Dualism二元论

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Dualism is any theory or system of thought that recognizes two and only two independent and mutually irreducible principles or substances, which are sometimes complementary and sometimes in conflict. Dualisms are distinguished from Monisms, which admit only one element or kind of element, and from Pluralisms, which admit more than two elements or kinds of elements. The polarities of a dualism are distinguished from the thesis and antithesis of a Dialectic, in that the former are stable and mutually exclusive and the latter are dynamic, always tending toward synthesis.二元论是任何理论或思想体系的承认两种,只有两个独立的,相互不可原则或物质,它有时是互补的,有时冲突。dualisms有元素有别于monisms,它承认只有一个元素或实物,并从pluralisms ,其中承认两个以上的要素或元素种类。极性的一个二元论是有别于论文与辩证法对立的,因为前者是一个稳定和相互排斥的,后者是动态的,总是合成趋向。

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Dualisms are of two basic kinds, metaphysical and epistemological. Metaphysical dualisms admit two substances, such as world and God, or two principles, such as good and evil, as a means of explaining the nature of reality. Descartes argued a metaphysical dualism between mind - thinking substance - and body - extended substance. dualisms有两个基本类型,形而上学和认识论。 形而上学的二元论承认或两个原则,如善良与邪恶,因为大自然的一种手段,解释现实两种物质,如神世界。笛卡儿辩称形而上的二元论之间的心 - 思想的物质 - 与体 - 延长物质。He held that all elements of reality are ultimately one or the other of these two heterogeneous substances.他认为,现实中的所有元素,最终都是一个或这些物质的其他两个异构。Epistemological dualisms use two substances or principles, such as consciousness and phenomena or subject and object, to analyze the knowing process.认识论的二元论使用两种物质或现象,如意识,主体与客体或原则,来分析认识过程。In general, an epistemological dualist distinguishes that which is immediately present to the perceiving mind from the retrospective determination of the real object known.在一般情况下,认识论的二元论的区别认为这是立即从目前的已知对象的真实心灵感知追溯决心。

Plato's being and becoming, Aristotle's form and matter, Kant's noumena and phenomena, yin and yang in Chinese philosophy and the traditional issues of God and man, space and time, and nature and nurture are among other famous dualisms.柏拉图的幸福和成为亚里士多德的形式与质料,康德的本体和现象,阴阳性质,在中国哲学的阴阳时间,并和传统的人与上帝的问题,空间和培育的中和其他著名的二重性问题。

Donald Gotterbarn唐纳德Gotterbarn

Bibliography 参考书目
AO Lovejoy, The Revolt Against Dualism (1930).敖洛夫乔伊,反对二元论(1930年)起义。


Dualism二元论

Advanced Information先进的信息

Dualism is a theory in interpretation which explains a given situation or domain in terms of two opposing factors or principles.二元论是在解释理论,解释了两种对立因素或原则上一个特定的情况或域。In general, dualisms are twofold classifications which admit of no intermediate degrees.在一般情况下,二元论是哪双重承认没有中间度分类。There are three major types: metaphysical, epistemological or epistemic, and ethical or ethicoreligious.主要有三种类型:形而上学,认识论或认知,道德或ethicoreligious。

Metaphysical dualism asserts that the facts of the universe are best explained in terms of mutually irreducible elements.形而上学的二元断言,宇宙的事实是最好的,相互不可元素来解释。These are often considered to be mind and matter, or as by Descartes, thought and extension.这些通常被认为是由笛卡尔,思想和扩展精神和物质,或作为。Mind is usually conceived as conscious experience, matter as occupying space and being in motion.通常视为心灵意识的经验,无论是在运动中占据的空间和福祉。They are thus two qualitatively different orders of reality.因此,他们对现实的两种性质不同的订单。

Epistemological dualism is an analysis of the knowing situation which holds that the idea or object of judgment is radically other than the real object.认识论的二元论是研究,了解情况,认为自己的想法或对象的判断是从根本上以外的其他实物分析。The "object" of knowledge is held to be known only through the mediation of "ideas." “对象”的知识,目的是被称为只有通过调解的“想法”。This type of thinking raises the important question of the manner in which knowledge can bridge the gap between the idea of an object and the object itself.这种类型的思想,提出了以何种方式在知识,可以弥合对象的思想和对象本身差距的重要问题。

