Evangelicalism福音派

General Information一般资料

Evangelicalism is the term applied to a number of related movements within Protestantism.福音是适用于各种相关运动新教人数的术语。They are bound together by a common emphasis on what they believe to be a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and a commitment to the demands of the New Testament. Evangelicalism is usually associated with a type of preaching that calls on the hearer to confess his or her sin and believe in Christ's forgiveness.它们是联系在一起的一个共同强调了他们认为是耶稣基督建立个人关系及一本圣经承诺的新的要求。福音派承认与通常的类型,调用上鼓吹他或她的听者罪,并相信基督的宽恕。

During the late 17th century and throughout the 18th, Pietism was the mainspring of the so - called evangelical revival in Germany.在17世纪后期和整个18日,虔诚主义是所谓的主要动力 - 所谓的德国福音的复兴。Its counterpart in Great Britain and the United States was Methodism, which contributed to the series of revivals called the Great Awakening that swept 18th century America.它在英国和美国的对应是循道,这有助于复兴的系列被称为大觉醒,席卷18世纪的美国。The common purpose of evangelical movements was to revitalize the churches spiritually.福音派运动的共同目的是为了振兴教会精神。In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Evangelicals in the Church of England - especially William Wilberforce and other members of the group known as the Clapham Sect - played a leading role in the movement to abolish slavery in the British colonies.在18世纪末和19世纪初,在英国教会福音派 - 特别是威廉威伯福斯和克拉彭派作为已知的组其他成员 - 在运动中发挥了主导作用,废除奴隶制度在英国殖民地。

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Since about 1950 the term evangelical frequently has been applied in the United States to the inheritors and proponents of Fundamentalism.自1950年福音一词经常被应用在美国的继承者和原教旨主义的支持者。

Paul Merritt Bassett保罗巴塞特梅里特

Bibliography 参考书目
DG Bloesch, Essentials of Evangelical Theology (1982), and Freedom for Obedience (1987); JD Hunter, Evangelicism: The Comming Generation (1987); K Hylson - Smith, Evangelicals in the Church of England, 1734 - 1984 (1989); G Marsden, ed., Evangelicism and Modern America (1984).危险品Bloesch,基督教神学的要点(1982年),与自由就职(1987);第纳尔猎人,Evangelicism:美国的下一代(1987年); K表Hylson - 史密斯,在英国教会福音派,1734年至1984年(1989年); Ğ马斯登,编辑。,Evangelicism和现代美国(1984年)。


Evangelicalism福音

General Information一般资料

Evangelicalism is a movement in modern Anglo-American Protestantism (and in nations influenced by Britain and North America) that emphasizes personal commitment to Christ and the authority of the Bible.福音是现代英美新教运动(在英国和北美国家的影响),强调个人承诺,基督和圣经的权威。 It is represented in most Protestant denominations.这是代表大多数新教教派。

Evangelicals believe that each individual has a need for spiritual rebirth and personal commitment to Jesus Christ as savior, through faith in his atoning death on the cross (commonly, although not necessarily, through a specific conversion experience).福音派相信,每个人都有通过他的赎罪死在十字架上的信仰的精神重生和个人承诺,以耶稣基督为救主,需要(常见的是,虽然不一定通过一个具体的转换经验)。 They emphasize strict orthodoxy on cardinal doctrines, morals, and especially on the authority of the Bible.他们强调,在大是大非的教义,严格正统道德,特别是对圣经的权威。Many Evangelicals follow a traditional, precritical interpretation of the Bible and insist on its inerrancy (freedom from error in history as well as in faith and morals).许多福音派遵循传统,圣经precritical解释和其inerrancy(免于错误在历史上的信仰和道德以及)坚持。

The term Evangelicalism has been a source of controversy, and the precise relationship or distinction between Evangelicalism and Fundamentalism has been disputed.福音派一词一直是争议的来源,和精确的关系或福音派和原教旨主义之间的区别一直有争议。Liberal Protestants often oppose the use of Evangelical to refer only to the strict traditionalists.自由新教徒常常反对基督教仅指使用的严格传统主义。

In the general sense, evangelical (from the New Testament Greek euangelion,"good news") means simply pertaining to the Gospel.在一般意义上说,福音派(来自新约希腊文euangelion,“好消息”)就是指有关福音。The word identified the early leaders of the Reformation, who emphasized the biblical message and rejected the official interpretation of dogma by the Roman Catholic church.这个词确定了改革,谁强调圣经的消息,并拒绝教条,由罗马天主教教会的官方解释的早期领导人。Thus, Evangelical often simply means Protestant in continental Europe and in the names of churches elsewhere.因此,福音派常常只是意味着在欧洲大陆和其他地方的新教教堂的名字。In Germany, it once identified Lutherans in contrast to the Reformed (Calvinist) churches.在德国,它一旦确定了相反的改革(加尔文)教会路德宗。Nevertheless, the large union body, the Evangelical Church in Germany, today encompasses most Protestants, whether Lutheran or Calvinist, liberal or conservative.然而,大联盟的机构,在德国福音教会,今天涵盖大部分新教徒,无论信义或加尔文主义,自由主义或保守。 The term has also been applied to the Low Church wing of Anglicanism, which stresses biblical preaching, as opposed to sacramentalism and belief in the authority of church tradition.这个词也被应用到低翼英国国教教会,强调圣经的说教,而不是在教会的传统权力sacramentalism和信仰。

