General Information一般资料

Faith is in general the persuasion of the mind that a certain statement is true (Phil. 1:27; 2 Thess. 2:13).信念是一般的劝说,头脑一定说法是正确的(腓1:27。2帖2:13)。Its primary idea is trust.其主要思想是信任。A thing is true, and therefore worthy of trust.一件事是真的,所以值得信赖。It admits of many degrees up to full assurance of faith, in accordance with the evidence on which it rests.它承认许多度高达充足的信心,与它的证据在于规定。Faith is the result of teaching (Rom. 10:14-17).信仰是教学的结果(罗10:14-17)。Knowledge is an essential element in all faith, and is sometimes spoken of as an equivalent to faith (John 10:38; 1 John 2:3).知识是所有信仰的基本要素,有时口语的,因为信仰之当量(约10:38;约翰一书2:3)。Yet the two are distinguished in this respect, that faith includes in it assent, which is an act of the will in addition to the act of the understanding Assent to the truth is of the essence of faith, and the ultimate ground on which our assent to any revealed truth rests is the veracity of God.然而,在这两个方面的区别,信仰也包括赞同,这是一个在除了理解批准对真相的行为意志行为,是对信仰的真谛,最终地面上,我们赞同任何在于揭示真理是神的准确性。

Historical faith is the apprehension of and assent to certain statements which are regarded as mere facts of history.信仰是历史和同意向任何仅仅作为历史事实,把某些陈述忧虑。Temporary faith is that state of mind which is awakened in men (eg, Felix) by the exhibition of the truth and by the influence of religious sympathy, or by what is sometimes styled the common operation of the Holy Spirit.临时的信念是,精神状态,被唤醒男性的真相展览和同情的宗教影响,或有时是由什么风格的圣灵常见的操作(例如,菲利克斯)。 Saving faith is so called because it has eternal life inseparably connected with it.得救的信心是所谓的,因为它有永恒的生命与它密不可分。It cannot be better defined than in the words of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism: "Faith in Jesus Christ is a saving grace, whereby we receive and rest upon him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel."它不能有更好的界定比在大会小要理问答的话:“耶稣基督的信仰是一种可取之处,即我们收到并休息后,他为拯救孤独,因为他是提供给我们的福音。” The object of saving faith is the whole revealed Word of God.为节省信心的对象是整个揭示了神的话语。

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Faith accepts and believes it as the very truth most sure.信仰接受,并认为作为最确定它很真实。But the special act of faith which unites to Christ has as its object the person and the work of the Lord Jesus Christ (John 7:38; Acts 16:31).但是,基督信仰团结特别法作为其对象的人,主耶稣基督的工作(约翰福音7:38,徒16:31)。This is the specific act of faith by which a sinner is justified before God (Rom. 3:22, 25; Gal. 2:16; Phil. 3:9; John 3:16-36; Acts 10:43; 16:31).这是信仰的具体行为,其中一个罪人,但在神面前合理的(罗马书3:22,25;加拉太书2:16;菲尔3:9,约翰3:16-36,徒10:43 16。。: 31)。In this act of faith the believer appropriates and rests on Christ alone as Mediator in all his offices.在这种行为的信徒的信仰和依赖于占有基督为中保独自在他的所有办事处。This assent to or belief in the truth received upon the divine testimony has always associated with it a deep sense of sin, a distinct view of Christ, a consenting will, and a loving heart, together with a reliance on, a trusting in, or resting in Christ.这种对真理的同意或在收到信后,神圣的证词总是与它深深的罪孽感,基督的独特的看法,同意将,一个充满爱的心,一起,互相信任与依赖,或在基督里休息。 It is that state of mind in which a poor sinner, conscious of his sin, flees from his guilty self to Christ his Saviour, and rolls over the burden of all his sins on him.正是这种精神状态,其中一个可怜的罪人,他的罪过,逃离自我意识从他有罪他的救主基督,并主持了他所有关于他的罪过负担卷。 It consists chiefly, not in the assent given to the testimony of God in his Word, but in embracing with fiducial reliance and trust the one and only Saviour whom God reveals.它由主要是,不给上帝在证词同意他的字,但与基准的依赖和信任的一个拥抱,只有救主人,上帝揭示。This trust and reliance is of the essence of faith.这种信任和依赖,是信仰的本质。

By faith the believer directly and immediately appropriates Christ as his own.通过直接和信仰的信徒为他立即拨了自己的基督。Faith in its direct act makes Christ ours.其直接的行为,使基督信仰我们的。It is not a work which God graciously accepts instead of perfect obedience, but is only the hand by which we take hold of the person and work of our Redeemer as the only ground of our salvation.它不是一个工作,上帝慷慨地接受,而不是完美的服从,但只手,使我们把握的人,作为我们得救的唯一根基,我们的救赎工作。 Saving faith is a moral act, as it proceeds from a renewed will, and a renewed will is necessary to believing assent to the truth of God (1 Cor. 2:14; 2 Cor. 4:4).得救的信心是道德的行为,因为它会从一个新的收益,并重申将要相信赞同向上帝的真理(林前2:14。4:4 2肺心病。)。 Faith, therefore, has its seat in the moral part of our nature fully as much as in the intellectual.信仰,因此,有它在我们的自然道德的一部分座位尽可能充分的知识分子。The mind must first be enlightened by divine teaching (John 6:44; Acts 13:48; 2 Cor. 4:6; Eph. 1:17, 18) before it can discern the things of the Spirit.心必须先启发神圣教学(约翰6时44徒13时48分,2肺心病4:6;。。弗1:17,18),才可以分辨圣灵的事。

Faith is necessary to our salvation (Mark 16:16), not because there is any merit in it, but simply because it is the sinner's taking the place assigned him by God, his falling in with what God is doing.信心是必要的救赎(马克16:16),而不是因为它有任何好处,而只是因为它是罪人的上帝指派他参加,他在与神正在做什么落下的地方。 The warrant or ground of faith is the divine testimony, not the reasonableness of what God says, but the simple fact that he says it.认股权证或信仰的理由是神圣的证词,而不是什么上帝说的合理性,但简单的事实,他说是。Faith rests immediately on, "Thus saith the Lord."信仰立即休息,“耶和华如此说。”But in order to this faith the veracity, sincerity, and truth of God must be owned and appreciated, together with his unchangeableness.但是,为了这个信念的真实性,诚意,和上帝的真理必须拥有和赞赏,连同他的既判力。 God's word encourages and emboldens the sinner personally to transact with Christ as God's gift, to close with him, embrace him, give himself to Christ, and take Christ as his.神的话语鼓励和emboldens罪人亲自办理作为上帝的恩赐与基督,收他,拥抱他,把他自己给基督,并以此为他的基督。

That word comes with power, for it is the word of God who has revealed himself in his works, and especially in the cross.这个词带有威力,因为它是上帝的话,谁在他的作品揭示了他自己,特别是在交叉和。 God is to be believed for his word's sake, but also for his name's sake.上帝是因为他的话的缘故,也为他的名字的缘故相信。Faith in Christ secures for the believer freedom from condemnation, or justification before God; a participation in the life that is in Christ, the divine life (John 14:19; Rom. 6:4-10; Eph. 4:15,16, etc.); "peace with God" (Rom. 5:1); and sanctification (Acts 26:18; Gal. 5:6; Acts 15:9).信仰基督信徒从谴责的自由,或固定在神面前的理由,一个在生活中,在基督,神圣的生命(约翰福音14:19是参与;罗6:4-10。弗4:15,16。等),“和平与神”(罗马书5:1);和成圣(徒26:18;加拉太5时06。徒15:9)。 All who thus believe in Christ will certainly be saved (John 6:37, 40; 10:27, 28; Rom. 8:1).因此,谁所有在基督相信一定会得救(约翰福音6:37,40; 10点27分,28;。罗马书8:1)。The faith=the gospel (Acts 6:7; Rom. 1: 5; Gal. 1:23; 1 Tim. 3:9; Jude 3).信念=福音(徒6:7;光盘1:5。;加拉太1:23;提前3:9;犹3。。)。

Christian Faith基督教信仰

(Editor's Comments)(编者的评论)

To a Christian believer, the articles of this presentation probably will make sense, but a non-believer might have great difficulty comprehending the concept of Christian Faith.一个基督教信徒,本报告发表的文章大概会是有意义的,但一个非信徒可能有很大的困难理解的基督教信仰的概念。For this purpose, we chose to interject an analogy here.为此,我们选择在这里插一个比喻。

Imagine that a very nice stranger came to your town, and that he asked you to do something that would be very difficult for you.想象一下,一个很不错的陌生人来到你的城市,他要求你做一些对你来说很困难。He asks you to collect ALL the money and assets you have ever accumulated in your life, including car title, house title and all the rest, and to flush it all down a toilet!他要求你去收集所有的钱,你曾经在你的生活,包括汽车所有权,房屋所有权和所有其余的积累的资产,并下了这一切冲洗马桶! Everything!所有的一切!But why would you even consider doing that?但是,为什么你甚至考虑这样做呢?Because this nice man says that once you do that, the future will bring enormous financial prosperity to you, beyond your wildest imagination!因为这个漂亮的人说,一旦你这样做,将来会带来巨大的经济繁荣给你超乎你想象的,!

(You might note that this analogy resembles all of the huge Lottery programs that many States now operate, but in a more extreme sense.) You certainly want to listen to this nice man, because he keeps talking about unimaginable wealth and prosperity! (您可能会注意到,这个比喻类似的巨额彩票的所有程序,许多国家现在操作,但在一个更极端的感觉。)你一定要听这个好人,因为他一直谈论难以想象的财富和繁荣! But why can't you just flush "a little" down the toilet?但是,为什么你就不能冲下马桶“一点点”?He tells you that will not work, and that you would have to flush absolutely everything that you own of material value in order for this to work.他告诉你,是行不通的,而且你绝对会刷新你的一切物质价值为自己在这个为了工作。

Can you imagine the dilemma you would be contemplating?你能想象的困境你会考虑?If this nice man can be trusted to be telling the truth, then you are absolutely guaranteed of unimaginable wealth.如果这个漂亮的人可以被信任是真话,那么你绝对保证难以想象的财富。But what if it doesn't work, or if he is lying to you?但如果它不工作,或者如果他是骗你呢?In that case, everything you have ever worked for is gone forever, and you are now destitute.在这种情况下,一切你曾经工作已经一去不复返了,而你现在一贫如洗。No "shades of gray" are available here, your choice is very simply "black or white", yes or no.没有“灰色阴影”,可浏览这里,你的选择是非常简单的“黑或白”,是或否。

So, how do you wind up resolving this situation?所以,你怎么结业解决这种情况呢?You think and think, and you try to figure out this nice man.您的想法和思考,并尝试找出这个好人。You have absolutely no evidence whatever that what he says is actually true!你完全没有证据,他说什么是什么,其实真的! But the reward is so attractive that it is very hard to ignore.但报酬是如此有吸引力,这是非常难以忽视。At some point, you will have to decide whether you really, really believe what he is saying or not, without any way to confirm your choice.在某些时候,你将不得不决定是否你真的,真的相信他在说什么或不是没有任何方法来确认您的选择。

You can easily see that many people would choose to consider him a liar or a scoundrel or simply a misinformed nice man, and thereby pass on that opportunity.你可以很容易地看到,很多人认为他会选择说谎或误导歹徒或只是一个好人,从而传递这样的机会。However, there would also be some people who would accept the offer, for any of a number of personal reasons.但是,也有一些人​​谁愿意接受的一个个人原因任何要约。There are some people who are extremely trusting, and they would agree very quickly.有些人谁是非常信任,他们将同意非常快。 There are others who are more cautious or skeptical, and would only agree after studying the man for a while, watching for any errors or inconsistencies, and eventually concluding that they did not see any.谁还有其他更加谨慎或怀疑,并会研究后只同意了一段时间的人,看任何错误或不一致,最终得出的结论是他们没有看到任何。 There are yet others who might be skeptical people, but who have recently experienced horrendous hardship and have already "lost everything" and so feel that they have little to lose.但是,现在其他人谁可能是持怀疑态度的人,但谁最近经历了可怕的困难,已经“失去一切”,所以觉得自己没有什么可输的。 After all, if all you have in the world is a nickel, flushing that nickel down a toilet might not be unusually stressful.毕竟,如果你在世界上已是一种镍,冲洗厕所,镍下跌可能不是异常紧张。

This analogy is meant to show the main aspects of Faith.这个比喻是为了显示对信仰的主要方面。A person has already established something that is felt to be of (great) value, a personality and a way of living.一个人已经确立了的东西是认为是(大)值,个性和生活的方式。Then along comes Christianity, which expects the person to voluntarily dismiss many of the central thoughts and behaviors which have been built up, and for what?然后来了基督教,预计该人自愿解雇的一个核心思想和已建成的行为很多,为了什么?For the "absolute promise" of future happiness and prosperity that cannot be imagined!对于“绝对的承诺”未来的幸福和繁荣,是无法想象的!And the "program" is such that it cannot be done "part way"; it is presented as an all or nothing choice.与“纲要”就是这样,它不能做“的一部分的方式”,它是作为一个全有或全无的选择主办。When each person evaluates this opportunity, the reactions and responses are many and varied.当每个人评价这个机会,反应和反应是多种多样的。There are some who are trusting and who immediately accept.还有一些谁是谁的信赖和立即接受。There are others who are very "practical" and who insist on "solid evidence" before agreeing, and since such absolute proof is not available, they are unwilling to make a commitment, and maybe they never will.还有其他人谁是很“实用”,谁在“确凿证据”坚持才答应,因为这种绝对的证据和不可用,他们不愿意作出承诺,也许他们永远也不会。 In between, there are countless people who are attracted to the possibility of Everlasting Life and Happiness in Heaven, but who are (rightfully, in the modern world) skeptical of such amazing offers.在这两者之间,有无数的人吸引到谁是永恒的生命和幸福的天堂的可能性,但谁是(合法地在现代世界,)这些惊人的优惠持怀疑态度。 They want to learn everything they can about what is claimed by Christianity and about this "Jesus" around Whom it all depends.他们想了解一切,他们可以对什么是基督教,声称这种“耶稣”这完全取决于谁左右。

But no matter how much studying they will do, no one will ever find absolute proof that the claims (which are therefore called beliefs) of Christianity are actually true.但无论怎样学习他们会做,没有人会发现绝对的证据,证明基督教的索赔(这是因此被称为信仰)是真的。So, however an individual arrives at that point, a "leap of Faith" is eventually necessary, if the person is to make the "total commitment" that is necessary.如此,但是一个人在这一点到达,一个“信仰的飞跃”,是最终必要的,如果该人是把“总承诺”是必要的。

It is reasonable to think of it this way: the Lord offers each person a sort of "contract".它可以合理地认为它是这样的:每个人的主提供的“合同”排序。On His side, He offers entrance to Heaven and eternal Happiness.在他的身边,他提供了入口,天堂和永恒的幸福。On the person's side, the contract requirements are relatively simple but absolutely required, that of a total commitment to the Lord God as the One and Only god, and of a consistent belief and behavior from that moment on.在人的方面,合同要求相对简单,但绝对必要,即共承担作为一个只有上帝和一致的信念和行为,从那天起,就向主上帝。This "contract" is referred to as Salvation.这个“合同”被称为救赎。The person does NOT receive a written copy of it!该人不接受它的一个书面副本!It is entirely on Faith that a person must continue to believe that the Salvation contract is in effect, since the actual proof will not be available until after physical death.这完全是对信仰,一个人必须继续相信拯救合同生效时,因为实际的证据将不会被肉体死亡之后才提供。

The scholarly articles in this presentation tend to imply that Faith is a rather cold and impersonal subject.本简报的学术文章往往意味着,信仰是一个相当冷和客观的问题。In order for Christian Faith to develop and exist, we believe that it MUST be extremely personal and even emotional.为了使基督教信仰发展和存在,我们认为,它必须是非常个人,甚至情绪。That being the case, then dictionary definitions or ANY mere words can never fully describe it, and this analogy and these words are meant to try to express that intangible aspect of Faith.既然如此,那么字典定义或任何单纯的话永远不能完全描述它,这比喻说这些话是为了试图表达的信仰无形方面。

An additional point might be made, which represents a sort of hedging around Faith!另外一点可能提出的,它代表了大约信仰对冲排序!Blaise Pascal is recognized as one of the greatest minds of history.帕斯卡被公认为历史上最伟大的思想家之一。He proposed some comments that are now referred to as Pascal's wager.他建议一些是现在称为帕斯卡的赌注的评论。It was his (analytical) argument for believing in God.这是他(分析)可以相信上帝的说法。He first observed that the beliefs of Christianity are either true or they are not.他首先指出,基督教的信仰是真还是他们没有。 If they are true, and one "wagers" that they are true, then Eternal Bliss is gained.如果他们是真的,和一个“赌注”,他们是真的话,那么永恒的幸福是获得。If those beliefs are wrong or false, and death is final, what has the bettor lost?如果这些信念是错的或假的,死是最终决定,投注者失去了什么?On the other hand, if the person wagers against God's existence and turns out to be wrong, the result is Eternal Damnation.另一方面,如果对上帝的存在的人,赌注和原来是错的,其结果是永恒的诅咒。Pascal felt that this argument avoided the need for Faith in deciding to believe in God and Christianity!帕斯卡尔认为,这种说法回避决定相信上帝和基督教为信仰的需要!


