我们的好行为无关。
free will自由意志
The theory that human beings have freedom of choice or self-determination; that is, that given a situation, a person could have done other than what he did.该理论认为,人类有选择的或自决的自由,那就是,鉴于情况下,一个人可以做得比其他他做了什么。Philosophers have argued that free will is incompatible with determinism.哲学家认为,自由意志是不符合宿命论。See also indeterminism.另见非决定论。
indeterminism 非决定论
The view that there are events that do not have any cause; many proponents of free will believe that acts of choice are capable of not being determined by any physiological or psychological cause.据认为,有事件,没有任何理由;不少倡议者的自由意志,相信行为的选择,不被任何生理或心理的原因决定的能力。

Freedom, Free Will, and Determinism自由,自由意志与决定

Advanced Information先进的信息

There are three basic positions concerning man's choices: determinism, indeterminism, and self determinism. Determinism is the belief that all of man's actions are the result of antecedent factors or causes.有三个基本立场:关于人的选择:,indeterminism,自我决定。决定宿命论是所有行动的信念,即人的结果的原因是前期因素或。 Naturalistic determinists, such as Thomas Hobbes and BF Skinner, argue that man's behavior can be fully explained in terms of natural causes. Theistic determinists, such as Martin Luther and Jonathan Edwards, trace man's actions back to God's controlling hand. The opposite position to determinism is indeterminism.自然determinists斯金纳,如托马斯霍布斯和BF则表示,人的行为可以得到充分的原因解释自然的条款。 和乔纳森爱德华兹有神论determinists,如马丁路德,追溯人类的行动,回到上帝的控制之手。相反的立场,以宿命论是indeterminism。 On this view there are no causes for man's actions, antecedent or otherwise.在这种观点是对人的行为,前期还是在其他任何原因。 The final position is self determinism, or free will.最后的立场是自我决定论,或自由意志。This is the belief that man determines his own behavior freely, and that no causal antecedents can sufficiently account for his actions. 这是信仰,人决定自己的行为自由,但并没有因果前因足以解释他的行动。


The belief that man's actions are the result of antecedent causes has been formulated naturalistically and theistically.这个信念就是人的行动,是由于前期原因已经制定naturalistically和theistically。 The naturalistic view sees human beings as part of the machinery of the universe.自然主义的观点认为,作为宇宙的机械部分人。 In such a world every event is caused by preceding events, which in turn were caused by still earlier events, ad infinitum.在这样一个世界的每一个活动是造成上述事件,而后者又是仍然较早的事件,引起无限的广告。Since man is part of this causal chain, his actions are also determined by antecedent causes.既然人是这个因果链的一部分,他的行动还取决于前因原因。Some of these causes are the environment and man's genetic make - up.这些原因中,有些是环境与人的基因构成 - 最多。 These are so determinative of what man does that no one could rightly say that a given human action could have been performed otherwise than it in fact was performed.这些都是如此的是什么人这样做,没有人能正确地说,一个考虑到人的行动可能已完成以外,它实际上是进行决定性的作用。 Thus, according to determinism, Bob's sitting on the brown chair rather than the blue sofa is not a free choice but is fully determined by previous factors.因此,根据决定,鲍勃的会议上,布朗主持,而不是蓝色的沙发,是不是自由选择,而是完全由以前的因素决定的。

A contemporary example of naturalistic determinism is BF Skinner, the author of Beyond Freedom and Dignity and About Behaviorism.一个当代的例子,自然主义宿命论是高炉斯金纳,作者超越自由和尊严,并约行为主义作家。Skinner believes that all human behavior is completely controlled by genetic and environmental factors.斯金纳认为,所有人类行为是完全由遗传和环境因素的控制。These factors do not rule out the fact that human beings make choices; however, they do rule out the possibility that human choices are free.这些因素不排除一个事实,即人类作出选择,但他们排除这种可能性,人有选择的自由。 For Skinner, all human choices are determined by antecedent physical causes.对于斯金纳,所有人类的选择是取决于前因身体原因。 Hence, man is viewed as an instrumental cause of his behavior.因此,男子是被看作一种乐器导致他的行为。He is like a knife in the hands of a butcher or a hammer in the grip of a carpenter; he does not originate action but is the instrument through which some other agent performs the action.他像一个,一个屠夫手中刀或锤握的一个木匠,他并不源于行动,但该仪器通过一些其他代理人进行操作。

A philosophical argument often given for determinism can be stated as follows.哲学上的说法,往往给予定论,可以说明如下。All human behavior is either completely uncaused, selfcaused, or caused by something external.所有人类的行为是既没有完全uncaused,selfcaused,或由一些外部造成的。Now human behavior cannot be uncaused, for nothing can happen without a cause, nothing cannot cause something.现在人类行为不能uncaused,什么事情也没有发生的一个原因,没有什么不能使东西。Human behavior cannot be self - caused either, for each act would have to exist prior to itself to cause itself, which is impossible.人的行为不能自我 - 要么造成的,为每一行为都存在事先向自己的事业本身,这是不可能的。Thus the only alternative is that all human behavior must be completely caused by something external.因此唯一的办法是,所有人类行为要完全所造成的外在的东西。Naturalistic determinists maintain that such things as heredity and environment are the external causes, whereas theistic determinists believe that God is the external cause of all human behavior.自然determinists保持,因为遗传和环境等东西都是外部原因,而有神论determinists相信上帝是所有人类行为的外部原因。

There are several problems with this argument.这种说法有几个问题。First, the argument misinterprets self determinism as teaching that human acts cause themselves.首先,该论点曲解为教学人类行为造成自己自我决定。Self determinists, for example, do not believe that the plays in a football game cause themselves.自我决定论,例如,不相信在足球比赛的戏剧事业。Rather they maintain that the players execute the plays in a football game.相反,他们认为,球员们执行一个足球游戏玩。Indeed it is the players that choose to play the game.事实上,它是播放器的选择玩游戏。Thus the cause of a football game being played is to be found within the players of the game.因此,一场足球比赛的原因正在扮演的是将在游戏的玩家发现。Self determinists would not deny that outside factors, such as heredity, environment, or God, had any influence.自determinists不会否认,外界因素,如遗传,环境,或上帝,有任何影响。However, they would maintain that any one of the people involved in the game could have decided not to play if they had chosen to do so.不过,他们会认为,任何在参与比赛的人之一可能已决定不参加,如果他们选择这样做。

Second, the argument for determinisim is self defeating.其次,论据determinisim是自我挫败。A determinist must contend that both he and the nondeterminist are determined to believe what they believe.一决定必须争辩说,他和nondeterminist决心要相信他们所相信的。Yet the determinist attempts to convince the nondeterminist that determinism is true and thus ought to be believed.然而,决定论,试图说服nondeterminist,宿命论是事实,因此应该相信。However, on the basis of pure determinism "ought" has no meaning.但是,在基础的纯决定“应该”没有任何意义。For "ought" means "could have and should have done otherwise."对于“应该”是指“可以而且应该做,否则。”But this is impossible according to determinism.但这是不可能的,根据宿命论。A way around this objection is for the determinist to argue that he was determined to say that one ought to accept his view.一个解决这个反对的是为决定争辩说,他决心,也就是说,一个人应该接受他的看法。However, his opponent can respond by saying that he was determined to accept a contrary view.然而,他的对手可以回应说,他决心接受一个相反的观点。Thus determinism cannot eliminate an opposing position.因此决定不能消除另一种相反的立场。This allows the possibility for a free will position.这使得一个自由意志的立场的可能性。

Third, and finally, if naturalistic determinism were true, it would be self defeating, false, or be no view at all.第三,最后,如果自然主义宿命论是真的,那将是战胜自我,虚假的,或者没有观点的。For in order to determine whether determinism was true there would need to be a rational basis for thought, otherwise no one could know what was true or false.对,以确定是否决定是真实的存在,必须是一个思想的理性基础,否则没有人能够知道什么是真的还是假的。But naturalistic determinists believe that all thought is the product of nonrational causes, such as the environment, thus making all thought nonrational.但自然determinists相信,所有的思想是对非理性的原因,如环境,产品,从而使所有的非理性思维。 On this basis no one could ever know if determinism were true or not.在此基础上,没有人能够知道,如果决定是不是真的。And if one argued that determinism was true, then the position would be self defeating, for a truth claim is being made to the effect that no truth claims can be made.如果有人认为宿命论是真的话,那么,则会造成自我挫败为真理声称,正在向大意是不符合事实声称可。Now if determinism is false, then it can be rationally rejected and other positions considered.现在,如果决定是错误的,那么它可以理性地拒绝和其他职位的考虑。But if it is neither true or false, then it is no view at all, since no claim to truth is being made.但如果它不是真的还是假的,那就不会有鉴于在所有的,因为没有要求真理是正在取得进展。In either case, naturalistic determinism could not reasonably be held to be true.在这两种情况下,自然决定论无法合理地认为是正确的。

Another form of determinism is theistic determinism.另一种形式是有神论宿命论决定。This is the view that all events, including man's behavior, are caused (determined) by God.这是所有活动,包括人的行为,是由神(决定)的看法。One of the more famous advocates of this view was the Puritan theologian Jonathan Edwards.对这一观点的倡导者之一,是比较著名的清教徒神学家乔纳森爱德华兹。He maintained that the concept of free will or self determinism contradicted the sovereignty of God.他认为,自由意志或自我决定论,违背了神的主权。If God is truly in control of all things, then no one could act contrary to his will, which is what self determinism must hold.如果上帝是真正在控制一切事物,那么谁也不能违背他的意愿,而这正是自我宿命论必须持有。 Hence, for God to be sovereign he must cause every event, be it human or otherwise.因此,上帝是主权他必须引起每一个事件,无论是人力或其他方式。

Edwards also argued that self determinism is self contradictory.爱德华兹也认为,自我决定是自我矛盾的。For if man's will were in equilibrium or indifferent to any given event or decision, then his will would never act.如果以人的意志在平衡或坐视任何特定的事件或决定,然后,他将永远不会采取行动。Just as a scale cannot tip itself unless an outside force upsets the balance, so man's will could never act unless God moved it.正如一个规模不能小费,除非外力打破平衡本身,所以人的意志绝不可法,除非上帝感动了。Thus to speak of human acts as self caused would be like speaking of nothing causing something.因此,发言引起会像什么东西讲人的行为所造成的自我。But since every event must have a cause, self determinism, which denies this, must be self contradictory.但由于每一个事件必须有一个原因,自我决定论,否认这一点,必须自我矛盾的。