Antecedents来路

Forebears of 20th-century Evangelicalism include pre-Reformation dissenters such as the French merchant Peter Waldo, early leader of the Waldenses; the 14th-century English theologian John Wycliffe; and John Huss (Jan Hus), leader of the 14th-century Hussites. 20世纪的福音派前辈包括诸如法国商人彼得,早期领导人的瓦勒金都学前教育改革持不同政见者,1​​4世纪的英国神学家约翰威克里夫和约翰胡斯(扬胡斯),在14世纪的胡斯派的领导者。 The 16th-century Reformers, the 17th-century English and American Puritans , and the early Baptists and other Nonconformists were more immediate forerunners of Evangelicalism. 16世纪的宗教改革,17世纪的英国和美国的清教徒,早期浸信会和其他人的福音派新教徒更直接的前身。Historical landmarks of the movement include the arrival (1666) of Philipp Jakob Spener at a parish in Frankfurt, where he became the leader of Pietism in German Lutheranism, and the 1738 conversion experience of John Wesley, the leader of Methodism within the Church of England.该运动的历史建筑,包括在法兰克福,在那里他成为虔诚主义在德国路德教教区的领导人抵达菲利普雅各布Spener(1666),以及约翰卫斯理,在英国循道教会内的领导者1738年转型的经验。 Both Pietism and Methodism taught the necessity of personal saving faith rather than routine membership in the national church, and they had a profound impact on personal devotional life, evangelism, church reform, and - in Wesley's case - broad social reform.虔诚主义和methodism都教信仰的个人储蓄的必要性,而不是常规国家教会的成员,他们有一个对个人灵修生活,传福音,教会改革的深远影响,以及 - 韦斯利的情况下 - 广泛的社会改革。English Evangelicalism reached a high point with Wesley and the lay member of Parliament William Wilberforce.英国福音派达到一个高点和韦斯利躺在国会议员威廉威伯福斯。Wilberforce and his associates contributed greatly to education for the poor, the founding of the Church Missionary Society (1798) and the British and Foreign Bible Society (1803), the institution of the British ban on slave trading (1807), and the abolition of slavery (1833) in British territories.威尔伯福斯和他的同伙大大促进了对穷人的教育,教会传道会(1798)和英国和外国圣经协会(1803年),关于英国禁止奴隶贸易机构(1807),以及取消建国奴隶制(1833)在英国领土。

Evangelicalism in the US美国的福音派

Wesley's colleague and sometime disputant George Whitefield linked this English Evangelicalism with revivalism in the American colonies.韦斯利的同事,有时争论者乔治Whitefield的链接这与在美国的殖民地复兴英国福音派。The Great Awakening developed about 1725, deepened with the preaching and writing of the Congregational minister Jonathan Edwards, and reached a peak after 1740 with Whitefield's preaching tours.关于1725年的大觉醒的发展,加深了与说教和公理会牧师乔纳森爱德华兹的写作,并达成后Whitefield的宣讲团1740年达到高峰。 A Second Awakening is often identified in the early 19th-century US, and other revivals followed.二觉醒往往是一个确定的早在19世纪的美国及其他复苏之后。The Evangelical label began to be applied to interdenominational efforts at outreach and the establishment of foreign missions.福音派的标签开始被应用于教派努力,外展和外国使团的成立。Revivalism was typified by camp meetings and the itinerant ministries of such evangelists as Charles G. Finney and Dwight L. Moody.复兴是由营地会议,并作为查尔斯芬尼和德怀特穆迪这样的巡回传道部为代表。Their outstanding 20th-century successor is Billy Graham, the leading figure in US Evangelicalism since World War II.他们出色的20世纪的继任者是葛培理,美国的福音派第二次世界大战以来的最重要人物。

Modern Evangelicalism现代福音派

The emergence of theological Modernism during the 19th century, particularly historical criticism of the Bible, produced a movement of reaction within many denominations.在19世纪的神学现代主义的出现,特别是圣经历史的批评,许多教派内部产生一种反应的运动。From 1910 to 1915 conservative scholars produced a series of booklets entitled The Fundamentals, and in 1920 a conservative northern Baptist journal coined the designation Fundamentalist for the defenders of orthodoxy.从1910至1915年基本保守的学者产生了一系列的小册子,题目是1920年一个保守的北方浸信会杂志杜撰正统维护者为指定原教旨主义者。

The term Fundamentalism gradually came to designate only the most uncompromising and militant wing of the movement, however, and more moderate Protestant conservatives began to adopt the older designation of Evangelical. They created the National Association of Evangelicals in the US (1942) and the World Evangelical Fellowship (1951), the latter reviving an international body formed under Britain's Evangelical Alliance (founded 1846). 原教旨主义一词逐渐指定只有最不妥协和运动武装翼,然而,较温和的新教保守派都开始采用这种旧的福音指定。他们创造了在美国全国福音派协会(1942年)和世界福音团契(1951),后者根据一个国际机构恢复英国的福音联盟成立(成立于1846年)。 The constituencies of these bodies are largely outside the World and National Councils of Churches, but large numbers of Evangelicals exist within the mainstream ecumenical denominations.这些机构主要是选区以外的世界和国家教会的议会,但大量的福音派基督教主流教派内的存在。