Advanced Information先进的信息

Faith is the noun corresponding to the verb "believe," for which the Hebrew is heemin, the hiphil form of aman, and the Greek (LXX and NT) pisteuo.信念是相对应的名词动词“相信”,为其希伯来语是heemin,阿曼hiphil的形式,和希腊(LXX的和NT)pisteuo。 The latter is a key word in the NT, being the term regularly used to denote the many sided religious relationship into which the gospel calls men and women, that of trust in God through Christ.后者是在NT关键词,这个词经常被用来表示许多片面的宗教关系到其中的福音要求男人和女人,这对上帝通过基督的信任。 The complexity of this idea is reflected in the variety of constructions used with the verb (a hoti clause, or accusative and infinitive, expressing truth believed; en and epi with the dative, denoting restful reliance on that to which, or him to whom, credit is given; eis and, occasionally, epi with the accusative, the most common, characteristic, and original NT usage, scarcely present in the LXX and not at all in classical Greek, conveying the thought of a move - ment of trust going out to, and laying hold of, the object of its confidence).这个理念的复杂性反映在结构与动词用品种(一霍蒂条款,或宾格和不定式,表示相信真理;连接,并与格,表示在这宁静的依赖外延到其中,或者他的人,信用是发出;电化学阻抗谱,偶尔,与宾格,最常见的,特征和原始新台币使用,目前几乎在LXX,而不是在古典希腊所有传达的思想一动,外延 - 走出去的信任彪到,铺设,其信心的对象保留)。The Hebrew noun corresponding to aman (emuna, rendered pistis in the LXX), regularly denotes faithfulness in the sense of trustworthiness, and pistis occasionally bears this sense in the NT (Rom. 3:3, of God; Matt. 23:23; Gal. 5:22; Titus 2:10, of man).希伯来文的名词对应祖阿曼(额木纳,在lxx呈现pistis),经常指的诚信意识的忠诚,pistis偶尔证明了这一点,在新台币意识(罗马书3:3,上帝的。马特23:23;加拉太5时22分。提图斯二时10人)。

The word emuna normally refers to the faithfulness of God, and only in Hab. 额木纳一词通常指的是信实的神,只有在哈。2:4 is it used to signify man's religious response to God. There, however, the contrast in the context between the temper of the righteous and the proud self sufficiency of the Chaldeans seems to demand for it a broader sense than "faithfulness" alone, the sense, namely, of self renouncing, trustful reliance upon God, the attitude of heart of which faithfulness in life is the natural expression. 2时04分是用来表示人的宗教回应上帝。在那里,不过,迦勒底人的对比中的上下文之间的脾气正义和充分的自豪自我要求似乎为它的“信”更广泛的意义上比单独,这个意义上,即,自我放弃,在神,心脏病,其中忠诚的态度在生活中是自然的表达信任的依赖。 This is certainly the sense in which the apostolic writers quote the text (Rom. 1:17; Gal. 3:11; Heb. 10:38), and the sense which pistis, like pisteuo, regularly carries in the NT, where both words are used virtually as technical terms (John preferring the verb, Paul the noun) to express the complex thought of unqualified acceptance of, and exclusive dependence on, the mediation of the Son as alone securing the mercy of the Father.这当然是常识,其中引述的使徒作家文本(罗马书1:17;加拉太3:11。。希伯来书10:38),以及感,pistis,像pisteuo,定期在新台币,在双方进行词的使用实际上作为技术条款(约翰宁愿动词,保罗名词)来表达和调解独家依赖,对儿子的父亲,作为单独的怜悯安全的复杂思想,验收不合格的。

Both normally bear this whole weight of meaning, whether their grammatical object is God, Christ, the gospel, a truth, a promise, or is not expressed at all.通常都承受这个意思的整体重量,无论其语法对象是上帝,基督,福音,真理,一种承诺,是不表达的。Both signify commitment as following from conviction, even in contexts where faith is defined in terms of the latter only (eg, compare Heb. 11:1 with the rest of the chapter).从定罪都意味着即使在以下承诺的信仰是后者的唯一界定情况下,(例如,比较与本章其余河北。11:1)。The nature of faith, according to the NT, is to live by the truth it receives; faith, resting on God's promise, gives thanks for God's grace by working for God's glory.信仰的性质,按新台币,是生活的真理接收, 信念,承诺休息上帝的,上帝赋予的光荣工作的感谢了上帝的恩典。

Some occasional contractions of this broad idea should be noticed:这一广泛的概念偶尔有一些收缩,应注意:

  1. James, alone of NT writers, uses both noun and verb to denote bare intellectual assent to truth (James 2:14 - 26).詹姆斯,仅新台币作家,同时使用名词和动词来表示赞同真理裸露的智慧(詹姆斯二时14分 - 26)。But here he is explicitly mimicking the usage of those whom he seeks to correct, Jewish converts, who may well have inherited their notion of faith from contemporary Jewish sources, and there is no reason to suppose that this usage was normal or natural to him (his reference to faith in 5:15, eg, clearly carries a fuller meaning).但在这里,他明确地模仿那些使用人,他的目的,是正确的,犹太人皈依,谁可能继承了他们的信仰,从当代犹太人的来源的概念,也没有理由认为这种用法是正常的或自然的他(他提到,在5:15的信念,例如,明确地进行更全面的意思)。 In any case the point he makes, namely, that a merely intellectual "faith," such as the demons have, is inadequate, is wholly in line with the rest of the NT.在任何情况下,他做一点,那就是一个纯粹的知识分子“的信念,”如恶魔,是不够的,是符合完全符合的新台币休息。For example, when James says, "Faith without works is dead" (2:26), he is saying the same as Paul, who says in essence, "Faith without works is not faith at all, but its opposite" (cf. Gal. 5:6; 1 Tim. 5:8).例如,当詹姆斯说,“信心没有行为是死的”(2:26),他说,同样的保罗,谁在本质上说,“信心没有行为的信心都没有,但它的对立面”(见加拉太5时06。提前5:8)。。

  2. Occasionally, by a natural transition, "the faith" denotes the body of truths believed (eg, Jude 3; Rom. 1:5; Gal. 1:23; 1 Tim. 4:1, 6).有时,是一个自然的过渡,“信仰”表示,相信真理机构(如裘德3;罗1:5;。加拉太1:23;。提前4:1,6。)。 This became standard usage in the second century.这成为第二个世纪的标准用法。

  3. From Christ himself derives a narrower use of "faith" for an exercise of trust which works miracles (Matt. 17:20 - 21; 1 Cor. 12:9; 13:2), or prompts the workings of miracles (Matt. 9: 28 - 29; 15:28; Acts 14:9). Saving faith is not always accompanied by "miracle - faith," however (1 Cor. 12:9); nor vice versa (cf. Matt. 7:22 - 23).从基督自己派生一个工程奇迹窄用“诚信”行使的信任的 (太17:20 - 21;肺心病。1 12点09,13:2),或提示的运作的奇迹(太九:; 15:28;徒14:9)。 救赎的信心 28 并不总是伴随着“奇迹-信仰,”但是,(1肺心病。12:9 - );反之亦然 (参见马特。29 7:22 - 23)。

General Conception总体构想

Three points must be noted for the circumscribing of the biblical idea of faith:有三点必须注意对于圣经的信仰理念circumscribing:

Faith in God Involves Right Belief about God对上帝的信仰涉及到对上帝的信仰的权利

The word "faith" in ordinary speech covers both credence of propositions ("beliefs") and confidence in persons or things.这个“诚信”在普通的命题演讲涵盖了信任(“信仰”),并在人或事物的信心。In the latter case some belief about the object trusted is the logical and psychological presupposition of the act of trust itself, for trust in a thing reflects a positive expectation about its behavior, and rational expectation is impossible if the thing's capacities for behavior are wholly unknown. Throughout the Bible trust in God is made to rest on belief of what he has revealed concerning his character and purposes.在后一种情况下一些有关信任的对象信念是对信托本身在一个东西的信任,行为逻辑和心理前提反映了有关其行为的积极预期,理性预期是不可能的,如果某一行为的事物的能力是完全未知。 整个圣经中的上帝的信任是由信仰上休息的目的是什么,他透露有关他的性格和。In the NT, where faith in God is defined as trust in Christ, the acknowledgment of Jesus as the expected Messiah and the incarnate Son of God is regarded as basic to it. 在新台币,而上帝的信仰是上帝所定义的信任,在基督的儿子,体现了承认耶稣为弥赛亚的预期基本被视为它。

The writers allow that faith in some form can exist where as yet information about Jesus is incomplete (Acts 19:1ff.), but not where his divine identity and Christhood are consciously denied作家允许这种信仰可以以某种形式存在,其中尚未对耶稣的信息是不完整的(徒19:1法郎。),而不是在那里他的神圣的身份和Christhood有意识地拒绝

1 John 2:22 - 23; 2 John 7 - 9); all that is possible then is idolatry (1 John 5:21), the worship of a manmade unreality.1约翰2时22分 - 23;约翰二书7 - 9);一切可能又是偶像崇拜(约翰一书5:21),一人为虚幻的崇拜。The frequency with which the epistles depict faith as knowing, believing, and obeying "the truth" (Titus 1:1; 2 Thess. 2:13; 1 Pet. 1:22, etc.) show that their authors regarded orthodoxy as faith's fundamental ingredient (cf. Gal. 1:8 - 9).的频率的书信描绘成知道,有信念,服从“真理”的信念(提1:1; 2帖时13分;。。一宠物1:22,等等)表明,它们的作者视为信仰的正统基本成分(参见加拉太1:8 - 。9)。

Faith Rests on Divine Testimony在于对神的信仰见证

Beliefs, as such, are convictions held on grounds, not of self evidence, but of testimony. Whether particular beliefs should be treated as known certainties or doubtful opinions will depend on the worth of the testimony on which they are based.信仰,因此,有证据定罪理由自我举行,而不是证词,但。 是否应根据特定的信仰视为已知的确定性或有疑问的意见,将取决于它们是值得的证词上。The Bible views faith's convictions as certainties and equates them with knowledge (1 John 3:2; 5:18 - 20, etc.), not because they spring from supposedly self authenticating mystical experience, but because they rest on the testimony of a God who "cannot lie" (Titus 1:2) and is therefore utterly trustworthy. The testimony of Christ to heavenly things (John 3:11, 31 - 32), and of the prophets and apostles to Christ (Acts 10:39 - 43), is the testimony of God himself (1 John 5:9ff.); this God - inspired witness is God's own witness (cf. 1 Cor. 2:10 - 13; 1 Thess. 2:13), in such a sense that to receive it is to certify that God is true (John 3:33), and to reject it is to make God a liar (1 John 5:10). 圣经意见信仰的信念作为必然性与知识等同于他们与(1约翰3:2; 5时18分- 20等),而不是因为他们自春天从所谓认证神秘经验,而是因为他们休息的神的见证谁“不能撒谎”(提多书1:2),因此完全值得信赖)。天上的基督的见证物(约翰3:11,31 - 32,先知和使徒的基督(使徒10点39 - 43 ),是。见证的上帝(约翰一书5:9;法郎) 这个神-见证激励是神自己的见证(参见1肺心病。2:10 - 13帖。1 2:13),在这种意义上到接收它是为了证明神是真的(约翰3:33),并拒绝它是使上帝是个骗子(约翰一书5:10)。

Christian faith rests on the recognition of apostolic and biblical testimony as God's own testimony to his Son.基督教信仰建立在使徒的儿子承认,他的圣经作为神的见证自己的证词。

Faith Is a Supernatural Divine Gift信仰是一种超自然的神的礼物

Sin and Satan have so blinded fallen men (Eph. 4:18; 2 Cor. 4:4) that they cannot discern dominical and apostolic witness to be God's word, nor "see" and comprehend the realities of which it speaks (John 3:3; 1 Cor. 2:14), nor "come" in selfrenouncing trust to Christ (John 6:44, 65), till the Holy Spirit has enlightened them (cf. 2 Cor. 4:6).罪和撒旦有这么盲目下降男性(以弗所书4时18分,2肺心病4时04分。)他们不能辨别dominical和使徒的见证是神的话,也不是“看到”和理解现实,它讲(约3 :3。1肺心病2:14),也不是“他们”selfrenouncing信任基督(约翰6时44分,65岁),直到圣灵启迪他们(参见林后4:6)。。 Only the recipients of this divine "teaching," "drawing," and "anointing" come to Christ and abide in him (John 6:44 - 45; 1 John 2:20, 27). God is thus the author of all saving faith Eph.只有“领取这个神圣的”教学“,”绘画“和”恩膏来到基督,常在他(约翰6点44分- 45;约翰一书2:20,27)。 上帝因此笔者所有的储蓄弗信心。2:8; Phil. 2:8;菲尔。1:29). 1:29)。

Biblical Presentation圣经简报

Throughout Scripture, God's people live by faith; but the idea of faith develops as God's revelation of grace and truth, on which faith rests, enlarges.在整个圣经,神的人靠信仰,但信仰的主意,因为神的恩典和真理的启示,在于信念上,加大发展。The OT variously defines faith as resting, trusting, and hoping in the Lord, cleaving to him, waiting for him, making him our shield and tower, taking refuge in him, etc. Psalmists and prophets, speaking in individual and national terms respectively, present faith as unwavering trust in God to save his servants from their foes and fulfill his declared purpose of blessing them.职能治疗各种不同的定义,休息,信任,希望和信心,在主,劈他,等着他,他做我们的盾牌和塔,同时在他身上,等Psalmists和先知的庇护,在个人和国家的角度分别发言,目前作为坚定不移的信念,相信上帝拯救他的仆人,从他们的敌人和履行其申报的祝福他们的目的。 Isaiah, particularly, denounces reliance on human aid as inconsistent with such trust (Isa. 30:1 - 18, etc.).以赛亚书,特别是谴责这种信任,与不一致(以赛亚书30:1 - 18,等)对人援助的依赖。The NT regards the self despairing hope, world renouncing obedience, and heroic tenacity by which OT believers manifested their faith as a pattern which Christians must reproduce (Rom. 4:11 - 25; Heb. 10:39 - 12:2).新台币关于自我绝望的希望,世界各国放弃服从,英勇顽强,其中逾信徒表现为一种模式,基督徒必须再现他们的信仰(罗马书4:11 - 25;。希伯来书10:39 - 12:2)。Continuity is avowed here, but also novelty; for faith, receiving God's new utterance in the words and deeds of Christ (Heb. 1:1 - 2), has become a knowledge of present salvation.这里是公开宣布的连续性,而且新颖;对信仰,接受在基督的言论和行为(希伯来书1:1 - 2)神的新话语,已成为当前救恩的知识。

Faith, so regarded, says Paul, first "came" with Christ (Gal. 3:23 - 25).信仰,因此认为,保罗说,第一“来”与基督(加3点23分 - 25)。The Gospels show Christ demanding trust in himself as bearing the messianic salvation. John is fullest on this, emphasizing (1) that faith ("believing on," "coming to," and "receiving" Christ) involves acknowledging Jesus, not merely as a God - sent teacher and miracle worker (this is insufficient, John 2:23 - 24), but as God incarnate (John 20:28), whose atoning death is the sole means of salvation (John 3:14 - 15; 6:51 - 58); (2) that faith in Christ secures present enjoyment of "eternal life" in fellowship with God (John 5:24; 17:3). The epistles echo this, and present faith in various further relationships.福音书显示救世主基督救恩的要求对自己的信任关系。 约翰是最充分的关于这点,强调(1)信仰(“相信在”,“来”和“接受”基督)涉及承认耶稣,而不是仅仅作为一神-送老师和奇迹工作者(这是不够的,约翰2时23分- 24),但作为神的化身(约翰20:28),他的死是赎罪救恩的唯一手段(约三时14分- 15 6 :51 - 58),(2)基督信仰在当前的享受固定约5:24的“永恒的生命奖学金”与神(; 17:3)的关系回声的书信此,各种信仰和现在进一步研究。Paul shows that faith in Christ is the only way to a right relationship with God, which human works cannot gain (see Romans and Galatians); Hebrews and 1 Peter present faith as the dynamic of hope and endurance under persecution.保罗表明,在基督信仰是唯一的途径与神权的关系,这人的作品不能获得(见罗马和加拉太);希伯来和彼得的希望和充满活力的现在下迫害耐力信心。

History of Discussion历史的探讨

The church grasped from the first that assent to apostolic testimony is the fundamental element in Christian faith; hence the concern of both sides in the Gnostic controversy to show that their tenets were genuinely apostolic.教会从最早掌握赞同以使徒的见证是在基督教信仰的基本要素,因此在诺斯底争议双方关心的证明他们的信条是真正的使徒。

During the patristic period, however, the idea of faith was so narrowed that this assent came to be regarded as the whole of it.在教父时期,但是,信仰的想法是如此赞同缩小,这后来被视为它的整体。Four factors together caused this: (1) the insistence of the anti Gnostic fathers, particularly Tertullian, that the faithful are those who believe "the faith" as stated in the "rule of faith" (regula fidei), ie, the Creed; (2) the intellectualism of Clement and Origen, to whom pistis (assent on authority) was just an inferior substitute for, and stepping stone to, gnosis (demonstrative knowledge) of spiritual things; (3) the assimilation of biblical morality to Stoic moralism, an ethic not of grateful dependence but of resolute selfreliance; (4) the clothing of the biblical doctrine of communion with God in Neoplatonic dress, which made it appear as a mystical ascent to the supersensible achieved by aspiring love, having no link with the ordinary exercise of faith at all.这四个因素共同造成的:(1)反诺斯替父​​亲的坚持下,特别是良,是忠实的是那些谁相信“的信念”之说在“法治诚信”(调控信),即信条; (2)克莱门特和渊源,理智对谁pistis(同意的权威)只是一个劣质替代,并垫脚石,直觉的精神的东西(实证知识);(3)圣经道德思想道德主义同化斯多葛,道德伦理的依赖,但不是感谢坚决selfreliance;(4)对圣经教义与上帝在柏拉图的衣服,这使得它作为一个神秘的上升所取得的超感觉有抱负的爱服装出现,经与没有链接普通行使信仰。