Ethical or ethicoreligious dualism asserts that there are two mutually hostile forces or beings in the world, the one being the source of all good, the other the source of all evil. The most clear cut type of ethicoreligious dualism is that of the ancient Iranian religion, usually associated with the name of Zoroaster, in which Ahura Mazda and Ahriman represent the projection into cosmology, respectively, of the forces of good and evil. 伦理或ethicoreligious二元断言,有两个互相敌对势力,还是在世界人口,其中之一是从所有的良好来源,另一方面是万恶之源的所有东西。ethicoreligious二元的类型最明确的是,在古代伊朗宗教,通常与名义zoroaster,其中阿胡拉马自达和阿里曼代表投射到宇宙学,分别善良与邪恶势力。 The universe becomes the battleground for these opposing beings, identified respectively with light and darkness.宇宙变成战场,这些反对的人,确定分别与光明与黑暗。More moderate forms of dualism pervade most religions, expressed, for example, by the distinction between sacred and profane, or by the analysis of reality in terms of yang and yin in Chinese thought.二元随处可见大多数宗教较温和形式,表达,例如,神圣与世俗之间,或由现实中的中阳和阴术语辨析思想的区别。

Christian theology generally accepts a modified moral dualism, recognizing God as supremely good and Satan as a deteriorated creature bent everywhere upon the intrusion of evil. This, however, is not dualism in the sense of its usual definition, since Christian theology does not consider Satan to be ultimate or original, and sees him ultimately excluded from the universe. 基督教神学普遍接受改良道德二元论,认识到邪恶的超级好人上帝和撒旦到处作为一个坏弯曲后的侵入。然而,这不是定义在一般意义上的二元论的,因为基督教神学并不认为撒旦要最终或原始,并认为他最终从宇宙之外。

HB Kuhn乙肝库恩
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
D Runes, Dictionary of Philosophy.ð符文,字典的哲学。


Dualism二元论

Catholic Information天主教新闻

(From Latin duo, two).(来自拉丁美洲二人,二)。

Like most other philosophical terms, has been employed in different meanings by different schools.像大多数其他哲学术语,已受聘于不同的含义是由不同的学校。

First, the name has been used to denote the religious or theological system which would explain the universe as the outcome of two eternally opposed and coexisting principles, conceived as good and evil, light and darkness, or some other form of conflicting powers.首先,名称已被用来指宗教或神学体系,这将解释作为宇宙的两个结果永远反对和共存原则,善良与邪恶,光明与黑暗,或一些其他形式的权力冲突的设想。 We find this theory widely prevalent in the East, and especially in Persia, for several centuries before the Christian Era.我们发现前基督教时代这个理论广泛流行了几个世纪的东方,尤其是在波斯和。The Zend-Avesta, ascribed to Zoroaster, who probably lived in the sixth century BC and is supposed to be the founder or reformer of the Medo-Persian religion, explains the world as the outcome of the struggle between Ormuzd and Ahriman.在Zend -阿维斯塔,归因于琐罗亚斯德,谁可能生活在公元前六世纪,被认为是创始人或玛代,波斯宗教的改革者,说明作为Ormuzd和阿里曼之间斗争的结果世界。 Ormuzd is infinite light, supreme wisdom, and the author of all good; Ahriman is the principle of darkness and of all evil.Ormuzd是无限的光,最高的智慧,和所有优秀的人;阿里曼是一切罪恶的黑暗和原则。In the third century after Christ, Manes, for a time a convert to Christianity, developed a form of Gnosticism, subsequently styled Manichaeism, in which he sought to fuse some of the elements of the Christian religion with the dualistic creed of Zoroastrianism (see MANICHAEISM and ZOROASTER).在第三个世纪后,基督,Manes认为,今后一个时期皈依基督教,开发出了诺斯替主义的形式,风格摩尼教后来,他在寻求融合与二元的祆教信仰基督教的一些内容(见摩尼教和琐罗亚斯德)。 Christian philosophy, expounded with minor differences by theologians and philosophers from St. Augustine downwards, holds generally that physical evil is the result of the necessary limitations of finite created beings, and that moral evil, which alone is evil in the true sense, is a consequence of the creation of beings possessed of free wills and is tolerated by God.基督教哲学,与神学家和哲学家圣奥古斯丁向下细微差别阐述,认为一般,身体邪恶是有限的创建人必要的限制的结果,而道德上的邪恶,因为只有在真正意义上的邪恶,是一个对具有自由意志的结果,是人类创造容忍上帝。 Both physical and moral evil are to be conceived as some form of privation or defect of being, not as positive entity.身体和道德上的邪恶将被视为一些穷困或丧失,而不是作为实体的缺陷正构思的形式。Their existence is thus not irreconcilable with the doctrine of theistic monism.它们的存在,因此不能与一元论学说的有神论的不可调和的。