The largest US Protestant body, the Southern Baptist Convention, embraces Evangelical tenets; other components of Evangelicalism include Pentecostalists, the Charismatic Renewal (including its Roman Catholic wing), Arminian-Holiness churches, conservative confessionalists such as the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, and numerous black Baptists, as well as independent "faith missions" and interdenominational ministries such as Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, Campus Crusade for Christ, and World Vision.美国最大的新教团体,美南浸信会,拥抱基督教原则;的福音派的其他组件包括Pentecostalists,有魅力的重建(包括罗马天主教翼),阿民念主义,圣洁的教会,保守confessionalists如路德教会,密苏里州主教,以及许多黑人浸信会,以及独立的“信念使命”,如跨瓦西蒂团契,学园传道会,世界展望教派部委。 Current Evangelicalism bridges two elements that were, for the most part, antithetical in the 19th century, the doctrinaire conservatives and the revivalists.当前福音派桥梁两个元素,这些都是在大多数情况下,在19世纪,教条保守党和revivalists对立的。

Evangelical educational materials are produced by a number of publishing houses, and such publications as Christianity Today are widely read.福音派的教材是由一些房屋的出版,并作为基督教的今天,这种刊物是广泛阅读。Evangelical preachers have long made extensive use of radio broadcasts, and during the 1970s evangelical programs on television proliferated, reaching an audience of more than 20 million.福音派传教士早已由无线电广播的广泛使用,并在20世纪70年代福音节目在电视上激增,达到年产20多万观众。According to a recent estimate, there are about 157 million Evangelicals throughout the world, including about 59 million in the United States.根据最近的估计,大约有1.57亿福音派在世界各地,其中包括约59名美国亿美元。

Richard N. Ostling理查德N Ostling


Evangelicalism福音

Advanced Information先进的信息

Evangelicalism is the movement in modern Christianity, transcending denominational and confessional boundaries, that emphasizes conformity to the basic tenets of the faith and a missionary outreach of compassion and urgency. A person who identifies with it is an "evangelical," one who believes and proclaims the gospel of Jesus Christ. The word is derived from the Greek noun euangelion, translated as glad tidings, good or joyful news, or gospel (a derivative of the Middle English godspell, a discourse or story about God), and verb euangelizomai, to announce good tidings of or to proclaim as good news.福音是,运动在现代的基督教教会和教派超越界限,强调符合的信仰和原则的基础和紧迫的传教推广的同情。 一个人谁与它识别是一个“福音”人谁相信并宣布基督耶稣的福音。一词源于希腊名词euangelion,euangelizomai译为喜讯,是好是快乐的消息,或与中古英语godspell,一种话语或故事有关,上帝)动词的福音(衍生工具,以宣布了好消息或宣布一个好消息。 These appear nearly one hundred times in the NT and have passed into modern languages through the Latin equivalent evangelium.这些出现在近一百新台币时代,并已成为现代语言,通过拉丁相当于evangelium。

Biblically the gospel is defined in 1 Cor.圣经的福音,是指在1肺心病。15:1 - 4 as the message that Christ died for our sins, was buried, and rose again on the third day in fulfillment of the prophetic Scriptures and thereby provided the way of redemption for sinful humanity.15:1 - 作为一个信息,就是基督为我们的罪死4,被埋葬,第三天上涨再次在圣经的预言实现,从而提供了为罪孽深重的人类救赎的方式。Three times the NT calls one who preaches the gospel an euangelistes (evangelist).三次新台币调用一个谁宣扬福音的一euangelistes(传播者)。

Theological Meaning神学意义

Evangelicalism has both a theological and historical meaning.既有福音神学和历史意义。Theologically it begins with a stress on the sovereignty of God, the transcendent, personal, infinite Being who created and rules over heaven and earth.它开始于神学的上帝,超越,个人的主权,是谁创造了​​无限福祉及以上的天地规则,压力。He is a holy God who cannot countenance sin, yet he is one of love and compassion for the sinner.他是一个圣洁的神谁不能罪恶嘴脸,但他是爱和同情的罪人之一。He actively identifies with the sufferings of his people, is accessible to them through prayer, and has by his sovereign free will devised a plan whereby his creatures may be redeemed.他积极认同他的人民的痛苦,是他们可以通过祈祷,并借其主权的自由意志,使他的动物设计出一种可兑换的计划。Although the plan is predetermined, he allows them to cooperate in the attainment of his objectives and brings their wills into conformity with his will.尽管该计划是预定的,他让他们在合作中实现他的目标,并用自己的意志带入按照他们的意愿。

Evangelicals regard Scripture as the divinely inspired record of God's revelation, the infallible, authoritative guide for faith and practice.福音派视为上帝的启示,万无一失,为信仰和实践的权威指南神圣的纪录经文。Inspiration is not mechanical dictation; rather, the Holy Spirit has guided the various biblical authors in their selection of words and meanings as they wrote about matters in their respective places and times.灵感不是机械的听写,而是圣灵引导他们选择的词语和意义的各种有关圣经的作者,因为他们在各自的位置和时间的问题写道。 Thus the words and imagery are culturally conditioned, but God has nonetheless conveyed his eternal, unconditional Word through them.因此,文字和图像的文化条件,但上帝仍然通过他们转达他的永恒的,无条件的话。The Scriptures are inerrant in all that they affirm and serve as the adequate, normative, and wholly reliable expression of God's will and purpose.在所有的圣经无误,他们肯定,并作为神的旨意和目的充分,规范,并且完全可靠的表达。 But the heavenly teaching of the Bible is not self evident, and the guidance and illumination of the Holy Spirit is required to bring out the divine meaning embedded in the text and to apply it to our lives.但天上的圣经教学不言自明,并指导和圣灵的光照是必须带出神圣的意义嵌入文本,并运用到我们的生活。