Also, since the doctrine of justification was not understood, the soteriological significance of faith was misconceived, and faith (understood as orthodox) was regarded simply as the passport to baptism (remitting all past sins) and to a lifelong probation in the church (giving the baptized opportunity to make themselves worthy of glory by their good works).此外,由于学说的理由是不理解,信仰的救世意义误解和信仰(如正统的理解)被视为洗礼(汇款过去所有的罪),并在教堂(护照只需提供终身试用受洗的机会,使他们的好作品本身值得荣耀的)。

The scholastics refined this view.精致的Scholastics这一观点。They reproduced the equation of faith with credence, distinguishing between fides informis ("unformed" faith, bare orthodoxy) and fides caritate formata (credence "formed" into a working principle by the supernatural addition to it of the distinct grace of love).再现了他们的信心与信任方程,惹人informis之间的区别(“不成熟”的信念,裸正统)和惹人caritate formata(到工作原理轻信“形成了”以超自然的除了爱情的独特优雅一些)。Both sorts of faith, they held, are meritorious works, though the quality of merit attaching to the first is merely congruent (rendering divine reward fit, though not obligatory), and only the second gains condign merit (making divine reward due as a matter of justice).各种信仰的两个,他们认为,有立功表现的作品,虽然所附的第一个好处仅仅是一致的质量(渲染神圣的奖励合适,虽然不是强制性的),只有第二个获得适宜的优点(使神圣的奖励作为紧急事项,由于司法部)。 Roman Catholicism still formally identifies faith with credence, and has added a further refinement by distinguishing between "explict" faith (belief which knows its object) and "implicit" faith (uncomprehending assent to whatever it may be that the church holds).罗马天主教还正式确定了信任与信心, 并增加教会成立)“进一步细化区分的显式”的信念(信仰它知道它的对象)和“隐性”的信念(不理解同意的任何可能的。Only the latter (which is evidently no more than a vote of confidence in the teaching church and may be held with complete ignorance of Christianity) is thought to be required of laymen for salvation. But a mere docile disposition of this sort is poles apart from the biblical concept of saving faith. 只有后者(这显然是没有教堂的教多的信任投票,并可能是基督教举行的无知与完成)被认为是需要拯救的门外汉。但这类温顺的性格单纯的是天壤之别拯救信仰圣经中的概念。

The Reformers restored biblical perspectives by insisting that faith is more than orthodoxy, not fides merely, but fiducia, personal trust and confidence in God's mercy through Christ; that it is not a meritorious work, one facet of human righteousness, but rather an appropriating instrument, an empty hand outstretched to receive the free gift of God's righteousness in Christ; that faith is God - given, and is itself the animating principle from which love and good works spontaneously spring; and that communion with God means, not an exotic rapture of mystical ecstasy, but just faith's everyday commerce with the Savior. Confessional Protestantism has always maintained these positions. In Arminianism there resides a tendency to depict faith as the human work upon which the pardon of sin is suspended, as, in fact, man's contribution to his own salvation.改革者恢复信仰圣经观点的坚持,是正统不止,不惹人只,但德鑫,个人的信任和基督的信心,上帝通过的怜悯 ,这不是一个功勋卓著的工作,一义面的人,而是挪用仪器一个空的手伸出接受在基督免费赠送义神的, 这信心是神-给出,而且本身的生动活泼的原则,从其中爱情和好的作品自发地弹簧,并认为上帝的交流与手段,而不是外来狂喜的神秘的狂喜,只是信仰的日常商业与救主。 自白新教一直保持这些位置。在亚米纽斯有居住的倾向,描绘以诚信为人类的工作后,其中的赦免罪过是暂停,因为,事实上,人的贡献他自己的救赎。 This would be in effect a Protestant revival of the doctrine of human merit.这将是实际上是对人的优点学说新教复兴。

Liberalism radically psychologized faith, reducing it to a sense of contented harmony with the Infinite through Christ (Schleiermacher), or a fixed resolve to follow Christ's teaching (Ritschl), or both together.自由主义的根本心理化的信心,减少到一个和谐的满足与无限透过基督(施莱尔马赫),或固定的决心追随基督意识的教学(里奇尔),或两者​​一起。 Liberal influence is reflected in the now widespread supposition that "faith," understood as an optimistic confidence in the friendliness of the universe, divorced from any specific creedal tenets, is a distinctively religious state of mind.自由的影响,反映在现在普遍假定“的信念,”作为宇宙中的任何特定友好教义信条离婚,乐观自信的理解,是一种精神鲜明的宗教国家。 Neo orthodox and existentialist theologians, reacting against this psychologism, stress the supernatural origin and character of faith.新东正教和存在主义神学家,对这种心理主义的反应,强调超自然的起源和信仰的特征。 They describe it as an active commitment of mind and will, man's repeated "yes" to the repeated summons to decision issued by God's word in Christ; but the elusiveness of their account of the content of that word makes it hard sometimes to see what the believer is thought to say "yes" to.它们形容为一种精神和积极的承诺会,人的重复“是”反复传票由上帝在基督的话发出的决定,但他们对这个词的内容的说明难以捉摸使得它很难有时看到什么信徒被认为是说“是”。

Clearly, each theologian's view of the nature and saving significance of faith will depend on the views he holds of the Scriptures, and of God, man, and of their mutual relations. 显然,每个神学的信仰观和节能意义的性质将取决于他的意见,持有本圣经,神,人,以及他们的相互关系。

JI Packer巴刻
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
ED Burton, Galatians; BB Warfield in HDB and Biblical and Theological Studies; GH Box in HDCG; JG Machen, What is Faith?海关伯顿,加拉太,BB在建屋局和圣经和神学研究沃菲尔德,在HDCG生长激素盒; JG麦,信心是什么?B Citron, New Birth; systematic theologies of C Hodge (III) and L Berkhof (IV, viii); DM Baillie, Faith in God; G CBerkouwer, Faith and Justification; J Hick, Faith and Knowledge; O Becker and O Michel, NIDNTT, II; A Weiser, TDNT, VI; DM Emmet, Philosophy and Faith.乙柚子,新的诞生;的C霍奇(三)和L伯克霍夫(四,八)系统神学,马克拜里,在上帝的信仰; Ğ CBerkouwer,信仰和理由; Ĵ希克,信仰和知识; Ø米歇尔贝克尔和O, NIDNTT,二;一个韦瑟,TDNT,六;糖尿病埃米特,哲学与信仰。


Catholic Information天主教新闻


(Pistis, fides).(Pistis,惹人)。In the Old Testament, the Hebrew means essentially steadfastness, cf.在旧约中,希伯来手段基本上坚定性,比照。Exod., xvii, 12, where it is used to describe the strengthening of Moses' hands; hence it comes to mean faithfulness, whether of God towards man (Deuteronomy 32:4) or of man towards God (Ps. cxviii, 30).。Exod,十七,12日,它是用来描述摩西的手加强,因此它来表示忠诚,是否对人的神(申命记32:4)或人对神(诗篇cxviii,30) 。As signifying man's attitude towards God it means trustfulness or fiducia.作为标志着人类对上帝的态度就意味着信赖或德鑫。It would, however, be illogical to conclude that the word cannot, and does not, mean belief or faith in the Old Testament for it is clear that we cannot put trust in a person's promises without previously assenting to or believing in that person's claim to such confidence.它会,不过,是不合逻辑的结论是,Word不能,不,平均信仰或在它旧约的信心显然,我们不能把一个人的承诺,事先未同意该项,或在该人的索赔相信信任这样的信心。 Hence even if it could be proved that the Hebrew does not in itself contain the notion of belief, it must necessarily presuppose it.因此,即使可以证明,希伯来文本身并不包含信仰的概念,它必须假定它。But that the word does itself contain the notion of belief is clear from the use of the radical, which in the causative conjugation, or Hiph'il, means "to believe", eg Gen., xv, 6, and Deut., i, 32, in which latter passage the two meanings -- viz.但这个词本身并不包含信仰的概念是明确的,从激进的使用,这在致病共轭,或Hiph'il,意思是“相信”,如将军,十五,六,申。,我32,其中后者通过的两个含义 - 即。of believing and of trusting -- are combined.相信和信任的 - 相结合。That the noun itself often means faith or belief, is clear from Hab., ii, 4, where the context demands it.这往往意味着这个名词本身的信仰或信念,是由哈清楚。第一,二,四,根据上下文所需要的。The witness of the Septuagint is decisive; they render the verb by pisteuo, and the noun by pistis; and here again the two factors, faith and trust, are connoted by the same term.该译本是决定性的证人,他们所提供的pistis pisteuo动词,名词,并在这里再次两个因素,信心和信任,是由同一个术语connoted。But that even in classical Greek pisteuo was used to signify believe, is clear from Euripides (Helene, 710), logois d'emoisi pisteuson tade, and that pistis could mean "belief" is shown by the same dramatist's theon d'ouketi pistis arage (Medea, 414; cf. Hipp., 1007).但是,即使在古典希腊pisteuo是用来表示相信,从欧里庇德斯(海伦,710),logois德emoisi pisteuson tade,明确的,pistis可能意味着“信仰”所表现出的同样的剧作家的theon德arage ouketi pistis (美狄亚,414;比照希普,1007。。)。In the New Testament the meanings "to believe" and "belief", for pisteon and pistis, come to the fore; in Christ's speech, pistis frequently means "trust", but also "belief" (cf. Matthew 8:10).在新约中的含义“相信”和“信念”,为pisteon和pistis,脱颖而出,在基督的讲话,pistis常常意味着“信任”,但也“信仰”(参见马修8:10)。 In Acts it is used objectively of the tenets of the Christians, but is often to be rendered "belief" (cf. xvii, 31; xx, 21; xxvi, 8).在行为,它是用客观的原则的基督徒,但往往被渲染“信仰”(见第十七章,31条; XX条,21条;二十六,8)。In Romans, xiv, 23, it has the meaning of "conscience" -- "all that is not of faith is sin" -- but the Apostle repeatedly uses it in the sense of "belief" (cf. Romans 4 and Galatians 3).在罗马,十四,23,它有“良心”的含义 - “所有这一切是不是出于信心的都是罪” - 反复使用,但使徒在“信念”(见罗马4和3个意义上讲,它加拉太)。How necessary it is to point this out will be evident to all who are familiar with modern theological literature; thus, when a writer in the "Hibbert Journal", Oct., 1907, says, "From one end of the Scripture to the other, faith is trust and only trust", it is hard to see how he would explain 1 Cor.这是多么有必要指出这一点是有目共睹的谁是文学与现代神学熟悉,因此,当在“希伯特杂志”,10月,1907年,作家说,“从一个向其他经文结束,信仰是信任,只有信任“,这是很难看到他如何解释1肺心病。 xiii, 13, and Heb., xi, 1.十三,13,和河北。,十一,1。The truth is that many theological writers of the present day are given to very loose thinking, and in nothing is this so evident as in their treatment of faith.事实真相是,现今许多神学作家都给予非常宽松的思想,这是在没有使他们的信仰治疗明显。In the article just referred to we read: "Trust in God is faith, faith is belief, belief may mean creed, but creed is not equivalent to trust in God."在文章中刚刚提到的,我们读到:“相信上帝是信仰,信仰是信仰,信仰可能意味着信仰,但信仰并不等于相信上帝。”A similar vagueness was especially noticeable in the "Do we believe?"类似的模糊性是特别明显,在“我们是否相信?”controversy- one correspondent says- "We unbelievers, if we have lost faith, cling more closely to hope and -- the greatest of these -- charity" ("Do we believe?", p. 180, ed. WL Courtney, 1905).争议一记者说,“我们不信,如果我们失去了信心,抱着希望,更紧密地 - 其中最大的 - 慈善”(“我们相信吗?”,第180页,编册考特尼,1905年。 )。Non-Catholic writers have repudiated all idea of faith as an intellectual assent, and consequently they fail to realize that faith must necessarily result in a body of dogmatic beliefs.非天主教作家已推翻一切信仰作为一个知识分子赞同的想法,因此他们没有认识到信仰必然导致身体的教条式的信念。"How and by what influence", asks Harnack, "was the living faith transformed into the creed to be believed, the surrender to Christ into a philosophical Christology?" “如何和通过什么样的影响”,要求的Harnack,“是生活的信念转化成的信条可以相信,把一个哲学基督投降基督?”(quoted in Hibbert Journal, loc. cit.).(引自希伯特杂志,同上。同上。)。


Objectively, it stands for the sum of truths revealed by God in Scripture and tradition and which the Church (see FAITH, RULE OF) presents to us in a brief form in her creeds, subjectively, faith stands for the habit or virtue by which we assent to those truths.客观地说,它代表的是揭示了上帝在圣经真理的总和和传统,教会(见信仰,法治)列出一个简短的形式在她的信条,对我们来说,主观上,代表信仰的习惯或美德,使我们同意那些真理。 It is with this subjective aspect of faith that we are here primarily concerned.正是基于这种信仰的主观方面,我们在这里主要关注。Before we proceed to analyze the term faith, certain preliminary notions must be made clear.在我们开始分析这个词的信心,一些初步的概念,必须加以明确。

(a) The twofold order of knowledge.(一)知识双重秩序。-- "The Catholic Church", says the Vatican Council, III, iv, "has always held that there is a twofold order of knowledge, and that these two orders are distinguished from one another not only in their principle but in their object; in one we know by natural reason, in the other by Divine faith; the object of the one is truth attainable by natural reason, the object of the other is mysteries hidden in God, but which we have to believe and which can only be known to us by Divine revelation."- “天主教会”说,梵蒂冈会,三,四,“一直认为,知识是有双重秩序,这两个订单是彼此不符合他们的原则,但在他们的对象只区别;我们知道,在一个由自然原因,在其他的神圣的信仰,在一个对象是由自然原因达到真理,对其他对象是隐藏在神的奥秘,但我们要相信,只能被称为我们要以神的启示。“

(b) Now intellectual knowledge may be defined in a general way as the union between the intellect and an intelligible object. (b)现在智力知识可以被定义在一般方式之间的智力和理解对象的联盟。But a truth is intelligible to us only in so far as it is evident to us, and evidence is of different kinds; hence, according to the varying character of the evidence, we shall have varying kinds of knowledge. But一个事实是,只向我们理解,只要这是显而易见的我们,是不同种类的证据,因此,根据不同性质的证据,我们将有各种不同的知识。Thus a truth may be self-evident -- eg the whole is greater than its part -- in which case we are said to have intuitive knowledge of it; or the truth may not be self-evident, but deducible from premises in which it is contained -- such knowledge is termed reasoned knowledge; or again a truth may be neither self-evident nor deducible from premises in which it is contained, yet the intellect may be obliged to assent to it because It would else have to reject some other universally accepted truth; lastly, the intellect may be induced to assent to a truth for none of the foregoing reasons, but solely because, though not evident in itself, this truth rests on grave authority -- for example, we accept the statement that the sun is 90,000,000 miles distant from the earth because competent, veracious authorities vouch for the fact.因此,一个真理是不言而喻的 - 例如:整体大于它的部分更大 - 在这种情况下,我们说是它的直观的认识,从该处所或事实未必是不言而喻的,但在其中演绎载 - 这些知识被称为理性知识,或再一个真理可能既不是不言而喻的,也没有从包含它的,但智力可能不得不同意它处所演绎,因为它会拒绝别人有一些其他普遍接受的真理,最后,智力可能被诱导了一个真理同意为上述原因无关,而仅仅是因为,虽然本身并不明显,这严重的权力属于真理 - 例如,我们接受了声明,表示太阳九千点零万英里从距离地球遥远,因为主管,准确当局事实担保。This last kind of knowledge is termed faith, and is clearly necessary in daily life.这最后一种被称为知识的信念,并清楚地在日常生活中必要的。If the authority upon which we base our assent is human and therefore fallible, we have human and fallible faith; if the authority is Divine, we have Divine and infallible faith.如果权力后,我们基地,我们赞同犯错误是人,因此,我们的人力和犯错误的信念,如果权力是神圣的,我们有犯错的神和信仰。 If to this be added the medium by which the Divine authority for certain statements is put before us, viz.如果这是增加了其中的某些声明为神圣的权威,是摆在我们面前,即把媒介。the Catholic Church, we have Divine-Catholic Faith (see FAITH, RULE OF).天主教教会,我们神圣的天主教信仰(见信仰,法治)。

(c) Again, evidence, whatever its source, may be of various degrees and so cause greater or less firmness of adhesion on the part of the mind which assents to a truth.(三)同样,证据,不论其来源,可能是造成不同程度等对心,其中也同意了一个事实的一部分或多或少的粘附坚定性。Thus arguments or authorities for and against a truth may be either wanting or evenly balanced, in this case the intellect does not give in its adherence to the truth, but remains in a state of doubt or absolute suspension of judgment; or the arguments on one side may predominate; though not to the exclusion of those on the other side; in this case we have not complete adhesion of the intellect to the truth in question but only opinion.因此,支持和反对的论点或一个真理当局可能是想和均衡的智力在这种情况下,不给其坚持真理,但在有疑问或悬浮状态的判断仍然是绝对的,或在一个论据方可能会占优势,虽然不是对另一边的排斥,在这种情况下,我们还没有完整的智慧粘附到有问题的,但只有观点的真理。 Lastly, the arguments or authorities brought forward may be so convincing that the mind gives its unqualified assent to the statement proposed and has no fear whatever lest it should not be true; this state of mind is termed certitude, and is the perfection of knowledge.最后,争论或主管部门提出令人信服的可能是这样的思想给其无条件同意的声明提出的,并没有任何恐惧,否则它不应该是真实的,这种心态被称为确定性,是知识的完善。 Divine faith, then, is that form of knowledge which is derived from Divine authority, and which consequently begets absolute certitude in the mind of the recipient神圣的信仰,那么,是知识的一种形式,来自神圣的权力,并因此招致了收件人的心灵绝对确信