During Edwards's own day some thinkers objected to his view on the grounds that it ran contrary to the biblical evidence which supported human freedom (eg, Prov. 1:29 - 31; Heb. 11:24 - 26).爱德华兹在自己的一天一些思想家提出反对他的看法,理由是它违反了圣经中的证据,支持人的自由(如省1:29 - 31;。。希伯来书11:24 - 26)。Edwards responded in his Freedom of the Will that human freedom is not the power to do what one decides but rather what one desires.爱德华兹回应,在他的自由意志,即人的自由是没有权力做一个决定,而是什么人的欲望。The cause of man's desires is God, and man always acts in accordance with them.对人的欲望的原因是上帝,而人总是与他们行事。 Thus freedom is not uncaused, which is nonsensical, but caused by God.因此,新闻自由是不是uncaused,这是睁眼说瞎话,但神所造成的。

Like naturalistic determinism, theistic determinism may be objected to on several grounds.喜欢自然决定论,有神论的决定可能会反对的几个理由。First, to view freedom as that which one desires is inadequate.首先,要查看自由,因为这其中的一个愿望是不够的。People do not always do what they desire; no one desires to carry out the garbage or clean a dirty oven.人们并不总是做他们的愿望,任何人的欲望来进行垃圾或清洁肮脏的烘箱。Further, people often desire to do what they do not decide to do, such as taking revenge on someone for wronging them.此外,人们常常渴望做他们决定不这样做,例如以某人为wronging他们报复。

Second, according to self determinism, Edwards's position evidences a misunderstanding of free will.第二,根据自我决定,爱德华兹的立场证明自由意志的误解。The acts of free human beings are not uncaused but self caused.自由人的行为是不是uncaused而是自我造成的。To say they are self caused is not to say that they arise out of nothing or exist prior to themselves.如果说他们是自我造成的,不是说他们出现了从无到有,或存在事先对自己负责。Such would be an uncaused or self caused being, which is nonsensical.例如将是一个uncaused或自我造成的,这是睁眼说瞎话。 However, self determinism maintains that man's exercise of his freedom is self caused becoming, which is not contradictory.然而,自我决定论认为,人类的行使他的自由是自我造成的成为,这是不矛盾的。In other words, persons exist and can freely cause their own actions (not their own being).换句话说,人的存在,并能自由地引起他们自己的行动(而不是他们自己的存在)。

Third, Edwards's argument suffers from a faulty view of man.第三,爱德​​华兹的说法是人患有错误的观点。 Human beings are not like a machine (scale) which cannot be moved until some outside force tips it in one direction or another.人类是不是像一台机器(规模),不能被一些IT,直到在一个方向或另一个外力的提示感动。Rather, man is a person created in the image of God as a personal living soul (Gen. 1:26 - 27; 2:7), and he retains this image even after the fall (Gen. 9:6; 1 Cor. 11:7).相反,男子是在上帝的形象创造看成是个人的活的灵魂的人(创1:26 - 27; 2:7),他保留,即使在秋天(创9:6这个图片,1肺心病。 11:7)。This image includes the ability to make choices and act upon them.这种形象包括有能力做出选择,并采取行动。Hence, since man is personal, it is at best inadequate to illustrate his behavior by impersonal, mechanical models, such as a scale.因此,在男子个人,它是最好的不足,说明自己的客观,机械模型,如规模,行为。

And fourth, Edwards is mistaken when he argues that human freedom is contrary to God's sovereignty.第四,爱德华兹是错误的时候,他认为人的自由是违背上帝的主权。God sovereignly gave man his freedom by creating him a free creature, and God sovereignly continues to allow man to exercise his freedom by sustaining him moment by moment in existence (Col. 1:17).神sovereignly了男子由他创造一个自由的动物,他的自由,上帝让男人sovereignly继续行使维持他的存在时刻(歌1:17)一刻,他的自由。 Thus the sovereignty of God is not thwarted by human freedom but glorified through human freedom.因此,上帝的主权,是不是阻碍人的自由,而是通过人的自由的荣耀。For God gave man free will, he sustains man so he can act freely, and he brings about all his purposes without violating man's free will.因为神给了人的自由意志,他的立身之男子,这样他就可以自由行动,他带来了不违反人的自由意志的所有他的目的。As the Westminister Confession puts it, "Although in relation to the foreknowledge and decree of God, the first cause, all things come to pass immutably and infallibly, yet by the same providence he ordereth them to fall out, according to the nature of second causes, either necessarily, freely, or contingently" (V, ii).作为westminister认罪的说法,“虽然关系到神的预知和,第一个原因,法令万物通过一成不变和infallibly,由同一普罗维登斯他ordereth他们落下然而,根据第二次性质原因,无论是必然的,畅所欲言,或偶然“(五,二)。


This view contends that human behavior is totally uncaused.这种观点认为,人类行为是完全独立自存的。There are no antecedent or simultaneous causes of man's actions.有没有先行或人的行动同步的原因。Hence, all of man's acts are uncaused; hence, any given human act could have been otherwise.因此,人的行为都是独立自存的,因此,任何人的行为可能已经否则。Some indeterminists extend their view beyond human affairs to the entire universe.一些indeterminists延长超出人类的事务向整个宇宙。In support of the indeterminacy of all events Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty is often invoked.在所有事件的不确定性支持海森堡的测不准原理是经常调用。This principle states that it is impossible to predict where a subatomic particle is and how fast it is moving at any given moment.这一原则的国家,这是不可能预测凡亚原子粒子是怎样的速度,它在任何特定时刻感动。Thus, it is argued, since subatomic events are inherently unpredictable, how much more so are complex human acts.因此,有人认为,由于亚原子事件在本质上无法预测的,更何况是这么复杂的人类行为。From this they conclude that human and nonhuman events are uncaused.由此他们得出结论,人类和非人类的事件uncaused。Two noted exponents of indeterminism are William James and Charles Peirce.两位指出,非决定论代表人物是威廉詹姆斯和查尔斯皮尔士。

There are at least three problems with this view.至少有三个这种观点的问题。First, Heisenberg's principle does not deal with causality but with predictability.首先,海森堡的原则,不涉及因果关系,但与可预测性。Heisenberg maintained that the movement of subatomic particles was unpredictable and unmeasurable; he did not maintain that their movement was uncaused.海森堡认为,亚原子粒子的运动是难以预测和不可测,他不认为自己的运动是独立自存的。Thus this principle cannot be used to support indeterminism.因此,这个原则不能被用来支持非决定论。Second, indeterminism unreasonably denies the principle of causality, namely, that every event has a cause.第二,indeterminism不合理否认原则的因果关系,即每一个事件的一个原因。Simply because one does not know what the cause is, is not proof that an event is not caused.仅仅因为一个不知道什么原因,是没有证据证明不是一个事件引起的。Such lack of knowledge only reflects our ignorance.这种缺乏知识不仅反映了我们的无知。Third, indeterminism strips man of any responsible behavior.第三,indeterminism带任何负责任的行为的人。If human behavior is uncaused, then no one could be praised or blamed for anything he did.如果人类的行为是uncaused,那么没有人可以被称赞或指责他做什么。All human acts would be nonrational and nonmoral, thus no act could ever be a reasonable or responsible one.所有人类的行为,将非理性和nonmoral,因此任何行为都不能认为是合理或负责任的。

Indeterminism is unacceptable for a Christian.indeterminism是一个基督徒不能接受的。For if indeterminism is true, then either the existence of God or any causal connection between God and the universe would have to be denied.因为如果indeterminism是真的话,那么无论是上帝或上帝和宇宙之间的因果关系的存在将被拒绝。But clearly a Christian could not hold this, for the Christian position is that God created the world and he providentially sustains it and intervenes in its affairs (Matt. 6:25 - 32; Col. 1:15 - 16).但显然是一个基督徒不能举办这期,是基督徒的立场,上帝创造了世界,他providentially维系着它干预其事务(太6:25 - 32;上校1:15 - 16)。

Self determinism自我决定

On this view a person's acts are caused by himself.在此观点的人的行为所造成的自己。Self determinists accept the fact that such factors as heredity and environment often influence one's behavior.自determinists接受这个事实,因为遗传和环境等因素,往往影响一个人的行为。However, they deny that such factors are the determining causes of one's behavior.不过,他们否认这些因素是一个人的行为的决定性原因。Inanimate objects do not change without an outside cause, but personal subjects are able to direct their own actions.无生命的物体不改变,没有一个外部的原因,但个人的科目可以直接到自己的行动。As previously noted, self determinists reject the notions that events are uncaused or that they cause themselves.如前所述,自determinists拒绝事件uncaused或他们自己的事业观念。Rather, they believe that human actions can be caused by human beings.相反,他们认为人的行动可以被人类所造成。Two prominent advocates of this view are Thomas Aquinas and CS Lewis.这两种观点的著名倡导者的托马斯阿奎那和CS刘易斯。

Many object to self determinism on the grounds that if everything needs a cause, then so do the acts of the will.许多人都反对,理由是,如果一切需要的事业自我决定,那么这样的意志的行为。Thus it is often asked, What caused the will to act?因此,人们常常问,是什么原因采取行动的意愿?The self determinist can respond to this question by pointing out that it is not the will of a person that makes a decision but the person acting by means of his will.自我决定论才能回应这个问题,指出这不是一个人说,作出决定,但该人的行事方式将自己的意志。And since the person is the first cause of his acts, it is meaningless to ask what the cause of the first cause is.此外,由于人是他的行为的首要原因,是没有意义的,请问原因的第一个原因是。Just as no outside force caused God to create the world, so no outside force causes people to choose certain actions.正如没有外力造成的上帝创造了世界,让任何外力,使人们选择某些行动。For man is created in God's image, which includes the possession of free will.因为人是创造了上帝的形象,其中包括自由意志的占有。

Another objection often raised against self determinism is that biblical predestination and foreknowledge seem to be incompatible with human freedom.另一种反对意见,往往提出对自我决定论是圣经的宿命和foreknowledge似乎与人的自由是不相容的。However, the Bible does clearly teach that even fallen man has freedom of choice (eg, Matt. 23:37; John 7:17; Rom. 7:18; 1 Cor. 9:17; 1 Pet. 5:2; Philem. 14).然而,圣经是否清楚教导​​甚至堕落的人有选择(例如,马特自由23:37。约7:17,罗马书7:18。林前9:17。1宠物5:2。Philem 。14)。Further, the Bible teaches that God predestines in accordance with his foreknowledge (1 Pet. 1:2).此外,圣经教导我们,在他的预知按照第(一宠物。1:2)神predestines。Predestination is not based on God's foreknowledge (which would make God dependent upon man's choices) nor is it independent of God's foreknowledge (since all of God's acts are unified and coordinate).宿命,是不是上帝的基础预知(这将使神在人的选择而定),也不是独立于神的预知(因为上帝的行为都是统一的坐标)。 Rather, God knowingly determines and determinately knows those who will accept his grace as well as those who will reject him.相反,上帝在明知确定并determinately认识谁会接受他的恩典以及那些谁将会拒绝他。

