Dispensation免除

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(Gr. oikonomia, "management," "economy").(Gr. oikonomia,“管理”,“经济”)。(1.) The method or scheme according to which God carries out his purposes towards men is called a dispensation. There are usually reckoned three dispensations, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic or Jewish, and the Christian. These were so many stages in God's unfolding of his purpose of grace toward men.(1。)的方法或计划,根据该神进行他的目的,对男人被称为免除。 通常有估计三特许,宗法,马赛克或犹太教和基督教。这是上帝的开展如此多的阶段他对男人的优雅的目的。The word is not found with this meaning in Scripture.这个词是没有找到与此在经文的意义。(2.) A commission to preach the gospel (1 Cor. 9:17; Eph. 1:10; 3:2; Col. 1:25).。(2)委员会,以传福音(1肺心病9点17分。。弗1:10; 3:2;上校1:25)。Dispensations of Providence are providential events which affect men either in the way of mercy or of judgement.静宜特许是影响中慈悲或任何人的判断方式天赐的事件。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Dispensation, Dispensationalism配药,Dispensationalism

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The Greek words, used about twenty times in the NT, mean "to manage, regulate, administer, and plan the affairs of a household."希腊字,大约25倍,在新台币使用,意思是“管理,规范,管理,并规划一个家庭的事务。”This concept of human stewardship is illustrated in Luke 16:1 - 2, where the ideas of responsibility, accountability, and the possibility of change are detailed.这说明了人的管理理念在路加福音16时零一分 - 2,其中的责任,问责制和改变的可能性有详细的想法。In other occurrences (Eph. 1:10; 3:2, 9; Col. 1:25) the idea of divine stewardship is prominent, ie, an administration or plan being accomplished by God in this world.在其他事件(以弗所书1:10; 3:2,9;上校1:25)指导思想的神圣突出,即一个行政或计划被神在这个世界上完成的。

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Theological Usage神学用法

Building on the idea of God's administration of or plan for the world, dispensationalism describes the unfolding of that program in various dispensations, or stewardship arrangements, throughout the history of the world. The world is seen as a household administered by God in connection with several stages of revelation that mark off the different economies in the outworking of his total program.建基于世界的想法上帝的行政的或计划,dispensationalism介绍特许安排,或指导下,开展这一方案在各种,在整个世界历史的。世界是几看到连接作为管理的一个家庭神揭示了该商标的阶段他的总方案的不同经济体在outworking。 These economies are the dispensations in dispensationalism. Thus from God's viewpoint a dispensation is an economy; from man's it is a responsibility to the particular revelation given at the time. In relation to progressive revelation, a dispensation is a stage within it. 这些经济体在dispensationalism的特许。因此,从神的观点免除是一个经济人的它是一种责任。时间的特殊启示,给予从关于渐进式的启示,免除是这一阶段内。 Thus a dispensation may be defined as "a distinguishable economy in the outworking of God's program."因此,免除可能被定义“在上帝的计划outworking。树一帜的经济”

Number of Dispensations特许数

At least three dispensations (as commonly understood in dispensationalism) are mentioned by Paul: one preceding the present time (Col. 1:25 - 26), the present arrangement (Eph. 3:2), and a future administration (Eph. 1:10). 至少有三个特许(如常用dispensationalism理解)都提到保罗:一前一本时间(上校1点25分- 26),目前的安排(弗3:2),而未来管理(以弗所书1 :10)。These three require a fourth, one before the law, and a prelaw dispensation would seem to need to be divided into pre - and postfall economies. 这三个需要一个在法律面前四分之一,以及一个prelaw省却似乎需要预先分为-和postfall经济。Thus five administrations seem clearly distinguishable (at least within a premillennial understanding of Scripture).因此,五个管理部门似乎清晰可辨(至少在一圣经premillennial了解)。 The usual sevenfold scheme includes a new economy after the Noahic flood and another with the call of Abraham.通常的七倍计划包括呼叫亚伯拉罕的新经济之后的Noahic洪水和另一个。

Relation to Progressive Revelation关系渐进式的启示

God did not reveal all truth at one time but through various periods and stages of revelation. This principle of progressive revelation is evident in the Scriptures themselves. 上帝没有透露所有真相的启示,但在同一时间通过不同阶段和时期。这个启示是显而易见的原则,逐步在经文本身。Paul told his audience on Mars Hill that in a former time God overlooked their ignorance, but now commands all men everywhere to repent (Acts 17:30).保罗告诉他的听众对火星山,在神前的时间忽略他们的无知,但现在命令所有男人到处悔改(徒17:30)。The majestic opening of the book of Hebrews outlines the various means of progressive revelation (Heb. 1:1 - 2).作者:希伯来书概述了雄伟开放的渐进式的启示(希伯来书1:1 - 2)各种手段。One of the most striking verses that show different ways of God's dealing with mankind is John 1:17.其中最引人注目的诗句,表明上帝与人类不同的处理方法之一是约翰1时17。

The concept of progressive revelation does not negate the unity of the Bible but recognizes the diversity of God's unfolding revelation as essential to the unity of his completed revelation. 渐进式的启示概念并不否定圣经团结的,但承认多样性的启示,上帝的启示是必不可少的开展完成了对团结的。

Essential Characteristics本质特征

Dispensational theology grows out of a consistent use of the hermeneutical principle of normal, plain, or literal interpretation.时代论神学生长出了正常,平原,或字面解释诠释学的原则相一致。This principle does not exclude the use of figures of speech, but insists that behind every figure is a literal meaning.这一原则并不排除对修辞格的使用,但坚持认为,每一个数字背后,是一个字面上的意义。

Applying this hermeneutical principle leads dispensationalism to distinguish God's program for Israel from his program for the church.运用这一原则,导致dispensationalism诠释学,以区别于他的计划为教会神对以色列的计划。Thus the church did not begin in the OT but on the day of Pentecost, and the church is not presently fulfilling promises made to Israel in the OT that have not yet been fulfilled.因此,教会并没有展开,但在加时赛上一天的降临,教会目前还不能履行承诺,在那些尚未实现加时赛以色列。

Salvation救恩

Doubtless the most frequently heard objection to dispensationalism is that it allegedly teaches several ways of salvation. 毫无疑问,最经常听到的反对dispensationalism是,它据称教导得救的几种方法。This arises from wrongly considering each dispensation as a way of salvation (therefore, there are five, six, or seven ways) instead of inclusive administrative arrangements which included, among many other things, sufficient revelation so that a person could be right with God.这救恩错误地考虑来自各省却方式一 (因此,有五,六,或七的方式),而不是包容性的行政安排,其中包括东西,在许多其他足够的启示,使一个人能够与神权。It also comes from a misunderstanding of the use of "law" and "grace" as labels for two of the dispensations, as if to imply that these are two ways of salvation. However, dispensationalists have taught and do teach that salvation is always through God's grace.它也来自一个特许误解了使用“法律”和“宽限期”两为标签的,仿佛暗示这两种拯救途径。 然而,时代论,来教教说,救恩是做总是通过神的恩典。

The basis of salvation in every dispensation is the death of Christ; the requirement for salvation in every age is faith; the object of faith is the true God; but the content of faith changes in the various dispensations. To affirm a sameness in the content of faith would of necessity deny progressiveness in revelation. 省却基础是每一个在基督救恩死亡;年龄规定在每一个得救的是信念的信仰对象是真神,但内容不同的特许信仰改变的内容要在这里重申一个千篇一律信仰会否认在启示录的先进性的必要性。 Nondispensationalists may sometimes be guilty of reading the NT back into the OT in order to be able to achieve a uniformity in the content of faith. Nondispensationalists有时会读入加时赛新台币回,以便能够实现在信仰的含量均匀度有罪。

Origins起源

Often dispensationalism is charged with being recent in origin, and therefore untrue.往往dispensationalism是最近被指控在原产地,因此与事实不符。Of course, recency does not mean falsity any more than antiquity guarantees truth.当然,近因并不意味着任何虚假的真实,比古代的保证。Unsystematic dispensational-like statements can be found from the writings of the church fathers on, but as a system dispensationalism did not begin to develop until the early part of the eighteenth century in the writings of Pierre Poiret, John Edwards, and Isaac Watts.杂乱时代论般的报表可以发现从教堂的父亲的著作,但作为一个系统dispensationalism才开始发展,直至在皮埃尔波烈,爱德华兹,和Isaac瓦的著作十八世纪初。 Though these men set forth dispensational schemes, it was the ministry and writings of John Nelson Darby in the nineteenth century that systematized the concept. His work was the foundation for later dispensationalists such as James H Brookes, James M Gray, CI Scofield, and LS Chafer.虽然这些人提出时代论计划, 这是该部著作和达比约翰尼尔森在十九世纪,系统化的概念。他的工作的LS的基础,为以后,时代,如詹姆斯H布鲁克斯,詹姆斯M灰色,传播斯科菲尔德金龟子。

Other Dispensational Schemes其他时代论计划

Some covenant theologians (those who view God operating under a single covenant of grace from the fall on) use the concept of different dispensations but as part of the covenant of grace.有些圣约神学家(那些谁下查看的宽限期从跌倒单一公约神经营)特许使用不同的概念,但作为该公约的恩典的一部分。The OT and NT dispensations are readily recognized, though some add dispensations related to the call of Abraham and the giving of the Mosaic law (eg, Charles Hodge).催产素和NT特许很容易识别,虽然有些添加相关的亚伯拉罕呼叫特许和镶嵌法(例如,查尔斯Hodge)发出。However, the unifying feature is the covenant of grace and salvation under it, so that any changes from one dispensation to another are in the nature of anticipation in the OT and accomplishment in the NT, rather than distinctive and actual changes in administration.然而,统一的特征是其下恩典和救恩的约,使从一个到另一个省却任何更改都在加时赛中的期待和成绩在新台币性质,而不是独特的和行政部门的实际变化。