(d) That such Divine faith is necessary, follows from the fact of Divine revelation. (四)该神圣的信仰是必要的,从如下事实是神圣的启示。For revelation means that the Supreme Truth has spoken to man and revealed to him truths which are not in themselves evident to the human mind.对于启示意味着最高真理发言的人,向他透露真理,其本身并不明显的人的心灵。 We must, then, either reject revelation altogether, or accept it by faith; that is, we must submit our intellect to truths which we cannot understand, but which come to us on Divine authority.我们一定要,那么,要么拒绝完全启示,或接受的信念,那就是,我们必须向我们的智慧真理,我们无法理解,但在神圣的权威来给我们。

(e) We shall arrive at a better understanding of the habit or virtue of faith if we have previously analysed an act of faith; and this analysis will be facilitated by examining an act of ocular vision and an act of reasoned knowledge. (五)我们会得出一个习惯或信仰的美德,如果我们有更好的了解分析过一种信仰行为,而且这种分析将由眼视力检查一个行为,是理性知识的行为提供便利。 In ocular vision we distinguish three things: the eye, or visual faculty the coloured object, and the light which serves as the medium between the eye and the object.在眼视力,我们区分三样东西:眼睛,或视觉教职工的彩色对象,为的光之间的眼睛和服务对象中。It is usual to term colour the formal object (objectum formale quod) of vision, since it is that which precisely and alone makes a thing the object of vision, the individual object seen may be termed the material object, eg this apple, that man, etc. Similarly, the light which serves as the medium between the eye and the object is termed the formal reason (objectum formale quo) of our actual vision.它通常以长期正规对象的颜色视觉(objectum formale狴),因为它是,这恰恰和,就可以使一个事物的视觉对象,单个对象,可能是由被称为实物,如苹果的,那人等,同样,它作为光之间的眼睛和服务对象中被称为正规的原因(objectum formale现状)我们的实际目标。In the same way, when we analyze an act of intellectual assent to any given truth, we must distinguish the intellectual faculty which elicits the act the intelligible object towards which the intellect is directed, and the evidence whether intrinsic to that object or extrinsic to it, which moves us to assent to it.以同样的方式,当我们分析一个智力同意采取行动,任何一个真理,我们必须区分的智力而引出对法的理解对象是针对其中智力和内在的证据是否该给它的对象或外在,这动作我们同意给它。 None of these factors can be omitted, each cooperates in bringing about the act, whether of ocular vision or of intellectual assent.这些因素都不能忽略,在有关法令把每个合作,无论是眼视力和智力的同意。

(f) Hence, for an act of faith we shall need a faculty capable of eliciting the act, an object commensurate with that faculty, and evidence -- not intrinsic but extrinsic to that object -- which shall serve as the link between faculty and object. (六)因此,对于信仰的行为,我们需要的教师引出的行为,一个对象,具有记忆力相称,与证据能力 - 而不是固有的,但外在的对象 - 这应作为教师和之间的联系对象。We will commence our analysis with the object:-我们将开始我们的目标分析: -


(a) For a truth to be the object of an act of Divine faith, it must be itself Divine, and this not merely as coming from God, but as being itself concerned with God. (一)为真理是一种神圣的信仰行为的对象,它必须是自己神圣的,这不仅仅是因为来自上帝,但作为本身与神有关。Just as in ocular vision the formal object must necessarily be something coloured, so in Divine faith the formal object must be something Divine -- in theological language, the objectum formale quod of Divine faith is the First Truth in Being, Prima Veritas in essendo -- we could not make an act of Divine faith in the existence of India.正如在眼视力正式对象必然是什么颜色的,所以在神的​​信仰的对象必须是正式的神圣的东西 - 在神学语言,objectum formale神圣的信仰狴是被essendo,厦华Veritas的第一真理 - - 我们就无法在印度存在一个神圣的信仰行为。

(b) Again, the evidence upon which we assent to this Divine truth must also be itself Divine, and there must be as close a relation between that truth and the evidence upon which it comes to us as there is between the coloured object and the light; the former is a necessary condition for the exercise of our visual faculty, the latter is the cause of our actual vision. (二)同样,证据后,我们赞同这一神圣真理本身也必须是神圣的,并必须有接近真理之间和证据后,它涉及到我们之间有彩色作为对象和关系是轻,前者是为我们的视觉学院运动的必要条件,后者是我们的实际目标的原因。 But no one but God can reveal God; in other words, God is His own evidence.但是,没有人,但上帝可以揭示神,换句话说,神是他自己的证据。Hence, just as the formal object of Divine faith is the First Truth Itself, so the evidence of that First Truth is the First Truth declaring Itself.因此,正如神圣的信仰对象是第一正式真理本身,因此该第一真理的证据是第一真理宣布自己。To use scholastic language once more, the objectum formale quod, or the motive, or the evidence, of Divine faith is the Prima Veritas in dicendo.要使用学术语言再次,objectum formale狴,或动机,或证据,神圣的信仰是dicendo首要的Veritas。

(c) There is a controversy whether the same truth can be an object both of faith and of knowledge.(三)有一个争议是否相同的事实既可以是一个信仰和知识的对象。In other words, can we believe a thing both because we are told it on good authority and because we ourselves perceive it to be true?换言之,我们可以相信的事情,因为我们都被告知它的权威和良好的,因为我们自己认为它是真的吗?St. Thomas, Scotus, and others hold that once a thing is seen to be true, the adhesion of the mind is in no wise strengthened by the authority of one who states that it is so, but the majority of theologians maintain, with De Lugo, that there may be a knowledge which does not entirely satisfy the mind, and that authority may then find a place, to complete its satisfaction.圣托马斯,司各脱,和其他人认为,一旦事情被认为是真实的,心灵的粘附是由一个权威谁这么说,它是任何明智的加强,但大多数的神学家继续与德,卢戈,有可能是一个知识的,不完全符合的思想,而当局可再找到一个地方,完成表示​​满意。 -- We may note here the absurd expression Credo quia impossibile, which has provoked many sneers.- 我们可以注意到这里的荒谬信条quia impossibile表达,这使得许多人嘲笑。It is not an axiom of the Scholastics, as was stated in the "Revue de Metaphysique et de Morale" (March, 1896, p. 169), and as was suggested more than once in the "Do we believe?"这不是一个公理的scholastics,因为有人指出,在“杂志德Metaphysique等德士气”(三月,1896年,第169页),并作为建议不止一次在“我们是否相信?” correspondence.对应。The expression is due to Tertullian, whose exact words are: "Natus est Dei Filius; non pudet, quia pudendum est: et mortuus est Dei Filius; prorsus credibile est, quia ineptum est; et sepultus, resurrexit; certum est, quia impossibile" (De Carne Christi, cap. v).表达式是由于良,其确切的话:“垂穗东部棣Filius;,quia阴部美国东部时间不pudet:美国东部时间等mortuus棣Filius; prorsus credibile东部,美国东部时间quia ineptum;等sepultus,resurrexit; certum东部,quia impossibile” (德卡恩基督教,帽。五)。This treatise dates from Tertullian's Montanist days, when he was carried away by his love of paradox.从良的Montanist天,当他是由他的悖论爱带走这论述日期。At the same time it is clear that the writer only aims at bringing out the wisdom of God manifested in the humiliation of the Cross; he is perhaps paraphrasing St. Paul's words in 1 Corinthians 1:25.同时,很明显,又有神的智慧,体现了作家只针对在十字架的羞辱,他也许是在哥林多前书1:25意译圣保罗的话。

(d) Let us now take some concrete act of faith, eg "I believe in the Most Holy Trinity." (四)让我们现在需要一些具体行为的信念,例如:“在至圣三位一体我相信。”This mystery is the material or individual object upon which we are now exercising our faith, the formal object is its character as being a Divine truth, and this truth is clearly inevident as far as we are concerned; it in no way appeals to our intellect, on the contrary it rather repels it.这个谜是物质或单个对象后,我们现在行使我们的信仰,是它作为正式的对象是一个神圣真理的性格,这个事实是清楚inevident就我们而言,它不以任何方式呼吁我们的智慧,相反它而排斥它。 And yet we assent to it by faith, consequently upon evidence which is extrinsic and not intrinsic to the truth we are accepting.然而,我们同意给它的信仰时的证据,因此外在和内在的真理不是我们接受。But there can be no evidence commensurate with such a mystery save the Divine testimony itself, and this constitutes the motive for our assent to the mystery, and is, in scholastic language, the objectum formale quo of our assent.但是,没有证据可以挽救这样一个神圣的证词本身的神秘相称,这构成了我们赞同以神秘的动机,就是在学术上的语言,objectum我们赞同formale现状。 If then, we are asked why we believe with Divine faith any Divine truth, the only adequate answer must be because God has revealed it.如果当时,我们问为什么我们神圣的信仰相信任何神的真理,只有适当的答案一定是因为它揭示了上帝。

(e) We may point out in this connexion the falsity of the prevalent notion that faith is blind.(五)我们可以点人在这方面出了流行的概念,信仰是盲目的虚假性。"We believe", says the Vatican Council (III, iii), "that revelation is true, not indeed because the intrinsic truth of the mysteries is clearly seen by the natural light of reason, but because of the authority of God Who reveals them, for He can neither deceive nor be deceived." “我们相信”说,梵蒂冈会(三,三),“的启示是真实的,不确实,因为内在的奥秘真理清楚地看到了自然光的原因,而是因为它们揭示了上帝的权威是谁,因为他既不能欺骗,也没有被人欺骗。“ Thus, to return to the act of faith which we make in the Holy Trinity, we may formulate it in syllogistic fashion thus: Whatever God reveals is true but God has revealed the mystery of the Holy Trinity therefore this mystery is true.因此,返回到该法的信仰,我们在圣三一做,我们可以制定三段论起来的,当然是这样的:无论是真实的,但上帝揭示了上帝,揭示了神秘的圣三一所以这个谜是真的。 The major premise is indubitable and intrinsically evident to reason; the minor premise is also true because it is declared to us by the infallible Church (cf. FAITH, RULE OF), and also because, as the Vatican Council says, "in addition to the internal assistance of His Holy Spirit, it has pleased God to give us certain external proofs of His revelation, viz. certain Divine facts, especially miracles and prophecies, for since these latter clearly manifest God's omnipotence and infinite knowledge, they afford most certain proofs of His revelation and are suited to the capacity of all."大前提是不容置疑和本质显而易见的原因;小前提也是正确的,因为它向我们宣布了万无一失教会(见信仰,法治),而且还因为,由于梵蒂冈委员会说,除了“以在圣灵的内部协助,它高兴上帝给我们一定的外部证据,他的启示,即。某些神圣的事实,尤其是奇迹和预言,对于因为后者显然体现神的全能和无限的知识,他们买得起最可靠的证据他的启示,适合于所有的能力。“ Hence St. Thomas says: "A man would not believe unless he saw the things he had to believe, either by the evidence of miracles or of something similar" (II-II:1:4, ad 1).因此,圣托马斯说:“一个人不会相信,除非他看到的东西,他相信无论是奇迹的证据或类似的东西,”(二-Ⅱ:1:4,公元1)。 The saint is here speaking of the motives of credibility.圣人在这里谈到动机的可信性。


(a) When we say that a certain statement is incredible we often mean merely that it is extraordinary, but it should be borne in mind that this is a misuse of language, for the credibility or incredibility of a statement has nothing to do with its intrinsic probability or improbability; it depends solely upon the credentials of the authority who makes the statement. (一)当我们说一个令人难以置信的某些声明是我们经常的意思,只是,这是非凡的,但必须牢记,这是一种语言滥用的信誉或声明不可信,没有任何与它内在的可能性或不可能性,这完全取决于谁的权力时作出的声明的凭据。 Thus the credibility of the statement that a secret alliance has been entered into between England and America depends solely upon the authoritative position and the veracity of our informant.因此,声明信誉,一个秘密联盟已进入英国和美国之间签订完全取决于经权威地位和我们的线人的真实性。If he be a clerk in a government office it is possible that he may have picked up some genuine information, but if our informant be the Prime Minister of England, his statement has the highest degree of credibility because his credentials are of the highest.如果他是一个在政府部门有可能,他可能已经买了些真正的信息,但如果我们的线人是英国的首相,他的发言具有信誉度最高,因为他的凭据最高的职员。 When we speak of the motives of credibility of revealed truth we mean the evidence that the things asserted are revealed truths.当我们的信誉透露真相的动机是指说话的证据,揭示事物的真理主张。In other words, the credibility of the statements made is correlative with and proportionate to the credentials of the authority who makes them.换句话说,所提出的陈述与及相关的信誉是相称的权威谁使他们的凭据。Now the credentials of God are indubitable, for the very idea of God involves that of omniscience and of the Supreme Truth.现在,神的凭据是不容置疑的,为神的想法很无所不知和最高真理涉及。Hence, what God says is supremely credible, though not necessarily supremely intelligible for us.因此,神说的是千钧可信的,虽然不一定千钧为我们理解。Here, however, the real question is not as to the credentials of God or the credibility of what He says, but as to the credibility of the statement that God has spoken.在这里,然而,真正的问题不是以神的凭据或他所说的话可信,但对于该语句的信誉,上帝说的。In other words who or what is the authority for this statement, and what credentials does this authority show?换言之,是谁或什么权威的这一声明,并没有什么凭据显示这种权力?What are the motives of credibility of the statement that God has revealed this or that?什么是信誉的声明,上帝揭示这样或那样的动机是什么?

(b) These motives of credibility may be briefly stated as follows: in the Old Testament considered not as an inspired book, but merely as a book having historical value, we find detailed the marvellous dealings of God with a particular nation to whom He repeatedly reveals Himself; we read of miracles wrought in their favour and as proofs of the truth of the revelation He makes; we find the most sublime teaching and the repeated announcement of God's desire to save the world from sin and its consequences. (二)信誉这些动机可能是简单地表述为:在被认为不作为灵感的书,但只是作为一个具有历史价值的书,我们找到详细的神的奇妙与特定的国家打交道的人,他一再旧约揭示了自己,我们阅读造成对他们有利的奇迹和对真理的启示,他使的证明,我们找到最崇高的教学和神的愿望,从罪中拯救世界及其后果重复公告。 And more than all we find throughout the pages of this book a series of hints, now obscure, now clear, of some wondrous person who is to come as the world's saviour; we find it asserted at one time that he is man, at others that he is God Himself.而一切超过我们发现整个这本书的提示系列,现在默默无闻,现在已经清楚一些奇妙的人谁是来为世界的救星,这些页面,我们发现它在同一时间宣称,他是人别人,他是神自己。 When we turn to the New Testament we find that it records the birth, life, and death of One Who, while clearly man, also claimed to be God, and Who proved the truth of His claim by His whole life, miracles, teachings, and death, and finally by His triumphant resurrection.当我们转向新约,我们发现,它记录的出生,生活,一个谁,同时明确的人,也自称是神,谁证明了他的整个生命,奇迹,教诲,他的说法的真实性死亡,和死亡,并最终由他的胜利复活。 We find, moreover, that He founded a Church which should, so He said, continue to the end of time, which should serve as the repository of His teaching, and should be the means of applying to all men the fruits of the redemption He had wrought.我们发现,此外,他创立了一所教堂,这应该,所以他说,持续到时间的尽头,这应作为对他的教学资源库,并应适用于所有的人的赎回,他的成果的手段紧张得要命。 When we come to the subsequent history of this Church we find it speedily spreading everywhere, and this in spite of its humble origin, its unworldly teaching, and the cruel persecution which it meets at the hands of the rulers of this world.当我们来到这个教会以后的历史,我们发现它迅速蔓延随处可见,在其出身卑微,其unworldly的教学,和残酷的迫害,它在这个世界的统治者手中的满足,尽管这一点。 And as the centuries pass we find this Church battling against heresies schisms, and the sins of her own people-nay, of her own rulers -- and yet continuing ever the same, promulgating ever the same doctrine, and putting before men the same mysteries of the life, death and resurrection of the world's Saviour, Who had, so she taught, gone before to prepare a home for those who while on earth should have believed in Him and fought the good fight.而作为世纪,我们发现通过这个教会对异端邪说的分裂对抗,和她自己的人远比以往的罪孽,她自己的统治者 - 持续不断,但同样,颁布过相同的理论,并在人面前放了相同的奥秘生命,死亡和世界的救主的复活,是谁,所以她教导,经历了前准备为那些谁在地球上应该相信他,并打了一场漂亮战一个家。 But if the history of the Church since New-Testament times thus wonderfully confirms the New Testament itself, and if the New Testament so marvellously completes the Old Testament, these books must really contain what they claim to contain, viz.但如果教会以来新约圣经时代的历史从而证实了奇妙的新约本身,如果这样奇妙完成新约旧约,这些书真的要包含他们声称含有,即。 Divine revelation.神的启示。 And more than all, that Person Whose life and death were so minutely foretold in the Old Testament, and Whose story, as told in the New Testament, so perfectly corresponds with its prophetic delineation in the Old Testament, must be what He claimed to be, viz.以上所有,即人的生命和死亡是那么细,在旧约中,预言和他的故事,如告诉记者,在新约,因此完全符合其在旧约预言划分相对应,必须成为他自称是,即。 the Son of God.神的儿子。 His work, therefore, must be Divine.他的工作,因此,必须被神。The Church which He founded must also be Divine and the repository and guardian of His teaching.他创办的教会也必须神和他的教学资源库和监护人。Indeed, we can truly say that for every truth of Christianity which we believe Christ Himself is our testimony, and we believe in Him because the Divinity He claimed rests upon the concurrent testimony of His miracles, His prophecies His personal character, the nature of His doctrine, the marvellous propagation of His teaching in spite of its running counter to flesh and blood, the united testimony of thousands of martyrs, the stories of countless saints who for His sake have led heroic lives, the history of the Church herself since the Crucifixion, and, perhaps more remarkable than any, the history of the papacy from St. Peter to Pius X.事实上,我们可以真正地说,每基督教的真理,我们相信基督自己是我们的见证,我们相信他,因为神后,他声称他的奇迹,他的预言他的人格,自然在于他同时作证学说,奇妙的传播,他的教学在其背道而驰的血肉,成千上万的烈士团结的见证,尽管无数圣人的谁,他为了生活,导致英雄的故事,自教会自己的受难史,而且,或许更为显着比任何,从圣彼得对历史的教宗比约十