A further argument for free will is that God's commandments carry a divine "ought" for man, implying that man can and should respond positively to his commands.一个自由意志进一步的论据是,上帝的诫命,进行一项神圣的“应该”的人,这意味着人类可以而且应该积极响应他的命令。 The responsibility to obey God's commands entails the ability to respond to them, by God's enabling grace.责任听从神的命令,需要作出反应的能力给他们的神的恩典扶持。Furthermore, if man is not free, but all his acts are determined by God, then God is directly responsible for evil, a conclusion that is clearly contradicted by Scripture (Hab. 1:13; James 1:13 - 17).此外,如果人没有自由,但他的所有行为都取决于上帝,那么上帝又是直接的邪恶,一,这显然是违背圣经的结论承担责任(Hab. 1:13;詹姆斯1:13 - 17)。

Therefore, it seems that some form of self determinism is the most compatible with the biblical view of God's sovereignty and man's responsibility.因此,它似乎是某种形式的自我决定是最符合上帝的主权和人的责任圣经观点兼容。

NL Geisler国联盖斯勒
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
Augustine, The Free Choice of the Will and On Grace and Free Will; B Holbach, The System of Nature; W James, "The Dilemma of Determinism," in Pragmatism; M Luther, The Bondage of the Will; R Taylor, Metaphysics; A Farrer, The Freedom of the Will.奥古斯丁,意志和对恩典和自由意志的自由选择;,自然系统B霍尔巴赫; W詹姆斯,“决定论的困境”,在实用主义;米路德,桎梏的意志与r泰勒,形而上学;阿法拉,自由的意志。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

Determinism is a name employed by writers, especially since J. Stuart Mill, to denote the philosophical theory which holds -- in opposition to the doctrine of free will -- that all man's volitions are invariably determined by pre-existing circumstances.宿命论是因为j.密尔特别是作家,雇了一个名称,是指哲学理论的掌握 - 在反对以教条的自由意志 - 这一切人为的意志始终是由预先存在的情况下决定的。It may take diverse forms, some cruder, some more refined.它可采取形式多样,有的粗糙,一些更精致。

Biological and materialistic Determinism maintains that each of our voluntary acts finds its sufficient and complete cause in the physiological conditions of the organism.生物和物质决定论认为,我们的自愿行为,每个人都发现在机体的生理条件下的充分和完整的事业。Psychological Determinism ascribes efficiency to the psychical antecedents.心理宿命论赋予效率,以心理前因。In this view each volition or act of choice is determined by the character of the agent plus the motives acting on him at the time.在这种观点看来,每个意志或行为选择,是由代理的角色,再加上动机代理他的时候。Advocates of this theory, since Mill, usually object to the names, Necessarianism and Fatalism, on the ground that these words seem to imply some form of external compulsion, whilst they affirm only the fact of invariable sequence or uniform causal connectedness between motives and volition.这种理论主张,因为磨,通常是反对他们的姓名,necessarianism和宿命论,理由是这些话似乎在暗示某种形式的外部强迫,虽然他们申明,只有不变的序列之间的因果动机和意志统一的连通事实。 Opposed to this view is the doctrine of Indeterminism, or what perhaps may more accurately be called Anti-determinism, which denies that man is thus invariably determined in all his acts of choice.反对这种观点是中庸indeterminism,或用什么或许可以更准确地被称为反宿命论,它否认人是因此往往在他的所有行为的选择决定的。 This doctrine has been stigmatized by some of its opponents as the theory of "causeless volition", or "motiveless choice"; and the name Indeterminism, is possibly not the best selection to meet the imputation.这一学说受到了指责,由作为“无缘无故意志”,或“动机的选择”理论中的一些对手,以及姓名indeterminism,很可能不是最好的选择,以满足归责。 The objection is, however, not justified.反对的是,然而,没有道理的。The Anti-determinists, while denying that the act of choice is always merely the resultant of the assemblage of motives playing on the mind, teach positively that the Ego, or Self, is the cause of our volitions; and they describe it as a "free" or "self-determining" cause.反决定论,虽然否认该行为选择,是永远只是在玩心由此产生的组合动机,教导正面的自我,或自我,是导致我国volitions,他们形容为是“免费“或”自定“的原因。 The presence of some reason or motive, they ordinarily hold, is a necessary condition for every act of free choice, but they insist that the Ego can decide between motives.一些原因或动机的存在,他们通常持有,是对每一个行为的自由选择的必要条件,但他们坚持认为,自我能决定的动机。 Choice is not, they maintain, uniformly determined by the pleasantest or the worthiest motive or collection of motives.选择是没有,他们坚称,一律由舒服或最有价值的动机,或收集的动机决定的。Nor is it the inevitable consequent of the strongest motive, except in that tautological sense in which the word strongest simply signifies that motive which as a matter of fact prevails.它也不是最强的动机不可避免的后果,除了说同义反复的常识,其中最强烈的字眼,只是标志着动机是因为事实上为准。 Determinism and the denial of free will seem to be a logical consequence of all monistic hypotheses.宿命论和剥夺个人自由意志似乎是所有一元论的假设的必然结果。They are obviously involved in all materialistic theories.他们显然是在涉及的所有物质的理论。For Materialism of every type necessarily holds that every incident in the history of the universe is the inevitable outcome of the mechanical and physical movements and changes which have gone before.对于唯物论的每一种必然认为,每一个宇宙的历史事件的机械和物理运动和变化,其中经历了之前的必然结果。 But Determinism seems to be an equally necessary consequence of monistic Idealism.但宿命论似乎是同样的一元论的唯心主义的必然结果。Indeed the main argument against monistic and pantheistic systems will always be the fact of free will.事实上,对一元论和泛神论系统的主要参数将永远是自由意志的事实。Self-determination implies separateness of individuality and independence in each free agent, and thus entails a pluralistic conception of the universe.自决和独立的个性意味着在每一个分开的自由球员,因此需要一个多元化的宇宙观念。(See DUALISM; MONISM.) In spite of the assertions of Determinists, no true logical distinction can be made between their view and that of Fatalism. (见二元论。一元论)在对决定论的断言,没有真正的逻辑区别可以,他们认为,尽管作出的宿命论的思想。In both systems each of my volitions is as inexorably fated, or pre-determined, in the past conditions of the universe as the movements of the planets or the tides.在这两种我每次volitions是无情的命运,或预先确定的,作为行星或潮汐的运动宇宙的过去的情况,系统。The opponents of Determinism usually insist on two lines of argument, the one based on the consciousness of freedom in the act of deliberate choice, the other on the incompatibility of Determinism with our fundamental moral convictions.决定论的反对者通常坚持两条路线的争论,关于自由选择的蓄意行为,对决定论与我们的基本道德信念为基础的其他相抵触的意识之一。 The notions of responsibility, moral obligation, merit, and the like, as ordinarily understood, would be illusory if Determinism were true.责任,道义上的责任,择优的原则,并愿,因为通常的理解,将是虚幻的概念,如果宿命论是真的。 The theory is in fact fatal to ethics, as well as to the notion of sin and the fundamental Christian belief that we can merit both reward and punishment.该理论实际上是致命的道德,以及罪的概念和基本的基督教信仰,我们可以都值得奖励和惩罚。(See FREE WILL; ETHICS; FATALISM.)(见自由意志;伦理;。宿命论)

Publication information Written by Michael Maher.出版信息的书面迈克尔马希尔。Transcribed by Rick McCarty.转录由里克麦卡蒂。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.1908年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Free Will自由意志

Catholic Information天主教新闻



Free Will in Ancient Philosophy自由意志,在古代哲学

Free Will and the Christian Religion自由意志和基督教

Catholic Doctrine天主教教义

Thomist and Molinist Theories托马斯主义理论和Molinist

Free will and the Protestant Reformers自由意志与新教改革者

Free Will in Modern Philosophy自由意志,在现代哲学






The question of free will, moral liberty, or the liberum arbitrium of the Schoolmen, ranks amongst the three or four most important philosophical problems of all time.自由意志,道德自由,或的schoolmen liberum arbitrium,问题行列其中3个或四个有史以来最重要的哲学问题。It ramifies into ethics, theology, metaphysics, and psychology.它ramifies到伦理学,神学,形而上学和心理学。The view adopted in response to it will determine a man's position in regard to the most momentous issues that present themselves to the human mind.据认为,通过在回应它,将决定一个人的立场方面最重大的问题,在目前自己的人的心灵。On the one hand, does man possess genuine moral freedom, power of real choice, true ability to determine the course of his thoughts and volitions, to decide which motives shall prevail within his mind, to modify and mould his own character?一方面,没有人拥有真正的道德自由,真正的选择权,真正有能力,以确定他的思想和意志,以决定那些动机为准在他看来,修改和塑造他自己的性格吗? Or, on the other, are man's thoughts and volitions, his character and external actions, all merely the inevitable outcome of his circumstances?或者,在另一方面,则是人的思想和意志,他的性格和外部的行动,一切只是他的情况的必然结果?Are they all inexorably predetermined in every detail along rigid lines by events of the past, over which he himself has had no sort of control?它们都不可避免地在每一个细节沿刚性线预定的过去,而他自己也根本无法控制的排序活动?This is the real import of the free-will problem.这是对自由意志问题的真正进口。


(1) Ethically, the issue vitally affects the meaning of most of our fundamental moral terms and ideas.(1)在伦理上,这个问题非常影响我们的基本道德和思想方面最有意义。Responsibility, merit, duty, remorse, justice, and the like, will have a totally different significance for one who believes that all man's acts are in the last resort completely determined by agencies beyond his power, from that which these terms bear for the man who believes that each human being possessed of reason can by his own free will determine his deliberate volitions and so exercise a real command over his thoughts, his deeds, and the formation of his character.责任,择优的原则,职责,悔意,正义,等等,将有一个谁认为,一切人的行为完全超越他的权力机构从该这些条款,因为那人承担,决定了最后的手段是一个完全不同的意义谁相信,每个人拥有的原因可以由他自己的自由意志决定,他故意volitions等行使他的想法,他的事迹一个真正的指挥,和他的性格的形成。

(2) Theology studies the questions of the existence, nature and attributes of God, and His relations with man.(2)神学研究的存在,性质的问题和上帝的属性,并与他的关系人。The reconciliation of God's fore-knowledge and universal providential government of the world with the contingency of human action, as well as the harmonizing of the efficacy of supernatural grace with the free natural power of the creature, has been amongst the most arduous labours of the theological student from the days of St. Augustine down to the present time.神的前知识和普遍与人的行为偶然世界天赐政府和解,以及对神灵的恩典与自由的生物自然力量协调的功效,一直当中的最艰巨的劳动神学学生从圣奥古斯丁的日子到现在的时间。