Though there are several branches of ultra dispensationalism, they are characterized by teaching the existence of two churches within the book of Acts.虽然有几支超dispensationalism,它们的特点是教学在使徒行传的两个教会的存在。One was the Jewish church which began at Pentecost and ended when the second, the body of Christ church, began with the ministry of the apostle Paul at either Acts 9, 13, or 28).一个是犹太人在五旬节教会开始和结束时,第二,基督的教会团体,在使徒保罗部开始在任行为9,13,或28)。Ultradispensationalists often do not practice water baptism but usually observe the Lord's Supper. Ultradispensationalists往往不实行水的洗礼,但通常遵循主的晚餐。

CC Ryrie消委会ryrie
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
CB Bass, Backgrounds to Dispensationalism; DP Fuller, Gospel and Law; CN Kraus, Dispensationalism in America; CC Ryrie, Dispensationalism Today; E Sauer, From Eternity to Eternity; CI Scofield, ed., The New Scofield Reference Bible.会CB低音,到Dispensationalism背景; DP的富勒,福音和法律; Cn中克劳斯,美国Dispensationalism;消委会ryrie,Dispensationalism今天,电子商务绍尔,从永恒到永恒。区间斯科菲尔德,教育署,新斯科菲尔德参考圣经。


Dispensation省却

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Dispensation primarily signifies "the management of a household or of household affairs" (oikos, "a house," nomos, "a law"); then the management or administration of the property of others, and so "a stewardship," Luke 16:2-4; elsewhere only in the epistles of Paul, who applies it省却主要标志“的家庭或家庭事务的管理”(oikos,“房子”亚州,“一法”),然后的管理或对他人财产的管理,因此“一个领导,”卢克16 :2 - 4,其他地方只在保罗,谁适用于它的书信

Note: A "dispensation" is not a period or epoch (a common, but erroneous, use of the word), but a mode of dealing, an arrangement, or administration of affairs. Cf.:“豁免”不是一个时期或时代(一个错误,使用这个词常见的,但是),但处理事务的方式,安排,或政府比照。。 oikonomos, "a steward," and oikonomeo, "to be a steward."oikonomos,“管家”和oikonomeo,“是一个管家。”


Dispensation省却

Catholic Information天主教新闻

(Latin dispensatio)(拉丁dispensatio)

Dispensation is an act whereby in a particular case a lawful superior grants relaxation from an existing law.省却是一个在特定情况下的行为,使合法上级补助从现行法律的放松。This article will treat:这篇文章将处理:

I. Dispensation in General;一,省却一般;

II.二。Matrimonial Dispensations.婚姻dispensations。

For dispensations from vows see VOWS and RELIGIOUS ORDERS; and from fasting and abstinence, FAST, ABSTINENCE.对于特许从誓言看到的誓言和宗教命令,以及由禁食和禁欲,快速,禁欲。

I. DISPENSATION IN GENERAL一,免除普通

Dispensation differs from abrogation and derogation, inasmuch as these suppress the law totally or in part, whereas a dispensation leaves it still in vigour; and from epikeia, or a favourable interpretation of the purpose of the legislator, which supposes that he did not intend to include a particular case within the scope of his law, whereas by dispensation a superior withdraws from the power of the law a case which otherwise would fall under it.省却不同于废除和减损,因为这些压法完全或部分,而免除它仍然留在活力,以及来自epikeia,或立法者的,这是假设他不打算目的有利​​解释包括在法律的范围,而他所特别豁免的情况下,从法律的权力一案,否则将属于其上级撤回。 The raison d'être for dispensation lies in the nature of prudent administration, which often counsels the adapting of general legislation to the needs of a particular case by way of exception.其存在的理由在于为免除审慎管理,往往律师的一般立法适应了以例外的方式个别案件的需要的性质。This is peculiarly true of ecclesiastical administration.这是独有的真实的教会管理。Owing to the universality of the Church, the adequate observance by all its members of a single code of laws would be very difficult.由于在教会,其所有的单一的法律充分尊重成员的普遍性代码将是非常困难的。Moreover, the Divine purpose of the Church, the welfare of souls, obliges it to reconcile as far as possible the general interests of the community with the spiritual needs or even weaknesses of its individual members.此外,教会,福利的灵魂,神的目的,要求以尽可能调和的社会与精神需求,甚至其个别成员的弱点整体利益。Hence we find instances of ecclesiastical dispensations from the very earliest centuries; such early instances, however, were meant rather to legitimize accomplished facts than to authorize beforehand the doing of certain things.因此,我们发现教会特许实例从最早的百年;这种早期的事例,然而,注定既成事实合法化,而不是事先授权做的一些事情。 Later on antecedent dispensations were frequently granted; as early as the eleventh century Yves of Chartres, among other canonists, outlined the theory on which they were based.后来经常被授予特许先行;早在十一世纪沙特尔伊夫,除其他圣教法典,概述了它们所依据的理论。With reference to matrimonial dispensations now common, we meet in the sixth and seventh centuries with a few examples of general dispensations granted to legitimize marriages already contracted, or permitting others about to be contracted.参照现在常见的婚姻dispensations,我们相聚在一个与一般特许授予已签约的婚姻合法化几个例子,或允许他人将要签约的第六和第七世纪。 It is not, however, until the second half of the eleventh century that we come upon papal dispensations affecting individual cases.这不是,但是,直到十一世纪,我们对教皇特许影响个别案件来下半年。The earliest examples relate to already existing unions; the first certain dispensation for a future marriage dates from the beginning of the thirteenth century.最早的例子涉及到现有的工会;为一个从十三世纪初第一次结婚日期的未来一定免除。In the sixteenth century the Holy See began to give ampler faculties to bishops and missionaries in distant lands; in the seventeenth century such privileges were granted to other countries.在十六世纪,罗马教廷开始让ampler院系的主教和传教士在遥远的国度,在十七世纪的这种特权被授予其他国家。 Such was the origin of the ordinary faculties (see FACULTIES, CANONICAL) now granted to bishops.就是这样的普通院系起源(见院系,典型)现在授予主教。

(1) Kinds of Dispensation特免(1)种

(a) A dispensation may be explicit, tacit, or implicit, according as it is manifested by a positive act, or by silence under circumstances amounting to acquiescence, or solely by its connexion with another positive act that presupposes the dispensation. (一)免除可能是明确的,默契,或隐,根据它体现了一种积极的行为,或保持沉默的情况下,或完全由它与另一个积极的行为,前提是省却Connexion的金额为默许。

(b) It may be granted in foro interno, or in foro externo, according as it affects only the personal conscience, or conscience and the community at large. (二)可准予在论坛内部,或在论坛externo,根据它只会影响个人良心或良知和整个社会。Although dispensations in foro interno are used for secret cases, they are also often granted in public cases; hence they must not be identified with dispensations in casu occulto.虽然在论坛内部特许是秘密的情况下使用,他们也往往给予公众的案件,因此他们不能在casu occulto特许鉴定。

(c) A dispensation may be either direct or indirect, according as it affects the law directly, by suspending its operation, or indirectly, by modifying the object of the law in such a way as to withdraw it from the latter's control. (三)免除既可以是直接的还是间接的,根据它直接影响到法律中止其运行,或间接的方式修改了法律的对象退出后者的控制它,。For instance, when a dispensation is granted from the matrimonial impediment of a vow, the pope remits the obligation resulting from the promise made to God, consequently also the impediment it raised against marriage.例如,当一个省却是从婚姻的障碍授予的誓言,教宗从汇款的义务作出的承诺产生的神,因此也对婚姻的障碍,它提出的。

(d) A dispensation may be in formâ gratiosâ, in formâ commissâ, or in formâ commissâ mixtâ.(四)免除可能在形式上gratiosâ在formâ commissâ,或在formâ commissâ mixtâ。 Those of the first class need no execution, but contain a dispensation granted ipso facto by the superior in the act of sending it.第一阶层的需要没有执行,而是包含免除上级授予事实本身的发送行为。Those of the second class give jurisdiction to the person named as executor of the dispensation, if he should consider it advisable; they are, therefore, favours to be granted.第二类为那些给管辖的豁免执行人所指的人,如果他认为这是可取的,他们的,因此,有利于被授予。Those of the third class command the executor to deliver the dispensation if he can verify the accuracy of the facts for which such dispensation is asked; they seem, therefore, to contain a favour already granted.第三级命令执行人提供的豁免,如果他可以验证就该项豁免是问这些事实的准确性,他们似乎因此,遏制已经授予的青睐。 From the respective nature of each of these forms of dispensation result certain important consequences that affect delegation, obreption, and revocation in the matter of dispensations (see DELEGATION; OBREPTION; REVOCATION).从结果的免除某些重要的后果是影响这些形式的特许事项代表团obreption及撤销各有关性质(见代表团; OBREPTION;撤销)。

(2) The Dispensing Power(2)赦免权

It lies in the very notion of dispensation that only the legislator, or his lawful successor, can of his own right grant a dispensation from the law.它在于省却只有立委,或他的合法继承者,可他自己的权利从法律上给予豁免的想法。His subordinates can do so only in the measure that he permits.他的下属可以这样做只能在这样的情况,他的许可证。If such communication of ecclesiastical authority is made to an inferior by reason of an office he holds, his power, though derived, is known as ordinary.如果教会的权威这样的沟通是由一个办公室,他认为,他的力量,虽然有理由得出劣势,被称为普通。If it is only given him by way of commission it is known as delegated power.如果只是给予他的佣金的方式,它被称为授予的权力。 When such delegation takes place through a permanent law, it is known as delegation by right of law.当这种授权是通过一个常设法律的地方,它被称为法律权利的代表团。It is styled habitual, when, though given by a particular act of the superior, it is granted for a certain period of time or a certain number of cases.这是风格习惯的时候,虽然由上级给予特定行为,这是理所当然的一段时间内或一定数量的案件。Finally, it is called particular if granted only for one case.最后,它被称为特别是如果只授予一案。When the power of dispensation is ordinary it may be delegated to another unless this be expressly forbidden.当权力省却是普通的,可能被委派到另一除非这是明文禁止的。When it is delegated, as stated above, it may not be subdelegated unless this be expressly permitted; exception is made, however, for delegation ad universitatem causarum ie for all cases of a certain kind, and for delegation by the pope or the Roman Congregations.当它被授予的,正如上文所述,它可能不是subdelegated除非这是明文准许;例外,但是对于广告universitatem代表团为某一种causarum即所有案件,以及由教皇或罗马教会代表团。 Even these exceptions do not cover delegations made because of some personal fitness of the delegate, nor those in which the latter receives, not actual jurisdiction to grant the dispensation, but an appointment to execute it, eg in the case of dispensations granted in formâ commissâ mixtâ (see above).即使是这些例外不包括由于一些代表个人健身上发言,也不是那些在其中后者接受,而不是实际管辖权给予豁免,但预约来执行它,在特许批准的情况在formâ commissâ如mixtâ(见上文)。