(c) These testimonies are unanimous; they all point in one direction, they are of every age, they are clear and simple, and are within the grasp of the humblest intelligence. (三)这些证词是一致的,他们都在同一个方向来看,他们的每一个时代,他们是简单明了,并在掌握情报的最卑微的。And, as the Vatican Council has said, "the Church herself, is, by her marvellous propagation, her wondrous sanctity, her inexhaustible fruitfulness in good works, her Catholic unity, and her enduring stability, a great and perpetual motive of credibility and an irrefragable witness to her Divine commission" (Const. Dei Filius) .此外,由于梵蒂冈理事会说,“教会自己,就是由她的奇妙的传播,她的奇妙的神圣,她的优秀作品,她的天主教团结取之不尽,用之不竭的结实,她的持久稳定,信誉伟大和永恒的动机和她的神圣的不可辩驳的见证委员会“(Const.棣Filius)。 "The Apostles", says St. Augustine, "saw the Head and believed in the Body; we see the Body let us believe in the Head" [Sermo ccxliii, 8 (al. cxliii), de temp., PL, V 1143]. “使徒”,圣奥古斯丁说,“看到了头部和身体相信,我们的身体,让我们看到在头相信”。[Sermo ccxliii,8(al. cxliii),德温,特等,第五1143 ]。Every believer will echo the words of Richard of St. Victor, "Lord, if we are in error, by Thine own self we have been deceived- for these things have been confirmed by such signs and wonders in our midst as could only have been done by Thee!"每一个信徒将回声理查德圣胜利者,“主的话,如果我们都有过错的,由2:19你自己欺骗自己,我们一直为这些事情都被这种迹象,在我们中间奇迹确认为只能是受你完成了!“ (de Trinitate, 1, cap. ii). (德Trinitate,一章。二)。

(d) But much misunderstanding exists regarding the meaning and office of the motives of credibility.(四),但对于存在不少误解的意义和动机的可信性办公室。In the first place, they afford us definite and certain knowledge of Divine revelation; but this knowledge precedes faith; it is not the final motive for our assent to the truths of faith- as St. Thomas says, "Faith has the character of a virtue, not because of the things it believes, for faith is of things that appear not, but because it adheres to the testimony of one in whom truth is infallibly found" (De Veritate, xiv, 8); this knowledge of revealed truth which precedes faith can only beget human faith it is not even the cause of Divine faith (cf. Francisco Suárez, be Fide disp. iii, 12), but is rather to be considered a remote disposition to it.首先,我们一定给予他们一定的神的启示和知识,但这些知识之前的信念,它不是为我们赞同向真理的最终动机信念作为圣托马斯说,“信仰有一个字符美德,是不是因为它相信的东西,对信仰的东西,似乎不是,而是因为它坚持一个人的证词是真实无误的发现“(德veritate,第十四条,8),这其中揭示的真理的认识前面的信念只会带来人类的信仰它甚至不是神圣的信仰的原因(参见弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,是善意DISP键。三,12),相反却是被认为是远程配置它。 We must insist upon this because in the minds of many faith is regarded as a more or less necessary consequence of a careful study of the motives of credibility, a view which the Vatican Council condemns expressly: "If anyone says that the assent of Christian faith is not free, but that it necessarily follows from the arguments which human reason can furnish in its favour; or if anyone says that God's grace is only necessary for that living faith which worketh through charity, let him be anathema" (Sess. IV).我们必须坚持这一点,因为在很多人心目中的信仰作为一种信誉的动机,有一种观点是明确谴责梵蒂冈理事会认真研究或多或少的必然结果认为:“如果有人说,基督教信仰赞同是不是免费的,但它必然遵循从人类理性的论据可以提供对其有利的;如果有人说,上帝的恩典是只对生活的信念是通过慈善作事的必要,让他被诅咒“达(sess.四) 。Nor can the motives of credibility make the mysteries of faith clear in themselves, for, as St. Thomas says, "the arguments which induce us to believe, eg miracles, do not prove the faith itself, but only the truthfulness of him who declares it to us, and consequently they do not beget knowledge of faith's mysteries, but only faith" (in Sent., III, xxiv, Q. i, art. 2, sol. 2, ad 4).也不能动机的可信性作出明确自己的信仰的奥秘,因为,正如圣托马斯说,“论据诱使我们相信,如屡创奇迹,也不能证明​​自己的信念,但只有他的声明的真实性谁它给我们,因此他们不信仰的奥秘招致的知识,但只有信仰“(在发送。,三,二十四,问:我的艺术。二,溶胶。2,广告4)。 On the other hand, we must not minimize the real probative force of the motives of credibility within their true sphere- "Reason declares that from the very outset the Gospel teaching was rendered conspicuous by signs and wonders which gave, as it were, definite proof of a definite truth" (Leo XIII, Æterni Patris).另一方面,我们绝不能减少的真正动机的可信性在其真实的证明力球,“理宣布,从一开始的福音教学,是醒目的标志和奇事了,因为它是,明确证明一个明确的真理“(利奥十三世,Æterni Patris)。

(e) The Church has twice condemned the view that faith ultimately rests on an accumulation of probabilities.(五)教会曾两次谴责认为,信仰上的可能性,最终积累之上。Thus the proposition, "The assent of supernatural faith . . is consistent with merely probable knowledge of revelation" was condemned by Innocent XI in 1679 (cf. Denzinger, Enchiridion, 10th ed., no. 1171); and the Syllabus Lamentabili sane (July, 1907) condemns the proposition (XXV) that "the assent of faith rests ultimately on an accumulation of probabilities."因此,主张“。。超自然的信仰只可能同意与启示知识一致”谴责了无辜第十一1679(参见登青格,便览,第10版,没有1171。。),以及教学大纲Lamentabili理智(七月,1907年)谴责命题(二十五)说:“休息的信念,最终同意在一个积累的可能性。” But since the great name of Newman has been dragged into the controversy regarding this last proposition, we may point out that, in the Grammar of Assent (chap. x, sect. 2), Newman refers solely to the proof of faith afforded by the motives of credibility, and he rightly concludes that, since these are not demonstrative, this line of proof may be termed "an accumulation of probabilities".不过,由于纽曼伟大的名字已被纳入有关的争议拖最后命题,我们可以指出的是,在语法的赞同(第十章,节。2),纽曼仅指证明的信仰的给予信誉动机,他正确地得出结论,由于这些都不是示范,证明这行可能被称为“一种可能性积累”。 But it would be absurd to say that Newman therefore based the final assent of faith on this accumulation- as a matter of fact he is not here making an analysis of an act of faith, but only of the grounds for faith; the question of authority does not come into his argument (cf. McNabb, Oxford Conferences on Faith, pp. 121-122).但是,这将是荒谬的,因此可以说,纽曼在此基础上积累作为事实上他是不是在这里作出的分析是一种信仰,信仰最后同意,但只对信仰的理由;的权力的问题没有进入他的论点(见麦克纳布,牛津会议信仰,第121-122)。


(a) The light of faith.(一)光的信心。-- An angel understands truths which are beyond man's comprehension; if then a man were called upon to assent to a truth beyond the ken of the human intellect, but within the grasp of the angelic intellect, he would require for the time being something more than his natural light of reason, he would require what we may call "the angelic light".- 天使明白真理,超出人的理解是,如果一个人,然后被要求表示同意一种超越人类智慧的视野真理,但在理智把握的天使,他将要求其时正在更多的东西比他自然光的原因,他将需要什么,我们可以称之为“天使之光”。 If, now, the same man were called upon to assent to a truth beyond the grasp of both men and angels, he would clearly need a still higher light, and this light we term "the light of faith" -- a light, because it enables him to assent to those supernatural truths, and the light of faith because it does not so illumine those truths as to make them no longer obscure, for faith must ever be "the substance of things to be hoped for, the evidence of things that appear not" (Hebrews 11:1).如果,现在,同样的人被要求同意以一种超越男性和掌握真理的天使,他显然需要一个更高的光,光我们这个学期的“信仰之光” - 一盏灯,因为这使他同意那些超自然的真理,信仰的光,因为它没有这样的真理照亮,使它们不再默默无闻,为信仰,一定是“物质的东西为,对事物的证据希望似乎不“(希伯来书11:1)。 Hence St. Thomas (De Veritate, xiv, 9, ad 2) says: "Although the Divinely infused light of faith is more powerful than the natural light of reason, nevertheless in our present state we only imperfectly participate in it; and hence it comes to pass that it does not beget in us real vision of those things which it is meant to teach us; such vision belongs to our eternal home, where we shall perfectly participate in that light, where, in fine, in God's light we shall see light' (Ps. xxxv, 10)."因此,圣托马斯(德veritate,第十四条,9,广告二)说:“虽然神圣的信仰注入光比自然光的原因,不过,在我们目前的状态,我们只是不完全参与,有力;,因此其来通过它不会在我们招致当中,这样做是要教导我们的事情现实的眼光,这样的远景是属于我们的永恒的家,在那里我们将完全参与到这一情况,在那里,在精细,在上帝的光中,我们应见光'(诗篇三十五,10)。“

(b) The necessity of such light is evident from what has been said, for faith is essentially an act of assent, and just as assent to a series of deductive or inductive reasonings, or to intuition of first principles, would be impossible without the light of reason, so, too assent to a supernatural truth would be inconceivable without a supernatural strengthening of the natural light "Quid est enim fides nisi credere quod non vides?" (二)从这种光的必要性已表示,显而易见的,对信仰本质上是同意的行为,就像赞同一个演绎或归纳推理系列或直觉的第一原则,将没有不可能的事理性之光,所以,也同意到一个超自然的真理将不经自然光超自然加强不可思议“口头美国东部时间enim惹人暂准担保买方支付的狴非志愿组织?” (ie what is faith but belief in that which thou seest not?) asks St. Augustine; but he also says: "Faith has its eyes by which it in some sort sees that to be true which it does not yet see- and by which, too, it most surely sees that it does not see what it believes" [Ep. (?即什么是信仰,但在这里面你看见没有信仰),要求圣奥古斯丁,但他也说:“信仰有它的眼睛由它在某种认为这是真实的,它并没有看到和所其中,也最肯定看到它看不见,它相信“[集。 ad Consent., ep.广告同意书。,环保。cxx 8 (al. ccxxii), PL, II, 456].CXX来8(al. ccxxii),特等,二,456]。

(c) Again, it is evident that this "light of faith" is a supernatural gift and is not the necessary outcome of assent to the motives of credibility. (三)再次,这是显而易见的,这个“信仰之光”是一种超自然的礼物,是不是赞同以动机的可信性的必然结果。No amount of study will win it, no intellectual conviction as to the credibility of revealed religion nor even of the claims of the Church to be our infallible guide in matters of faith, will produce this light in a man's mind.任何一个研究金额将赢得胜利,至于透露甚至也不是教会的宗教主张的信誉是我们在信仰方面不犯错的指导思想信念,就会产生这种在一个男人的心光。 It is the free gift of God.这是上帝的恩赐。Hence the Vatican Council (III, iii;) teaches that "faith is a supernatural virtue by which we with the inspiration and assistance of God's grace, believe those things to be true which He has revealed".因此,梵蒂冈会(三,三;)教导我们,“信仰是一种超自然的美德,使我们的灵感和上帝的恩典帮助,相信这些东西是真实的,而他亦透露”。 The same decree goes on to say that "although the assent of faith is in no sense blind, yet no one can assent to the Gospel teaching in the way necessary for salvation without the illumination of the Holy Spirit, Who bestows on all a sweetness in believing and consenting to the truth".同样的法令接着说,“虽然同意在任何意义上的信仰是盲目的,但没有人可以同意的福音教学的方式没有必要的救赎,圣灵光照,谁赋予所有在一个甜蜜相信和同意的真相“。 Thus, neither as regards the truth believed nor as regards the motives for believing, nor as regards the subjective principle by which we believe -- viz.因此,既不至于相信真理,也不至于信的动机,也不至于主观的原则,我们相信 - 即。the infused light -- can faith be considered blind.在注入光 - 可以被认为是盲目的信仰。

(d) The place of the will in an act of faith.(四)本会在信仰的行为发生。-- So far we have seen that faith is an act of the intellect assenting to a truth which is beyond its grasp, eg the mystery of the Holy Trinity.- 到目前为止,我们已经看到,信念是一种人生的同意该项了一个真理是超越其掌握,如神秘的圣三一理智的行为。But to many it will seem almost as futile to ask the intellect to assent to a proposition which is not intrinsically evident as it would be to ask the eye to see a sound.但对大多数人,这看起来几乎是徒劳的要求智力赞同一个命题是显而易见的,因为它没有本质要求将眼睛看到声音。It is clear, however, that the intellect can be moved by the will either to study or not to study a certain truth, though if the truth be a self-evident one -- eg, that the whole is greater than its part -- the will cannot affect the intellect's adhesion to it, it can, however, move it to think of something else, and thus distract it from the contemplation of that particular truth.很明显,但是,智力可以通过学习或要么不学习一定道理,但如果事实是不言而喻的一动不动 - 例如,即整体大于它的部分更大 - 该会不会影响智力的粘附到它,它可以,但是,将其移动到其他的东西想,从而分散了那个特定的真理的沉思了。If, now, the will moves the intellect to consider some debatable point-eg the Copernican and Ptolemaic theories of the relationship between the sun and the earth -- it is clear that the intellect can only assent to one of these views in proportion as it is convinced that the particular view is true.如果,现在,该会推动智力考虑一些值得商榷的点,例如之间的太阳和地球的关系,哥白尼和托勒密的理论 - 很明显,智力只能同意的比例在这些意见之一,它相信,特别的看法是正确的。But neither view has, as far as we can know, more than probable truth, hence of itself the intellect can only give in its partial adherence to one of these views, it must always be precluded from absolute assent by the possibility that the other view may be right.但无论观点,据我们可以知道,可能真相以上,因此其本身的智慧只能在其部分坚持给这些意见之一,它必须始终被排除的可能性,从绝对同意的另一种观点也许是对的。 The fact that men hold much more tenaciously to one of these than the arguments warrant can only be due to some extrinsic consideration, eg that it is absurd not to hold what the vast majority of men hold.事实上,男性占有更加顽强地保证比这些参数只能是由于一些外在的考虑,例如,它是荒谬不举行什么样的人绝大多数举行。And here it should be noted that, as St. Thomas says repeatedly, the intellect only assents to a statement for one of two reasons: either because that statement is immediately or mediately evident in itself -- eg a first principle or a conclusion from premises -- or because the will moves it to do so.在这里应该指出的是,正如圣托马斯说反复,智力只也同意了一项声明有两个原因:要么是因为这种说法是立即或治疗中本身明显 - 例如,从楼宇的第一原则或结论 - 或者是因为将其移动到这样做。Extrinsic evidence of course comes into play when intrinsic evidence is wanting, but though it would be absurd, without weighty evidence in its support, to assent to a truth which we do not grasp, yet no amount of such evidence can make us assent, it could only show that the statement in question was credible, our ultimate actual assent could only be due to the intrinsic evidence which the statement itself offered, or, failing that, due to the will.外在证据当然是当内在的证据是无用的,但虽然这将是荒谬的重证据而不在其支持下,同意了一个真理,我们不掌握,但没有证据可以使我们同意金额,进场只能表明,在有关声明是可信的,我们的最终实际赞同只能是由于内在的证据提供的声明,或做不到这一点,由于意志。 Hence it is that St. Thomas repeatedly defines the act of faith as the assent of the intellect determined by the will (De Veritate, xiv, 1; II-II, Q. ii, a. 1, ad 3; 2, c.; ibid., iv, 1, c., and ad 2).因此,它是圣托马斯反复定义为智力的决定同意由该法的信仰意志(德veritate,第十四条,1,二,二,问二A,广告3 1 2角同上,四,1角和广告2)。。The reason, then, why men cling to certain beliefs more tenaciously than the arguments in their favour would warrant, is to be sought in the will rather than in the intellect.究其原因,那么,为什么男人抱着一定的信仰要比论点更顽强地将保证对他们有利的,是要在遗嘱而不是在智力要求。 Authorities are to be found on both sides, the intrinsic evidence is not convincing, but something is to be gained by assenting to one view rather than the other, and this appeals to the will, which therefore determines the intellect to assent to the view which promises the most.当局要对双方均认为,内在的证据是不能令人信服的,但有些事情是由同意该项一种看法,而不是其他,这对意志,因此决定对智力的看法表示同意上诉获得这承诺之最。 Similarly, in Divine faith the credentials of the authority which tells us that God has made certain revelations are strong, but they are always extrinsic to the proposition, "God has revealed this or that", and consequently they cannot compel our assent; they merely show us that this statement is credible.同样,在神圣的信仰的权威,它告诉我们的凭据,上帝已经取得了一定的启示是坚强的,但他们总是外在的命题,“上帝揭示了这样或那样的”,因此他们不能强迫我们赞同,他们只是告诉我们,这种说法是可信的。 When, then, we ask whether we are to give in our free assent to any particular statement or not, we feel that in the first place we cannot do so unless there be strong extrinsic evidence in its favour, for to believe a thing merely because we wished to do so would be absurd.那么,什么时候,我们问我们是否在我们的自由同意给予任何特定的陈述与否,我们认为,首先,我们不能这样做,除非有强有力的有利于自己的外在证据,相信的事情仅仅是因为我们希望这样做是荒谬的。 Secondly, the proposition itself does not compel our assent, since it is not intrinsically evident, but there remains the fact that only on condition of our assent to it shall we have what the human soul naturally yearns for, viz., the possession of God, Who is, as both reason and authority declare, our ultimate end; "He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved", and "Without faith it is impossible to please God."第二,命题本身并不强迫我们赞同,因为它本质上不是明显,但仍是事实,只有在我们同意的条件,应由我们有什么自然的人类灵魂,即渴望。,神藏,谁是,因为这两个原因和权威宣布,我们的最终目的,“他说,信而受洗的,必然得救”,和“不信,就不能得神的喜悦。” St. Thomas expresses this by saying: "The disposition of a believer is that of one who accepts another's word for some statement, because it seems fitting or useful to do so. In the same way we believe Divine revelation because the reward of eternal life is promised us for so doing. It is the will which is moved by the prospect of this reward to assent to what is said, even though the intellect is not moved by something which it understands. Hence St. Augustine says (Tract. xxvi in Joannem, 2): Cetera potest homo nolens, credere nonnisi volens' [ie other things a man can do against his will but to believe he must will]" (De Ver., xiv, 1).圣托马斯表示说这样的:。“一个信徒处置是一个谁接受另一个对一些陈述词,因为它似乎是合适的或有用的这样做,同样,我们相信神的启示,因为永生奖励这样做是对我们的承诺。这是这是由这一奖项的前景搬到同意将说什么,即使是不理智的东西,它理解感动。因此,圣奥古斯丁说,(Tract.二十六中Joannem,2):Cetera potest同质nolens,担保买方支付的nonnisi volens'[即其他人可以做的事情对他的意愿,但相信他一定会]“(德版次,第十四条,1)。。