(3) Causality, change, movement, the beginning of existence, are notions which lie at the very heart of metaphysics.(3)因果关系,变化,运动,一开始存在,是概念,其中的形而上学的核心所在。The conception of the human will as a free cause involves them all.在作为一个人的意志自由的事业构想牵涉到他们所有。

(4) Again, the analysis of voluntary action and the investigation of its peculiar features are the special functions of Psychology. (4)再次,志愿行动的分析和调查,其特有的功能是心理学的特殊功能。Indeed, the nature of the process of volition and of all forms of appetitive or conative activity is a topic that has absorbed a constantly increasing space in psychological literature during the past fifty years.事实上,在意志和意动的欲求或活动的所有形式的过程的本质是一种吸收了在过去五十年中不断增加的空间,心理文学主题。

(5) Finally, the rapid growth of sundry branches of modern science, such as physics, biology, sociology, and the systematization of moral statistics, has made the doctrine of free will a topic of the most keen interest in many departments of more positive knowledge. (5)最后,杂党支部的现代科学,如物理学,生物学,社会学,以及道德统计系统化,快速增长,取得了中庸的自由意志,在许多部门的更积极的最激烈的话题感兴趣知识。


Free Will in Ancient Philosophy自由意志,在古代哲学

The question of free will does not seem to have presented itself very clearly to the early Greek philosophers.该问题的自由意志似乎都没有介绍得十分清楚,早期希腊哲学家。Some historians have held that the Pythagoreans must have allotted a certain degree of moral freedom to man, from their recognition of man's responsibility for sin with consequent retribution experienced in the course of the transmigration of souls.一些历史学家认为,毕达哥拉斯必须有分配了一定程度的道德自由对人从他们的人的责任与对罪中的灵魂轮回的过程中经历了相应的报应的认可。 The Eleatics adhered to a pantheistic monism, in which they emphasized the immutability of one eternal unchangeable principle so as to leave no room for freedom.该eleatics坚持一个pantheistic一元论,他们强调了一个永恒不变的原则,以不留下任何自由的空间。 Democritus also taught that all events occur by necessity, and the Greek atomists generally, like their modern representatives, advocated a mechanical theory of the universe, which excluded all contingency.德谟克利特也教导说,所有的事件发生必然与希腊原子论一般,像他们的现代的代表,主张宇宙,排除所有应急力学理论。 With Socrates, the moral aspect of all philosophical problems became prominent, yet his identification of all virtue with knowledge and his intense personal conviction that it is impossible deliberately to do what one clearly perceives to be wrong, led him to hold that the good, being identical with the true, imposes itself irresistibly on the will as on the intellect, when distinctly apprehended.与苏格拉底,所有哲学道德方面的问题成为突出,但他的一切美德的鉴定知识和他的个人信念,这是不可能刻意做什么,显然是错误的,使他认为好的,正完全相同的真实,规定本身势不可挡地对将作为对智力,当明显被捕。 Every man necessarily wills his greatest good, and his actions are merely means to this end.每一个男人一定遗嘱,他最大的善,他的行动只是手段实现这一目标。He who commits evil does so out of ignorance as to the right means to the true good.他谁犯了邪恶,所以出于无知,以正确的方式来真正的好。Plato held in the main the same view.柏拉图举行,主要有相同的看法。Virtue is the determination of the will by the knowledge of the good; it is true freedom.美德是由知识的好决心的,将是真正的自由。The wicked man is ignorant and a slave.邪恶的人是无知的奴隶。Sometimes, however, Plato seems to suppose that the soul possessed genuine free choice in a previous life, which there decided its future destiny.但是,有时柏拉图似乎假定灵魂,拥有了以前的生活,其中有决定其未来命运的真正的自由选择。Aristotle disagrees with both Plato and Socrates, at least in part.亚里士多德不同意双方柏拉图与苏格拉底的,至少部分。He appeals to experience.他呼吁经验。Men can act against the knowledge of the true good; vice is voluntary.男人可以对法的认识,真正的好副是自愿的。Man is responsible for his actions as the parent of them.男子是他们的父母作为自己的行为负责。Moreover his particular actions, as means to his end, are contingent, a matter of deliberation and subject to choice.此外,他的特别行动,是指以他的结局,是队伍中的一个问题,审议并接受的选择。The future is not all predictable.未来是不是所有的可预测性。Some events depend on chance.有些活动要靠机会。Aristotle was not troubled by the difficulty of prevision on the part of his God.亚里士多德并不不安的是预知对他的上帝的一部分困难。Still his physical theory of the universe, the action he allots to the noûs poietkós, and the irresistible influence exerted by the Prime Mover make the conception of genuine moral freedom in his system very obscure and difficult.不过他对宇宙的物理理论,他的行动allots到理性poietkós,以及不可抗拒的影响,使原动机产生了真正的道德自由,在他的系统的概念非常模糊性和难度。 The Stoics adopted a form of materialistic Pantheism.该stoics通过了唯物主义泛神论的形式。God and the world are one.上帝和世界是一体的。All the world's movements are governed by rigid law.世界上所有的动作都是由刚性的法律。Unvaried causality unity of design, fatalistic government, prophecy and foreknowledge--all these factors exclude chance and the possibility of free will.因果的统一的设计都是一样的,听天由命的政府,预言和foreknowledge - 所有这些因素排除在外的机会和自由意志的可能性。Epicurus, oddly in contrast here with his modern hedonistic followers, advocates free will and modifies the strict determinism of the atomists, whose physics he accepts, by ascribing to the atoms a clinamen, a faculty of random deviation in their movements.伊壁鸠鲁,奇怪的反差,与他的现代享乐主义的信徒,主张自由将在这里和修改所指称向原子一clinamen,一个在他们的行踪系随机偏差的原子论,其物理他接受,严格的决定论。 His openly professed object, however, in this point as in the rest of his philosophy, is to release men from the fears caused by belief in irresistible fate.他公开宣称的目标,然而,在本作中他的哲学的一点,是要释放的信念,在不可抗拒的命运引起人们的恐惧。

Free Will and the Christian Religion自由意志和基督教

The problem of free will assumed quite a new character with the advent of the Christian religion.自由意志的问题承担了不少与基督教的出现新的角色。The doctrine that God has created man, has commanded him to obey the moral law, and has promised to reward or punish him for observance or violation of this law, made the reality of moral liberty an issue of transcendent importance.认为上帝创造了人的学说,已经命令他必须服从道德律,并已承诺要奖赏或惩罚遵守或违反本法规定他,使现实的道德自由的超然重要性的问题。 Unless man is really free, he cannot be justly held responsible for his actions, any more than for the date of his birth or the colour of his eyes.除非男子是真正的自由,他不能理直气壮地为自己的行为负责,任何多为自己的出生日期或他的眼睛的颜色了。All alike are inexorably predetermined for him.一切都不可阻挡地预定他。Again, the difficulty of the question was augmented still further by the Christian dogma of the fall of man and his redemption by grace.再次,困难的问题是增强还是进一步由基督教教义的秋季男子和他的恩典救赎。St. Paul, especially in his Epistle to the Romans, is the great source of the Catholic theology of grace.圣保罗,尤其是在他的书中说,罗马是天主教神学的恩典的源泉。

Catholic Doctrine天主教教义

Among the early Fathers of the Church, St. Augustine stands pre-eminent in his handling of this subject.在早期的教会神父,圣奥古斯丁停机前,在他处理这方面突出。He clearly teaches the freedom of the will against the Manichæeans, but insists against the Semipelageians on the necessity of grace, as a foundation of merit.他清楚地教导了对manichæeans意志自由,但坚持反对Semipelageians就必须恩典,作为一个优异的基础。 He also emphasizes very strongly the absolute rule of God over men's wills by His omnipotence and omniscience--through the infinite store, as it were, of motives which He has had at His disposal from all eternity, and by the foreknowledge of those to which the will of each human being would freely consent.他还强调了非常强烈的神统治人的意志的绝对统治他的全能和无所不知 - 通过无限存储,因为它都是他曾在他的处置有从所有永恒的动机,以及由这些预知到这每个人的福利将会将自由地同意。St. Augustine's teaching formed the basis of much of the later theology of the Church on these questions, though other writers have sought to soften the more rigorous portions of his doctrine.圣奥古斯丁的教学形成了对这些问题会在以后的神学基础上的很大,但其他作者试图软化他的学说更严格的部分。This they did especially in opposition to heretical authors, who exaggerated these features in the works of the great African Doctor and attempted to deduce from his principles a form of rigid predeterminism little differing from fatalism.他们这样做,特别是在反对,邪教的作者谁夸大这些伟大的创作特点非洲的医生,并企图从他的原则推导出一个小的刚性predeterminism形式从不同的宿命论。 The teaching of St. Augustine is developed by St. Thomas Aquinas both in theology and philosophy.圣奥古斯丁教学是开发圣托马斯阿奎那无论是在神学和哲学。Will is rational appetite.将是理性的胃口。Man necessarily desires beatitude, but he can freely choose between different forms of it.男子一定乐的愿望,但他可以自由地选择它的不同形式。Free will is simply this elective power.自由意志很简单,就是选修的权力。Infinite Good is not visible to the intellect in this life.无限好,是不可见的,在此生活的智慧。There are always some drawbacks and deficiencies in every good presented to us.总有一些缺点,在提交给我们每一个良好的不足。 None of them exhausts our intellectual capacity of conceiving the good.他们没有排气管我们的构思良好的知识能力。Consequently, in deliberate volition, not one of them completely satiates or irresistibly entices the will.因此,在故意的意志,他们没有一个人完全satiates还是势不可挡地引诱意志。In this capability of the intellect for conceiving the universal lies the root of our freedom.在这种普遍的构思能力的智力在于我们的自由的根源。But God possesses an infallible knowledge of man's future actions.但是上帝拥有一个人的未来行动犯错的知识。How is this prevision possible, if man's future acts are not necessary?这是怎么预知可能的,如果人的未来行为是不是有必要吗? God does not exist in time.上帝不存在的时间。The future and the past are alike ever present to the eternal mind as a man gazing down from a lofty mountain takes in at one momentary glance all the objects which can be apprehended only through a lengthy series of successive experiences by travellers along the winding road beneath, in somewhat similar fashion the intuitive vision of God apprehends simultaneously what is future to us with all it contains.未来和过去是作为一个人凝视着从山上下来一样崇高始终存在的永恒的心灵在一个发生在瞬间一目了然所有可以被逮捕只有通过一系列连续经历漫长曲折的道路沿线的旅客下对象在有些类似的方式直观的视觉神逮捕,同时什么是未来向我们提出的所有它包含的内容。 Further, God's omnipotent providence exercises a complete and perfect control over all events that happen, or will happen, in the universe.此外,上帝的无所不能的普罗维登斯行使对所有的事件发生,或将发生在宇宙中,配套完善的控制权。How is this secured without infringement of man's freedom?这是怎么保证不以人的自由的侵犯?Here is the problem which two distinguished schools in the Church--both claiming to represent the teaching, or at any rate the logical development of the teaching of St. Thomas--attempt to solve in different ways.这里是一个问题,这两个杰出的学校,在教会里 - 都声称代表的教学,或在任何利率的圣托马斯教学合乎逻辑的发展 - 尝试不同的方式来解决。The heresies of Luther and Calvin brought the issue to a finer point than it had reached in the time of Aquinas, consequently he had not formally dealt with it in its ultimate shape, and each of the two schools can cite texts from the works of the Angelic Doctor in which he appears to incline towards their particular view.路德和加尔文的歪理邪说所带来的问题,以更细一点,比它在达成的时候,阿奎那,因此,他还没有正式处理的,它在它的最终形成,以及每两所学校可以举出从文的作品天使般的医生,他似乎倾向于其特殊的观点。