Second, the term dualism is employed in opposition to monism, to signify the ordinary view that the existing universe contains two radically distinct kinds of being or substance -- matter and spirit, body and mind.其次,长期的二元论是受雇于反对一元论,以示普通认为,现有的宇宙包含两个根本不同的种类正在或物质 - 物质和精神,身体和心灵。This is the most frequent use of the name in modern philosophy, where it is commonly contrasted with monism.这是在现代哲学的名称,它通常与一元论是最经常使用对比。But it should not be forgotten that dualism in this sense is quite reconcilable with a monistic origin of all things.但它不应该忘记,在这个意义上的二元论是相当的所有事情的起源一元论调和。The theistic doctrine of creation gives a monistic account of the universe in this sense.创造的有神论的学说提供了一个在这个意义上的宇宙一元的帐户。Dualism is thus opposed to both materialism and idealism.因此,反对二元论是唯物主义和唯心主义两种。Idealism, however, of the Berkeleyan type, which maintains the existence of a multitude of distinct substantial minds, may along with dualism, be described as pluralism.理想主义,但是,Berkeleyan类型,它保持着一个庞大的头脑众多独特的存在,随着二元论,可说是多元化。

Historically, in Greek philosophy as early as 500 BC we find the Eleatic School with Parmenides as their chief, teaching a universal unity of being, thus exhibiting a certain affinity with modern German monism.从历史上看,在希腊哲学一样,我们发现早在公元前500同为主要巴门尼德爱利亚学校教学的一个普遍性的统一,从而表现出一元论与现代德语一定的亲和力。 Being alone exists.作为单独存在。It is absolutely one, eternal, and unchangeable.这是绝对的,永恒的,不可改变的。There is no real becoming or beginning of being.有没有真正成为或正在开始。Seeming changes and plurality of beings are mere appearances.表面上的变化和人的多元化仅仅是表象。To this unity of being, Plato opposed an original duality--God and unproduced matter, existing side by side from all eternity.对于这种被统一,反对柏拉图的原始对偶 - 上帝和非生产的问题,现有的从所有永恒并存。This matter, however, was conceived as indeterminate, chaotic, fluctuating, and governed by a blind necessity, in contrast with mind which acts according to plan.这件事情,但是,被认为是不确定的,混乱,起伏不定,以及由一个盲目的必然性,与心,其中的行为,按照计划的对比。The order and arrangement are due to God.顺序和安排,是由于神。Evil and disorder in the world have their source in the resistance of matter which God has not altogether vanquished.邪恶和混乱的世界都在对物质性的神并没有完全战胜的来源。Here we seem to have a trace of the Oriental speculation.在这里,我们似乎有一丝东方的猜测。Again there is another dualism in man.这又是另一个人的二元论。The rational soul is a spiritual substance distinct from the body within which it dwells, somewhat as the charioteer in the chariot.理性的灵魂是一种精神实质,从身体内部,它整篇,有点像在战车凯旋不同。Aristotle is dualistic on sundry important topics.亚里士多德的二元杂项重要课题。The contrast between the fundamental conceptions of matter and form--a potential and an actualizing principle--runs through all branches of his system.一个潜在的和actualizing原则 - - 之间的问题和形式的基本概念对比贯穿他的系统的所有分支。Necessarily coeternal with God, Who is pure actuality, there has existed the passive principle of matter, which in this sense, however, is mere potentiality.一定coeternal与神,人是纯粹的现状,有物质存在的被动的原则,在这个意义上说,仅仅是潜力。 But further, along with God Who is the Prime Mover, there must also have existed from all eternity the World moved by God.但进一步的,与上帝谁是沿原动机,但也必须从所有永恒存在的世界由上帝感动。In his treatment of cognition Aristotle adopts the ordinary common-sense view of the existence of individual objects distinct from our perceptions and ideas of them.在他的认知治疗亚里士多德采用了从我们的看法和想法不同,其中个人物的存在一般常识性的看法。Man is an individual substantial being resulting from the coalescence of the two principles--form (the soul) and matter.人是一个庞大而导致个人从两个原则凝聚 - 形式(灵魂)和物质。