Denying the Enlightenment doctrine of man's innate goodness, evangelicals believe in the total depravity of man.否定了人的善良天性启蒙主义,福音派相信,在总堕落的人。All the goodness that exists in human nature is tainted by sin, and no dimension of life is free from its effects.所有的善良,在人性的罪恶存在的污染,也没有生命维度的影响是从自由。Man was originally created perfect; but through the fall sin entered the race, making man corrupt at the very core of his being, and this spiritual infection has been passed on from generation to generation.最初创建人是完美的,但整个秋季罪进入了比赛,使得他在非常核心的人被腐败,这种精神感染了一代传给一代。 Sin is not an inherent weakness or ignorance but positive rebellion against God's law.罪是不是固有的弱点或无知,而是对上帝的法律的积极叛乱。It is moral and spiritual blindness and bondage to powers beyond one's control.它是道德的,精神的盲目性和奴役超越一个人的控制的权力。 The root of sin is unbelief, and its manifestations are pride, lust for power, sensuousness, selfishness, fear, and disdain for spiritual things.罪恶的根源是不信,其表现是自豪,为了权力,感性,自私,恐惧和欲望,精神的东西不屑一顾。The propensity to sin is within man from birth, its power cannot be broken by human effort, and the ultimate result is complete and permanent separation from the presence of God.对犯罪倾向的人是从出生之内,它的功率不能按人的努力,而最终的结果是完整的和永久的从神的存在分离。

God himself provided the way out of the human dilemma by allowing his only Son, Jesus Christ, to assume the penalty and experience death on man's behalf.神自己提供了人类困境的出路,允许他唯一的儿子,耶稣基督,承担对人的名义罚款和经历死亡。Christ made atonement for sin on Calvary's cross by shedding his blood, thereby redeeming man from the power of spiritual death by dying in his place.基督就各各他的十字架脱落的血,从而挽救从精神死亡的力量在他垂死的人的地方为赎罪。Christ's substitutionary or vicarious atonement was a ransom for mankind's sins, a defeat of the powers of darkness, and a satisfaction for sin because it met the demand of God's justice.基督的代替性或替代赎罪是为人类的罪,一个黑暗的力量战胜赎金,并为罪满意,因为它满足了神的正义的要求。Then when Christ arose from the grave, he triumphed over death and hell, thus demonstrating the supremacy of divine power in a sin cursed world and laying the foundation for the eventual redemption of all creation from sin's corrupting influence.然后当基督从坟墓站起身来,他战胜了死亡和地狱,从而表现出的神圣权力至高无上诅咒罪恶的世界,奠定了所有创造的罪恶的腐败影响最终赎回的基础。 To affirm the atonement, Christians are called upon to bear witness by following their Lord in a life of demanding discipleship and bearing the burdens, sufferings, and needs of others.申明赎罪,基督徒被要求附有下列以苛刻的门徒和轴承的负担,他们的主的苦难生活的见证,和他人的需要。

Evangelicals believe that salvation is an act of unmerited divine grace received through faith in Christ, not through any kind of penance or good works.福音派相信,救恩是一个过份的神圣透过信仰基督没有通过任何一种忏悔或好的作品,优雅的行为。One's sins are pardoned, and one is regenerated (reborn), justified before God, and adopted into the family of God.一个人的罪过是赦免,一个是再生(新生),在神面前称义,并进入神的家庭收养。The guilt of sin is removed immediately, while the inward process of renewing and cleansing (sanctification) takes place as one leads the Christian life.罪的罪名立即删除,而更新和清洗(成圣)过程发生向内作为一个领导基督徒的生活。By grace believers are saved, kept, and empowered to live a life of service.信徒得救的恩典,保存,并有权过一种使用寿命。

Heralding the Word of God is an important feature of evangelicalism.预示着神的话是一个福音派的重要特征。The vehicle of God's Spirit is the biblical proclamation of the gospel which brings people to faith.上帝的圣灵车是圣经的福音宣讲人们带来信心。The written word is the basis for the preached word, and holy living is part of the process of witness, since life and word are inseparable elements of the evangelical message.文字是,却呈现出字的基础上,和圣洁的,是对证人进程的一部分,因为生命和字都是不可分割的组成部分的福音讯息。 Holiness involves not withdrawal from the world and detaching oneself from evil but rather boldly confronting evil and overcoming its effects both personally and socially.圣洁不单撤出世界从邪恶的分离,而是勇敢地面对自己的邪恶和克服其影响个人和社会。In this fashion the church brings the lost to a knowledge of Christ, teaches the way of discipleship, and engages in meeting human needs.在这种方式教会带来输给了基督的知识,教导门徒的道路,在满足人类的需要从事。Social service thus becomes both the evidence of one's faith and a preparation for the proclamation of the gospel.因此,社会服务都成为一个人的信仰的证据,并为福音的宣讲准备。The preevangelism of works of mercy may be just as important as preaching itself in bringing people into the kingdom of God.该工程的慈悲preevangelism可能只是像在说教带进神的国度的人本身更重要。

Finally, evangelicals look for the visible, personal return of Jesus Christ to set up his kingdom of righteousness, a new heaven and earth, one that will never end.最后,福音派寻找可见,耶稣基督建立个人返回他的王国义,一个新的天地,一个永远不会结束。This is the blessed hope for which all Christians long.这是幸福的希望,所有的基督徒长。It will consummate the judgment upon the world and the salvation of the faithful.它将完善的判断和对世界的忠实得救。