Thomist and Molinist Theories托马斯主义理论和Molinist

The Dominican or Thomist solution, as it is called, teaches in brief that God premoves each man in all his acts to the line of conduct which he subsequently adopts.多米尼加或thomist解决方案,因为它是所谓的,教导我们,上帝premoves他的所有行为中的每个人的行为,他随后采用线简短。 It holds that this premotive decree inclines man's will with absolute certainty to the side decreed, but that God adapts this premotion to the nature of the being thus premoved.它认为,这项法令premotive倾向以人的意志与绝对肯定地向方发布命令,但上帝适应这个premotion到这样premoved暂时性质。 It argues that as God possesses infinite power He can infallibly premove man--who is by nature a free cause--to choose a particular course freely, whilst He premoves the lower animals in harmony with their natures to adopt particular courses by necessity.它认为,作为上帝拥有无限权力,他能infallibly premove男子 - 谁自然是一个自由的事业 - 选择一个特定的课程,畅所欲言,而他premoves其性质与和谐,根据需要采取特别课程的低等动物。Further, this premotive decree being inevitable though adapted to suit the free nature of man, provides a medium in which God foresees with certainty the future free choice of the human being.此外,这项法令premotive是不可避免的,虽然调整,以适应人的自由的性质,提供了一个媒介,在上帝的确定性预见的将来,人类的自由选择。 The premotive decree is thus prior in order of thought to the Divine cognition of man's future actions.该premotive法令,因此,事先在思想对人类的未来行动神圣的认知顺序。Theologians and philosophers of the Jesuit School, frequently styled Molinists, though they do not accept the whole of Molina's teaching and generally prefer Francisco Suárez's exposition of the theory, deem the above solution unsatisfactory.神学家和哲学家的耶稣会学校,频频施展molinists,虽然他们不接受的莫利纳的教学整体和一般喜欢弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯的理论阐述,认为上述解决办法不理想。 It would, they readily admit, provide sufficiently for the infallibility of the Divine foreknowledge and also for God's providential control of the world's history; but, in their view, it fails to give at the same time an adequately intelligible account of the freedom of the human will.它会,他们愿意承认,提供的神圣犯错误充分先见之明,也为神的世界的历史天赐的控制,但在他们看来,它无法在同一时间给一个自由之充分理解到人的意志。 According to them, the relation of the Divine action to man's will should be conceived rather as of a concurrent than of a premotive character; and they maintain that God's knowledge of what a free being would choose, if the necessary conditions were supplied, must be deemed logically prior to any decree of concurrence or premotion in respect to that act of choice.据他们说,在神圣的行动,以人的意志的关系应该是构思,而不是作为一个比一个premotive品格同时,他们认为,上帝的知识,什么是自由的人会选择,如果必要的条件,提供了,必须当作逻辑的同意之前,任何有关法令或premotion在该行为选择。 Briefly, they make a threefold distinction in God's knowledge of the universe based on the nature of the objects known--the Divine knowledge being in itself of course absolutely simple.简单地说,他们提出了一个在上帝的对自然对象,被称为宇宙的知识为基础的三倍区别 - 神圣知识本身当然绝对简单。 Objects or events viewed merely as possible, God is said to apprehend by simple intelligence (simplex intelligentia).物体或事件仅仅看作是可能的,上帝是说,逮捕由简单的智慧(单intelligentia)。Events which will happen He knows by vision (scientia visionis).事件会发生,他知道用视觉(报ACTA visionis)。Intermediate between these are conditionally future events--things which would occur were certain conditions fulfilled.这些中间是有条件之间未来事件 - 这件事会发生某些条件满足。God's knowledge of this class of contingencies they term scientia media.上帝的知识,他们对这个突发长期报ACTA传媒类。 For instance Christ affirmed that, if certain miracles had been wrought in Tyre and Sidon, the inhabitants would have been converted.例如基督申明的是,如果某些奇迹已经造成在提尔和西顿的居民将被转换。The condition was not realized, yet the statement of Christ must have been true.符合有关条件未能实现,但在声明中的基督必须是真实的。 About all such conditional contingencies propositions may be framed which are either true or false--and Infinite Intelligence must know all truth.对于所有此类主张有条件应急可能诬陷,这是真还是假 - 和无穷智慧必须知道所有真相。The conditions in many cases will not be realized, so God must know them apart from any decrees determining their realization.在许多情况下的条件将无法实现,所以上帝要知道,从任何法令,确定其实现它们分开。He knows them therefore, this school holds, in seipsis, in themselves as conditionally future events.他知道他们,因此,这所学校举行,在seipsis,自己是在有条件的未来事件。This knowledge is the scientia media, "middle knowledge", intermediate between vision of the actual future and simple understanding of the merely possible.这知识,是知识媒体“中的知识”,之间的远见未来实际和简单的了解仅仅是可能的中间。Acting now in the light of this scientia media with respect to human volitions, God freely decides according to His own wisdom whether He shall supply the requisite conditions, including His co-operation in the action, or abstain from so doing, and thus render possible or prevent the realization of the event.为贯彻此报ACTA媒体光已经与尊重人的意志,上帝自由地决定根据他自己的智慧,他是否应当提供必要的条件,其中包括他合作的行动,或弃权,没有这样做,从而使尽可能或阻止事件的实现。 In other words, the infinite intelligence of God sees clearly what would happen in any conceivable circumstances.换句话说,神的无穷智慧看会发生什么事在任何可以想象的情况。He thus knows what the free will of any creature would choose, if supplied with the power of volition or choice and placed in any given circumstances.因此,他知道什么是自由意志的任何动物都会选择,如果提供的意志或选择的权力,在任何特定情况下放置。 He now decrees to supply the needed conditions, including His corcursus, or to abstain from so doing.他现在的法令,以供应所需的条件,其中包括他corcursus,或弃权,没有这样做。He thus holds complete dominion and control over our future free actions, as well as over those of a necessary character.因此,他拥有完整的统治和以及对性格的一个必要的在我们未来的自由行动的控制。The Molinist then claims to safeguard better man's freedom by substituting for the decree of an inflexible premotion one of concurrence dependent on God's prior knowledge of what the free being would choose.该Molinist然后索赔,以保障对一人的同意就僵化premotion神的是什么自由的人会选择依赖先验知识更好地取代该法令的人的自由。 If given the power to exert the choice.如果赋予权力,尽自己的选择。He argues that he exempts God more clearly from all responsibility for man's sins.他认为,他更清楚地从神豁免所有男人的罪孽负责。The claim seems to the present writer well founded; at the same time it is only fair to record on the other side that the Thomist urges with considerable force that God's prescience is not so understandable in this, as in his theory.索赔似乎到现在的作家,以及成立,在同一时间,是唯一公平的记录在另一侧的托马斯主义具有相当的力量就是神的先见之明,是不是这样理解的在本作中他的理论,敦促。 He maintains, too, that God's exercise of His absolute dominion over all man's acts and man's entire dependence on God's goodwill are more impressively and more worthily exhibited in the premotion hypothesis.他坚持,也就是神对他的绝对统治行使一切人的行为和人的神的善意整个依赖更令人印象深刻和更多的抱负,在premotion假说展出。 The reader will find an exhaustive treatment of the question in any of the Scholastic textbooks on the subject.读者会发现在关于这个问题的学术教科书问题的任何一个详尽的治疗。

Free will and the Protestant Reformers自由意志与新教改革者

A leading feature in the teaching of the Reformers of the sixteenth century, especially in the case of Luther and Calvin, was the denial of free will.一个在十六世纪的改革者的教学领先的功能,特别是在路德和卡尔文情况下,被剥夺了自由意志。Picking out from the Scriptures, and particularly from St. Paul, the texts which emphasized the importance and efficacy of grace, the all-ruling providence of God, His decrees of election or predestination, and the feebleness of man, they drew the conclusion that the human will, instead of being master of its own acts, is rigidly predetermined in all its choices throughout life.采摘从圣经,特别是来自圣保罗,文本,其中强调的重要性和有效性的恩典,上帝的所有执政的普罗维登斯,选举或宿命,以及衰弱的男子,他的法令,他们得出的结论是意志,而不是被人主宰自己的行为,是硬性整个预定在其所有的生活选择。 As a consequence, man is predestined before his birth to eternal punishment or reward in such fashion that he never can have had any real free-power over his own fate.因此,男子是他出生之前就注定永恒的惩罚或奖励在这样的口吻表示,他从未有过任何真正的自己命运的自由权力。In his controversy with Erasmus, who defended free will, Luther frankly stated that free will is a fiction, a name which covers no reality, for it is not in man's power to think well or ill, since all events occur by necessity.他在与伊拉斯谟,谁捍卫了自由意志的争议,路德坦陈,自由意志是一个虚构,一个名字,其中包括没有任何现实的,因为它不是在人的权力,认为好或变坏,因为所有的事件发生必然。 In reply to Erasmus's "De Libero Arbitrio", he published his own work, "De Servo Arbitrio", glorying in emphasizing man's helplessness and slavery.在回答伊拉斯谟的“自由人Arbitrio德”,他出版了自己的工作,“德伺服Arbitrio”,在强调人的无奈和奴役自夸。 The predestination of all future human acts by God is so interpreted as to shut out any possibility of freedom.由上帝的所有未来的人类行为是这样解释的宿命,以封杀任何自由的可能性。An inflexible internal necessity turns man's will whithersoever God preordains.不灵活的内部必要性轮流以人的意志为神preordains无论往何处去。With Calvin, God's preordination is, if possible, even more fatal to free will.与卡尔文上帝的钦点的是,如果可能的话,更是致命的自由意志。Man can perform no sort of good act unless necessitated to it by God's grace which it is impossible for him to resist.男子可以执行任何形式的良好行为,除非有必要由上帝的恩典,这是不可能的,他抵制它。It is absurd to speak of the human will "co-operating" with God's grace, for this would imply that man could resist the grace of God.这是荒谬的发言的人将“合作经营”,与上帝的恩典这将意味着这名男子能抗拒神的恩典。The will of God is the very necessity of things.上帝的意志是非常有必要的事情。It is objected that in this case God sometimes imposes impossible commands.这是反对说,在这种情况下,上帝有时施加不可能的命令。 Both Calvin and Luther reply that the commands of God show us not what we can do but what we ought to do.双方卡尔文和路德答复,上帝的命令告诉我们,没有什么可以做,但我们应该做的。In condemnation of these views, the Council of Trent declared that the free will of man, moved and excited by God, can by its consent co-operate with God, Who excites and invites its action; and that it can thereby dispose and prepare itself to obtain the grace of justification.在这些意见的谴责,安理会的遄达宣称,人的自由意志,感动和兴奋,上帝,可以由它的同意合作,经营与神,人兴奋,并请其行动,并认为它可以从而处置,并做好准备获得宽限期的理由。 The will can resist grace if it chooses.该会都无法抗拒的恩典,如果它选择。It is not like a lifeless thing, which remains purely passive.它是不是像一个没有生命的东西,这仍然是纯粹被动。Weakened and diminished by Adam's fall, free will is yet not destroyed in the race (Sess. VI, cap. i and v).削弱和亚当的堕落减少,自由意志,是没有毁在正式比赛中(sess.六,帽。I和V)。