The power of dispensation rests in the following persons:豁免权的掌握在下列人员:

(A) The Pope(一)教宗

He cannot of his own right dispense from the Divine law (either natural or positive).他不能,他自己的神圣权利免除从法律(无论是自然人或阳性)。When he does dispense, eg from vows, oaths, unconsummated marriages, he does so by derived power communicated to him as Vicar of Christ, and the limits of which he determines by his magisterium, or authoritative teaching power.当他免除,例如从誓言,宣誓,没有完婚的婚姻,他这样做了通报,作为基督的牧师对他产生的力量,他的限制,其中由他的训导,或权威性的师资力量决定。 There is some diversity of opinion as to the nature of the pope's dispensing power in this respect; it is generally held that it operates by way of indirect dispensation: that is, by virtue of his power over the wills of the faithful the pope, acting in the name of God, remits for them an obligation resulting from their deliberate consent, and therewith the consequences that by natural or positive Divine law flowed from such obligation.有一些不同的意见至于教宗的配药这方面的权力的性质,它是普遍认为它的运作通过间接省却方式:这是由他的权力美德,在信徒们的遗嘱的教皇,代理在上帝的名义,赦免他们的义务从他们蓄意造成的同意,并与其有关的后果,由自然人或积极的神圣法律的这种义务流。 The pope, of his own right, has full power to dispense from all ecclesiastical laws, whether universal or particular, even from the disciplinary decrees of œcumenical councils.教皇,他自己的权利,有充分的权力,免除所有教会的法律,是否普遍或特定甚至从œcumenical议会纪律法令。 Such authority is consequent on his primacy and the fullness of his immediate jurisdiction.这种权力是他的首要地位,并对其直接管辖范围随之丰满。A part of this power, however, he usually communicates to the Roman Congregations.这种权力的一个组成部分,但是,他通常会传达给罗马教会。

(B) The Bishop(乙)主教

Of his ordinary right, the bishop can dispense from his own statutes and from those of his predecessors, even when promulgated in a diocesan synod (where he alone is legislator).他的普通权利,从他的主教可以免除自己的章程,从他的前任们,即使在一个教区主教颁布(如他仅是立委)。 From the other laws of the Church he cannot dispense of his own right.来自教会的其他法律,他不能免除他自己的权利。This is evident from the nature of dispensation and of diocesan jurisdiction.这是显而易见的,从性质和省却教区管辖。 A principle maintained by some authors, viz, that the bishop can grant all dispensations which the pope has not reserved to himself, cannot be admitted.一些作者,即保持一个原则,即可以给予所有的主教,教宗并没有保留给自己的特许,不能录取。But by derived right (either ordinary or delegated according to the terms of the grant) the bishop can dispense from those laws that expressly permit him to do so or from those for which he has received an indult to that effect.但是,由派生的权利(无论是普通或下放根据授予之条款)的主教可以免除从这些法律明文允许他这样做或从那些为他已收到indult加以证明。 Moreover, by ordinary right, based on custom or the tacit consent of the Holy See, he may dispense:此外,通过普通的权利,自定义或教廷默许,他可免除为基础:

(a) in a case where recourse to the Holy See is difficult and where delay would entail serious danger;(一)在一个情况下求助于罗马教廷是困难的,在拖延会引起严重的危险;

(b) in doubtful cases especially when the doubt affects the necessity of the dispensation or the sufficiency of the motives;(b)在怀疑,特别是当影响到免除或充分的动机可疑案件的必要性;

(c) in cases of frequent occurrence but requiring dispensation, also in frequently occurring matters of minor importance;(c)在频繁发生,但要求免除的情况下,也经常发生轻微的重要性事项;

(d) in decrees of national and provincial councils, although he may not pronounce a general decree to the contrary;(d)在国家和省议会的法令,虽然他可能不是一般的发音与此相反的法令;

(e) in pontifical laws specially passed for his diocese.(e)在宗座法律专门通过了他的教区。

It should be always remembered that to fix the exact limit of these various powers legitimate custom and the interpretation of reputable authors must serve as guides.它应该永远记住,要修复这些合法的信誉良好的习惯和作者的解释必须作为指导各种权力确切的限制。Superiors of exempt religious orders (see EXEMPTION) can grant to their subjects, individually, those dispensations from ecclesiastical laws which the bishop grants by his ordinary power.获豁免(见豁免)宗教命令的上级可以授予他们的主题,分别从教会的法律特许,由他的普通电源,主教赠款。When there is question of the rules of their order they are bound to follow what is laid down in their constitutions.当有自己的秩序就必然要遵循什么是其宪法中规定的规则的问题。

(C) The Vicar-General(三)副主教干事

He enjoys by virtue of his appointment the ordinary dispensing power of the bishop, also the delegated powers of the latter, ie those granted him not personally but as ordinary (according to present discipline, the pontifical faculties known as ordinary); exception is made, however, for those powers which require a special mandate like those of the chapter Liceat, for dealing with irregularities and secret cases.他喜欢以他的任命美德的普通豁免权的主教,也是后者的授权,即那些没有亲自授予他,但作为普通(按照目前的纪律,宗座院系普通已知);例外,然而,对于那些权力,而需要一个像那些该章Liceat的违规行为和秘密的案件,特殊的任务。 The vicar capitular likewise has all the dispensing power which the bishop has of his own right, or which has been delegated to him as ordinary.牧师牧师会同样拥有所有权力,配发的主教有他自己的权利,或已授予普通给他。

(D) Parish Priest(四)本堂司铎

By his own ordinary right, founded on custom, he may dispense (but only in particular cases, and for individuals separately, not for a community or congregation) from the observance of fasting, abstinence, and Holy Days.由他自己平凡的权利自定义成立,他可免除(但只在特殊情况下,以及为个人分开,而不是为一个社区或聚集)从斋戒,禁欲,和圣日纪念活动。 He can also dispense, within his own territory, from the observance of diocesan statutes when the latter permit him to do so; the terms of these statutes usually declare the extent of such power, also whether it be ordinary or delegated.他也可以免除,在他自己的领土,从遵守拔萃章程时,后者不允许他这样做;,这些法规条款通常宣布这种权力的程度,也不论是普通或下放。 Dispensation being an act of jurisdiction, a superior can exercise it only over his own subjects, though as a general rule he can do so in their favour even outside his own territory.省却作为一个管辖权的行为,上级可以行使只有在他自己的科目的,虽然作为一般规则,他可以做对他们有利的,所以即使在他自己的领土。 The bishop and the parish priest, except in circumstances governed by special enactments, acquire jurisdiction over a member of the faithful by reason of the domicile or quasi-domicile he or she has in a diocese or parish (see DOMICILE).教区主教和神父除非在特殊的成文法管辖的情况,获得超过一成员管辖的忠实由住所或准住所,他的理由或她在一个教区或堂(见居籍)。 Moreover, in their own territory they can use their dispensing power in respect of persons without fixed residence (vagi), probably also in respect of travellers temporarily resident in such territory.此外,在自己的领土上可以使用的人就没有固定住所(迷走)他们的豁免权大概也是在尊重旅客暂时居住在这些地区。 As a general rule he who has power to dispense others from certain obligations can also dispense himself.作为一般规则,他谁有权免除某些义务的其他人也可以免除自己。

(3) Causes for Granting Dispensations给予特许(3)原因

A sufficient cause is always required in order that a dispensation may be both valid and licit when an inferior dispenses from a superior's law, but only for the liceity of the act when a superior dispenses from his own law.一个足够的原因始终是一个需要以免除可能既合法有效,当来自上级的法律劣势dispenses,但只适用于该法liceity当从自己的律师上级不妨试一试。 Nevertheless, in this latter case a dispensation granted without a motive would not (in se), except for some special reason, eg scandal, constitute a serious fault.然而,在这后一种情况下免除给予不动机不会(在SE),除了一些特殊的原因,如丑闻,构成一个严重的错误。One may be satisfied with a probably sufficient cause, or with a cause less than one that, of itself and without any dispensation, would excuse from the law.有人可能会满足于可能有足够的原因,或不到一说,自己并没有任何豁免,将免除法律的原因。It is always understood that a superior intends to grant only a licit dispensation.据了解,上级总是打算只授予一种合法的特许。 Therefore a dispensation is null when in the motives set forth for obtaining it a false statement is made which has influenced not only the causa impulsiva, ie the reason inclining the superior more easily to grant it, but also the causa motiva, ie the really determining reason for the grant in question.因此免除是无效的动机时,为获得一份虚假陈述,是其中的影响不仅病因impulsiva,即上级倾斜的原因给予它更容易出来,而且病因Motiva的,即真正确定原因有问题的补助金。 For this, and in general for the information which should accompany the petition, in order that a dispensation be valid, see below apropos of obreption and subreption in rescripts of dispensation.对于这一点,并为信息,应该伴随的请愿书,以便免除是有效的,见下文obreption并在特许rescripts歪曲事实中肯一般。 Consequently a false statement or the fraudulent withholding of information, ie done with positive intention of deceiving the superior, totally annuls the dispensation, unless such statement bear on a point foreign to the matter in hand.因此虚假陈述或隐瞒的信息的欺骗性,即完成了欺骗上级积极的意向,除非该声明完全撤销本级承担的豁免,在外国的一个点在手头的事情。 But if made with no fraudulent intent, a false statement does not affect the grant unless the object of the statement be some circumstance which ought to have been expressed under pain of nullity, or unless it affects directly the motive cause as above described.但是,如果没有欺诈意图作出虚假陈述,并不影响授予的声明,除非对象是一些应该根据已表示无效的疼痛,或除非它直接影响动因按照以上所述的情况。 Even then false statements do not always nullify the grant; for;即使如此,虚假陈述并不总是无效的补助金;的;