It should be stressed that these are special emphases of evangelicals and that they share many beliefs with other orthodox Christians.应该强调,这些是福音,他们特别重视与其他许多信仰东正教基督徒。Among them are the Trinity; Christ's incarnation, virgin birth, and bodily resurrection; the reality of miracles and the supernatural realm; the church as the body of Christ; the sacraments as effectual signs or means of grace; immortality of the soul; and the final resurrection.其中包括三位一体,基督的化身,维尔京诞生,身体复活的奇迹现实和超自然的境界;作为基督的身体教会为有效标志或手段的恩典圣礼;不朽的灵魂,以及最后的复活。 But evangelicalism is more than orthodox assent to dogma or a reactionary return to past ways.但比正统福音派同意的教条或反动回到过去的方式更多。It is the affirmation of the central beliefs of historic Christianity.这是历史的中心信仰基督教的肯定。

Historical Meaning历史意义

Although evangelicalism is customarily seen as a contemporary phenomenon, the evangelical spirit has manifested itself throughout church history.虽然福音是习惯作为一个当代现象可以看出,福音的精神体现了整个教会历史本身。 The commitment, discipline, and missionary zeal that distinguish evangelicalism were features of the apostolic church, the fathers, early monasticism, the medieval reform movements (Cluniac, Cistercian, Franciscan, and Dominican), preachers like Bernard of Clairvaux and Peter Waldo, the Brethren of the Common Life, and the Reformation precursors Wycliffe, Hus, and Savonarola.的承诺,纪律,和传教热情,区分福音是教会的使徒的特点,父亲,早期修道,中世纪的改革运动(克吕尼,修道院,方济和多米尼加),像伯纳德的克莱尔沃和彼得沃尔多,弟兄们传道共同生活,与改革前体威克利夫,溶血尿毒综合症,和萨沃纳罗拉。 At the Reformation the name "evangelical" was given to the Lutherans who sought to redirect Christianity to the gospel and renew the church on the basis of God's authoritative Word.在改革的名义“福音”,是考虑到路德会谁试图重定向基督教福音,并延长对上帝的权威字的基础上教堂。With the onset of Lutheran orthodoxy and the domination of many churches by civil rulers, unfortunately much of the spiritual vitality evaporated.随着发病路德正统教会和许多民间统治者统治,不幸的是,精神活力多蒸发。 Soon the word came to be applied collectively to both Lutheran and Reformed communions in Germany.不久,这个词后来被用于集体在德国的路德和改革圣餐。Congregations belonging to the Prussian Union Church (founded 1817) utilized it as well, and in contemporary Germany evangelical (evangelisch) is synonymous with Protestant.毕业典礼属于普鲁士佑宁堂(创建于1817年)利用它为好,在当代德国福音(evangelisch)与新教的代名词。

A recovery of the spiritual vigor of the Reformation resulted from three movements in the late seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, German pietism, Methodism, and the Great Awakening.一个改革的精神活力的恢复是由于三个乐章中后期第十七和十八世纪,德国虔诚主义,循道,伟大的觉醒。 Actually these were rooted in Puritanism with its strong emphasis on biblical authority, divine sovereignty, human responsibility, and personal piety and discipline.其实这些都是植根于清教凭借着它在圣经的权威,神圣的主权,人的责任,以及个人的虔诚和纪律的重视。The pietism of Spener, Francke, and Zinzendorf stressed Bible study, preaching, personal conversion and sanctification, missionary outreach, and social action.对Spener,弗朗克和辛生铎夫虔诚主义强调研究圣经,讲道,个人转换和成圣,教会外展和社会行动。It directly influenced developments in Britain and America and laid the foundations for the later revival in Germany.它直接影响了英国和美国的发展,奠定了以后在德国的复兴奠定了基础。

To be sure, the Enlightenment had a chilling effect on spiritual movements, but this was countered by the Methodist revival of John and Charles Wesley and George Whitefield in Britain and the Great Awakening in America prior to the Revolution.可以肯定的是,启蒙了对精神运动寒蝉效应,但这是由约翰和查尔斯韦斯利和乔治Whitefield卫在英国和美国的大觉醒前革命复兴反击。 The new fervor spread within the Anglican Church at the end of the century where the "Evangelical" party of John Newton, William Wilberforce and his Clapham sect, and numerous others fought social ills at home and abroad and founded Bible and missionary societies.圣公会教堂内的新热潮蔓延在本世纪结束那里的“福音”党的约翰牛顿,威廉和他的威尔伯福斯克拉珀姆节,和无数人在家里打国内外社会弊端,建立圣经和传教的社会。 Similar developments occurred in the Scottish church under Thomas Chalmers and the Haldane brothers, while the Baptists, Congregationalists, and Methodists all created foreign mission agencies.类似的发展出现在本托马斯查默斯和霍尔丹兄弟苏格兰教堂,而浸信会,公理,和卫都创造了外国使团机构。In Germany, where the old pietism had waned, a new wave of evangelical enthusiasm spread across the land, the Erweckung, which cross fertilized with British movements, while a parallel development occurred in France and Holland, the Reveil.在德国,当旧有虔诚主义减弱,新的跨越的土地,Erweckung,这与英国运动交叉受精新一波传播福音的热情,而同时在法国和荷兰发展的Reveil发生。