(e) But just as the intellect needed a new and special light in order to assent to the supernatural truths of faith, so also the will needs a special grace from God in order that it may tend to that supernatural good which is eternal life. (五),但正如智力必要的,以同意的信仰超自然的真理一个新的和特殊的光,所以也将需要一个从上帝,以特殊的恩典,它可能倾向于超自然的好这是永恒的生命。 The light of faith, then, illumines the understanding, though the truth still remains obscure, since it is beyond the intellect's grasp; but supernatural grace moves the will, which, having now a supernatural good put before it, moves the intellect to assent to what it does not understand.信仰的光,那么,照亮了理解,但事实仍然是模糊的,因为它超出了理智的把握,但超自然的恩典移动会,其中,但是现在面前有一个超自然的好放,推动智力地赞同什么不明白。 Hence it is that faith is described as "bringing into captivity every understanding unto the obedience of Christ" (2 Corinthians 10:5).因此,它是信仰是“把每一个认识到圈养所不欲,顺服基督”(哥林多后书10:5)中所述。


The foregoing analyses will enable us to define an act of Divine supernatural faith as "the act of the intellect assenting to a Divine truth owing to the movement of the will, which is itself moved by the grace of God" (St. Thomas, II-II, Q. iv, a. 2).上述分析使我们能够定义为(圣托马斯,二“的一个神圣的真理同意该项由于意志的,这本身就是靠上帝的恩典感动智力运动法”的行为,神圣的超自然的信仰-二,问:四,答:2)。 And just as the light of faith is a gift supernaturally bestowed upon the understanding, so also this Divine grace moving the will is, as its name implies, an equally supernatural and an absolutely gratuitous gift.而且,正如在信仰的光照下是超自然赐予的理解,所以也该动议将神的恩典的礼物,正如其名称所暗示的,同样无偿超自然的和绝对的礼物。 Neither gift is due to previous study neither of them can be acquired by human efforts, but "Ask and ye shall receive."无论礼物是由于先前的研究中,他们既可以通过人的努力获得的,而是“问,你们得着。”

From all that has been said two most important corollaries follow:从所有,已经说两个最重要的推论如下:

That temptations against faith are natural and inevitable and are in no sense contrary to faith, "since", says St. Thomas, "the assent of the intellect in faith is due to the will, and since the object to which the intellect thus assents is not its own proper object -- for that is actual vision of an intelligible object -- it follows that the intellect's attitude towards that object is not one of tranquillity, on the contrary it thinks and inquires about those things it believes, all the while that it assents to them unhesitatingly; for as far as it itself is concerned the intellect is not satisfied" (De Ver., xiv, 1).对信仰,诱惑是自然的和必然的,是没有意义的违背诚信“,因为”说,圣托马斯,“在信仰的赞同,是因为智力的意志,而且由于对象因而也同意了其中智力是不是自己合适的对象 - 因为这是一个理解对象的实际的愿景 - 有如下的理智的态度,是实现这一目标并不安宁之一,相反,它认为对这些事情,并询问它认为,所有的同时它也同意了他们毫不犹豫地;为尽可能本身而言,智力是不满意“(德版次,第十四条,1。)。

(b) It also follows from the above that an act of supernatural faith is meritorious, since it proceeds from the will moved by Divine grace or charity, and thus has all the essential constituents of a meritorious act (cf. II-II, Q. ii, a. 9). (二)它也从以上是一个超自然的信仰行为是有理由的,因为它由神的恩典或慈善组织提出的将所得款项,因此,他有立功表现的所有行为(见二,二,问基本成分。二,答:9)。 This enables us to understand St. James's words when he says, "The devils also believe and tremble" (ii, 19) .这使我们能够了解圣雅各福群的话时,他说:“魔鬼也相信和颤抖”(二19)。"It is not willingly that they assent", says St. Thomas, "but they are compelled thereto by the evidence of those signs which prove that what believers assent to is true, though even those proofs do not make the truths of faith so evident as to afford what is termed vision of them" (De Ver., xiv 9, ad 4); nor is their faith Divine, but merely philosophical and natural. “这是不是自己愿意,他们同意”,圣托马斯说,“但他们是被迫由这些迹象,证明那有什么证据及其信徒同意的是真实的,但即使这些证据不作真理的信仰如此明显以负担得起,他们被称为什么远景“(德版次,第十四条9,广告4。),​​也不是他们的信仰神圣的,但是仅仅是哲学和自然。 Some may fancy the foregoing analyses superfluous, and may think that they savour too much of Scholasticism.有些人可能喜欢上述分析多余的,可能认为他们品尝士林太多太多。But if anyone will be at the pains to compare the teaching of the Fathers, of the Scholastics, and of the divines of the Anglican Church in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, with that of the non-Catholic theologians of today, he will find that the Scholastics merely put into shape what the Fathers taught, and that the great English divines owe their solidity and genuine worth to their vast patristic knowledge and their strictly logical training.但是,如果任何人都会在痛苦是比较的父亲教学的scholastics,并在十七和十八世纪的圣公会神学与今天的非天主教神学家认为,他会发现只是投入的Scholastics父亲教什么形状,而伟大的英国神学家欠他们的坚固性和真正值得广大教父的知识和严格的逻辑训练。

Let anyone who doubts this statement compare Bishop Butler's Analogy of Religion, chaps.谁允许任何人怀疑这一声明比较主教巴特勒的比喻宗教,皲裂。v, vi, with the paper on "Faith" contributed to Lux Mundi.五,六,随着对“信仰”的文件,有助于力士世界之。The writer of this latter paper tells us that "faith is an elemental energy of the soul", "a tentative probation", that "its primary note will be trust", and finally that "in response to the demand for definition, it can only reiterate: "Faith is faith.该后一份文件作家告诉我们,“诚信是灵魂的元素能量”,“一个初步试用”,即“其主要说明将信任”,最后,在回应的定义需求“,它可以只是重申:“信仰是信仰。 Believing is just believing'". Nowhere is there any analysis of terms, nowhere any distinction between the relative parts played by the intellect and the will; and we feel that those who read the paper must have risen from its perusal with the feeling that they had been wandering through -- we use the writer's own expression -- "a juggling maze of words." 。相信就是相信'“没有任何一个地方有没有条件的分析,无处由理智之间的任何发挥的相关零件和意志的区别,而我们认为,那些谁读的文件必须由顾委上升的感觉,他们与一直徘徊通过 - 我们使用了作家的自己的表达 - “一个字杂耍迷宫”。


(a) We have defined the act of faith as the assent of the intellect to a truth which is beyond its comprehension, but which it accepts under the influence of the will moved by grace and from the analysis we are now in a position to define the virtue of faith as a supernatural habit by which we firmly believe those things to be true which God has revealed. (一)我们定义为智力赞同一个真理,是超越它的理解,但它的恩典下,从分析和提出的将影响接受我们正处在一个现在的位置来定义该法的信仰作为一种超自然的信仰习惯的美德,使我们坚定地相信那些事是真的,上帝已经显现出来。 Now every virtue is the perfection of some faculty, but faith results from the combined action of two faculties, viz., the intellect which elicits the act, and the will which moves the intellect to do so; consequently, the perfection of faith will depend upon the perfection with which each of these faculties performs its allotted task; the intellect must assent unhesitatingly, the will must promptly and readily move it to do so.现在每个美德是一些教师的完美,但是从两个系的综合作用,即信念的结果,而引出的理智行为,意志推动智力这样做。因此,信仰的完善将取决于对其中的完善与这些院系每个执行其规定的任务;智力必须毫不犹豫地同意,意志必须及时地,随时将其移动到这样做。

(b) The unhesitating assent of the intellect cannot be due to intellectual conviction of the reasonableness of faith, whether we regard the grounds on which it rests or the actual truths we believe, for "faith is the evidence of things that appear not"; it must, then, be referred to the fact that these truths come to us on Divine infallible testimony. (二)智力毫不犹豫同意不能因信仰的合理性知识的信念,不管我们认为的理由,它休息或我们坚信,对于实际的真理“的信念,是的东西,似乎没有证据”;它必须,那么,提到一个事实,这些事实来证明对我们神圣的万无一失。 And though faith is so essentially of "the unseen" it may be that the peculiar function of the light of faith, which we have seen to be so necessary, is in some sort to afford us, not indeed vision, but an instinctive appreciation of the truths which are declared to be revealed.虽然基本上是这样的信念“看不见的”它可能是在信仰的光照下,我们已经看到如此必要的,在某种特殊功能,是我们提供,不确实的目标,但一本能升值哪些被宣布真理被揭示。 St. Thomas seems to hint at this when he says: "As by other virtuous habits a man sees what accords with those habits, so by the habit of faith a man's mind is inclined to assent to those things which belong to the true faith and not to other things" (II-II:4:4, ad 3).圣托马斯似乎在暗示这个时候,他说:“正如其他良性习惯一个人看到,所以在信仰习惯与这些习惯有什么协议,一个人的头脑是倾向于同意那些东西属于真正的信仰和不是其他的东西“(二-Ⅱ:4:4,公元3)。 In every act of faith this unhesitating assent of the intellect is due to the motion of the will as its efficient cause, and the same must be said of the theological virtue of faith when we consider it as a habit or as a moral virtue, for, as St. Thomas insists (I-II, Q. lvi, ), there is no virtue, properly so called, in the intellect except in so far as it is subject to the will.在每一个信仰这种行为,毫不犹豫的智慧赞同,是因为作为其高效率的原因将议案,同样必须是信仰的神学美德说,当我们考虑作为一种习惯,或作为道德美德,作为坚持圣托马斯(一二,问:LVI的),没有美德,所谓正确的智力,但在迄今,因为它是受意志。 Thus the habitual promptitude of the will in moving the intellect to assent to the truths of faith is not only the efficient cause of the intellect's assent, but is precisely what gives to this assent its virtuous, and consequently meritorious, character.因此,在移动智力赞同的真理的信仰习惯火速将不仅是对智力的赞同高效率的原因,但正是这个同意给予其良性,因此立功,性格。 Lastly, this promptitude of the will can only come from its unswerving tendency to the Supreme Good.最后,这个将火速只能来自其坚定不移的倾向至善。And at the risk of repetition we must again draw attention to the distinction between faith as a purely intellectual habit, which as such is dry and barren, and faith resident, indeed, in the intellect, but motived by charity or love of God, Who is our beginning, our ultimate end, and our supernatural reward.并在重复的风险,我们必须再次提请注意,信仰之间的区别作为一个纯粹的智力习惯,因此是干旱和贫瘠,信念居民,事实上,在智力,而是由慈善机构或上帝,谁爱motived是我们的开始,我们的最终目的,我们的超自然的奖励。 "Every true motion of the will", says St. Augustine, "proceeds from true love" (de Civ. Dei, XIV, ix), and, as he elsewhere beautifully expresses it, "Quid est ergo credere in Eum? Credendo amare, credendo diligere, credendo in Eum ire, et Ejus membris incorporari. Ipsa est ergo fides quam de nobis Deus exigit- et non invenit quod exigat, nisi donaverit quod invenerit."说,圣奥古斯丁,“收益从真爱”(德持续输注。棣,第十四条,第九),而且,正如他在其他地方精美表示的那样,“嚼食始建于Eum?Credendo测功​​担保买方支付的阿马雷”每一个将真正的议案“ ,credendo diligere,在Eum愤怒credendo,等Ejus membris incorporari。PSA浓度的EST测功惹人华富德nobis杀出exigit -等非invenit狴exigat,暂准donaverit狴invenerit。“(Tract. xxix in Joannem, 6. -- "What, then, is to believe in God? -- It is to love Him by believing, to go to Him by believing, and to be incorporated in His members. This, then, is the faith which God demands of us; and He finds not what He may demand except where He has given what He may find.") This then is what is meant by "living" faith, or as theologians term it, fides formata, viz., "informed" by charity, or love of God.(Tract.在Joannem,6二十九 - 。“那么,是相信上帝? - 是爱的相信他,去给他的信,并在他的成员纳入的,那么。 ,是信仰上帝对我们的要求。他发现没有什么,除非他可以要求他给什么,他可能会发现“)这又是什么叫”生活“的信念,或神学家长期的,惹人formata ,即。“通知”,由慈善机构,或上帝的爱。If we regard faith precisely as an assent elicited by the intellect, then this bare faith is the same habit numerically as when the informing principle of charity is added to it, but it has not the true character of a moral virtue and is not a source of merit.如果我们把信心正是作为同意引起的智力,那么这个裸露的信仰是相同的习惯,当慈善通知添加到它的原则是数字,但它不是一个真正的道德品格和美德,是不是源优异。 If, then, charity be dead -- if, in other words, a man be in mortal sin and so without the habitual sanctifying grace of God which alone gives to his will that due tendency to God as his supernatural end which is requisite for supernatural and meritorious acts -- it is evident that there is no longer in the will that power by which it can, from supernatural motives, move the intellect to assent to supernatural truths.如果,那么,慈善死了 - 如果,换句话说,一名男子在弥天大罪,所以没有惯常圣洁的神的恩典,因为只有让他的意志,由于趋势的结束他的超自然的神是超自然的必要优良的行为 - 这是明显的是不再是权力意志,它可以从超自然的动机,将智力赞同超自然的真理。The intellectual and Divinely infused habit of faith remains, however, and when charity returns this habit acquires anew the character of "living" and meritorious faith.信仰的神圣注入智力和习惯依然存在,但是,当这种习惯获得慈善返回重新“活”的信念和功勋人物。