(a) when the dispensation is composed of several distinct and separable parts, that part or element alone is nullified on which falls the obreption or subreption, as the case may be;(一)当省却是由几个不同的和可分离部分,该部分无效或元素仅是上落obreption或歪曲事实,视情况而定;

(b) when several adequately distinguished motive causes are set forth, the dispensation is null and void only when the obreption or subreption in question affects them all.(B)当一些杰出的动机的原因是充分阐述,省却是无效时,才obreption或歪曲事实的问题影响到他们。

It is enough, moreover, that the accuracy of the facts be verified at the moment when the dispensation is granted.这是不够的,此外,对事实的准确性可此刻验证时省却是理所当然的。Therefore, in the case of dispensations ex gratiâ (or in formâ gratiosâ), ie granting favours, the facts must be true when the dispensation is expedited; on the other hand, in the case of dispensations in formâ commissâ (and according to the more general opinion, in those in formâ commissâ mixtâ), the causes alleged must be verified only when the dispensation is actually executed.因此,在特许特惠案(或在形式上gratiosâ),即给予优惠,事实必须是真实的,当省却是加快;另一方面,在特许在formâ commissâ情况下(根据更多一般认为,在那些在formâ commissâ mixtâ),据称,必须验证时,才免除实际执行的原因。

(4) Form and Interpretation(4)表格和解释

It is proper, generally speaking, that dispensations be asked for and granted in writing.这是正确的,一般地讲,这特许被要求以书面形式批准。Moreover, the Roman Congregations are forbidden, as a rule, to receive petitions for dispensations or to answer them by telegram.此外,罗马教会是禁止的,作为一项规则,以获得特许请愿或回答他们的电报。The execution of a dispensation made on receipt of telegraphic information that such dispensation had been granted would be null, unless such means of communication had been officially used by special authorization from the pope.一个免除执行电报作出的,这些信息已授出豁免将是空的,除非这种通信手段已被正式授权使用特殊的教皇收据。Except when the interest of a third party is at stake, or the superior has expressed himself to the contrary, the general dispensing power, whether ordinary or delegated, ought to be broadly interpreted, since its object is the common good.除了当第三人利益的利害关系,或者上级表示自己与此相反,一般的豁免权,无论是普通或授权,应该是广义的解释,因为它的对象是共同利益。 But the actual dispensation (and the same holds true of dispensing power given for a particular case) ought to be strictly interpreted unless it is a question of a dispensation authorized by the common law, or one granted motu proprio (by the superior spontaneously) to a whole community, or with a view to the public good.但实际dispensation(以及相同的持有某一请作豁免权真)应该严格解释,除非它是一个免除质询时常见的法律授权,或一个授予莫图proprio(由上级自发)to整个社会,或对公众的景色。 Again, that interpretation is lawful without which the dispensation would prove hurtful or useless to the beneficiary, also that which extends the benefits of the dispensation to whatever is juridically connected with it.再次,这种解释是合法的,没有这些的豁免将被证明是有害或无用的受益者,还延伸到了免除任何法律上是与它的好处。

(5) Cessation of Dispensations(五)终止特许

(a) A dispensation ceases when it is renounced by the person in whose favour it was granted.(一)免除不再当它放弃了在人的青睐这是理所当然的。However, when the object of the dispensation is an obligation exclusively resulting from one's own will, eg a vow, such renunciation is not valid until accepted by the competent superior.然而,当物体的豁免是一种责任完全造成的人们的意志,如许愿,这种放弃是无效的,由主管上级,直到接受。Moreover, neither the non-use of a dispensation nor the fact of having obtained another dispensation incompatible with the former is, in itself, equivalent to a renunciation.此外,无论是不免除也不是已取得不符合事实又省却使用前,本身就是,相当于放弃。Thus, if a girl had received a dispensation to marry Peter and another to marry Paul, she would remain free to marry either of them.因此,如果一个女孩收到了免除嫁给彼得和另一个嫁给保罗,她将保持自由结婚的任何承诺。

(b) A dispensation ceases when it is revoked after due notice to the recipient. (二)免除不再当它经过适当的通知收件人撤销。The legislator can validly revoke a dispensation, even without cause, though in the latter case it would be illicit to do so; but without a cause an inferior cannot revoke a dispensation, even validly.立法者可以有效撤销豁免,即使没有造成,但在后者情况下,将非法这样做,但没有造成劣质不能撤销豁免,即使有效。 With a just cause, however, he can do so if he has dispensed by virtue of his general powers (ordinary or delegated); not so, however, when his authority extended merely to one particular case, since thereby his authority was exhausted.与正义的事业,然而,他可以这样做,如果他以他(普通或授权)的一般权力配发的美德,不如此,但是,当他的权力扩展只是某个特定情况下,由于他的权力,从而被耗尽。

(c) A dispensation ceases by the death of the superior when, the dispensation having been granted in formâ commissâ, the executor had not yet begun to execute it.(三)免除由上级死亡时,以免除已被授予在formâ commissâ停止后,执行人尚未开始执行。But the grant holds good if given ex gratiâ (as a favour) and even, more probably, if granted in formâ commissâ mixtâ.但如果给授予有效期(如一个忙),甚至,更多的可能,如果在formâ commissâ mixtâ给予特惠。In any case, the new pope is wont to revalidate all favours granted in the immediately previous year by his predecessor and not yet availed of.在任何情况下,新教宗是不会重新验证立即给予他的前任前一年,还没有利用了所有的青睐。

(d) A conditional dispensation ceases on verification of the condition that renders it void, eg the death of the superior when the dispensation was granted with the clause ad beneplacitum nostrum (at our good pleasure). (四)有条件的豁免条件,停止对核查呈现其无效,如由上级死亡时的豁免条款是与广告beneplacitum秘方(在我们的美意)授予。

(e) A dispensation ceases by the adequate and total cessation of its motive causes, the dispensation thereupon ceasing to be legitimate. (五)免除不再由它的动机原因,省却随即不再是合法的充分和完全停止。But the cessation of the influencing causes, or of a part of the motive causes, does not affect the dispensation.但停止原因的影响,或造成的动机的一部分,不影响免除。However, when the motive cause, though complex, is substantially one, it is rightly held to cease with the disappearance of one of its essential elements.但是,当动机的原因,虽然复杂,大大之一,它是正确举行停止与它的基本要素之一失踪。

II.二。MATRIMONIAL DISPENSATIONS婚姻dispensations

A matrimonial dispensation is the relaxation in a particular case of an impediment prohibiting or annulling a marriage.一个婚姻省却是在一个一个的障碍,禁止或废止婚姻的特殊情况下的放松。It may be granted:可准予在:

(a) in favour of a contemplated marriage or to legitimize one already contracted; (a)在考虑婚姻的赞成或一个已经签约合法化;

(b) in secret cases, or in public cases, or in both (see IMPEDIMENTS OF MATRIMONY); (b)在秘密的情况下,或在公共情况下,或在两者(见婚姻障碍);

(c) in foro interno only, or in foro externo (the latter includes also the former). (c)在只,或在论坛externo论坛内部(后者包括前者)。Power of dispensing in foro interno is not always restricted to secret cases (casus occulti).在论坛内部豁免权并不总是局限于秘密的案件(casus occulti)。

These expressions, as stated above, are by no means identical.这些表现形式,如上面所说,是绝不相同的。We shall classify the most important considerations in this very complex matter, under four heads:我们将在这个非常复杂的分类问题中最重要的考虑因素,在四头:

(1) general powers of dispensation;(1)一般权力配发;

(2) particular indults of dispensation;(2)配发特别indults;

(3) causes for dispensations;(三)特许原因;

(4) costs of dispensations.对特许(4)成本。

(1) General Powers of Dispensation(1)条的豁免的一般权力

(A) The Pope(一)教宗

The pope cannot dispense from impediments founded on Divine law-except, as above described, in the case of vows, espousals, and non-consummated marriages, or valid and consummated marriage of neophytes before baptism (see NEOPHYTES).教宗不能免除从建立在神圣的法律障碍,但如上面所述,在誓言,婚筵的情况下,非完善婚姻,或有效和完善的新手结婚前的洗礼(见新手)。 In doubtful cases, however, he may decide authoritatively as to the objective value of the doubt.对可疑病例,不过,他可以决定的权威,以客观的价值的怀疑。In respect of impediments arising from ecclesiastical law the pope has full dispensing power.在法律所产生的障碍,从教会教宗充分尊重豁免权。Every such dispensation granted by him is valid, and when he acts from a sufficient motive it is also licit.每一个这样的豁免授予他是有效的,当他从一个足够的动机行为,它也是合法的。He is not wont, however, out of consideration for the public welfare, to exercise this power personally, unless in very exceptional cases, where certain specific impediments are in question.他并不习惯,但是,出于对公众福利的考虑,亲自行使这项权力,除非在非常特殊的情况下,如果在某些具体问题的障碍。 Such cases are error, violence, Holy orders, disparity of worship, public conjugicide, consanguinity in the direct line or in the first degree (equal) of the collateral Line, and the first degree of affinity (from lawful intercourse) in the direct line.这种情况是错误的,暴力,神圣的命令,崇拜的差距,公共conjugicide在直接线或在第一度的抵押品线(等于),血缘,以及亲和程度的直接第一线(从合法的性交) 。As a rule the pope exercises his power of dispensation through the Roman Congregations and Tribunals.作为一项规则,教宗行使他通过罗马教会和法庭豁免权。