The nineteenth century was clearly the evangelical age.十九世纪的年龄显然是福音。The Anglican party, represented by such distinguished personalities as Lord Shaftesbury and William E Gladstone, occupied a central position in public life, while Nonconformist groups like the Baptists with their silver tongued orator Charles H Spurgeon and the Christian (Plymouth) Brethren reached many with the gospel.英国圣公会党在沙夫茨伯里勋爵和威廉E格莱斯顿杰出人士代表等,在公共生活中占据了核心地位,而像他们的演说家查尔斯银舌ħ吉翁和基督教(普利茅斯)浸信会弟兄非国集团达成的许多福音。 Other instances of British evangelical vitality included the YMCA founded by George Williams, the Salvation Army of Catherine and William Booth, the social ministries of George Mueller and Thomas Barnardo, the China Inland Mission of J Hudson Taylor, and the Keswick movement.英国福音活力青年会其他实例包括由乔治威廉姆斯和凯瑟琳救世军卜维廉,乔治米勒和托马斯巴纳多的中国内地会的J戴德生社会部委和凯瑟克运动成立。 In Germany were the Gemeinschaft (fellowship) movement, the charitable endeavors of JH Wichern, and the spiritual preaching of the Blumhardts, while in Holland the Calvinist theologian and political leader Abraham Kuyper had a major impact.在德国是礼俗(金)运动,慈善的JH维歇恩努力,以及Blumhardts精神的说教,而在荷兰的加尔文主义神学家和政治领袖亚伯拉罕凯伯产生了重大影响。

In America revivalism was the hallmark of evangelical religion.在美国复兴是宗教标志的福音。 The urban efforts of Charles Finney and DL Moody as well as rural and frontier movements among the Baptists, Methodists, Disciples of Christ, and Presbyterians and the growth of holiness perfectionism all helped to transform the nation's religious landscape.查尔斯芬尼和DL穆迪的努力,城市之间以及浸信会,卫理公会,基督的门徒,长老和完美的圣德增长农村和边疆运动都有助于改变国家的宗教景观。 Evangelicalism reached to the grass roots of white America, while the black community, in both slavery and freedom, was sustained and held together by its churches, which expressed a deep, personal evangelical faith.福音触及到基层美国白人,而黑人社区,在这两个奴隶和自由,是持续举行,由它的教堂,它表达了深刻的,个人福音派信仰在一起。 Evangelicalism shaped the nation's values and civil religion and provided the vision of America as God's chosen people.福音塑造了民族的价值观和民间宗教,提供了美国作为上帝的选民视野。Political leaders publicly expressed evangelical convictions and suppressed non Protestant and "foreign" elements who did not share in the national consensus.政治领导人公开表示,抑制非福音派新教的信念和“外国”分子谁没有在全民共识的份额。Not only unbelief but also social evil would be purged, and revivalism provided the reforming vision to create a righteous republic.不仅不信而且也要注重社会的邪恶就会被清除,改革和复兴提供了理想建立一个正义的共和国。 The antislavery and temperance campaigns, innumerable urban social service agencies, and even the nascent women's movements were facets of this.反奴隶制和禁酒运动,无数的城市社会服务机构,甚至新生的妇女运动都是这方面。

The Protestant nations of the North Atlantic region shared in the great foreign missionary advance that carried the gospel to every corner of the earth, and before long the evangelical revivals that had repeatedly swept the Western world began to occur in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as well.北大西洋的外国传教士的伟大事先进行了福音,地球的每个角落,不久以后的多次席卷西方世界的福音复兴的开始发生在非洲,亚洲地区的共同新教国家,拉丁美洲以及。 The Evangelical Alliance was formed in London in 1846 to unite Christians (but not churches or denominations as such) in promoting religious liberty, missions, and other common interests.福音派联盟成立于1846年在伦敦团结基督徒(但不因此教会或教派)在促进宗教自由,任务,以及其他共同利益。 National alliances were formed in Germany, the United States, and many other countries.国家联盟形成于德国,美国等许多国家。In 1951 the international organization was replaced by the new World Evangelical Fellowship. 1951年,国际组织所取代,新的世界福音团契。

The Twentieth Century二十世纪

In the early twentieth century, however, evangelicalism went into a temporary eclipse.早在二十世纪,然而,福音进入一个临时月食。A decorous worldliness characterized by a stress on material prosperity, loyalty to the nation state, and a rugged individualism inspired by social Darwinism virtually severed the taproot of social concern.一个高雅的世俗由对物质的繁荣,对祖国的忠诚应力状态的特点,以及个人主义的社会达尔文主义的启发几乎切断了社会关注的主根。 Orthodox Christians seemed unable to cope with the flood of new ideas, German higher criticism, Darwinian evolution, Freudian psychology, Marxist socialism, Nietzschean nihilism, and the naturalism of the new science, all of which undermined confidence in the infallibility of the Bible and the existence of the supernatural.东正教徒似乎无法应付新的思路,德国更高的批评,达尔文的进化论,弗洛伊德的心理学,马克思主义的社会主义,尼采的虚无主义,以及新的科学自然,所有这些破坏信心圣经犯错误和洪水超自然的存在。

The bloodbath of World War I shattered the optimistic, postmillennial vision of ushering in the kingdom of God as soon as the hold of social evil was broken at home and the Great Commission of carrying the gospel to all parts of the globe was fulfilled.在第一次世界大战大屠杀粉碎了乐观,在上帝的王国迎来只要持有社会邪恶是在家里,在继承的福音到世界各地的大使命是完成破postmillennial愿景。 Emerging from the struggle against theological liberalism and the social gospel in Britain and North America was a narrow fundamentalism that internalized the Christian message and withdrew from involvement in the world.从反对神学自由主义的斗争,并在英国和北美是一个新兴的社会福音狭窄的基督教原教旨主义的内在信息,从世界参与退席。 In addition, communism in the Soviet Union, nazism in Germany, and secularism throughout the world contributed to declining church attendance and interest in Christianity in general.此外,共产主义在苏联,德国纳粹,和整个世界的世俗主义有助于减少出席教堂和基督教的兴趣一般。