Christianity rejected all forms of a dual origin of the world which erected matter, or evil, or any other principle into a second eternal being coexistent with God, and it taught the monistic origin of the universe from one, infinite, self-existing spiritual Being who freely created all things.基督教拒绝了世界双原产地竖立物质,或邪恶,或任何其他原则纳入所有形式的第二个永恒的福祉与上帝共存,并教导一,无限的,自我存在的精神宇宙的一元论的起源存在谁自由创造万物。 The unfamiliar conception of free creation, however, met with considerable opposition in the schools of philosophy and was abandoned by several of the earlier heresies.陌生的自由创作的概念,但是,会见了在哲学学校相当大的反对,由较早的异端邪说几个放弃。The neo-Platonists sought to lessen the difficulty by emanastic forms of pantheism, and also by inserting intermediate beings between God and the world.在新柏拉图主义者试图以减轻形式的泛神论emanastic的困难,并通过插入上帝和世界之间的中间众生。But the former method implied a materialistic conception of God, while the latter only postponed the difficulty.但前一种方法隐含了唯物史观的上帝,而后者只推迟了困难。From the thirteenth century, through the influence of Albertus Magnus and still more of St. Thomas Aquinas, the philosophy of Aristotle, though subjected to some important modifications, became the accredited philosophy of the Church.从13世纪,通过阿尔伯图斯思影响和圣托马斯阿奎那,亚里士多德的哲学,但受到一些重要的修改,更成为教会认可的理念。 The dualistic hypothesis of an eternal world existing side by side with God was of course rejected.现有的一个永恒的世界与神并肩二元假设当然是拒绝。But the conception of spiritual beings as opposed to matter received fuller definition and development.但是,鬼神观念,而不是问题得到更全面的定义和发展。The distinction between the human soul and the body which it animates was made clearer and their separability emphasized; but the ultra-dualism of Plato was avoided by insisting on the intimate union of soul and body to constitute one substantial being under the conception of form and matter.人类之间的灵魂和身体,它的动画作了区分清楚,他们的可分强调,但超柏拉图的二元论是可以避免的灵魂和身体的亲密工会坚持以构成一个庞大的概念下的形式存在和的问题。