Free Will in Modern Philosophy自由意志,在现代哲学

Although from Descartes onward, philosophy became more and more separated from theology, still the theological significance of this particular question has always been felt to be of the highest moment.虽然从笛卡尔开始,哲学从神学开始,仍是神学的意义,尤其是这一问题越来越多的分离一直认为是最高的时刻。Descartes himself at times clearly maintains the freedom of the will (Meditations, III and IV).笛卡尔有时清楚自己保持的意志(沉思,三和四)的自由。At times, however, he attenuates this view and leans towards a species of providential determinism, which is, indeed, the logical consequence of the doctrines of occasionalism and the inefficacy of secondary causes latent in his system.然而有时,他的衰减这一观点和倾向天赐宿命论,它的确是对偶的教义的合乎逻辑的后果和潜在的次要原因在他的系统无效的物种倾斜。

Malebranche developed this feature of Descartes's teaching.马勒伯朗士发达国家的这一笛卡尔的教学特色。Soul and body cannot really act on each other.灵魂和身体不能真正作用于对方。The changes in the one are directly caused by God on the occasion of the corresponding change in the other.在一个变化是由神直接导致对相应的变化,在其他场合。So-called secondary causes are not really efficacious.所谓的次要原因是不是真的有效。Only the First Cause truly acts.只有一个原因,真正的行为。If this view be consistently thought out, the soul, since it possesses no genuine causality, cannot be justly said to be free in its volitions.如果这种观点是一贯思想,灵魂,因为它不拥有任何真正的因果关系,不能理直气壮地说是它的意志自由。Still, as a Catholic theologian, Malebranche could not accept this fatalistic determinism.尽管如此,作为天主教神学家,马勒伯朗士不能接受这个听天由命的宿命论。

Accordingly he defended freedom as essential to religion and morality.因此,他必须捍卫宗教和道德的自由。Human liberty being denied, God should be deemed cruel and unjust, whilst duty and responsibility for man cease to exist.人的自由被剥夺,上帝应该被视为残酷和不公正的,而义务和责任人不再存在。We must therefore be free.因此,我们必须是自由的。Spinoza was more logical.斯宾诺莎是更合乎逻辑。Starting from certain principles of Descartes, he deduced in mathematical fashion an iron-bound pantheistic fatalism which left no room for contingency in the universe and still less for free will.从笛卡尔的某些原则出发,他推导出数学时装铁势必pantheistic宿命论留下自由意志没有应变在宇宙中,仍然较少的空间。 In Leibniz, the prominence given to the principle of sufficient reason, the doctrine that man must choose that which the intellect judges as the better, and the optimistic theory that God Himself has inevitably chosen the present as being the best of all possible worlds, these views, when logically reasoned out, leave very little reality to free will, though Leibniz set himself in marked opposition to the monistic geometrical necessarianism of Spinoza.在莱布尼茨,突出了以足够的理由的原则,学说认为,人必须选择其中智力法官向好,乐观论上帝本人已无可避免地选择了,因为这是所有可能的世界中,这些最好的礼物意见,当逻辑上推断出,很少离开现实,以自由意志,尽管莱布尼茨设置标志,反对以一元论斯宾诺莎几何necessarianism自己。

In England the mechanical materialism of Hobbes was incompatible with moral liberty, and he accepted with cynical frankness all the logical consequences of his theory.在英国的霍布斯机械唯物主义不符合道德自由,他与玩世不恭的坦诚了他的所有理论的逻辑后果接受。Our actions either follow the first appetite that arises in the mind, or there is a series of alternate appetites and fears, which we call deliberation.我们的行动要么跟上第一食欲产生在他心中,还是有一个候补欲望与恐惧中,我们称之为审议。The last appetite or fear, that which triumphs, we call will.最近食欲或恐惧,那胜利,我们呼吁意志。The only intelligible freedom is the power to do what one desires.唯一的理解自由是权力做什么的一个愿望。Here Hobbes is practically at one with Locke.在这里,实际上是在与霍布斯洛克之一。God is the author of all causes and effects, but is not the author of sin, because an action ceases to be sin if God wills it to happen.上帝是一切的原因和影响的作者,但不是作者的罪过,因为一个行动不再是罪恶,如果上帝的意志,这样的情况发生。Still God is the cause of sin.还是神,是罪恶的事业。Praise and blame, rewards and punishments cannot be called useless, because they strengthen motives, which are the causes of action.赞美和指责,兑现奖惩,不能称为没用,因为他们加强动机,这是行动的原因。This, however, does not meet the objection to the justice of such blame or praise, if the person has not the power to abstain from or perform the actions thus punished or rewarded.然而,这不符合对这种指责或赞美正义反对,如果这个人有没有权力以弃权或执行因此受到惩罚或奖励措施。Hume reinforced the determinist attack on free will by his suggested psychological analysis of the notion or feeling of "necessity".休谟,强化按他的建议,概念或“必要性”的感觉心理分析的自由意志决定论的攻击。The controversy, according to him, has been due to misconception of the meaning of words and the error that the alternative to free will is necessity.这场争论,据他介绍,是由于误解的字义和错误的,以自由意志的选择是必要的。This necessity, he says, is erroneously ascribed to some kind of internal nexus supposed to bind all causes to their effects, whereas there is really nothing more in causality than constant succession.这种必要性,他说,是错误地归因于某种内在的联系来约束所有的原因及其影响,而实在没有什么更多的因果关系比不断继承。 The imagined necessity is merely a product of custom or association of ideas.想像的必要性,只不过是一种习惯或观念联想的产物。 Not feeling in our acts of choice this necessity, which we attribute to the causation of material agents, we mistakenly imagine that our volitions have no causes and so are free, whereas they are as strictly determined by the feelings or motives which have gone before, as any material effects are determined by their material antecedents.没有感觉,在我们的行为,选择这个必要性,而我们的物质属性,代理因果关系,我们误以为我们的意志没有原因等,是免费的,而他们是严格的感情或动机都已确定之前,因为任何物质的影响,主要取决于他们的物质前因。 In all our reasonings respecting other persons, we infer their future conduct from their wonted action under particular motives with the same sort of certainty as in the case of physical causation.在所有我们尊重其他人的推理,我们推断在物理因果关系的情况下他们与惯例的行动受到特别的动机与未来进行同类型的确定性。

The same line of argument was adopted by the Associationist School down to Bain and JS Mill.同样的论据线是通过由associationist学校下降到贝恩和JS密尔。For the necessity of Hobbes or Spinoza is substituted by their descendants what Professor James calls a "soft determinism", affirming solely the invariable succession of volition upon motive.对于斯宾诺莎的必要性霍布斯或他们的后裔取代什么教授詹姆斯称之为“软宿命论”,申明完全自愿的动机时不变的继承。 JS Mill merely developed with greater clearness and fuller detail the principles of Hume.穆勒只是发达国家有更大的清晰和更详细的休谟的原则。In particular, he attacked the notion of "constraint" suggested in the words necessity and necessarianism, whereas only sequence is affirmed.特别是,他攻击的“约束”的字样必要性和necessarianism提出的概念,而只有顺序是肯定的。Given a perfect knowledge of character and motives, we could infallibly predict action.给定一个完美的性格和动机的了解,我们可以infallibly预测行动。The alleged consciousness of freedom is disputed.自由的指控意识是有争议的。We merely feel that we choose, not that we could choose the opposite.我们只是觉得我们的选择,不是我们可以选择相反。Moreover the notion of free will is unintelligible.此外,自由意志的概念是难以理解的。The truth is that for the Sensationalist School, who believe the mind to be merely a series of mental states, free will is an absurdity.事实是,学​​校为追求轰动效应,谁相信的态度仅仅是一系列的精神状态,自由意志是一种荒谬。On the other side, Reid, and Stewart, and Hamilton, of the Scotch School, with Mansel, Martineau, WJ Ward, and other Spiritualist thinkers of Great Britain, energetically defended free will against the disciples of Hume.在另一边,瑞德和斯图尔特和汉密尔顿的苏格兰学校,与曼塞尔,马蒂诺,温家宝病房治疗,并大不列颠其他spiritualist思想家,大力捍卫了对休谟的弟子的自由意志。 They maintained that a more careful analysis of volition justified the argument from consciousness, that the universal conviction of mankind on such a fact may not be set aside as an illusion, that morality cannot be founded on an act of self-deception; that all languages contain terms involving the notion of free will and all laws assume its existence, and that the attempt to render necessarianism less objectionable by calling it determinism does not diminish the fatalism involved in it.他们认为,一个意志更仔细的分析有道理的论点,认为,对这样一个事实人类普遍信念可能并未被设定为一种幻想,认为道德不能以一种自我欺骗行为成立作废;,所有的语言载有条款涉及自由意志的概念,并承担其所有法律的存在,并认为,试图使necessarianism那么通过调用它决定不会削弱它涉及的宿命论反感。 The truth that phenomenalism logically involves determinism is strikingly illustrated in Kant's treatment of the question.真相phenomenalism逻辑涉及宿命论是惊人地说明康德对这个问题的处理。His well-known division of all reality into phenomena and noumena is his key to this problem also.他著名的全部投入实际现象和本体师是他的关键,这个问题也。The world as it appears to us, the world of phenomena, including our own actions and mental states, can only be conceived under the form of time and subject to the category of causality, and therefore everything in the world of experience happens altogether according to the laws of nature; that is, all our actions are rigidly determined.这个世界,因为它在我们看来,世界上的现象,包括我们自己的行动和精神状态的,只能被理解下的时间和主题,因果关系的范畴,并在世界上的经验,因此一切形式先后发生根据大自然的规律,这就是我们的一切行动都是硬性确定。 But, on the other hand, freedom is a necessary postulate of morality: "Thou canst, because thou oughtest."但是,另一方面,自由是道德的必要假设:“你若能,因为你见杀。”The solution of the antinomy is that the determinism concerns only the empirical or phenomenal world.这一悖论的解决方案是,该决定只涉及实证或以惊人的世界。There is no ground for denying liberty to the Ding an sich.也没有否认自由向丁一自发性脑出血地面。We may believe in transcendental freedom, that we are noumenally free.我们可以相信,在先验自由,我们是noumenally自由。 Since, moreover, the belief that I am free and that I am a free cause, is the foundation stone of religion and morality, I must believe in this postulate.此后,而且,相信我的自由和我是一个自由的事业,是宗教和道德的基石,我必须相信这个假设。Kant thus gets over the antinomy by confining freedom to the world of noumena, which lie outside the form of time and the category of causality, whilst he affirms necessity of the sensible world, bound by the chain of causality.康德因此获得超过悖论局限于自由世界的本体,这就是外界的形式,时间和种类的因果关系,而他肯定必要性,有理智的世界,由因果关系的约束。 Apart from the general objection to Kant's system, a grave difficulty here lies in the fact that all man's conduct--his whole moral life as it is revealed in actual experience either to others or himself--pertains in this view to the phenomenal world and so is rigidly determined.除了一般的反对康德的体制,一个严重的困难在于,所有的人的行为 - 他的整个道德生活,因为这是暴露在实际经验或是他人或自己 - 这种观点涉及到的现象世界和这么硬性确定。