After World War II things turned around dramatically.二战以后的事情转身显着。Foreign missionary endeavors, Bible institutes and colleges, works among university students, and radio and literature ministries blossomed, while the evangelistic campaigns of the youthful Billy Graham had a global impact.外国传教士的努力,圣经学院和大学,在大学生中的作品,文学部,广播电台,开花,而年轻的葛培理布道运动有全球性影响。 A party of "conservative evangelicals" emerged in Britain and Evangelikaler in Germany, and their strength was reflected in such developments as the National Evangelical Anglican Congress and the German based Conference of Confessing Fellowships.一个“保守福音派”党在英国和Evangelikaler出现在德国,他们的实力在全国基督教圣公会的代表大会和德国的忏悔奖学金基于这种发展反映了会议。 In the United States the foundation of the National Association of Evangelicals (1942), Fuller Theological Seminary (1947), and Christianity Today (1956) were significant expressions of the "new evangelicalism," a term coined by Harold J Ockenga in 1947.在美国的福音派协会(1942),富勒神学院(1947年),基督教今天(1956年)的基础显着表现形式的“新福音派”,由哈罗德Ĵ Ockenga在1947年创造的一个名词。

The new or "neo" evangelicalism took issue with the older fundamentalism.新的或“新”福音带着老原教旨主义的问题。Ockenga argued that it had a wrong attitude (a suspicion of all who did not hold every doctrine and practice that fundamentalists did), a wrong strategy (a separatism that aimed at a totally pure church on the local and denominational levels), and wrong results (it had not turned the tide of liberalism anywhere nor had it penetrated with its theology into the social problems of the day). Ockenga认为,它有一个错误的态度(谁所有的怀疑都没有举行原教旨主义的理论和实践一样),一个错误的策略(一,在一个完全纯净的,旨在对当地教会和教会分裂的水平),以及错误的结果(它没有把自由主义的浪潮也没有任何地方与神学渗透到日常的社会问题)。 Edward J Carnell maintained further that fundamentalism was orthodoxy gone cultic because its convictions were not linked with the historic creeds of the church and it was more of a mentality than a movement.爱德华J卡内尔还保持了原教旨主义的正统邪教,因为它的信念并没有必然联系的理论与教会教义和它的历史是一个比一个更运动的心态。 Carl FH Henry insisted that fundamentalists did not present Christianity as an overarching world view but concentrated instead on only part of the message.卡尔跳频亨利坚持认为,原教旨主义者并没有提出一个总体的世界观作为基督教,但集中在该消息的一部分,而不是。They were too otherworldly, anti intellectual, and unwilling to bring their faith to bear upon culture and social life.他们太超凡脱俗,反知识,也不愿把他们的信仰承担对文化和社会生活。

Although the new evangelicalism was open to ecumenical contacts, rejected excessive legalism and moralism, and revealed serious interest in the social dimension of the gospel, many of its spokespersons remained tied to the political and economic status quo.尽管新的福音派基督教的接触是开放的,拒绝过度法定主义与道德主义,揭示了社会层面的福音,它的许多严重的利益代言人仍然绑在政治和经济现状。 Groups of more "radical" Christians within mainstream evangelicalism, eg, the Chicago Declaration of 1973, the Sojourners Community, and the British Shaftesbury Project, began calling attention to needs in this area.更为“激进”在主流福音派基督教团体,例如,1973年芝加哥宣言,旅居者社区,和英国沙夫茨伯里项目,开始呼吁重视这方面的需要。 As more attention was given to defining an evangelical, it became clear that the numbers were far greater than had been believed.随着越来越多的关注给予了界定一个福音,很显然,这些数字远远超过了相信。But the variations among the groups, Mennonites, Holiness, Charismatics, Christian Brethren, Southern Baptists, black churches, separatist - fundamentalists, "nondenominational" bodies, and evangelical blocs within the traditional denominations, were enormous and probably unbridgeable.但各组的变化,门诺,圣洁,灵恩,基督教弟兄们,美南浸信会,黑人教堂,分裂主义 - 原教旨主义者,“nondenominational”机构,并在传统的福音教派集团,是十分巨大,可能是不可逾越的。

Nevertheless, evangelical ecumenism has proceeded apace.然而,福音派合一工作进展迅速。The Billy Graham organization has been a major catalyst, especially in calling the World Congress on Evangelism (Berlin, 1966) and the International Congress on World Evangelization (Lausanne, 1974).葛培理组织是一个主要的催化剂,尤其是在世界上调用福音大会(柏林,1966年)和世界福音国际大会(洛桑,1974)。 The subsequent consultations sponsored by the Lausanne committee together with the activities of the World Evangelical Fellowship and the regional organizations formed by evangelicals in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe have done much to foster closer relations and cooperative efforts in evangelism, relief work, and theological development.随后的协商委员会主办的洛桑一起与世界福音团契及在非洲,亚洲,拉丁美洲福音派形成的区域组织的活动,和欧洲的下了不少工夫,以促进更密切的关系,并在布道,救灾工作的合作努力,和神学的发展。 With the indigenization of mission society operations, the multinational character of relief and evangelistic organizations, and the sending of missionaries by people in Third World countries themselves, evangelicalism has now come of age and is truly a global phenomenon.随着社会的经营宗旨,救济和福音组织跨国性质,本土化和派遣传教士在第三世界国家的人民自己,现在是福音的年龄,是一个真正的全球现象。