(c) Again, faith being a virtue, it follows that a man's promptitude in believing will make him love the truths he believes, and he will therefore study them, not indeed in the spirit of doubting inquiry, but in order the better to grasp them as far as human reason will allow. (三)再次,信心是一种美德,因此,一个人在相信火速将他的爱的真理,他相信,他将因此研究它们,不确实的怀疑探究精神,但为了更好地把握他们尽量将允许人类理性。 Such inquiry will be meritorious and will render his faith more robust, because, at the same time that he is brought face to face with the intellectual difficulties which are involved, he will necessarily exercise his faith and repeatedly "bring his intellect into submission".这些调查将有功,会令他的信心更强大的在同一时间,他的赞助商面对面与其中涉及知识产权的困难,因为,他一定会行使自己的信仰,并多次“使他的才智就范”。 Thus St. Augustine says, "What can be the reward of faith, what can its very name mean if you wish to see now what you believe? You ought not to see in order to believe, you ought to believe in order to see; you ought to believe so long as you do not see, lest when you do see you may be put to the blush" (Sermo, xxxviii, 2, PL, V, 236). ?因此,圣奥古斯丁说:“你怎么这样的信心的奖赏,它的名字有什么意思,如果你希望看到现在你们相信你不应该看到才能相信,你应该相信才能看到;你应该相信,只要你没有看到,否则,当你看到你可能会付诸脸红“,(Sermo,三十八,二,特等,五,236)。 And it is in this sense we must understand his oft-repeated words: "Crede ut intelligas" (Believe that you may understand).正是在这个意义上,我们必须理解他经常重复的话:“克雷德UT斯达康intelligas”(相信你会明白)。 Thus, commenting on the Septuagint version of Isaias vii 9 which reads: "nisi credideritis non intelligetis", he says: "Proficit ergo noster intellectus ad intelligenda quae credat, et fides proficit ad credenda quae intelligat; et eadem ipsa ut magis magisque intelligantur, in ipso intellectu proficit mens. Sed hoc non fit propriis tanquam naturalibus viribus sed Deo donante atque adjuvante" (Enarr. in Ps. cxviii, Sermo xviii, 3, "Our intellect therefore is of use to understand whatever things it believes, and faith is of use to believe whatever it understands; and in order that these same things may be more and more understood, the thinking faculty [mens] is of use in the intellect. But this is not brought about as by our own natural powers but by the gift and the aid of God." Cf. Sermo xliii, 3, in Is., vii, 9; PL, V, 255).因此,在评论伊萨亚斯第七七十版本9曰:“暂准credideritis非intelligetis”,他说:“Proficit号ETM noster智洋广告intelligenda quae credat,​​等惹人proficit广告credenda quae intelligat;等eadem专业保安协会UT斯达康magis magisque intelligantur,在IPSO的intellectu proficit意图。桑达非特别适合propriis tanquam naturalibus viribus桑达迪奥donante atque adjuvante“(Enarr.在PS。cxviii,Sermo十八,3,”因此我们的智慧是什么东西来理解它认为,信仰是要相信,不管使用它理解;和秩序,这些相同的事情可能会越来越多的理解,思考能力[男子]是使用,但在智力,这不是我们自己的自然所带来的权力,而是由有关的。 。。礼物,在上帝的帮助“参看Sermo四十三,三,在被,七,九。特等,五,255)。

(d) Further, the habit of faith may be stronger in one person than in another, "whether because of the greater certitude and firmness in the faith which one has more than another, or because of his greater promptitude in assenting, or because of his greater devotion to the truths of faith, or because of his greater confidence" (II-II:5:4). (四)进一步,信仰的习惯可能会在一个人强于另一个,“不管是因为更大的确定性和信心的一比,还是因为他的更大的,或者是因为另一个更坚定火速同意该项他的更大的奉献,或因为他更大的信心“(二-Ⅱ:5:4)信仰的真理。

(e) We are sometimes asked whether we are really certain of the things we believe, and we rightly answer in the affirmative; but strictly speaking, certitude can be looked at from two standpoints: if we look at its cause, we have in faith the highest form of certitude, for its cause is the Essential Truth; but if we look at the certitude which arises from the extent to which the intellect grasps a truth, then in faith we have not such perfect certitude as we have of demonstrable truths, since the truths believed are beyond the intellect's comprehension (II-II, Q. iv, 8; de Ver., xiv, and i, ad 7). (五)我们有时会问我们是否是真正的事情,我们相信肯定的,我们正确的答案是肯定的,但严格来说,确信可以从两个角度看:如果我们在它的原因看,我们有信心在确信的最高形式,是其事业的基本真理,但如果我们确信它在多大程度上产生的期待其中智力掌握一个真理,那么在这样的信念,我们还没有完善,因为我们确信已经证明的真理,因为真理认为超出了理智的理解(二-二,问:四,8。代版本,十四,而我,广告7)。


(a) Many receive their faith in their infancy, to others it comes later in life, and its genesis is often misunderstood.(一)许多接受他们的信仰在他们的初期,对他人谈到以后的生活中,其成因往往被误解。 Without encroaching upon the article REVELATION, we may describe the genesis of faith in the adult mind somewhat as follows: Man being endowed with reason, reasonable investigation must precede faith; now we can prove by reason the existence of God, the immortality of the soul, and the origin and destiny of man; but from these facts there follows the necessity of religion, and true religion must be the true worship of the true God not according to our ideas, but according to what He Himself has revealed.如果没有对这篇文章的启示侵占,我们可以描述的信念在成人心灵发生有点如下:男子被赋有理性,合理的调查必须先信心,现在我们可以通过理性证明上帝存在,灵魂不死和人类的起源和命运,但是从这些事实有如下的宗教的必要性,真正的宗教必须是真正的崇拜的真神没有按照我们的想法,但据他自己透露。 But can God reveal Himself to us?但神向我们启示他自己?And, granting that He can, where is this revelation to be found?而且,给予他能在哪里可以找到这个启示?The Bible is said to contain it; does investigation confirm the Bible's claim?圣经是据说含有它,并调查证实圣经的说法?We will take but one point: the Old Testament looks forward, as we have already seen, to One Who is to come and Who is God; the New Testament shows us One Who claimed to be the fulfilment of the prophecies and to be God; this claim He confirmed by His life, death, and resurrection by His teaching, miracles, and prophecies.我们将采取但有一点:旧约期待,因为我们已经看到,要来的人,谁是上帝的新约圣经告诉我们,一个自称是该预言实现,并成为上帝;这种说法,他证实了他的生命,死亡,以及他的教学,创造奇迹,预言复活。 He further claimed to have founded a Church which should enshrine His revelation and should be the infallible guide for all who wished to carry out His will and save their souls.他还声称已经成立了一个教堂,这应该铭记他的启示,应该为所有谁愿意执行他的意志和拯救他们的灵魂不会犯错误的指南。 Which of the numerous existing Churches is His?其中的许多现有的教会是他的?It must have certain definite characteristics or notes.它必须有一定的明确的特征或说明。It must be One Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic, it must claim infallible teaching power.它必须是一个神圣的,天主教,和使徒,它必须要求犯错的师资力量。None but the Holy, Roman, Catholic, and Apostolic Church can claim these characteristics, and her history is an irrefragable proof of her Divine mission.唯有圣洁,罗马,天主教,和使徒教会可以索赔的这些特点,她的历史是一个不可争辩的证明她的神圣使命。If, then, she be the true Church, her teaching must be infallible and must be accepted.如果,那么,她是真正的教会,她的教学必须是可靠的,必须接受。

(b) Now what is the state of the inquirer who has come thus far? (二)现在是什么状态包打听谁迄今已经到来?He has proceeded by pure reason, and, if on the grounds stated he makes his submission to the authority of the Catholic Church and believes her doctrines, he has only human, reasonable, fallible, faith.他已经由纯粹理性的进行,并表示如果他的理由使他提交的天主教教会的权威,并认为她的教义,他只是个普通人,合理,犯错误,信仰。 Later on he may see reason to question the various steps in his line of argument, he may hesitate at some truth taught by the Church, and he may withdraw the assent he has given to her teaching authority.后来,他可能会看到理由怀疑他的论点的各个步骤,他可能会毫不犹豫地在一个由教会教导了真理,他可能会取消他给她的教学权威的同意。 In other words, he has not Divine faith at all.换言之,他不是神信仰。For Divine faith is supernatural both in the principle which elicits the acts and in the objects or truths upon which it falls.为了神圣的信仰是超自然的原则,无论是在引出的行为,并在对象或事实依据的下降。The principle which elicits assent to a truth which is beyond the grasp of the human mind must be that same mind illumined by a light superior to the light of reason, viz.同意的原则,引出了一个真理,这超出了人类心灵的把握是必须是同心的轻型优于原因,即光照亮。the light of faith, and since, even with this light of faith, the intellect remains human, and the truth to be believed remains still obscure, the final assent of the intellect must come from the will assisted by Divine grace, as seen above.信仰的光,因为即使在这种信仰的光照下,仍然是人类的智慧,真理还是可以相信的仍然是模糊的,理智的最后同意必须由神的恩典来协助将如上所述。 But both this Divine light and this Divine grace are pure gifts of God, and are consequently only bestowed at His good pleasure.但无论这个神圣的光,这神圣的恩典是神纯礼品,并因此只在他的美意赐予的。It is here that the heroism of faith comes in; our reason will lead us to the door of faith but there it leaves us; and God asks of us that earnest wish to believe for the sake of the reward -- "I am thy reward exceeding great" -- which will allow us to repress the misgivings of the intellect and say, "I believe, Lord, help Thou my unbelief."正是在这里,英雄主义的信仰进来,我们的理智会引导我们的信仰门,但那里留给我们,神对我们的要求是认真的想相信的缘故的奖励 - “我是你的报应大大的“ - 这将使我们能够压制智力的疑虑,说:”我相信,主啊,帮助你我的信。“As St. Augustine expresses it, "Ubi defecit ratio, ibi est fidei aedificatio" (Sermo ccxlvii, PL, V, 1157 -- "Where reason fails there faith builds up").正如圣奥古斯丁表示的那样,“育碧defecit比,揖斐东部fidei aedificatio”(Sermo ccxlvii,特等,第五,1157 - “哪里有信仰的原因而失败炼”)。

(c) When this act of submission has been made, the light of faith floods the soul and is even reflected back upon those very motives which had to be so laboriously studied in our search after the truth; and even those preliminary truths which precede all investigation eg the very existence of God, become now the object of our faith. (三)当此法案提交已取得,信仰的洪水轻的灵魂,甚至体现在那些不得不如此辛苦之后,在我们寻求真理学习非常用心回来,连这些初步真理,而先于一切调查如神的存在,成为现在我们信仰的对象。


(a) Faith and no works may be described as the Lutheran view.(一)信仰,没有作品可以说是路德的看法。 "Esto peccator, pecca fortiter sed fortius fide" was the heresiarch's axiom, and the Diet of Worms, in 1527, condemned the doctrine that good works are not necessary for salvation. “埃斯托peccator,pecca fortiter桑达更强善意”,是异教的公理,而国会的蠕虫在1527年,谴责这一学说认为,好的作品是不是必要的救赎。

(b) Works and no faith may be described as the modern view, for the modern world strives to make the worship of humanity take the place of the worship of the Deity (Do we believe? as issued by the Rationalist Press, 1904, ch. x: "Creed and Conduct" and ch. xv: "Rationalism and Morality". Cf. also Christianity and Rationalism on Trial, published by the same press, 1904). (二)工程和没有信心,可说是现代的观点,对现代世界的努力使人类崇拜走了神崇拜的地方(我们相信吗?由理性的出版社,1904年,总发行。十:“信条和行为”和CH十五:。“理性与道德”也参看基督教和理性试行,由同一出版社,1904)出版。。。

(c) Faith shown by works has ever been the doctrine of the Catholic Church and is explicitly taught by St. James, ii, 17: "Faith, if it have not works, is dead." (三)工程已表现出信心过的天主教教会的教义,并明确由圣雅各福群教授,二,17:“信心若没有行为就是死的。”The Council of Trent (Sess. VI, canons xix, xx, xxiv, and xxvi) condemned the various aspects of the Lutheran doctrine, and from what has been said above on the necessity of charity for "living" faith, it will be evident that faith does not exclude, but demands, good works, for charity or love of God is not real unless it induces us to keep the Commandments; "He that keepeth his word, in him in very deed the charity of God is perfected" (1 John 2:5).安理会的遄达(sess.六,大炮十九,二十,二十四和二十六)谴责路德学说的各个方面,从已上面的慈善必要性表示,“活”的信念,这将是显而易见的信仰并不排斥,而是为慈善或上帝的爱的需求,好的作品,是不是真正的,除非它诱使我们不断的诫命,“他说,在非常谨守契约慈善的上帝他的话在他,是完善”(约翰一书2:5)。 St. Augustine sums up the whole question by saying "Laudo fructum boni operis, sed in fide agnosco radicem" -- ie "I praise the fruit of good works, but their root I discern in faith" (Enarr. in Ps. xxxi, PL, IV, 259).圣奥古斯丁总结说:“Laudo fructum博尼operis,在真正agnosco radicem桑达”整个问题 - 即“我赞美水果的优秀作品,但他们的根我领悟信仰”(Enarr.在PS三十一。特等,四,259)。


From what has been said touching the absolutely supernatural character of the gift of faith, it is easy to understand what is meant by the loss of faith.从已表示,动人的礼物绝对的信仰超自然的性质,很容易理解什么是信仰的损失的意思。God's gift is simply withdrawn.上帝的礼物只是撤回。And this withdrawal must needs be punitive, "Non enim deseret opus suum, si ab opere suo non deseratur" (St. Augustine, Enarr. in Ps. cxlv -- "He will not desert His own work, if He be not deserted by His own work").这撤离的需要,必须惩罚性,“非enim犹他州巨著猪蛔虫,硅从头opere索不deseratur”(圣奥古斯丁,Enarr在PS cxlv - 。。“他不会抛弃自己的工作,如果他不遗弃他自己的工作“)。And when the light of faith is withdrawn, there inevitably follows a darkening of the mind regarding even the very motives of credibility which before seemed so convincing.而当信仰的光照下被撤回,不可避免地遵循有关连的信誉面前显得那么有说服力的动机很介意变黑。This may perhaps explain why those who have had the misfortune to apostatize from the faith are often the most virulent in their attacks upon the grounds of faith; "Vae homini illi", says St. Augustine, "nisi et ipsius fidem Dominus protegat", ie "Woe be to a man unless the Lord safeguard his faith" (Enarr. in Ps. cxx, 2, PL, IV, 1614).这也许解释了为什么那些谁曾不幸apostatize从信仰往往是最致命的攻击后,信仰的理由,“VAE乳液homini illi”说,圣奥古斯丁,“暂准等ipsius fidem Dominus protegat”即“祸是一个人,除非他的信仰上帝保障”(在PS Enarr.。CXX来,2,特等,四,1614)。


(a) If we are to believe present-day Rationalists and Agnostics, faith, as we define it, is unreasonable.(一)如果我们要相信现在的理性主义和不可知论,信仰,因为我们定义它,是不合理的。An Agnostic declines to accept it because he considers that the things proposed for his acceptance are preposterous, and because he regards the motives assigned for our belief as wholly inadequate.一个不可知论者拒绝接受,因为他认为他接受建议的事情是荒谬的,因为他认为香港作为完全不充分的信仰分配的动机。 "Present me with a reasonable faith based on reliable evidence, and I will joyfully embrace it. Until that time I have no choice but to remain an Agnostic" (Medicus in the Do we Believe? Controversy, p. 214). “现在我用一个合理可靠的证据为基础的信仰,我会高兴地接受它。直到那个时候我已经没有选择,只能留一个不可知的”(在我们是否相信?争,第214页梅迪库斯)。 Similarly, Francis Newman says: "Paul was satisfied with a kind of evidence for the resurrection of Jesus which fell exceedingly short of the demands of modern logic, it is absurd in us to believe, barely because they believed" (Phases of Faith, p. 186).同样,弗朗西斯纽曼说:“保罗是一个证据为耶稣复活下跌了极其现代逻辑的要求有点矮满意,这是荒谬的我们相信,仅仅因为他们相信”(信仰,磷阶段。186)。 Yet the supernatural truths of faith, however they may transcend our reason, cannot be opposed to it, for truth cannot be opposed to truth, and the same Deity Who bestowed on us the light of reason by which we assent to first principles is Himself the cause of those principles, which are but a reflection of His own Divine truth.然而,信仰,超自然的真理,但他们可能超越我们的原因,不能反对的,真理不能反对真理,同样的神是谁赋予我们的理性之光,使我们同意首要原则是自己的造成这些原则,这不过是他自己的神圣真理的反映。 When He chooses to manifest to us further truths concerning Himself, the fact that these latter are beyond the grasp of the natural light which He has bestowed upon us will not prove them to be contrary to our reason.当他选择向我们进一步体现真理有关其本人,但事实上,后者超越了自然光,而他亦赋予我们的把握是不会证明他们是违反我们的原因。 Even so pronounced a rationalist as Sir Oliver Lodge says: "I maintain that it is hopelessly unscientific to imagine it possible that man is the highest intelligent existence" (Hibbert Journal, July, 1906, p. 727).即便如此明显的是先生洛奇理性奥利弗说:“我认为这是不科学的无可救药想像成为可能,人是最聪明的存在”(希伯特杂志,七月,1906年,页727)。

Agnostics, again, take refuge in the unknowableness of truths beyond reason, but their argument is fallacious, for surely knowledge has its degrees.不可知论者,再次参与了超越理智的真理unknowableness避难,但他们的说法是错误的知识有其一定的程度。 I may not fully comprehend a truth in all its bearings, but I can know a great deal about it; I may not have demonstrative knowledge of it, but that is no reason why I should reject that knowledge which comes from faith.我可能没有完全理解其所有轴承一个道理,但我可以知道它是很大的一个有关,我可能没有它的示范性知识,但这是我没有理由要拒绝这些知识是从信仰来。 To listen to many Agnostics one would imagine that appeal to authority as a criterion was unscientific, though perhaps nowhere is authority appealed to so unscientifically as by modern scientists and modern critics.要听很多人会想象,不可知论者呼吁机关为标准是不科学的,但也许没有呼吁现代科学家和现代的批评等不科学的权威。 But, as St. Augustine says, "If God's providence govern human affairs we must not despair or doubt but that He hath ordained some certain authority, upon which staying ourselves as upon a certain ground or step, we may be lifted up to God" (De utilitate credendi); and it is in the same spirit that he says: "Ego vero Evangelio non crederem, nisi me Catholicae Ecclesiae commoveret auctoritas" (Contra Ep. Fund., V, 6 -- "I would not believe the Gospel if the authority of the Catholic Church did not oblige me to believe").但是,正如圣奥古斯丁说,“如果上帝的普罗维登斯人事管理,我们绝不能绝望和怀疑,但他所设立的一定的权威,并以此作为住在某地或一步自己,我们可能会被取消了上帝” (德utilitate credendi),它以同样的精神,他说的是:“自我维罗Evangelio非crederem,暂准我Catholicae,该书commoveret auctoritas”(魂斗罗内啡肽基金,五,六 - “我不会相信福音。。如果天主教教会的权威也不能强迫我相信“)。