Though much acute philosophical and psychological analysis has been brought to bear on the problem during the last century, it cannot be said that any great additional light has been shed over it.尽管有很多尖锐的哲学和心理分析,已提请承受问题,在上个世纪,不能说,任何伟大的增加轻已在它棚。 In Germany, Schopenhauer made will the noumenal basis of the world and adopted a pessimistic theory of the universe, denying free will to be justified by either ethics or psychology.在德国,叔本华将作出对世界本体的基础上,采取了悲观论的宇宙,否认自由意志,要合理的或道德或心理学。On the other hand, Lotze, in many respects perhaps the acutest thinker in Germany since Kant, was an energetic defender of moral liberty.另一方面,洛采,在许多方面也许在德国思想家康德acutest以来,一个充满活力的道德自由的捍卫者。Among recent psychologists in America Professors James and Ladd are both advocates of freedom, though laying more stress for positive proof on the ethical than on the psychological evidence.其中,在美国教授詹姆斯和拉德最近的心理学家,都是主张自由,虽然比上奠定的心理证据证明更积极的道德压力。


As the main features of the doctrine of free will have been sketched in the history of the problem, a very brief account of the argument for moral freedom will now suffice.作为自由学说的主要功能将一直在这个问题的历史勾勒,一个非常简短的论点道德自由帐户现在足够了。Will viewed as a free power is defined by defenders of free will as the capacity of self-determination.将看作是一个自由的权力,是由作为自决的自由意志的能力捍卫定义。By self is here understood not a single present mental state (James), nor a series of mental states (Hume and Mill), but an abiding rational being which is the subject and cause of these states.通过这里了解自我是不是一个单一的,目前精神状态(詹姆斯),也不是(休姆和轧机)精神状态系列,而是一种理性守法正在这是主题,这些国家的原因。 We should distinguish between:我们应该区分:

spontaneous acts, those proceeding from an internal principle (eg the growth of plants and impulsive movements of animals);自发的行为,那些从内部原则(如植物和动物的浮躁变动增长)的程序;

voluntary acts in a wide sense, those proceeding from an internal principle with apprehension of an end (eg all conscious desires);在广泛意义上的自愿行为,那些从与结束(如所有的自觉愿望)逮捕内部原则进行;

and, finally those voluntary in the strict sense, that is, deliberate or free acts.以及最后那些在严格意义上说,这是蓄意或自由自愿的行为。

In such, there is a self-conscious advertence to our own causality or an awareness that we are choosing the act, or acquiescing in the desire of it.在这样的,是有自我意识,以我们自己的因果关系或认识到,我们正在选择行为,或默许了它的愿望。Spontaneous acts and desires are opposed to coaction or external compulsion, but they are not thereby morally free acts.自发的行为和欲望却是反对coaction或外部的强制,但他们并不因此在道义上的自由的行为。They may still be the necessary outcome of the nature of the agent as, eg the actions of lower animals, of the insane, of young children, and many impulsive acts of mature life.他们可能依然是作为代理的性质必然的结果,如低等动物的行动中,将疯狂的幼童,以及成熟的生活的许多冲动行为。The essential feature in free volition is the element of choice--the vis electiva, as St. Thomas calls it.在自由意志的本质特征就是选择的元素 - 可见electiva,作为圣托马斯调用它。There is a concomitant interrogative awareness in the form of the query "shall I acquiesce or shall I resist? Shall I do it or something else?", and the consequent acceptance or refusal, ratification or rejection, though either may be of varying degrees of completeness.有一个查询的形式伴随讯问意识,“我应该默许或我应该抵制?我应该怎么办呢,还是别的?”,并作出相应的接受或拒绝,批准或否决,虽然二者可能会有不同程度的完整性。 It is this act of consent or approval, which converts a mere involuntary impulse or desire into a free volition and makes me accountable for it.正是这种同意或批准,并转换成一个自由意志,只有非自愿性冲动或欲望,并让我为它承担责任的行为。A train of thought or volition deliberately initiated or acquiesced in, but afterward continued merely spontaneously without reflective advertence to our elective adoption of it, remains free in causa, and I am therefore responsible for it, though actually the process has passed into the department of merely spontaneous or automatic activity.一种思想或意志火车刻意发起或默许,但随后继续无反光,以我们的选修课通过它只是自发,仍然自由中的原因,我对此负责,因此,虽然实际的进程已经到了部门通过只是自发或自动活动。 A large part of the operation of carrying out a resolution, once the decision is made, is commonly of this kind.阿的行动进行了一项决议很大一部分,一旦作出决定,通常是这样的。The question of free will may now be stated thus.自由意志的问题,现在可以说明这样。"Given all the conditions requisite for eliciting an act of will except the act itself, does the act necessarily follow?"“考虑到所有的条件,激发意志的行为本身,除了必要的行为,是否该法一定要跟进?”Or, "Are all my volitions the inevitable outcome of my character and the motives acting on me at the time?"或者,“都是我的意志的必然结果,我的性格和动机署理对我的时间?”Fatalists, necessarians, determinists say "Yes".Fatalists,necessarians,determinists说“是”。Libertarians, indeterminists or anti-determinists say "No. The mind or soul in deliberate actions is a free cause. Given all the conditions requisite for action, it can either act or abstain from action. It can, and sometimes does, exercise its own causality against the weight of character and present motives.自由党人,indeterminists或反determinists说:“不是,心灵或灵魂蓄意行动,是一个自由的事业。由于各种条件的行动,它可以作为或不采取行动的必要条件。它可以,而且有时候,行使其因果关系对动机的性格和现在的重量。


The evidence usually adduced at the present day is of two kinds, ethical and psychological--though even the ethical argument is itself psychological.通常,在现今提出的证据是两种,道德和心理 - 伦理争论,但即使是自己的心理。

(1) Ethical Argument(1)伦理争论

It is argued that necessarianism or determinism in any form is in conflict with the chief moral notions and convictions of mankind at large.有人认为,necessarianism或任何形式的决定与行政道德观念和整个人类的信念冲突。The actual universality of such moral ideas is indisputable.这种道德观念的实际普遍性是不容置疑的。Duty, moral obligation, responsibility, merit, justice signify notions universally present in the consciousness of normally developed men.责任,道德义务,责任,择优的原则,正义的象征观念普遍的发展,通常在人们的意识中。 Further, these notions, as universally understood, imply that man is really master of some of his acts, that he is, at least at times, capable of self-determination, that all his volitions are not the inevitable outcome of his circumstances.此外,这些概念,为普遍理解,意味着人是真正掌握他的一些行为,他是,至少在时代,自决的能力,他所有的意志都不能满足他的情况下的必然结果。 When I say that I ought not to have performed some forbidden act, that it was my duty to obey the law, I imply that I could have done so.当我说我不应该表现一些禁止行为,这是我的职责是要遵守法律,我的意思是我可以这样做。 The judgment of all men is the same on this point.所有的人判断是在这一点上相同。When we say that a person is justly held responsible for a crime, or that he deserves praise or reward for an heroic act of self-sacrifice, we mean that he was author and cause of that act in such fashion that he had it in his power not to perform the act.当我们说一个人是公正地举行,负责犯罪的,或者说,他是值得表扬或一个自我牺牲的英雄行为的奖励,是指他是作家,在这种时尚的行为,他曾是他的事业有权不履行的行为。 We exempt the insane or the child, because we believe them devoid of moral freedom and determined inevitably by the motives which happened to act on them.我们豁免精神失常或子女,因为我们认为他们缺乏道德的自由和必然发生的动机采取行动对他们的决定。So true is this, that determinists have had to admit that the meaning of these terms will, according to their view, have to be changed.所以,真正的情况是,determinists都不得不承认,这些术语的含义,将按照他们的观点,都必须改变。 But this is to admit that their theory is in direct conflict with universal psychological facts.但是,这是不得不承认,他们的理论中的普遍心理事实的直接冲突。It thereby stands disproved.因此,它代表反驳。Again, it may be urged that, if logically followed out, the determinist doctrine would annihilate human morality, consequently that such a theory cannot be true.再次,它可能会敦促,如果逻辑上遵循的那样,决定论学说,将消灭人类的道德,因此,这种理论不能是真实的。(See FATALISM.)(见宿命论。)