Up to recent times the Dataria was the most important channel for matrimonial dispensations when the impediment was public or about to become public within a short time.直至近代,Dataria是婚姻最重要的渠道特许时,障碍是公众或即将成为公众在很短的时间。The Holy Office, however, bad exclusive control in foro externo over all impediments connected with or juridically bearing on matters of faith, eg disparity of worship, mixta religio, Holy orders, etc. The dispensing power in foro interno lay with the Penitentiaria, and in the case of pauperes or quasi-pauperes this same Congregation had dispensing power over public impediments in foro externo.神圣的办公室,然而,坏排他性控制在论坛externo通过连接或法律上的一切障碍信仰方面的轴承,如崇拜的差距,mixta的宗教,神圣的命令等,在论坛内部权力分配的Penitentiaria在于,和在pauperes或案件准pauperes同样聚集了超过在论坛externo公共权力分配的障碍。 The Penitentiaria held as pauperes for all countries outside of Italy those whose united capital, productive of a fixed revenue, did not exceed 5370 lire (about 1050 dollars); and as quasi-pauperes, those whose capital did not exceed 9396 lire (about 1850 dollars).该Penitentiaria举行pauperes意大利以外的那些美国的资本,有固定收入的生产力,不超过5370万里拉(约1050美元)的所有国家,而作为准pauperes,那些资本不超过9396万里拉(约1850美元)。 It likewise had the power of promulgating general indults affecting public impediments, as for instance the indult of 15 Nov., 1907.它也有一般indults颁布影响公众权力的障碍,因为,比如说,1907年11月15日indult。Propaganda was charged with all dispensations, both in foro inferno and in foro externo, for countries under its jurisdiction, as was the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs for all countries depending on it, eg Russia, Latin America, and certain vicariates and prefectures Apostolic.宣传被控天启,无论在论坛Inferno和在论坛externo,其管辖下的国家,特别是根据教会事务上的所有国家,如俄罗斯,拉丁美洲众,和某些vicariates和县使徒。

On 3 November, 1908, the duties of these various Congregations received important modifications in consequence of the Constitution "Sapienti", in which Pope Pius X reorganized the Roman Curia. 11月3日,1908年,这些不同的毕业典礼的职责收到宪法“Sapienti”,其中教宗比约十改组了罗马教廷后果的重要修改。Dispensing power from public impediments in the case of pauperes or quasi-pauperes was transferred from the Dataria and the Penitentiaria to a newly established Congregation known as the Congregatio de Disciplinâ Sacramentorum.从配药的pauperes或准公共障碍pauperes案件权力转移到了Dataria和Penitentiaria到一个新成立的众为congregatio德disciplinâ sacramentorum而闻名。The Penitentiaria retains dispensing power over occult impediments in foro interno only.该Penitentiaria只保留在论坛内部权力分配了神秘的障碍。The Holy Office retains its faculties, but restricted expressly under three heads:神圣的办公室保留其院系,但根据三国元首明确限制:

(1) disparity of worship;(1)悬殊的崇拜;

(2) mixta religio;(2)mixta的宗教;

(3) the Pauline Privilege [see DIVORCE (IN MORAL THEOLOGY)].(3)保禄特权[见离婚(在道德神学)]。

Propaganda remains the channel for securing dispensations for all countries under its jurisdiction, but as it is required for the sake of executive unity, to defer, in all matters concerning matrimony, to the various Congregations competent to act thereon, its function is henceforth that of intermediary.宣传仍是确保其管辖下的所有国家特许渠道,但因为它是为了团结的行政要求,推迟,在所有有关婚姻的事宜,向主管就此采取行动的各种聚会,其功能是从今以后认为中介机构。 It is to be remembered that in America, the United States, Canada and Newfoundland, and in Europe, the British Isles are now withdrawn from Propaganda, and placed under the common law of countries with a hierarchy.这是必须记住,在美国,美国,加拿大和纽芬兰,并在欧洲,不列颠群岛现在退出宣传,根据普通法的国家置于同一个层次。 The Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs loses all its powers; consequently the countries hitherto subject to it must address themselves either to the Holy Office or to the Congregatio de Disciplinâ Sacramentorum according to the nature of the impediment.教会事务的超凡众失去其所有的权力;因此各国迄今受它要么必须解决自己神圣的机关或者congregatio德disciplinâ sacramentorum根据性质的障碍。

It should be noted that the powers of a Congregation are suspended during the vacancy of the Holy See, except those of the Penitentiaria in foro interno, which, during that time, are even increased.应当指出,一众的权力被暂停期间,罗马教廷的Penitentiaria空​​缺除了那些在论坛内部,其中,在这段时间,甚至增加。 Though suspended, the powers of a Congregation may be used in cases of urgent necessity.虽然暂停,一众的权力可能被用来在紧急必要的情况下。

(B) The Diocesan Bishops(二)教区主教

We shall treat first of their fixed perpetual faculties, whether ordinary or delegated, afterwards of their habitual and temporary faculties.我们应将其固定永久系第一,无论是普通或下放后其惯常和临时院系。By virtue of their ordinary power (see JURISDICTION) bishops can dispense from those prohibent impediments of ecclesiastical law which are not reserved to the pope.通过对他们的普通电源(见管辖权)凭借主教可以免除法律的教会那些不保留给教皇prohibent障碍。The reserved impediments of this kind are espousals, the vow of perpetual chastity, and vows taken in diocesan religious institutes (see RELIGIOUS CONGREGATIONS), mixta religio, public display and solemn blessing at marriages within forbidden times, the vetitum, or interdict laid on a marriage by the pope, or by the metropolitan in a case of appeal.这种保留的障碍是婚筵的,贞洁的永恒的誓言,并表示在教区宗教机构采​​取(见宗教团体),mixta的宗教,公开展示和庄严的祝福,在禁止结婚时代,vetitum,或停职放在一婚姻由教宗,或在对上诉案件,大都会。 The bishop may also dispense from diriment impediments after the following manner: -主教还可以免除后,按以下方式从diriment的障碍: -

(a) By tacit consent of the Holy See he can dispense in foro interno from secret impediments from which the pope is wont to exercise his power of dispensing, in the three following cases: (一)缄默的神圣同意看他能免除在论坛内部从该教宗是不会行使他的权力分配在以下三个情况下,秘密的障碍:

(1) in marriages already contracted and consummated, when urgent necessity arises (ie when the interested parties cannot be separated without scandal or endangering their souls, and there is no time to have recourse to the Holy See or to its delegate) - it is, however, necessary that such marriage shall have taken place in lawful form before the Church, and that one of the contracting parties at least shall have been ignorant of the impediment; (1)已经签约和完善婚姻,当迫切需要时(即当有兴趣的各方不能分开没有丑闻或危及他们的灵魂,也没有时间去求助于罗马教廷或者其委托) - 这是不过,必须这样结婚应考虑在合法,才教会形式进行,而且至少有一个缔约方应被无知的障碍;

(2) in marriages about to be contracted and which are called embarrassing (perplexi) cases, ie where everything being ready a delay would be defamatory or would cause scandal;(2)在即将签订合同,哪些婚姻被称为尴尬(perplexi)情况下,即在一切都做好准备的延误将被诽谤或会导致丑闻;

(3) when there is a serious doubt of fact as to the existence of an impediment; in this case the dispensation seems to hold good, even though in course of time the impediment becomes certain, and even public. (3)当有作为的一个障碍存在的事实严重怀疑,在这种情况下,免除似乎靠得住,即使随着时间的推移变得一定的障碍,甚至公众。In cases where the law is doubtful no dispensation is necessary; but the bishop may, if he thinks proper, declare authentically the existence and sufficiency of such doubt.在情况下,法律是没有疑问省却是必要的,但这位主教可能,如果他认为适当的,申报真实的存在和这种怀疑自给自足。

(b) By virtue of a decree of the Congregation of the Inquisition or Holy Office (20 February, 1888) diocesan bishops and other ordinaries (especially vicars Apostolic, administrators Apostolic, and prefects Apostolic, having jurisdiction over an allocated territory, also vicars-general in spiritualibus, and vicars capitular) may dispense in very urgent (gravissimum) danger of death from all diriment impediments (secret or public) of ecclesiastical law, except priesthood and affinity (from lawful intercourse) in the direct line. (二)通过将在神圣的宗教裁判所或办事处(1888年2月20日)教区主教和(特别是vicars使徒,管理员众使徒其他普通法令美德,省长使徒,有超过一分配的领土管辖权,也副主教一般在spiritualibus和维卡斯牧师会)可免除在非常紧急的(gravissimum)死亡的危险来自所有diriment障碍(秘密或公开)的教会法,除了神职人员和亲和力在直接线(从合法的性交)。

However, they can use this privilege only in favour of persons actually living in real concubinage or united by a merely civil marriage, and only when there is no time for recourse to the Holy See.但是,他们只能在实际生活中的人真正纳妾或一个纯粹的民间婚姻团结,只有在没有求助于罗马教廷时间赞成这样的特权。They may also legitimize the children of such unions, except those born of adultery or sacrilege.他们也可能对这种婚姻合法化除儿童出生的人通奸或亵渎。In the decree of 1888 is also included the impediment of clandestinity.在1888年的法令还包括秘密活动的障碍。This decree permits therefore (at least until the Holy See shall have issued other instructions) to dispense, in the case of concubinage or civil marriage, with the presence of the priest and of the two witnesses required by the Decree "Ne temere" in urgent cases of marriage in extremis.因此,该法令允许(至少直到罗马教廷应发出其他指令),免除,在妾或公证结婚的情况下,与在场的牧师和两个法令“氦氖temere”迫切需要证人案件在极端的婚姻。 Canonists do not agree as to whether bishops hold these faculties by virtue of their ordinary power or by general delegation of the law.圣教法典不同意,主教是否持有其普通电源美德或由法律的一般代表团这些院系。

It seems to us more probable that those just described under;在我们看来更可能是那些刚下所述;