The problem of dualism, however, was lifted into quite a new position in modern philosophy by Descartes.问题的二元论,然而,在吊装到不少现代哲学笛卡尔的新位置。Indeed, since his time it has been a topic of central interest in philosophical speculation.事实上,自从他的时间一直是在哲学思辩中央感兴趣的话题。His handling of two distinct questions, the one epistemological, the other metaphysical, brought this about.他处理两个不同的问题,一个认识论,其他的形而上学,带来了这个目标。The mind stands in a cognitional relation to the external world, and in a causal relation to the changes within the body.心站在一个认知关系到外部世界,并在一个因果关系在体内的变化。What is the precise nature of each of these relations?什么是这些关系的每一个精确的性质?According to Descartes the soul is res cogitans.根据笛卡尔的灵魂,是水库cogitans。Its essence is thought.其实质就是思想。It is simple and unextended.它是简单和取消扩展。It has nothing in common with the body, but is connected with it in a single point, the pineal gland in the centre of the brain.它在身体不相同,但与它在一个单一的连接点,在大脑的中心松果体。In contrast with this, the essence of matter lies in extension.与此相反,物质的本质在于扩展。So the two forms of being are utterly disparate.所以是两个完全不同的形式。Consequently the union between them is of an accidental or extrinsic character.因此它们之间的联盟是一个偶然的或外在特征。 Descartes thus approximates to the Platonic conception of charioteer and chariot.笛卡尔从而接近到凯旋战车和柏拉图的概念。 Soul and body are really two merely allied beings.灵魂和身体是可以分开两个只是盟军的生命。How then do they interact?他们又如何互动?Real reciprocal influence or causal interaction seems impossible between two such disparate things.真正的相互影响或因果关系之间的相互作用似乎完全不同的两个这样的事情是不可能的。Geulincx and other disciples of Descartes were driven to invent the hypothesis of occasionalism and Divine assistance, according to which it is God Himself who effects the appropriate change in either body or mind on the occasion of the corresponding change in the other. Geulincx和其他弟子笛卡尔发明被驱赶到了偶和神圣的援助假说,它是根据上帝谁影响了在两个机构,或对其他相应的变化,在适当的场合心灵的变化。 For this system of miraculous interferences Leibniz substituted the theory of pre-established harmony according to which God has coupled pairs of bodies and souls which are destined to run in parallel series of changes like two clocks started together.对于这种神奇的干扰系统莱布尼茨取代预先确定的和谐理论根据的机构,哪些是注定要运行在两个时钟的变化,如一系列平行的灵魂是上帝耦合对开始在一起。 The same insoluble difficulty of psycho-physical parallelism remains on the hands of those psychologists and philosophers at the present day who reject the doctrine of the soul as a real being capable of acting on the body which it informs.同样的心理和身体上的并行不溶性的困难仍然在今天这些心理学家和哲学家的手谁拒绝灵魂的学说作为一个真实的存在对身体有能力采取行动,它通知。 The ultra-dualism of Descartes was immediately followed on the Continent by the pantheistic monism of Spinoza, which identified mind and matter in one infinite substance of which they are merely "modes."超笛卡尔二元论紧接着就由一元论斯宾诺莎泛神论,确定在一个无限的物质的,他们只是精神与物质大陆“的模式。”