(2) Psychological Argument(2)心理争

Consciousness testifies to our moral freedom.意识的,证明我们的道德自由。We feel ourselves to be free when exercising certain acts.我们觉得自己获得自由时,行使某些行为。We judge afterwards that we acted freely in those acts.我们的法官事后说,我们采取了行动自由的行为。We distinguish them quite clearly from experiences, in which we believe we were not free or responsible.我们分辨他们很清楚,从经验来看,我们相信我们不是免费或承担责任。The conviction is not confined to the ignorant; even the determinist psychologist is governed in practical life by this belief.这种信念并非局限于无知,甚至决定论心理学家,在实际生活中受这一信念。Henry Sidgwick states the fact in the most moderate terms, when he says:亨利西奇威克国家在最温和的条件事实上,当他说:

Certainly in the case of actions in which I have a distinct consciousness of choosing between alternatives of conduct, one of which I conceive as right or reasonable, I find it impossible not to think that I can now choose to do what I so conceive, however strong may be my inclination to act unreasonably, and however uniformly I may have yielded to such inclinations in the past (Methods of Ethics).当然,在行动中,我有一间行为的替代方案,而我设想作为正确或合理,我觉得不可能,不要以为我现在可以选择做我这么设想的情况选择不同的意识,但强大的,可我倾向采取不合理的,但是均匀我可能屈服于这种倾向在过去(伦理方法)。

The force of the evidence is best realized by carefully studying the various mental activities in which freedom is exercised.证据的力量是最好的,实现了仔细研究在其中自由的行使各种精神活动。Amongst the chief of these are: voluntary attention, deliberation, choice, sustained resistance to temptation.其中包括行政的,它们是:自愿的注意,酝酿,选择,持续抵抗的诱惑。The reader will find them analyzed at length by the authors referred to at the end of this article; or, better still, he can think them out with concrete examples in his own inner experience.读者会发现,他们分析了在长度由作者提到在本文结束,或者,更好的是,他能想到,在他自己的内心体验具体的例子出来。


The main objection to this argument is stated in the assertion that we can be conscious only of what we actually do, not of our ability to do something else.主要的反对这样的说法是说在断言,我们只能对我们实际,而不是我们的能力,做其他的事情做的意识。The reply is that we can be conscious not only of what we do, but of how we do it; not only of the act but of the mode of the act.答复是,我们可以有意识地不仅对我们做什么,但我们如何做到这一点,不仅该行为,但该法的模式。Observation reveals to us that we are subjects of different kinds of processes of thought and volition.观察向我们揭示,我们的思想和意志过程的不同种科目。Sometimes the line of conscious activity follows the direction of spontaneous impulse, the preponderating force of present motive and desire; at other times we intervene and exert personal causality.有时路线的自觉活动遵循自发的冲动,目前的动机和愿望占优势力的方向,在其他时候,我们介入,发挥个人的因果关系。 Consciousness testifies that we freely and actively strengthen one set of motives, resist the stronger inclination, and not only drift to one side but actively choose it.意识证明了我们自由,并积极加强一套动机,抵御强大的倾向,而不是仅仅漂移到一边,但积极选择它。In fact, we are sure that we sometimes exert free volition, because at other times we are the subject of conscious activities that are not free, and we know the difference.事实上,我们相信,我们有时发挥,因为在其他时间自由意志,我们是有意识的,是不自由活动的主体,我们知道其中的差别。 Again, it is urged that experience shows that men are determined by motives, and that we always act on this assumption.再次,这是敦促经验表明,男性是取决于动机,而且我们始终对这个假设。The reply is that experience proves that men are influenced by motives, but not that they are always inexorably determined by the strongest motive.答复是,经验证明,人是受动机的影响,但不是说他们永远是不可阻挡的最强烈的动机决定的。It as alleged that we always decide in favour of the strongest motive.它指称我们总是决定赞成的强烈动机。This is either untrue, or the barren statement that we always choose what we choose.这是无论是不真实的,或荒芜的声明说,我们总是选择是我们自己选择。A free volition is "a causeless volition".一个自由意志,是“偶然的意志”。The mind itself is the cause.思想本身是原因。(For other objections see FATALISM; ENERGY, THE LAW OF THE CONSERVATION OF; and the works referred to at the end of this article.)(其他异议见宿命论,能源,该法律的保护。并提到在本文结束的作品)


Free will does not mean capability of willing in the absence of all motive, or of arbitrarily choosing anything whatever.自由意志并不意味着所有的动机能力,愿意的情况下,或擅自将选择什么什么的。 The rational being is always attracted by what is apprehended as good.理性的,是始终吸引什么是理解为好。Pure evil, misery as such, man could not desire.纯粹的邪恶,因此,人不能欲望的痛苦。However, the good presents itself in many forms and under many aspects--the pleasant, the prudent, the right, the noble, the beautiful--and in reflective or deliberate action we can choose among these.然而,好礼物多种形式,并在许多方面本身 - 愉快的,审慎的,正确的,高尚,美丽的 - 在反射或蓄意行动,我们可以选择其中。The clear vision of God would necessarily preclude all volition at variance with this object, but in this world we never apprehend Infinite Good.神的明确的目标一定会排除一切与此对象方差的意志,但在这个世界上,我们从来没有逮捕无限好。Nor does the doctrine of free will imply that man is constantly exerting this power at every waking moment, any more than the statement that he is a "rational" animal implies that he is always reasoning.也没有自由意志意味着人是不断在每个醒来的时刻发挥这种力量,任何以上声明中表示,他是一个“理性”的动物,学说意味着他永远是推理。 Much the larger part of man's ordinary life is administered by the machinery of reflex action, the automatic working of the organism, and acquired habits.与其说是人的普通生活较大部分的管理工作由反射性动作,机体自动工作,并取得了习惯机械。In the series of customary acts which fill up our day, such as rising, meals, study, work, etc., probably the large majority are merely "spontaneous" and are proximately determined by their antecedents, according to the combined force of character and motive.在习惯行为,填补了我们​​一天,如系列上升,膳食,学习,工作等,可能大部分都只是“自发”,并在proximately取决于它们的前因,根据结合的力量和性格动机。 There is nothing to arouse special volition, or call for interference with the natural current, so the stream of consciousness flows smoothly along the channel of least resistance.没有什么可以引起干扰的自然电流,所以意识流特殊意志,或拨打畅顺沿阻力最小的通道。For such series of acts we are responsible, as was before indicated, not because we exert deliberate volition at each step, but because they are free in causa, because we have either freely initiated them, or approved them from time to time when we adverted to their ethical quality, or because we freely acquired the habits which now accomplish these acts.对于行为,我们有责任,正如前表示,这并不是因为我们每一步故意施加的意志,而是因为他们是自由中的原因,因为我们已经启动了自由,或经核准的时间去的时候我们adverted等系列他们的道德品质,或者是因为我们获得了自由的习性,目前完成这些行为。 It is especially when some act of a specially moral complexion is recognized as good or evil that the exertion of our freedom is brought into play.尤其是当某些肤色的一个特别道德行为是善或恶认识到,我们的自由发挥的发挥出来。With reflective advertence to the moral quality comes the apprehension that we are called on to decide between right and wrong; then the consciousness that we are choosing freely, which carries with it the subsequent conviction that the act was in the strictest sense our own, and that we are responsible for it.反光的,以道德品质,随之而来的,我们呼吁,以决定正确与错误逮捕,然后意识,才使我们选择自由,这与它进行随后的信念,该行为在严格的意义是我们自己的,我们负责。


Our moral freedom, like other mental powers, is strengthened by exercise.我们的道德自由,像其他的精神力量,是加强锻炼。The practice of yielding to impulse results in enfeebling self-control.其屈服在enfeebling自我控制一时冲动的结果的做法。 The faculty of inhibiting pressing desires, of concentrating attention on more remote goods, of reinforcing the higher but less urgent motives, undergoes a kind of atrophy by disuse. ,抑制迫切愿望,集中注意力于较偏远的货物,加固较高,但不迫切的动机,教师,经历了一个由废用性萎缩的一种。In proportion as a man habitually yields to intemperance or some other vice, his freedom diminishes and he does in a true sense sink into slavery.在比例作为一个男人惯常屈服于酗酒或其他一些国家副主席,他的自由,削弱了,他是在一个真正意义上的接收器为奴隶一样。 He continues responsible in causa for his subsequent conduct, though his ability to resist temptation at the time is lessened.他继续为他后来的行为负责的病因,但他有能力抵御诱惑,在当时是减少。On the other hand, the more frequently a man restrains mere impulse, checks inclination towards the pleasant, puts forth self-denial in the face of temptation, and steadily aims at a virtuous life, the more does he increase in self-command and therefore in freedom.另一方面,更频密的男子,制约仅仅是冲动,检查倾向舒适,放入面对诱惑提出自我否定,稳步,是良性的生活目标,更多的他是否增加自我指挥,因此,在自由。 The whole doctrine of Christian asceticism thus makes for developing and fostering moral liberty, the noblest attribute of man.整个的基督教禁欲主义学说,从而使得为发展和促进道德自由,人类最崇高的属性。William James's sound maxim: "Keep the faculty of effort alive in you by a little gratuitous exercise every day", so that your will may be strong to stand the pressure of violent temptation when it comes, is the verdict of the most modern psychology in favour of the discipline of the Catholic Church.威廉詹姆斯的声音格言:“保持一个小无偿行使的努​​力活着,在你教师每一天”,让你将可能会较为强劲经受暴力的诱惑,压力,当它来了,是最现代心理学的判决,赞成的天主教教会的纪律。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher.出版信息的书面迈克尔马希尔。Transcribed by Rick McCarty.转录由里克麦卡蒂。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.天主教百科全书,第六卷。Published 1909.1909年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat 9月1日,1909。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


The literature of the free-will controversy is enormous, nearly all the leading philosophers having dealt with the problem.该自由意志的争论文学是巨大的,几乎所有领先的哲学家谈论过这个问题的处理。 Perhaps the best general historical treatment of all the branches of the question--fatalism, predestination, necessarianism, determinism--is to be found in FONSEGRIVE, Essai sur le libre arbitre (2nd ed., Paris, 1896).宿命,宿命,necessarianism,宿命论 - - 也许是最好的将军的各分支机构对待历史的问题要在FONSEGRIVE发现,Essai河畔乐自由报arbitre(第二版,巴黎,1896年。)。 See also ALEXANDER, Theories of the Will (New York, 1884); JANET AND SEAILLES, History of Problems of Philosophy (tr. New York and London, 1902).另见亚历山大意志(纽约,1884)的理论; Janet和SEAILLES,对哲学问题(tr.纽约和伦敦,1902年)的历史。

Also, see:此外,见:
Predestination 宿命
Fatalism 宿命论

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