(a) belong to them as ordinaries, while those under(一)属于他们作为普通股,而那些在

(b) are delegated.(二)被授权。

They are, therefore, empowered to delegate the former; in order to subdelegate the latter they must be guided by the limits fixed by the decree of 1888 and its interpretation dated 9 June, 1889.他们,因此,有权委托前者;为了subdelegate他们必须由1888年的法令,并注明日期1889年6月9日订定的限制其解释为指导后者。 That is, if it is a question of habitual delegation parish priests only should receive it, and only for cases where there is no time for recourse to the bishop.也就是说,如果它是一个习惯代表团教区神职人员的问题,才应该接受它,并且只适用情况下,有没有诉诸主教时间。

Besides the fixed perpetual faculties, bishops also receive from the Holy See habitual temporary indults for a certain period of time or for a limited number of cases.除了固定的永久学院,主教也得到了罗马教廷的一段时间或数量有限的情况下习惯性的临时indults。These faculties are granted by fixed "formulæ", in which the Holy See from time to time, or as occasion requires it, makes some slight modifications.这些学院被授予由固定的“程式”,其中教廷不时,或场合需要它,让一些轻微的修改。(See FACULTIES, CANONICAL.) These faculties call for a broad interpretation. (见院系,典型。)这些院系呼吁建立一个广泛的解释。Nevertheless it is well to bear in mind, when interpreting them, the actual legislation of the Congregation whence they issue, so as not to extend their use beyond the places, persons, number of cases, and impediments laid down in a given indult.尽管如此,它是很好的考虑,熊在解释他们,他们那里的毕业典礼实际立法问题,以便不延长其超越地点,人员,案件数量的使用,在给定的障碍,奠定indult下来。 Faculties thus delegated to a bishop do not in any way restrict his ordinary faculties; nor (in se) do the faculties issued by one Congregation affect those granted by another.因此,学院授予主教不以任何方式限制他的普通院系或(在SE)做一个毕业典礼发表的院系授予的另一个影响。When several specifically different impediments occur in one and the same case, and one of them exceeds the bishop's powers, he may not dispense from any of them.当几个不同的障碍,特别是发生在同一个案件,其中一人超过了主教的权力,他可能不免除从其中任何一个。Even when the bishop has faculties for each impediment taken separately he cannot (unless he possesses the faculty known as de cumulo) use his various faculties simultaneously in a case where, all the impediments being public, one of them exceeds his ordinary faculties, it is not necessary for a bishop to delegate his faculties to his vicars-general; since 1897 they are always granted to the bishop as ordinary, therefore to the vicar-general also.甚至当主教已就该分开,他不能每一个障碍学院(除非他拥有作为德cumulo称为系)中使用情况下,所有的障碍是公开,其中一人超过他的普通院系的各院系,同时,它是没有必要为一个主教代表他的能力他的副主教秘书长,自1897年,他们总是批给普通主教,因此向副主教干事还。 With regard to other priests a decree of the holy Office (14 Dec., 1898) declares that for the future temporary faculties may be always subdelegated unless the indult expressly states the contrary.至于其他祭司的神圣办公室(1898年12月14日)法令宣布,为将来临时院系可能永远subdelegated indult明确规定,除非相反。These faculties are valid from the date when they were granted in the Roman Curia.这些学院是从当日起生效时,他们在罗马教廷批准。 In actual practice they do not expire, as a rule, at the death of the pope nor of the bishop to whom they were given, but pass on to those who take his place (the vicar capitular, the administrator, or succeeding bishop).在实际操作中,他们不会过期,作为一项规则,在死亡的教宗,也不是主教向谁给予他们的,但传授给那些谁接替他的位置(牧师牧师会,管理员或成功主教)。 Faculties granted for a fixed period of time, or a limited number of cases, cease when the period or number has been reached; but while awaiting their renewal the bishop, unless culpably negligent, may continue to use them provisionally.对于一个固定的时间内,或数量有限的情况下授予学院,期间或停止时,人数已达到,但在等待其续期主教,除非该罚疏忽,可能会暂时继续使用。 A bishop can use his habitual faculties only in favour of his own subjects.一名主教只能在自己的学科赞成他的习惯性学院。The matrimonial discipline of the Decree "Ne temere" (2 Aug., 1907) contemplates as such all persons having a true canonical domicile, or continuously resident for one month within his territory, also vagi, or persons who have no domicile anywhere and can claim no continuous stay of one month.这项法令“氦氖temere”(1907年8月2日)婚姻纪律设想为所有的人有这样一个真实的典型住所,或连续一个月的居民在他的领土,也迷走,或人谁没有住所的任何地方都可以索赔不连续居留一个月。 When a matrimonial impediment is common to both parties the bishop, in dispensing his own subject, dispenses also the other.当婚姻障碍是双方共同的主教,在分配自己的主题,也是其他dispenses。

(C) Vicars Capitular and Vicars-General(三)维卡斯牧师会和维卡斯秘书长

A vicar capitular, or in his place a lawful administrator, enjoys all the dispensing powers possessed by the bishop in virtue of his ordinary jurisdiction or of delegation of the law; according to the actual discipline he enjoys even the habitual powers which had been granted the deceased bishop for a fixed period of time or for a limited number of cases, even if the indult should have been made out in the name of the Bishop of N. Considering the actual praxis of the Holy See, the same is true of particular indults (see below).一个牧师牧师会,或在他的地方是合法的管理员,拥有所有的配药由主教在他拥有普通管辖权的美德或代表团的法律权力;根据实际纪律,他喜欢甚至习惯已被授予的权力,死者主教在一段时间或数量有限的情况下固定期限,即使indult应已在考虑N的主教罗马教廷的名义实际实践,同样是真正的特别indults (见下文)。The vicar-general has by virtue of his appointment all the ordinary powers of the bishop over prohibent impediments, but requires a special mandate to give him common-law faculties for diriment impediments.该副主教秘书长由他任命的所有障碍,超过prohibent普通主教的权力美德,但需要一个特殊的任务给他diriment障碍普通法系。 As for habitual temporary faculties, since they are now addressed to the ordinary, they belong also ipso facto to the vicar-general while he holds that office.至于习惯性临时院系,因为他们现在给普通的,他们也属于依事实向副主教干事,而他认为该办事处。He can also use particular indults when they are addressed to the ordinary, and when they are not so addressed the bishop can always subdelegate him, unless the contrary be expressly stated in the indult.他还可以使用特定的indults当他们给普通,当他们没有这么处理的主教能够始终subdelegate他,除非有明确的相反的indult说明。

(D) Parish Priests and Other Ecclesiastics(四)本堂司铎及其他教区

A parish priest by common law can dispense only from an interdict laid on a marriage by him or by his predecessor.一个由普通法堂牧师可以免除只能从一个由他或他的前任婚姻奠定了停职。Some canonists of note accord him authority to dispense from secret impediments in what are called embarrassing (perplexi) cases, ie when there is no time for recourse to the bishop, but with the obligation of subsequent recourse ad cautelam, ie for greater security; a similar authority is attributed by them to confessors.值得注意的协议他圣教法典委员会部分免除从对所谓的尴尬(perplexi)情况下,即当没有任何诉诸主教时间秘密的障碍,但随着后续追索广告cautelam,为了提高安全性,即义务;一类似的法令,是因为他们坦白。 This opinion seems yet gravely probable, though the Penitentiaria continues to grant among its habitual faculties a special authority for such cases and restricts somewhat its use.这种看法可能似乎还严重,虽然Penitentiaria继续在其惯性院系授予特别权力处理这类案件,并限制它的使用有些。

(2) Particular Indults of Dispensation(2)省却特殊Indults

When there is occasion to procure a dispensation that exceeds the powers of the ordinary, or when there are special reasons for direct recourse to the Holy See, procedure is by way of supplica (petition) and private rescript.当有机会促使免除超过普通的权力,或者有可以直接求助于罗马教廷特殊原因,过程由supplica(申诉)和私人诏书路上。 The supplica need not necessarily be drawn up by the petitioner, nor even at his instance; it does not, however, become valid until he accepts it.该supplica可不必制定了由申诉人,甚至也不在他的怂恿下,它并没有,但是,直到他成为有效的接受它。Although, since the Constitution "Sapienti", all the faithful may have direct recourse to the Congregations, the supplica is usually forwarded through the ordinary (of the person's birthplace, or domicile, or, since the Decree "Ne temere", residence of one of the petitioners), who transmits it to the proper Congregation either by letter or through his accredited agent; but if there is question of sacramental secrecy, it is sent directly to the Penitentiaria, or handed to the bishop's agent under a sealed cover for transmission to the Penitentiaria.虽然,因为宪法“Sapienti”,所有的信徒可能直接诉诸毕业典礼,该supplica通常转发通过普通(该人的出生地,或者住所,或自该法令“氦氖temere”,一个居住地,请愿者),谁发送到​​正确的毕业典礼或通过信函或通过其认可的代理人,但如果市场上的圣事保密问题,这是直接发送到Penitentiaria,或根据传输盖密封交给主教的经纪人到Penitentiaria。 The supplica ought to give the names (family and Christian) of the petitioners (except in secret cases forwarded to the Penitentiaria), the name of the Ordinary forwarding it, or the name of the priest to whom, in secret cases, the rescript must be sent; the age of the parties, especially in dispensations affecting consanguinity and affinity; their religion, at 1east when one of them is not a Catholic; the nature, degree, and number of all impediments (if recourse is had to the Congregatio de Disciplinâ Sacramentorum or to the Holy Office in a public impediment, and to the Penitentiaria at the same time in a secret one, it is necessary that the latter should know of the public impediment and that recourse has been had to the competent Congregation).该supplica应该给请愿者的姓名(家庭和基督教)(除转交Penitentiaria秘密的情况),对普通转发名称,或牧师的名义向谁,在秘密情况下,必须诏书发送;当事人的年龄,特别是在血缘和亲和力特许影响,他们的宗教,在1east时,其中一个不是天主教徒;的性质,程度和数量的所有障碍(如果有追索权的congregatio德Disciplinâ Sacramentorum或圣地办公室在公众的障碍,并同时在一个秘密的同时Penitentiaria,这是必要的,后者应该知道市民的障碍,并已不得不求助于主管众)。 The supplica must, moreover, contain the causes set forth for granting the dispensation and other circumstances specified in the Propaganda Instruction of 9 May, 1877 (it is no longer necessary, either for the validity or liceity of the dispensation, to observe the paragraph relating to incest intercourse, even when probably this very thing had been alleged as the only reason for granting the dispensation).该supplica此外,必须把包含给予豁免,在5月9日中宣部指令规定的其他情形的原因,1877年(它不再是必要的,无论是对有效性或免除liceity,遵守有关的段落乱伦性交,即使这事可能已被作为给予豁免)被指控的唯一原因。 When there is question of consanguinity in the second degree bordering on the first, the supplica ought to be written by the bishop's own hand.当有第二学位的第一接壤的血缘问题,该supplica应该由主教亲手写的。He ought also to sign the declaration of poverty made by the petitioners when the dispensation is sought from the Penitentiaria in formâ pauperum; when he is in any way hindered from so doing he is bound to commission a priest to sign it in his name.他应该还签署了请愿人作出声明时,免除贫穷寻求在形式上从Penitentiaria pauperum,当他从他这样做势必委托一位牧师以他的名义签署任何方式阻碍它。A false declaration of poverty henceforth does not invalidate a dispensation in any case; but the authors of the false statement are bound in conscience to reimburse any amount unduly withheld (regulation for the Roman Curia, 12 June, 1908).对贫困的虚假声明从此没有在任何情况下无效免除,但虚假陈述,提交人必将在良心报销任何数额过分扣压(规管为罗马教廷6月12日,1908年)。 For further information on the many points already briefly described the reader is referred to the special canonical works, wherein are found all necessary directions as to what must be expressed so as to avoid nullity.对已经简要介绍了被称为典型工程的特殊读者的许多问题,其中发现,什么必须表示,以避免无效一切必要的指示的进一步资料。 When a supplica is affected (in a material point) by obreption or subreption it becomes necessary to ask for a so-called "reformatory decree" in case the favour asked has not yet been granted by the Curia, or for the letters known as "Perinde ac valere" if the favour has already been granted.当supplica的影响(在一个物质点)由obreption或歪曲事实成为必要请一个所谓的“感化法令”的情况下,赞成要求尚未得到教廷批准,或称为字母“ Perinde交流valere“如果赞成已被授予。If, after all this, a further material error is discovered, letters known as "Perinde ac valere super perinde ac valere" must be applied for.如果这一切后,进一步重大错误被发现,为“Perinde交流valere超级perinde交流valere”必须是已知的申请信。 See Gasparri, "Tractatus de matrimonio" (2nd ed., Rome, 1892), I, no.见加斯帕里,“逻辑哲学论德matrimonio”(第二版。,罗马,1892年),我没有。362.362。