The cognitional question Descartes solves by a theory of knowledge according to which the mind immediately perceives only its own ideas or modifications.笛卡儿的认知问题的一个理论根据知识,头脑立刻感觉到只有自己的想法或修改解决了。The belief in an external world corresponding to these ideas is of the nature of an inference, and the guaranteeing of this inference or the construction of a reliable bridge from the subjective world of thought to the objective world of material being, was thenceforth the main problem of modern philosophy.在外部世界相对应的这些思想信念是一个推理的性质,以及这种推论保证或一个可靠的桥梁,从主观世界的建设思想对客观物质世界,是此后的主要问题现代哲学。 Locke similarly taught that the mind immediately apprehends only its own ideas, but he assumed a real external world which corresponds to these ideas, at least as regards the primary qualities of matter.洛克同样告诉我们,立即想起apprehends只有自己的想法,但他摆出一副真正的外部世界,这相当于这些想法,至少在物质方面的主要素质。 Berkeley, accepting Locke's assumption that the mind immediately cognizes only its own ideas, raised the question: What grounds have we for believing in the existence of a material world corresponding to those ideas?伯克利分校,接受洛克的假设,即立即想起cognizes只有自己的想法,提出了一个问题:有什么理由在一个物质世界的存在相当于我们相信这些想法? He concludes that there are none.他的结论是有没有。The external cause of these ideas is God Who awakens them in our minds by regular laws.这些外部原因是上帝的思想,唤醒了我们心中的定期法律他们。The dualistic opposition between mind and matter is thus got rid of by denying an independent material world.精神与物质之间的二元对立因此摆脱了否认一个独立的物质世界。But Berkeley still postulates multitude of real substantial minds distinct from each other and apparently from God.但伯克利仍然假设的真正独特的,相互借鉴,显然是从神的重大思想铸就。We have thus idealistic pluralism.我们就此理想化多元化。Hume carried Berkeley's scepticism a step farther and denied the existence of permanent spiritual substances, or minds, for grounds similar to those on which Berkeley rejected material substances.休谟大学伯克利分校进行的怀疑,并否认了一步远的永恒的精神物质,或类似的思想为理由而那些拒绝伯克利分校材料物质的存在。 All we know to exist are ideas of greater or less vividness.我们都知道存在或多或少是生动的想法。Kant repudiates this more extreme scepticism and adopts, at least in the second edition of his chief work, a form of dualism based on the distinction of phenomena and noumena.康德否定这更极端的怀疑和采用,至少在他的主要工作,形成了二元论的现象和本体的区别的第二版。The mind immediately perceives only its own representations.心立刻感觉到只有自己的意见。These are modified by innate mental forms.这些修改天生的智力形式。They present to us only phenomena.他们向我们提出的唯一现象。But the noumena, the things-in-themselves, the external causes of these phenomenal representations, are beyond our power of cognition.但是,本体,事物自体,这些现象表示外部原因,超出了我们的认知力的。Fichte rejected things-in-themselves outside the mind, and reduced the Kantian dualism to idealistic monism.费希特拒绝的东西自体以外的头脑,并减少了对理想主义的一元论康德的二元论。The strongest and most consistent defenders of dualism in modern philosophy have been the Scotch School, including Reid, Stuart, and Hamilton.在现代哲学的二元论最强和最稳定的维护者一直是苏格兰学校,包括里德,斯图尔特和汉密尔顿。Among English writers in more recent times Martineau, McCosh, Mivart, and Case have carried on the same tradition on similar lines.其中在近期马蒂诺,麦科甚,Mivart,英国作家和案例进行了类似的路线一脉相承。

The problem of dualism, as its history suggests, involves two main questions:问题的二元论,因为它的历史表明,涉及两个主要问题:

Does there exist a material world outside of our minds and independent of our thought?是否存在着我们的头脑以外的物质世界和我们的独立的思想?

Supposing such a world to exist, how does the mind attain to the cognition of it?假设这样一个世界存在的,请问介意,以达到它的认知?

The former question belongs to epistemology, material logic, or general philosophy; the latter to psychology.前者属于认识论的问题,材料的逻辑,或一般的哲学,对心理学后者。It is true that dualism is ultimately rejected by the materialist who reduces conscious states to functions, or "aspects" of the brain; but objections from this standpoint will be more suitably dealt with under materialism and monism.诚然,二元论,最终拒绝了唯物主义的意识状态降低到谁的功能,或“方面”的大脑,但是从这个观点出发的反对下,更适当地处理唯物论和一元论。 The idealist theory since Berkeley, in all its forms, maintains that the mind can only know its own states or representations, and that what we suppose to be an independent, material world is, in the last analysis, only a series of ideas and sensations plus belief in the possibility of other sensations.伯克利唯心主义的理论以来,在其所有形式,保持心灵能够只知道自己的国家或声明,说我们想成为一个独立的,物质世界是,在过去的分析中,只有一个系列的观念和感觉加上信仰的其他感觉的可能性。 Our conviction of the objective reality of a vivid consistent dream is analogous to our conviction of the validity of our waking experience.我们对一个活生生的客观现实一致的信念是梦类似于我们对我们清醒的经验有效性的信念。 Dualism affirms, in opposition to all forms of idealism, the independent, extramental reality of the material world.申明二元论,反对唯心主义,独立,物质世界extramental现实的所有形式。Among its chief arguments are the following:在其主要参数如下:

Our belief in the existence of other minds is an inference from their bodies.我们在其他一些头脑存在的信仰是从他们的身体的推论。Consequently the denial of an external material world involves the rejection of all evidence for the existence of other minds, and lands the idealist in the position of "Solipsism".因此对外部物质世界,否认涉及的所有其他拒绝心中存在的证据,和土地中的“唯我论”的立场理想主义者。

Physical science assumes the existence of a material world, existing when unperceived, possessing various properties, and exerting various powers according to definite constant laws.体育科学假设一个物质世界的存在,现有的时候unperceived,拥有各种属性,并按照一定的不断施加各种权力的法律。 Thus astronomy describes the movements of heavenly bodies moving in space of three dimensions, attracting each other with forces inversely proportioned to the square of the distance.因此,天文学描述三维空间中的移动天体的运动,吸引每个强制其他成反比相称,与距离的平方。It postulates the movement and action of such bodies when they are invisible as well as when they are visible through long periods of time and over vast areas of space.它假设的流动和无形时,以及当他们通过很长一段时间和空间的广大地区在可见这些机构的行动。From these assumptions it deduces future positions and foretells eclipses and transits many years ahead.从这些假设推导它预示着未来的立场和月食和过境多年前进。Observations carried out by subsequent generations verify the predictions.观察后代进行了验证的预测。Were there not an extramental world whose parts exist and act in a space and time truly mirrored by our cognitions and ideas, such a result would be impossible.是不是有一extramental世界的地方存在和行动的空间和时间真正被我们认识和思想反映,这样的结果是不可能的。 The branches of science dealing with sound, light, heat, and electricity are equally irreconcilable with idealism.科学的分支机构有声,光,热,电力等方面也同样怀着理想主义的不可调和的。The teachings of physiology and psycho-physics become peculiarly absurd in the idealist theory.生理和心理物理学的教诲成为独有的在唯心主义的理论是荒谬的。What, for instance, is meant by saying that memory is dependent on modifications in the nervous substance of the brain, if all the material world, including the brain, is but a collection of mental states?什么,例如,是由内存的意思是说,在大脑的神经物质依赖的修改,如果所有的物质世界,包括大脑,也不过是一种精神状态的集合? Psychology similarly assumes the extramental reality of the human body in its account of the growth of the senses and the development of perception.心理同样在其承担的感官知觉的成长和发展帐户的人体extramental现实。Were the idealist hypothesis true its language would be meaningless.唯心主义的假说是真实的语言将毫无意义。All branches of science thus presuppose and confirm the dualistic view of common sense.因此,科学的各分公司,并确认为前提的常识二元论观点。