(b) Naturalism, which is only another name for Materialism, rejects faith because there is no place for it in the naturalistic scheme; yet the condemnation of this false philosophy by St. Paul and by the author of the Book of Wisdom is emphatic (cf. Romans 1:18-23; Wisdom 13:1-19). (二)自然主义,这是唯一唯物主义的另一个名字,拒绝有信心,因为没有任何计划,它在自然的地方;然而,这个圣保罗和由虚假的哲学智慧书的作者是有力的谴责(罗马书1:18-23比照。智慧13:1-19)。 Materialists fail to see in nature what the greatest minds have always discovered in it, viz., "ratio cujusdam artis; scilicet divinae, indita rebus, qua ipsae res moventur ad finem determinatum" -- "the manifestation of a Divine plan whereby all things are directed towards their appointed end" (St. Thomas, Lect. xiv, in II Phys.).唯物主义者不看什么性质的最伟大的头脑一直在里面,即发现,“比cujusdam阿蒂斯;换句话说divinae,indita禁止不,之四ipsae水库moventur广告finem determinatum。” - “一个神圣计划的表现,让所有的东西是针对他们指定的终结“(圣托马斯,Lect。第十四条,在二,物理。)。 Similarly, the vagaries of Humanism blind men to the fact of man's essentially finite character and hence preclude all idea of faith in the infinite and the supernatural (cf. "Naturalism and Humanism" in Hibbert Journal, Oct., 1907).同样,人文瞎子的反复无常的人其实本质上是有限的字符,从而排除在无限的和超自然的(参见“自然与人文”杂志中希伯特10月,1907年),所有信仰的想法。


"He that believeth and is baptized", said Christ, "shall be saved, but he that believeth not shall be condemned" (Mark 16:16); and St. Paul sums up this solemn declaration by saying: "Without faith it is impossible to please God" (Hebrews 11:6). “他说,信而受洗”,说基督,“应被保存,但他说,信不是应予以谴责”(马克16:16);和圣保罗总结了这庄严的声明说:“没有信仰是不可能取悦上帝“(希伯来书11:6)。 The absolute necessity of faith is evident from the following considerations: God is our beginning and our end and has supreme dominion over us, we owe Him, consequently, due service which we express by the term religion.信仰的绝对必要性是显而易见的,从以下考虑:上帝是我们的开始和结束,我们拥有至高无上的统治我们,我们欠他的,因此,适当的服务,我们以长远的宗教表达。 Now true religion is the true Now true religion is the true worship of the true God.现在,真正的宗教是真正的现在真正的宗教是真正的上帝真正的崇拜。But it is not for man to fashion a worship according to his own ideals; none but God can declare to us in what true worship consists, and this declaration constitutes the body of revealed truths, whether natural or supernatural.但它不是一个崇拜时尚的人按照自己的理想,没有,但上帝可以申报什么是真正的崇拜包括我们,这个声明构成了身体揭示的真理,无论是自然或超自然的。 To these, if we would attain the end for which we came into the world, we are bound to give the assent of faith.对于这些,如果我们想取得的尽头,而我们来到人世,我们必将给信仰的同意。It is clear, moreover, that no one can profess indifference in a matter of such vital importance.很明显,而且,没有人可以自称在如此至关重要的问题漠不关心。During the Reformation period no such indifference was professed by those who quitted the fold; for them it was not a question of faith or unfaith, so much as of the medium by which the true faith was to be known and put into practice.在改革时期,​​没有这样的冷漠是那些自称谁离开了倍;对他们来说,这不是一个信仰或失信的问题,所以作为媒介,其中真正的信仰是被称为并付诸实践了。 The attitude of many outside the Church is now one of absolute indifference, faith is regarded as an emotion, as a peculiarly subjective disposition which is regulated by no known psychological laws.在许多教会之外的态度是现在绝对无动于衷,信仰被视为一种特殊的情感作为主观倾向是由任何已知的心理规律监管。Thus Taine speaks of faith as "une source vive qui s'est formee au plus profond de l'ame, sous la poussee et la chaleur des instincts immanents" -- "a living fountain which has come into existence in the lowest depths of the soul under the impulse and the warmth of the immanent instincts".因此,作为泰纳讲诚信“新英格兰源万岁魁s'est formee金加profond欧莱雅诗情德,苏等香格里拉香格里拉poussee本能immanents查莱尔德” - “生活的源头,已经到了最低的深处开始存在的冲动下的灵魂和“内在本能的温暖。Indifferentism in all its phases was condemned by Pius IX in the Syllabus Quanta cura: in Prop. XV, "Any man is free to embrace and profess whatever form of religion his reason approves of"; XVI, "Men can find the way of salvation and can attain to eternal salvation in any form of religious worship"; XVII "We can at least have good hopes of the eternal salvation of all those who have never been in the true Church of Christ"; XVIII, "Protestantism is only another form of the same true Christian religion, and men can be as pleasing to God in it as in the Catholic Church."在各阶段Indifferentism谴责了比约九广达城联盟在教学大纲:在第十五号提案,“任何人可以自由地接受和信奉宗教的任何形式的批准他的理由”;十六,“男人可以找到救赎之路并能达到永恒的救恩,在任何形式的宗教崇拜“,十七”我们至少可以在所有那些谁也从来没有在真正的基督教会被永恒的救恩的希望“;十八,”基督新教只是另一种形式同真正的基督徒的宗教,和男子可被视为神所喜悦的在它在天主教教会的。“


Christ's prayer for the unity of His Church the highest form of unity conceivable, "that they all may be one as thou, Father, in me, and I in Thee" (John 17:21), has been brought into effect by the unifying force of a bond of a faith such as that which we have analysed.基督的祈祷,为他的教会的团结统一的最高形式可以想象,“使他们都合而为一,像你,在我父亲,我在你”(约翰福音17:21),已生效的统一力的一个,比如,与我们所分析的信仰纽带。 All Christians have been taught to be "careful to keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace, one body and one spirit, as you are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all" (Ephesians 4:3-6).所有的基督徒都被教导要“谨慎地保持和平,一个机构和一个精神纽带团结的精神,因为你是一个希望您能打电话叫,一主,一信,一洗,一神和所有“(弗4:3-6)父亲。 The objective unity of the Catholic Church becomes readily intelligible when we reflect upon the nature of the bond of union which faith offers us.在天主教会的目标团结变得容易理解,当我们要求的债券的联盟性质的信念为我们提供了反映。For our faith comes to us from the one unchanging Church, "the pillar and ground of truth", and our assent to it comes as a light in our minds and a motive power in our wills from the one unchanging God Who can neither deceive nor be deceived.对于我们的信心给我们留下一个不变的教会“,真理的柱石和地面”,我们同意给它来作为我们的脑海中光从一个不变的神在我们的意志的动力,既不能欺骗,也没有谁被人欺骗。 Hence, for all who possess it, this faith constitutes an absolute and unchanging bond of union.因此,对于所有谁拥有它,这种信念构成了联盟绝对的,不变的纽带。The teachings of this faith develop, of course, with the needs of the ages, but the faith itself remains unchanged.这个信仰的教义发展,当然,与时代的需要,但信念本身保持不变。Modern views are entirely destructive of such unity of belief because their root principle is the supremacy of the individual judgment.现代观点是完全破坏这种团结的信念,因为他们的根本原则,是至高无上的个人判断。Certain writers do indeed endeavour to overcome the resulting conflict of views by upholding the supremacy of universal human reason as a criterion of truth; thus Mr. Campbell writes: "One cannot really begin to appreciate the value of united Christian testimony until one is able to stand apart from it, so to speak, and ask whether it rings true to the reason and moral sense" (The New Theology, p. 178; cf. Cardinal Newman, "Palmer on Faith and Unity" in Essays Critical and Historical, vol. 1, also, Thomas Harper, SJ, Peace Through the Truth, London, 1866, 1st Series.)某些作家确实努力克服,坚持人类普遍的原因,因为一个至高无上的真理标准问题的意见产生冲突,因此坎贝尔先生写道:“一个人不能真正开始之前,可以更好地欣赏基督教联合证词的价值能够除了它的立场,可以这么说,问是否戒指的真正的原因和道德意识“(新的神学,第178页。比照红衣主教纽曼,”帕尔默在信念和团结“的批判与历史散文,第一卷1。,同时,托马斯哈珀,律政司司长,通过真理,伦敦,1866年,第一辑和平。)

Publication information Written by Hugh T. Pope.出版信息撰稿休吨教皇。Transcribed by Gerard Haffner.转录由杰拉德哈夫纳。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积诉公布1909年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


I. Patristic.一,教父。-- The Fathers in general have never attempted any analysis of faith, and most patristic treatises De fide consist of expositions of the true doctrine to be held.- 在一般的父亲从来没有尝试任何信仰的分析,最德有诚意的真正教义的论述,包括教父论文举行。But the reader will have already noticed the precise teaching of ST.但读者会已经注意到了ST精密教学。AUGUSTINE on the nature of faith.奥古斯丁对信仰的本质。Besides the gems of thought which are scattered throughout his works, we may refer to his two treatises De Utilitate Credendi and De Fide Rerum quae non videntur, in PL, VI, VII.除了认为这是在他的作品散落的宝石,我们可以参考他的两个论文代Utilitate Credendi和德有诚意Rerum quae非videntur,在临时立法会,六,七。

II.二。Scholastics.经院。-- The minute analysis of faith was worked out by the theologians of the thirteenth century and onwards they followed mainly the lines laid down by St. Augustine.- 信仰的分析,计算出一分钟由十三世纪及以后的神学家,他们主要是下岗后的圣奥古斯丁下线。ST.意法半导体。THOMAS, Summa, II-II, QQ.托马斯,总结,二,二,QQ号。i-vii; Quaest.第一至第七; Quaest。Disp., Q. xiv; HOLCOT, De actibus fidei et intellectus et de libertate Voluntatis (Paris, 1512); SUAREZ De fide, spe, et charitate, in Opera, ed. DISP键,问​​:十四。霍尔科特,德actibus fidei等智洋等德libertate Voluntatis(巴黎,1512);苏亚雷斯德有诚意,固相萃取,等charitate,在Opera,教育署。VIVES (Paris, 1878), XII; DE LUGO, De virtute fidei divinae (Venice, 1718); JOANNES A S. THOMA, Comment.比韦斯(巴黎,1878年),第十二章;德卢戈,德virtute fidei divinae(威尼斯,1718);乔安妮斯一个学托马,评论。on the Summa especially on the De Fide, in Opera, ed.尤其是在总结德有诚意,在Opera,教育署。VIVES (Paris, 1886), VII; CAJETAN, De Fide et Operibus (1532), especially his Commentary on the Summa, II-II, QQ i-vii.比韦斯(巴黎,1886年),第七章;接cajetan,德等Operibus善意(1532),特别是他在总结,二,二,我的QQ - VII的评论。

III.三。Modern Writers.现代作家。 -- The decrees of the Vatican Council, a handy edition by McNabb (London, 1907); cf.- 在梵蒂冈理事会,由麦克纳布方便版(伦敦,1907年)的法令;比照。also Coll.还科尔。Lacencis, VIII; PIUS X, Syllabus Lamentabili Sane (1907); id., Encyclical, Pascendi Gregis (1907); ZIGLIARA, Propaedeutica ad Sacram Theologiam (5th ed., Rome, 1906), 1, xvi, xvii; NEWMAN, Grammar of Assent, Essay on Development, and especially The Ventures of Faith in Vol.Lacencis,八,比约十,课程Lamentabili王建华(1907)号,通谕中,Pascendi Gregis(1907年)。齐利亚拉,Propaedeutica广告Sacram Theologiam(第5版,罗马,1906年。),1,十六,十七,纽曼,语法的同意,发展大文章,特别是在风险投资的信仰卷。IV of his Sermons, and Peace in Believing and Faith without Demonstration, VI; WEISS, Apologie du Christianisme, Fr.四,对他的布道,并在相信和不信仰和平示范,六;魏斯,辩护杜Christianisme,神父。tr., V, conf.风帆。,五,机密档案。 iv, La Foi, and VI, conf.四,香格里拉信息公开,以及第六机密。xxi, La Vie de la Foi; BAINVEL, La Foi et l'acte de Foi (Paris, 1898); ULLATHORNE, The Groundwork of the Christian Virtues, ch.二十一世纪,香格里拉争夺德拉信息公开; BAINVEL,香格里拉等政府信息公开信息公开欧莱雅acte德(巴黎,1898年);拉索恩,对基督教美德,总根基。xiv, The Humility of Faith; HEDLEY, The Light of Life (1889),ii; BOWDEN, The Assent of Faith, taken mainly from KLEUTGEN, Theologie der Vorzeit, IV, and serving as an introductory chapter to the tr.十四,信仰的谦卑,赫德利,生命之光(1889),二;鲍登,信仰的同意,采取从KLEUTGEN,神学明镜Vorzeit,四为主,并作为一章的入门介绍服务。 of HETTINGER, Revealed Religion (1895); MCNABB, Oxford Conferences on Faith (London, 1905); Implicit Faith, in The Month for April, 1869; Reality of the Sin of Unbelief, ibid., October, 1881; The Conceivable Dangers of Unbelief in Dublin Review Jan., 1902; HARENT in VACANT AND MANGENOT, Dictionnaire de th&eaccute;ologie catholique, sv Croyance.对赫丁格,揭示了宗教(1895年);麦克纳布,对信仰牛津会议(伦敦,1905年)内隐的信念,四月份当月,1869年,不信仙的现实,同上,十月,1881年;。可以预见的危险之中不信在都柏林审查一月,1902年,在空置芒热诺,德日&eaccute; ologie辞典天主教,希沃特Croyance HARENT。

IV.四。Against Rationalist, Positivist, and Humanist Views.反对理性主义,实证主义和人文主义观点。-- NEWMAN, The Introduction of Rationalistic Principles into Revealed Religion, in Tracts for the Times (1835), republished in Essays Historical and Critical as Essay ii; St. Paul on Rationalism in The Month for Oct., 1877; WARD, The Clothes of Religion, a Reply to Popular Positivism (1886); The Agnosticism of Faith in Dublin Review, July, 1903.- 纽曼,与理性的各项原则,揭示了宗教的推出,为大港时代(1835),再版的散文和随笔历史第二关键;圣理性保罗在上在10月,1877年一个月;病房,衣服宗教,以通俗的实证回复(1886年);在都柏林审查,七月,1903年信仰不可知论。

V. The motives of faith and its relation to reason and science.五,信仰及其与理性和科学的动机。 -- MANNING, The Grounds of Faith (1852, and often since); Faith and Reason in Dublin Review, July, 1889; AVELING, Faith and Science in Westminster Lectures (London, 1906); GARDEIL, La cr&eaccute;dibilit&eaccute; et l'apolog&eaccute;tique (PARIS, 1908); IDEM in VACANT AND MANGENOT, Dictionnaire de th&eaccute;ologie catholique, sv Cr&eaccute;dibilite.- 曼宁,信仰的理由(1852,而且往往自);信仰与理性在都柏林审查,七月,1889年;埃夫莱林,信仰和科学讲座在威斯敏斯特(伦敦,1906年); GARDEIL,香格里拉铬&eaccute; dibilit &eaccute;等l 'apolog &eaccute; tique的(巴黎,1908年);同上在空置芒热诺,德日&eaccute; ologie辞典天主教,希沃特铬&eaccute; dibilite。

VI.六。Non-Catholic writers.非天主教作家。-- Lux Mundi, i, Faith (1Oth ed. 1890); BALFOUR Foundations of Belief (2nd ed., 1890); COLERIDGE, Essay on Faith (1838), in Aids to Reflection; MALLOCK, Religion as a Credible Doctrine (1903), xii.- 力士世界之我,信心(1Oth版1890年。)贝尔福的信仰基础(。第二版,1890年);柯立芝信仰随笔(1838)以反射艾滋病;马洛克,宗教作为一个可靠的学说(1903年),第十二章。 VII.七。Rationalistic Works.理性主义的作品。-- The Do We Believe correspondence, held in the Daily Telegraph, has been published in the form of selections (1905) under the title, A Record of a Great Correspondence in the Daily Telegraph, with Introduction by COURTNEY.- 对应的我们是否相信,在每日电讯报举行,已经在标题下的选择(1905年)的形式公布,一个大的每日电讯通讯记录与介绍,由Courtney。Similar selections by the Rationalist Press (1904); SANTAYANA, The Life of Reason (3 vols., London, 1905-6); Faith and Belief in Hibbert Journal, Oct. 1907.类似的选择由理性的新闻(1904年);桑塔亚纳,理性的生活(3卷,伦敦,1905-6。)信仰与信仰的希伯特杂志10月1907年。 Cf.比照。also LODGE, ibid., for Jan., 1908, and July, 1906.也小屋,同上。,明年1月,1908年,七月,1906年。

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