(3) Causes for Granting Dispensations给予特许(3)原因

Following the principles laid down for dispensations in general, a matrimonial dispensation granted without sufficient cause, even by the pope himself, would be illicit; the more difficult and numerous the impediments the more serious must be the motives for removing them.继在一般规定的原则特许,省却没有一家婚介事业给予足够甚至由教皇本人,下,将非法;更加困难和无数的障碍较严重,必须为消除他们的动机。 An unjustified dispensation, even if granted by the pope, is null and void, in a case affecting the Divine law; and if granted by other bishops or superiors in cases affecting ordinary ecclesiastical law.一个不合理的豁免,即使由教宗批准,是无效的在神圣的法律影响的情况下,以及如果其他主教或上级授予影响普通的教会法的案件。 Moreover, as it is not supposable that the pope wishes to act illicitly, it follows that if he has been moved by false allegations to grant a dispensation, even in a matter of ordinary ecclesiastical law, such dispensation is invalid.此外,由于它不是supposable,教宗希望这样做非法,因此,如果他被授予提出不实指控,即使在一个普通的教会法免除事项,如免除是无效的。 Hence the necessity of distinguishing in dispensations between motive or determining causes (causœ motivœ) and impulsive or merely influencing causes (causœ impulsivœ).因此,在特许区分动机或决定的原因(causœ motivœ)和冲动或仅仅是影响的原因(causœ impulsivœ)的必要性。Except when the information given is false, still more when he acts spontaneously (motu proprio) and "with certain knowledge", the presumption always is that a superior is acting from just motives.除非所提供的资料是虚假的,还有更多的时候他的行为自发(莫图proprio)和“具有一定知识”,推定始终是一个优越的正义动机行事。 It may be remarked that if the pope refuses to grant a dispensation on a certain ground, an inferior prelate, properly authorized to dispense, may grant the dispensation in the same case on other grounds which in his judgment are sufficient.这可能是表示,如果教皇拒绝授予某地,一个劣等主教适当授权,免除,免除,可给予在该组织中他的判断是同一案件的其他理由充足的体制。 Canonists do not agree as to whether he can grant it on the identical ground by reason of his divergent appreciation of the latter's force.圣教法典不同意,他是否可以授予相同地,以他对后者的力量发散升值理由。Among the sufficient causes for matrimonial dispensations we may distinguish canonical causes, ie classified and held as sufficient by the common law and canonical jurisprudence, and reasonable causes.在婚姻特许充足的原因,我们可区分典型的原因,即分类和普通法及典型判例,以及合理的原因是充分举行。ie not provided for nominally in the law, but deserving of equitable consideration in view of circumstances or particular cases.即没有在法律规定的名义,但值得考虑在公平的情况或特殊情况的看法。An Instruction issued by Propaganda (9 May, 1877) enumerates sixteen canonical causes.中宣部发出的指令(1877年5月9日)列举了十六个典型的原因。The "Formulary of the Dataria" (Rome, 1901) gives twenty-eight, which suffice, either alone or concurrently with others, and act as a norm for all sufficient causes.在(罗马,1901年)“的Dataria名册”赋予二八,这就够了,无论是单独或同时与他人,并作为一个都有足够的原因准则。 They are: smallness of place or places; smallness of place coupled with the fact that outside it a sufficient dowry cannot be had; lack of dowry; insufficiency of dowry for the bride; a larger dowry; an increase of dowry by one-third; cessation of family feuds; preservation of peace; conclusion of peace between princes or states; avoidance of lawsuits over an inheritance, a dowry, or some important business transaction; the fact that a fiancée is an orphan; or has the care of a family; the age of the fiancée over twenty-four; the difficulty of finding another partner, owing to the fewness of male acquaintance, or the difficulty the latter experience in coming to her home; the hope of safeguarding the faith of a Catholic relation; the danger of a mixed marriage; the hope of converting a non-Catholic party; the keeping of property in a family; the preservation of an illustrious or honourable family; the excellence and merits of the parties; defamation to be avoided, or scandal prevented; intercourse already having taken place between the petitioners, or rape; the danger of a civil marriage; of marriage before a Protestant minister revalidation of a marriage that was null and void; finally, all reasonable causes judged such in the opinion of the pope (eg the public good), or special reasonable causes actuating the petitioners and made known to the pope, ie motives which, owing to the social status of the petitioners, it is opportune should remain unexplained out of respect for their reputation.它们是:一个或数个规模小,地方狭小的事实加上超出它有足够的嫁妆不能过,缺乏嫁妆,为新娘嫁妆不足;一个更大的嫁妆;的嫁妆了三分之一的增加;停止家庭纷争,维护和平;首领或国家之间的和平结束;超过遗产,嫁妆,或者一些重要的商业交易的诉讼回避;的事实,未婚妻是一个孤儿,或者有一个家庭的照顾;过二十四岁的未婚妻,维护关系的一个天主教信仰的希望;;了寻找其他合作伙伴,由于男性熟人fewness,或在未来的困难到她家后遇到困难的危险一个混合的婚姻;在转换一个非天主教的党的希望,物业维持一个家庭,一个家庭的光荣显赫或保存;卓越和各方​​的好处;诽谤是可以避免的,或丑闻预防;性交已经有请愿者之间发生的,或强奸的民事婚姻的危险;结婚前的婚姻,是无效的新教牧师再验证,最后,所有合理的原因,例如在教皇(如判断意见公共利益),或特殊驱动请愿合理的原因,并提出著名的教皇,这就是动机,由于请愿者的社会地位,这是应该保持适当的尊重自己的声誉不明了。 These various causes have been stated in their briefest terms.这些不同的原因已经在其简短声明条款。To reach their exact force, some acquaintance is necessary with the stylus curiœ and the pertinent works of reputable authors, always avoiding anything like exaggerated formalism.为了达到其确切的力量,一些熟人是用手写笔curiœ著名作家和相关的工程需要,总是避免类似夸大形式主义东西。 This list of causes is by no means exhaustive; the Holy See, in granting a dispensation, will consider any weighty circumstances that render the dispensation really justifiable.这个名单的原因决不是详尽无遗;罗马教廷,在给予豁免,会考虑任何有份量的情况下,会导致省却真的是合理的。

(4) Costs of Dispensations对特许(4)成本

The Council of Trent (Sess. XXIV, cap. v, De ref. matrim.) decreed that dispensations should be free of all charges.安理会的遄达(sess.二十四,帽。五,德号。matrim。)颁布法令,特许应该是所有费用全免。Diocesan chanceries are bound to conform to this law (many pontifical documents, and at times clauses in indults, remind them of it) and neither to exact nor accept anything but the modest contribution to the chancery expenses sanctioned by an Instruction approved by Innocent XI (8 Oct., 1678), and known as the Innocentian Tax (Taxa Innocentiana).拔萃chanceries必将符合本法(许多宗座文件,并在indults时间的条款,它提醒他们),既不准确,也不接受任何的微薄贡献,但由指令批准了尚书开支批准了无辜第十一章( 1678年10月8日),并作为Innocentian税(类群Innocentiana)而闻名。Rosset holds that it is also lawful, when the diocese is poor, to demand payment of the expenses it incurs for dispensations.Rosset认为,它也是合法的,当教区是穷人,要求它的开支特许招致付款。Sometimes the Holy See grants ampler freedom in this matter, but nearly always with the monition that all revenues from this source shall be employed for some good work, and not go to the diocesan curia as such.有时,罗马教廷在这个问题上ampler授予的自由,但几乎总是与来自这一来源的所有收入应为一些好的工作方式受雇的忠告,而不是去为这些教区教廷。 Henceforth every rescript requiring execution will state the sum which the diocesan curia is authorized to collect for its execution.今后将每一个诏书,要求执行国家的教区教廷有权收取其执行的总和。