Granted, then, the truth of dualism, the psychological question emerges: How does the mind come to know the material world?诚然,那么,真理的二元论,心理问题出现了:如何得知是否介意来认识物质世界? Broadly speaking there are two answers.广义上来说,有两个答案。According to one the mind immediately perceives only its own representations or ideas and from these it infers external material objects as the cause of these ideas.据一位头脑立刻感觉到只有自己的意见或想法,并从这些推断它作为这些想法造成的外部物质对象。According to the other, in some of its acts it immediately perceives extended objects or part of the material world.据外,在其行为立刻感觉到它扩展的对象或某些物质世界的一部分。As Hamilton says: "What we directly apprehend is the Non-ego, not some modification of the Ego".正如汉密尔顿说:“我们直接理解是无自我,而不是一些自我的修改”。The theory which maintains an immediate perception of the non-ego he calls natural dualism or natural realism.该理论,保持着一个非自我服务的自然的二元论,他的现实主义或自然即时的观感。The other, which holds a mediate cognition of the non-ego, as the inferred cause of a representation immediately apprehended, he terms hypothetical dualism or hypothetical realism.另外,持有调解非自我认知,作为一个代表立即推断原因被捕,他的假设条件或假设的现实主义的二元论。The doctrine of immediate or presentative perception is that adopted by the great body of Scholastic philosophers and is embodied in the dictum that the idea, concept, or mental act of apprehension is non id quod percipitur sed medium quo res percipitur -- not that which is perceived but the medium by which the object itself is perceived.即时或表象的看法是,原则通过了伟大的哲学家在学术机构,是在格言的想法,概念,或恐惧心理行为是不编号狴percipitur中所体现的SED现状水库percipitur - 不认为这是知觉,但所依据的对象本身被认为媒介。This seems to be the only account of the nature of knowledge that does not lead logically to idealism; and the history of the subject confirms this view.这似乎是对知识不会导致逻辑上的唯心主义性质只占和主体的历史证实了这一观点。But affirmation of the mind's capacity for immediate perception of the non-ego and insistence on the distinction between id quod and id quo percipitur, do not dispose of the whole difficulty.但是,心灵的对非自我,并与身份证和身份证及现状percipitur狴坚持区别直接感知能力,肯定不处置的整个困难。 Modern psychology has become genetic.现代心理学已经成为遗传。Its interest centres in tracing the growth and development of cognition from the simplest and most elementary sensations of infancy.在追查其利益中心的成长和认知发展,从婴儿期最简单和最基本的感觉。Analysis of the perceptive processes of a later age, eg apprehension of size, shape, solidity, distance, and other qualities of remote objects, proves that operations seemingly instantaneous and immediate may involve the activity of memory, imagination, judgment, reasoning, and subconscious contributions from the past experience of other senses.分析以后时代的感知过程,如大小,形状,硬度,距离和远程对象的其他品质疑虑,证明看似瞬间,立即行动可能涉及的记忆,想象,判断,推理的活动,和潜意识捐款的其他感官的经验。 There is thus much that is indirect and inferential in nearly all the percipient acts of mature life.因此,有许多是间接和推理在几乎所有的成熟的生活知觉行为。This should be frankly admitted by the defender of natural dualism, and the chief psychological problem for him at the present day is to sift and discriminate what is immediate and direct from what is mediate or representative in the admittedly complex cognitional operations of normal adult life.这应该坦率地承认,由自然的二元论的捍卫者,而行政心理问题,他在现今社会,是筛选和歧视是什么立即从什么是调解,或在正常成年人的生活固然复杂的认知操作代表直接。

Publication information Written by Michael Maher.出版信息的书面迈克尔马希尔。Transcribed by Robert H. Sarkissian.转录由罗伯特H萨尔基相。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积诉公布1909年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

IN FAVOUR OF NATURAL DUALISM:--RICKABY, First Principles of Knowledge (New York and London, 1901); CASE, Physical Realism (New York and London, 1881); UEBERWEG, Logic, tr.有利于最自然二元对立: - 里卡比,第一原理知识(纽约和伦敦,1901年);为例,物理现实主义(纽约和伦敦,1881年); UEBERWEG,逻辑学,文。(London, 1871); HAMILTON, Metaphysics (Edinburgh and London, 1877); McCOSH, Exam. (伦敦,1871年);汉密尔顿,形而上学(爱丁堡和伦敦,1877年);麦科甚,考试。of Mill (New York, 1875); MARTINEAU, A Study of Religion (Oxford, 1888): MIVART, Nature and Thought (London, 1882); MAHER, Psychology (New York and London, 1908); FARGES, L'Objectivit de la Perception (Paris, 1891).密尔(纽约,1875年);马蒂诺,对宗教研究(牛津,1888年):MIVART,自然与思考(伦敦,1882年);马赫,心理学(纽约和伦敦,1908年); FARGES,欧莱雅客观性德香格里拉感知(巴黎,1891年)。

AGAINST NATURAL DUALISM:--BERKELEY, Principles of Human Knowledge, ed.对自然的二元论: - 伯克利,人类知识的原则,编辑。FRASER (Oxford, 1871): ed.弗雷泽(牛津,1871):教育署。KRAUTH (Philadelphia, 1874); MILL, An Exam.KRAUTH(费城,1874年);板厂,考试。of Sir W. Hamilton (London, 1865); BRADLEY, Appearance and Reality (New York and London, 1899).瓦特爵士汉密尔顿(伦敦,1865年);布拉德利,外观与现实(纽约和伦敦,1899年)。


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