RV Pierard风疹病毒皮耶拉尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
BL Ramm, The Evangelical Heritage; DF Wells and JD Woodbridge, The Evangelicals; DG Bloesch, Essentials of Evangelical Theology, and The Evangelical Renaissance; KS Kantzer, eds., Evangelical Roots; KS Kantzer and SN Gundry, eds., Perspectives on Evangelical Theology; M Erickson, New Evangelical Theology; BL Shelley, Evangelicalism in America; JD Woodbridge, MA Noll, NO Hatch, The Gospel in America; WG McLoughlin, ed., The American Evangelicals; DW Dayton, Discovering an Evangelical Heritage; TL Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform; DO Moberg, The Great Reversal: Evangelism and Social Concern; GM Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture; DE Harrell, Varieties of Southern Evangelicalism; JBA Kessler, A Study of the Evangelical Alliance in Great Britain; RO Ferm, Cooperative Evangelism; JRW Stott, Fundamentalism and Evangelism; RH Nash, The New Evangelicalism; CFH Henry, Evangelicals in Search of Identity, The Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism, A Plea for Evangelical Demonstration, and Evangelicals at the Brink of Crisis;基本法拉姆,基督教遗产;东风井和JD伍德布里奇,福音派;危险品Bloesch,基督教神学的基本知识,和福音文艺复兴,堪萨斯州Kantzer,编,播道根;。。堪萨斯州Kantzer和SN冈德里合编,透视福音神学〔M埃里克森,新基督教神学;基本法雪莱,在美国福音派;第纳尔伍德布里奇,马诺尔,无舱口,在美国福音;。工作组麦克拉克林,海关,美国福音派;德国之声代顿,发现是一个福音派遗产;热释光史密斯,复兴和社会改革,难道莫贝格,大逆转:传福音与社会关怀,通用汽车马斯登,原教旨主义和美国文化;德哈勒尔,南福音派品种;吉巴凯斯勒,一个在英国福音联盟研究;反渗透固定汇率机制,合作使团; JRW斯托特,原教旨主义和福音,相对湿度纳什,新福音派,中信国亨利,在福音派身份搜索,现代原教旨主义良心不安,一种福音示范请求,并在福音派的危机边缘;

RV Pierard, The Unequal Yoke: Evangelical Christianity and Political Conservatism; R Quebedeaux, The Young Evangelicals; R Webber and D Bloesch, eds., The Orthodox Evangelicals; RE Webber, Common Roots: A Call to Evangelical Maturity; RG Clouse, RD Linder, and RV Pierard, eds., The Cross and the Flag; SE Wirt, The Social Conscience of the Evangelical; RJ Sider, ed., The Chicago Declaration; CE Armerding, ed., Evangelicals and Liberation; MA Inch, The Evangelical Challenge; RK Johnston, Evangelicals at an Impasse: Biblical Authority in Practice; J Johnston, Will Evangelicalism Survive Its Own Popularity?风疹病毒皮耶拉尔,不平等轭:。福音派基督教与政治保守主义与r quebedeaux,师弟新教徒与r韦伯和D Bloesch合编,东正教新教徒,重新韦伯,共同的根源:一个福音派到期呼叫的RG克劳斯,林德路及RV皮耶拉尔合编,十字架上的旗帜。东南沃特,对基督教社会良心。个RJ Sider的,海关,芝加哥宣言。行政长官Armerding,教育署,福音派和解放,马英寸,基督教的挑战; Rk的约翰斯顿,处于僵局新教徒:实践圣经的权威; Ĵ约翰斯顿,将福音派延续性自己的知名度?J Barr, Fundamentalism; R P Lightner, Neoevangelicalism Today; JC King, The Evangelicals; JI Packer, ed., Anglican Evangelicals Face the Future; JD Douglas, ed., Let the Earth Hear His Voice: International Congress on World Evangelization; CR Padilla, ed., The New Face of Evangelicalism; DE Hoke, ed., Evangelicals Face the Future.。Ĵ巴尔,原教旨主义; RP的莱特纳,Neoevangelicalism今天;赛马国王,福音派;巴刻版,英国圣公会福音派,面向未来;第纳尔道格拉斯,教育署,地听到他的声音:国际大会上世界福音;华润帕迪拉。 ,海关,福音派新面貌。。德霍克,教育署,福音派面对未来。


Evangelist传播者

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Evangelist, lit., "a messenger of good" (eu, "well," angelos, "a messenger"), denotes a "preacher of the gospel," Acts 21:8; Eph.传播者,点燃,“一个良好的使者”(欧盟,“很好,”安耶洛斯,“信使”),是指一个“福音的传教士,”行为21时08。弗。 4:11, which makes clear the distinctiveness of the function in the churches; 2 Tim. 4:11,其中明确了独特的功能,在教堂2添。4:5.4点05分。Cf.比照。euangelizo, "to proclaim glad tidings," and euangelion, "good news, gospel." euangelizo,“宣布喜讯,”和euangelion,“好消息,福音。”Missionaries are "evangelists," as being essentially preachers of the gospel.传教士是“传福音的,”说成是本质上的福音传教士。


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Fundamentalism 原教旨

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