In the Roman Curia the expenses incurred by petitioners fall under four heads:在罗马教廷的请愿者的开支属于四个头:

(a) expenses (expensœ) of carriage (postage, etc.), also a fee to the accredited agent, when one has been employed.(一)支出(expensœ)运输(邮资等),也是对认可的代理人,当一个人被雇用费。 This fee is fixed by the Congregation in question;这项费用是固定的,有问题的毕业典礼;

(b) a tax (taxa) to be used in defraying the expenses incurred by the Holy See in the organized administration of dispensations; (二)税收(类群)将在支付由圣灵所招致的开支看到在特许组织管理使用;

(c) the componendum, or eleemosynary fine to be paid to the Congregation and applied by it to pious uses;(三)componendum,或eleemosynary罚款支付给众和由它适用于以虔诚的用途;

(d) an alms imposed on the petitioners and to be distributed by themselves in good works.(d)在请愿,并派发由自己的优秀作品强加的施舍。

The moneys paid under the first two heads do not affect, strictly speaking, the gratuity of the dispensation.根据两国元首的首次支付的款项不影响,严格来说,该豁免酬金。They constitute a just compensation for the expenses the petitioners occasion the Curia.他们构成了费用的请愿场合教廷公正的赔偿。As for the alms and the componendum, besides the fact that they do not profit the pope nor the members of the Curia personally, but are employed in pious uses, they are justifiable, either as a fine for the faults which, as a rule, give occasion for the dispensation, or as a check to restrain a too great frequency of petitions often based on frivolous grounds.至于施舍和componendum除了这个事实,他们没有利润,也不是教廷教皇亲自成员,但在虔诚的用途就业,他们是合理的,无论是作为故障罚款,作为一项规则,为免除给予机会,或作为检查约束往往轻浮的理由提出申诉太大的频率。 And if the Tridentine prohibition be still urged, it may be truly said that the pope has the right to abrogate the decrees of councils, and is the best judge of the reasons that legitimize such abrogation.而如果是德律但丁禁令仍然呼吁,它可能真正表示,教宗有权废除议会的法令,而且是这样的原因合法化废除最好的判断。 We may add that the custom of tax and componendum is neither uniform nor universal in the Roman Curia.我们可以补充说,税收和componendum既不统一,也不习惯在罗马教廷普遍。

Publication information Written by Jules Besson.出版信息的书面由Jules贝松。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯j.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,体积诉公布1909年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

I. Dispensations in General: SUAREZ, De legibus (Naples, 1882), Bk.一,特许一般:苏亚雷斯,德legibus(那不勒斯,1882年),浅滩。VI, x sqq., and Opera Omnia (Paris, 1856), VI; PYRRHUS CORRADIUS, Praxis dispensationum apostolicarum (Venice, 1699); KONINGS-PUTZER, Commentarium in facultates apostolicas (New York, 1898), pt.。六中,x sqq,和Opera的Omnia(巴黎,1856年),六;皮拉斯CORRADIUS,实践dispensationum apostolicarum(威尼斯,1699年); KONINGS - PUTZER,Commentarium在facultates apostolicas(纽约,1898年),角。I; the commentators on the Decretals, especially SCHMALZGRUEBER, Jus ecclesiasticum universale (Rome, 1843), Bk.我;对Decretals,特别是SCHMALZGRUEBER,强制ecclesiasticum universale(罗马,1843),交通银行的评论员。I. tit.一,针锋相对。ii; WERNZ, Jus decretalium (Rome, 1905), I, tit.二; WERNZ,强制decretalium(罗马,1905年),我针锋相对。iv, 138; VON SCHERER, Handbuch des Kirchenrechts (Graz, 1898), I, 172; HINSCHIUS.四,138;冯舍雷尔,Handbuch德Kirchenrechts(格拉茨,1898年),我,172; HINSCHIUS。System d.系统D.kath.与Kath。Kirchenr.Kirchenr。(Berlin, 1869), I. 744, 789; the moral theologies, under the treatise De legibus, particularly ST. (柏林,1869年),一,744,789;的道德神学论文德legibus下,尤其是ST段。ALPHONSUS LIGUORI, Theologia Moralis (Rome, 1905), I, iv, Dub.阿方liguori,神学莫拉利斯(罗马,1905年),第一,第四,配音。 4; D'ANNIBALE, Summula Theologiœ Moralis (Rome, 1908), I, tr.4;德ANNIBALE,Summula Theologiœ莫拉利斯(罗马,1908年),我,文。iii, 220; BALLERINI, Opus Morale (Prato, 1889), I, 363; OJETTI, Synopsis rerum moralium et juris pontificii (Rome, 1904), sv Dispensatio; THOMASSIN, Ancienne et nouvelle discipline de l'Eglise touchant les bénéfices (Paris, 1725), II, p.三,220巴莱里尼,作品士气(普拉托,1889年),我,363; OJETTI,故事大纲rerum moralium等法学pontificii(罗马,1904年),希沃特Dispensatio;汤玛森,Ancienne等中篇小说纪律德欧莱雅埃格斯touchant莱斯bénéfices(巴黎,1725),第二,第 II, 1, 3, xxiv-xxix; STIEGLER, Dispensation, Dispensationwesen, und Dispensationsrecht in his Kirchenrecht (Mainz, 1901).二,1,,二十四,二十九3;施蒂格勒,配药,Dispensationwesen,在他的Kirchenrecht有限公司(美因茨,1901年)Dispensationsrecht。 I, and in Archiv f.本人,并在档案馆楼kath.与Kath。Kirchenr., LXXVII, 3; FIEBAG, De indole ac virtute dispensationum secundum principia jur. Kirchenr,LXXVII,3;。FIEBAG,德吲哚交流virtute dispensationum孔型原理jur。canonici (Breslau, 1867). canonici(布雷斯劳,1867)。

II.二。Matrimonial Dispensations: PYRRHUS CORRADIUS, op.婚姻dispensations:皮拉斯CORRADIUS,同前。cit.; DE JUSTIS, De dispens.同前。德贾斯蒂斯,德dispens。matrim.matrim。(Venice, 1769); GIOVINE, De dispens.(威尼斯,1769); GIOVINE,德dispens。matrim.matrim。(Naples, 1863); PLANCHARD, Dispenses matrim.(那不勒斯,1863年); PLANCHARD,Dispenses matrim。(Angoulème, 1882); FEIJE, De imped.(昂古莱姆,1882年); FEIJE,德阻抗。et dispens.等dispens。 matrim.matrim。(Louvain, 1885); ZITELLI, De dispens.(鲁汶,1885年); ZITELLI,德dispens。matrim.matrim。(Rome, 1887); VAN DE BURGT, De dispens.(罗马,1887年);凡代BURGT,德dispens。matrim.matrim。(Bois-le-Duc, 1865); POMPEN, De dispens.(布瓦乐德,1865); POMPEN,德dispens。et revalidatione matrim.等revalidatione matrim。(Amsterdam, 1897); ROUSSET, De sacramento matrimonii (Saint-Jean de Maurienne, 1895), IV, 231; KONINGS-PUTZER, Op.(阿姆斯特丹,1897年);鲁塞,德萨克拉门托matrimonii(圣让德Maurienne,1895年),四,231; KONINGS - PUTZER,作品。cit., 174 sqq., 376 sqq.; SANCHEZ, De s.同上,174 sqq,376 sqq。。。桑切斯,德第matrimonii sacramento (Viterbo, 1739), Bk.matrimonii萨克拉门托(维泰博,1739),浅滩。VIII; GASPARRI, Tract.八,加斯帕里,道。canonicus de matrimonio (Paris, 1892), I, iv, 186; MANSELLA, De imped.卡诺尼库斯德matrimonio(巴黎,1892年),我,四,186; MANSELLA,德阻抗。matrim. matrim。(Rome, 1881), 162; LEITNER, Lehrb.(罗马,1881年),162;莱特纳,Lehrb。des kath.德与Kath。Eherechts (Paderborn, 1902), 401; SCHNITZER, Kath.Eherechts(帕德博恩,1902年),401; Schnitzer的,与Kath。 Eherecht (Freiburg, 1898), 496; SANTILEITNER, Prœlectiones juris canonici (Ratisbon, 1899), IV, appendix I; WERNZ, Jus Decretalium (Rome, 1908), IV, tit.Eherecht(弗赖堡,1898年),496; SANTILEITNER,Prœlectiones法学canonici(拉蒂斯邦,1899年),四,附录一; WERNZ,强制Decretalium(罗马,1908年),四,针锋相对。xxix FREISEN Geschichte des kanon.二十九FREISEN历史馆万加隆。Eherechts bis zum Verfall der Glossenlitteratur (Tübingen, 1888), and in Archiv für kath.Eherechts二zum Verfall明镜Glossenlitteratur(蒂宾根大学,1888年),和毛皮与Kath在档案馆。Kirchenr., LXXVII, 3 sqq., and LXXVIII, 91; ESMEIN, Le mariage en droit canonique (Paris, 1891), II, 315; ZHISMAN, Das Eherecht der orient.Kirchenr,LXXVII,3 sqq和第七十八号,91。。ESMEIN,乐恩农式婚姻法所有权(巴黎,1891年),二,315; ZHISMAN,达斯Eherecht明镜东方。 Kirche (Vienna, 1864), 190, 712.教堂(维也纳,1864年),190,712。


Also, see:此外,见:
Ultradispensationalism ultradispensationalism
Covenant 盟约
Progressive Dispensationalism渐进dispensationalism
Second Coming of Christ耶稣第二次来
Eschatology 末世
Views of the Millennium意见千年
Last Judgement最后审判
Rapture, Tribulation破裂,磨难
Tribulation, Great Tribulation磨难,伟大的磨难


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